Table 1: Summary of the most promising butyrate producing clostridial strains.

StrainSugarFinal conc. (g/L)Fermentation modeReference

C. butyricum ZJUCB Glucose12.25Batch [17]
16.74Fed-batch
C. butyricum S21Glucose7.3Batch
Sucrose10Extractive batch[16]
Sucrose20Pertractive fed-batch
C. butyricum S21Lactose18.6Batch[13]
C. thermobutyricum ATCC 49875 Glucose10.04Batch [25]
19.38Continuous
C. beijerinckiiLactose12Batch[29]
C. populeti  ATCC 35295 Glucose6.3Batch[30]
C. tyrobutyricum JM1Glucose13.76Batch[19]
C. tyrobutyricum CIP 1–776Glucose45Batch [18]
Glucose62.8Fed-batch
Glucose28.6Fed-batch[21]
C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755Glucose24.88Fed-batch (immobilized cells)[20]
Glucose43.4Fed-batch (immobilized cells)[22]
Glucose53Fed-batch (immobilized cells)[23]
C. tyrobutyricum CNRZ 596Glucose44Batch
Glucose16.8Continuous[24]
Glucose33Continuous (cell recycle)
C. tyrobutyricum ZJU 8235 Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysate27.5 g/LBatch [31]
60.4 g/LFed-batch (immobilized cells)