- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 368286, 14 pages
Genetic Diversity and Population Differentiation of the Causal Agent of Citrus Black Spot in Brazil
1Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária e Extensão Rural de Santa Catarina (EPAGRI), Estação Experimental de Itajaí, Rodovia Antônio Heil 8400, Itaipava, 88318-112 Itajaí, SC, Brazil
2Departamento de Fitossanidade, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, Universidade Estadual Paulista Via de Acesso Professor Dr. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, 14884900 Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
3Departamento de Tecnologia, Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal, Universidade Estadual Paulista Via de Acesso Professor Dr. Paulo Donato Castellane s/n, 14884900 Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil
Received 31 October 2011; Accepted 5 January 2012
Academic Editors: D. B. Carlini and M. Chang
Copyright © 2012 Ester Wickert et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- T. B. Kiely, “Preliminary studies of Guignardia citricarpan. sp. the ascigerous state of Phoma citricarpa McAlp. and its relation to black spot of citrus,” Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, vol. 73, pp. 249–292, 1948.
- R. P. Baayen, P. J. M. Bonants, G. Verkley et al., “Nonpathogenic isolates of the citrus black spot fungus, Guignardia citricarpa, identified as a cosmopolitan endophyte of woody plants, G. mangiferae (Phyllosticta capitalensis),” Phytopathology, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 464–477, 2002.
- P. J. M. Bonants, G. C. Carroll, M. de Weerdt, I. R. van Brouwershaven, and R. P. Baayen, “Development and validation of a fast PCR-based detection method for pathogenic isolates of the citrus black spot fungus, Guignardia citricarpa,” European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 109, no. 5, pp. 503–513, 2003.
- F. J. Bannon and B. M. Cooke, “Studies on dispersal of Septoria tritici pycnidiospores in wheat-clover intercrops,” Plant Pathology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 1998.
- C. Cowger, B. A. McDonald, and C. C. Mundt, “Frequency of sexual reproduction by Mycosphaerella graminicola on partially resistant wheat cultivars,” Phytopathology, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 1175–1181, 2002.
- D. Mendes, R. F. Reis, A. G. M. Oca, G. T. Pereira, and A. de Goes, “Aspectos nutricionais e físicos no crescimento micelial, esporulação e germinação de conídios de Phyllosticta citricarpa (=Guignardia citricarpa), agente causal da mancha preta dos frutos cítricos,” Summa Phytopathologica, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 349–357, 2005.
- R. F. Reis, L. W. Timmer, and A. de Goes, “Effect of temperature, leaf wetness, and rainfall on the production of Guignardia citricarpa ascospores and on black spot severity on sweet orange,” Fitopatologia Brasileira, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2006.
- R. B. Baldassari, E. Wickert, and A. de Goes, “Pathogenicity, colony morphology and diversity of isolates of Guignardia citricarpa and G. mangiferae isolated from Citrus spp.,” European Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 103–110, 2008.
- A. de Goes, “Efeito da combinação de fungicidas no controle da mancha preta dos frutos cítricos causada por Guignardia citricarpa,” Summa Phytopathologica, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 9–13, 2002.
- R. F. Reis, A. de Goes, and G. T. Pereira, “Efeito da aplicação de oxicloreto de cobre em diferentes épocas no controle da mancha preta dos frutos citros causada por Guignardia citricarpa,” Summa Phytopathologica, vol. 29, pp. 12–18, 2003.
- B. A. McDonald and C. Linde, “Pathogen population genetics, evolutionary potential, and durable resistance,” Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol. 40, pp. 349–379, 2002.
- J. Zhang, W. G. D. Fernando, and W. R. Remphrey, “Genetic diversity and structure of the Apiosporina morbosa populations on Prunus spp.,” Phytopathology, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 859–866, 2005.
- Z. Ma and T. J. Michailides, “Genetic structure of Botrytis cinerea populations from different host plants in California,” Plant Disease, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 1083–1089, 2005.
- C. C. Linde, J. Zhan, and B. A. McDonald, “Population structure of Mycosphaerella graminicola: from lesions to continents,” Phytopathology, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 946–955, 2002.
- K. F. Rodrigues, T. N. Sieber, C. R. Grünig, and O. Holdenrieder, “Characterization of Guignardia mangiferae isolated from tropical plants based on morphology, ISSR-PCR amplifications and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences,” Mycological Research, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2004.
- S. B. Goodwin, L. D. Dunkle, and V. L. Zismann, “Phylogenetic analysis of Cercospora and Mycosphaerella based on the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA,” Phytopathology, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 648–658, 2001.
- E. E. Kuramae-Izioka, “A rapid, easy and high yield protocol for total genomic DNA isolation of Colletotrichum gloesporioides and Fusarium oxysporum,” Revista Unimar, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 683–689, 1997.
- T. J. White, T. Bruns, S. Lee, and J. Taylor, “Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics,” in PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications, M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. J. Sninsky, and T. J. White, Eds., pp. 315–322, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
- D. Gordon, C. Abajian, and P. Green, “Consed: a graphical tool for sequence finishing,” Genome Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 195–202, 1998.
- S. F. Altschul, T. L. Madden, A. A. Schaffer et al., “Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 25, no. 17, pp. 3389–3402, 1997.
- M. Nei, “Genetic distance between populations,” American Naturalist, vol. 106, pp. 283–292, 1972.
- M. Nei and S. Kumar, Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2000.
- M. Kimura, “A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 1980.
- S. Kumar, K. Tamura, and M. Nei, “MEGA3: integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment,” Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 150–163, 2004.
- L. Excoffier, P. E. Smouse, and J. M. Quattro, “Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data,” Genetics, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 479–491, 1992.
- A. P. Martin, “Phylogenetic approaches for describing and comparing the diversity of microbial communities,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 68, no. 8, pp. 3673–3682, 2002.
- L. Excoffier, G. Laval, and S. Schneider, “Arlequin (version 3.0): an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis,” Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online, vol. 1, pp. 47–50, 2005.
- R. R. Hudson, M. Slatkin, and W. P. Maddison, “Estimation of levels of gene flow from DNA sequence data,” Genetics, vol. 132, no. 2, pp. 583–589, 1992.
- J. Rozas, J. C. Sánchez-DelBarrio, X. Messeguer, and R. Rozas, “DnaSP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods,” Bioinformatics, vol. 19, no. 18, pp. 2496–2497, 2003.
- N. Saitou and M. Nei, “The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 406–425, 1987.
- J. Felsentein, “Phylip- Phylogeny Inference Package (Version 3.2),” Cladistics, vol. 5, pp. 164–166, 1989.
- A. F. Read and L. H. Taylor, “The ecology of genetically diverse infections,” Science, vol. 292, no. 5519, pp. 1099–1102, 2001.
- L. Lindblom and S. Ekman, “Genetic variation and population differentiation in the lichen-forming ascomycete Xanthoria parietina on the island Storfosna, central Norway,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1545–1559, 2006.
- J. M. Kotzé, “Black spot,” in Compendium of Citrus Disease, J. O. Whiteside, S. M. Garnsey, and L. W. Timmer, Eds., pp. 10–12, APS Press, 1988.
- L. W. Timmer, “Diseases of fruit and foliage,” in Citrus Health Management, L. W. Timmer and L. W. Duncan, Eds., pp. 107–123, APS Press, 1999.
- C. I. Aguilar-Vildoso, J. G. B. Ribeiro, E. Feichtenberger, A. de Goes, and M. B. Spósito, Manual Técnico de Procedimento da Mancha Preta Dos Citros, MAPA/DAS/DDIV, Brasília, Brazil, 2002.
- M. B. Spósito, L. Amorim, R. B. Bassanezi, A. B. Filho, and B. Hau, “Spatial pattern of black spot incidence within citrus trees related to disease severity and pathogen dispersal,” Plant Pathology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 103–108, 2008.
- J. J. Burdon and J. Silk, “Sources and patterns of diversity in plant-pathogenic fungi,” Phytopathology, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 664–669, 1997.
- M. G. Milgroom and T. L. Peever, “Population biology ofplant pathology: the synthesis of plant disease epidemiology and population genetics,” Plant Disease, vol. 87, pp. 608–617, 2005.
- B. A. McDonald, “The population genetics of fungi: tools and techniques,” Phytopathology, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 448–453, 1997.
- K. A. Zeller, R. L. Bowden, and J. F. Leslie, “Diversity of epidemic populations of Gibberella zeae from small quadrats in Kansas and North Dakota,” Phytopathology, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 874–880, 2003.
- M. Dusabenyagasani, D. Dostaler, and R. C. Hamelin, “Genetic diversity among Fusarium graminearum strains from Ontario and Quebec,” Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 308–314, 1999.
- S. Salamati, J. Zhan, J. J. Burdon, and B. A. McDonald, “The genetic structure of field populations of Rhynchosporium secalis from three continents suggests moderate gene flow and regular recombination,” Phytopathology, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 901–908, 2000.