Table 4: Comparison of outcomes of open, endoscopic and robot assisted thyroidectomy.

Study Surgery Size (cm) CND (%) Operative time (min) Complications (%)
Transient hypocalcemiaPermanent hypocalcemiaTransient RLN palsyPermanent RLN palsyHematoma

Jong et al. [10]O ( )
E ( )
O: 0.60 ± 0.22
E: 0.56 ± 0.19
Prophylactic ipsilateral in all patientsO: 105.5 ± 41.6
E: 138.5 ± 49.0
O: 17.1
E: 31.0
O: 1.7
E: 0.0
O: 2.2
E: 5.5
O: 0.4
E: 0.4
O: 0.9
E: 1.5

Di et al. [11]O ( )
E ( )
O: 0.73 ± 0.14
E: 0.76 ± 0.15
All patients underwent CNDO: 105.4 ± 37.0
E: 143.9 ± 19.2
O: 2.7
E: 9.7
O: 0.0
E: 0.0
O: 5.4
E: 9.7
O: 0.0
E: 0.0
O: 0.0
E: 0.0

Kim et al. [12]O ( )
E ( )
R ( )
O: 0.7 ± 0.2
E: 0.6 ± 0.2
R: 0.6 ± 0.2
Prophylactic ipsilateral in all patientsO: 81 ± 16
E: 136 ± 31
R: 196 ± 45
O: 27.5
E: 25.3
R: 33.3
O: 0.0
E: 2.1
R: 0.0
O: 0.7
E: 2.1
R: 1.4
O: 0.0
E: 2.1
R: 0.0
O: 0.0
E: 1.1
R: 0.0

Lee et al. [13]E ( )
R ( )
E: 0.84 ± 0.41
R: 0.87± 0.64
E: 54.2
R: 91.4
E: 142.7 ± 52.1
R: 110.1 ± 50.7
E: 0.0
R: 12.5
E: 0.0
R: 0.0
E: 3.1
R: 1.8
E: 1.0
R: 0.6
E: 3.1
R: 0.6

Chung et al. [14]O ( )
E ( )
0.5 cm (%)
O: 52.0
E: 56.3
0.5–1 cm (%)
O: 48.0
E: 43.7
O: 8.1
E: 1.0
O: 111.4
E: 165.1
(S.D. not reported)
O: 17.7
E: 25.2
O: 4.5
E: 1.0
O: 2.5
E: 25.2
O: 0.5
E: 0.0
O: 0.0
E: 1.0

O: open thyroidectomy, E: endoscopic thyroidectomy, R: robot assisted thyroidectomy, CND: central lymph node dissection, S.D.: standard deviation, continuous variable reported as mean ± S.D., categorical variables reported as percentages (%).