Table 4: Epigenetic changes of PD related genes or PD tissues.

GeneObservationRefs

Reduced SNCA methylation in the substantia nigra of PD patients[72, 73]
α-synuclein sequesters DNMT1 from the nucleus resulting in aberrant DNA methylation[79]
SNCA gene silencing mediated by histone modifications[76]
α-synuclein binds to histones and inhibits histone acetylation[8183]
α-synuclein (SNCA)Histone deacetylase inhibitors are neuroprotective against α-synuclein mediated neurotoxicity in PD animal models[82, 8490]
α-synuclein expression in C. elegans results in down-regulation of genes coding for histones[91]
miR-10a, -10b, -212, -132, -495 were impaired in presymptomatic α-synuclein transgenic mice[92]
miR-7 and mir-153 regulates α-synuclein levels[93, 94]
miR-64 and mir-65 and let-7 were co-under-expressed in α-synuclein transgenic C. elegans [95]

LRRK2Mutant LRRK2 antagonizes miR-184* and let7 in Drosophila PD models[96]

parkinlet-7 family miRNAs let-7 were co-under-expressed in parkin transgenic C. elegans [95]

PARK16/1q32, GPNMB, STX1BAberrant gene methylation observed in post-mortem PD brains[68]

TissueObservationRefs

PD brainsmiR-133b was deficient in midbrain from PD patients[97]

PD brainsmiR-34b/c down-regulation was observed in pre-motor stages of PD and resulted in altered expression of DJ1 and parkin proteins[98]

PD lymphocytesAltered expression of miR-1, miR-16-2*, miR-22*, miR26a2*, miR29, miR30[99]

PD leukocytesAltered methylation patterns of subtelomeric regions[100]