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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 820621, 18 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/820621
Review Article

Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, 18000 Nis, Serbia

Received 2 December 2011; Accepted 10 January 2012

Academic Editors: S. Basmaciogullari, B. Harrach, and K. Mansfield

Copyright © 2012 Jovana Cukuranovic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.