Table 1: Exergy coefficient of various resources.

ItemExergy coefficientUnitSource

Fossil fuels
 Oil and oil product44.32PJ/Mton[38]
 Natural gas4.13PJ/108 cu·m[38]
 Iron ore (55% Fe)0.46PJ/Mton[38]
 Iron ore fine (70% Fe)0.84PJ/Mton[38]
 Sulphur iron ore (35% S)9PJ/Mton[38]
 Copper ore (0.65% Cu)0.03PJ/Mton[30]
 Lead ore (3.5% Pb)0.02PJ/Mton[30]
 Zinc ore (5.9% Zn)0.05PJ/Mton[30]
 Copper ore fine (23.8% Cu)1.1PJ/Mton[38]
 Alumina (63.7% Al)2PJ/Mton[38]
 Phosphorite (25% P2O5)0.1PJ/Mton[38]
 Raw salt (NaCl)0.2PJ/Mton[38]
Metal scraps
 Steel (Fe)6.8PJ/Mton[38]
 Copper (Cu)2.1PJ/Mton[38]
 Aluminum (Al)32.9PJ/Mton[38]
Forest products
 Turpentine37.4PJ/MtonCalculated by authors
 Oil-tea camellia seed35.3PJ/MtonCalculated by authors
 Tung oil38.9PJ/MtonCalculated by authors
Agricultural products
 Tobacco leaf10.7PJ/Mton[30]
 Aquatic product5.77PJ/Mton[30]
Other raw materials
 Synthetic rubber45.53PJ/Mton[59]
 Ethylenc glycol19.34PJ/Mton[60]
 Terephthalic acid24.8PJ/Mton[60]
 Polyethylene in primary forms48.26PJ/Mton[60]
 Polypropylene in primary forms47.7PJ/Mton[59]
 Polystyrene in primary forms50.2PJ/Mton[60]
 Polyvinyl chloride in primary forms20.35PJ/Mton[59]

Note: The exergy coefficients of water potential energy and nuclear energy were deduced from their product of electricity (0.36 PJ/108 kWh) with the transformation factor of 1.17 and 3.51, respectively [38]. Some chemical materials, nonmetallic mineral, and other raw material are not included due to their negligible exergy input or scarcity data.