Table 1: Growth factors and cytokines in PRP in different mechanisms.

MechanismsGrowth factors and cytokinesFunction

Proinflammatory cytokinesIL1, IL6, and TNF-alpha [26, 27]Important role in the early responses of bone repair

Growth factorsPlatelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) [36], transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, platelet-derived epidermal growth factor (PDEGF), platelet-derived angiogenesis factor (PDAF) [37], insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and platelet factor 4 (PF-4) [38, 39], vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF), and endothelial growth factors (EGF) [40, 41]Help the regeneration of tissues with low healing potential, potentially restoring biomechanical properties similar to normal bone

Angiogenesis factorsVascular growth factor (VGF), VEGF, platelet derived membrane microparticles (PMP), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) [10]Promote angiogenesis rapidly in the bone graft in the early stage

Factors in other mechanisms of PRPSerotonin, histamine, dopamine, calcium, and adenosine [18]In the dense granules in platelets and have fundamental effects on the biologic aspects of wound healing