About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 548246, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/548246
Review Article

Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

Biological Sciences and Bioengineering Program, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul, Turkey

Received 5 March 2013; Accepted 3 April 2013

Academic Editors: J. Huang, A. Levine, and Z. Wang

Copyright © 2013 Hikmet Budak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. Z. Ergen and H. Budak, “Sequencing over 13 000 expressed sequence tags from six subtractive cDNA libraries of wild and modern wheats following slow drought stress,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 220–236, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Fleury, S. Jefferies, H. Kuchel, and P. Langridge, “Genetic and genomic tools to improve drought tolerance in wheat,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 3211–3222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Tester and P. Langridge, “Breeding technologies to increase crop production in a changing world,” Science, vol. 327, no. 5967, pp. 818–822, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Z. Habash, Z. Kehel, and M. Nachit, “Genomic approaches for designing durum wheat ready for climate change with a focus on drought,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 2805–2815, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. P. Reynolds, “Drought adaptation in wheat,” in Drought Tolerance in Cereals, J. M. Ribaut, Ed., chapter 11, pp. 402–436, Haworth’s Food Products Press, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  6. M. Ashraf, M. Ozturk, and H. R. Athar, Salinity and Water Stress: Improving Crop Efficiency, Berlin, Germany, Springer, 2009.
  7. M. Sečenji, E. Hideg, A. Bebes, and J. Györgyey, “Transcriptional differences in gene families of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in wheat during mild water deficit,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 37–50, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Szucs, K. Jäger, M. E. Jurca et al., “Histological and microarray analysis of the direct effect of water shortage alone or combined with heat on early grain development in wheat (Triticum aestivum),” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 140, no. 2, pp. 174–188, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. M. Bazargani, E. Sarhadi, A. A. Bushehri, et al., “A proteomics view on the role of drought-induced senescence and oxidative stress defense in enhanced stem reserves remobilization in wheat,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 1959–1973, 2011.
  10. F. Yang, A. D. Jørgensen, H. Li et al., “Implications of high-temperature events and water deficits on protein profiles in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) grain,” Proteomics, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1684–1695, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. K. L. Ford, A. Cassin, and A. Bacic, “Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat cultivars with differing drought stress tolerance,” Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 2, article 44, 2011.
  12. P. Rampino, G. Mita, P. Fasano, et al., “Novel durum wheat genes up-regulated in response to a combination of heat and drought stress,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 56, pp. 72–78, 2012.
  13. S. Irar, F. Brini, A. Goday, K. Masmoudi, and M. Pagès, “Proteomic analysis of wheat embryos with 2-DE and liquid-phase chromatography (ProteomeLab PF-2D)—a wider perspective of the proteome,” Journal of Proteomics, vol. 73, no. 9, pp. 1707–1721, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Krugman, Z. Peleg, L. Quansah, et al., “Alteration in expression of hormone-related genes in wild emmer wheat roots associated with drought adaptation mechanisms,” Functional & Integrative Genomics, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 565–583, 2011.
  15. M. Kantar, S. J. Lucas, and H. Budak, “miRNA expression patterns of Triticum dicoccoides in response to shock drought stress,” Planta, vol. 233, no. 3, pp. 471–484, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Farooq, “Triticeae: the ultimate source of abiotic stress tolerance improvement in wheat,” in SalInity and Water Stress, M. Ashraf, Ed., chapter 7, pp. 65–71, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2009.
  17. M. Feldman and E. R. Sears, “The wild genetic resources of wheat,” Scientific American, vol. 244, pp. 102–112, 1981.
  18. P. Dong, Y. M. Wei, G. Y. Chen et al., “EST-SSR diversity correlated with ecological and genetic factors of wild emmer wheat in Israel,” Hereditas, vol. 146, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. T. Fahima, M. S. Röder, K. Wendehake, V. M. Kirzhner, and E. Nevo, “Microsatellite polymorphism in natural populations of wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, in Israel,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 17–29, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Fahima, G. L. Sun, A. Beharav, T. Krugman, A. Beiles, and E. Nevo, “RAPD polymorphism of wild emmer wheat populations, Triticum dicoccoides, in Israel,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 98, no. 3-4, pp. 434–447, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. Nevo and A. Beiles, “Genetic diversity of wild emmer wheat in Israel and Turkey—structure, evolution, and application in breeding,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 421–455, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. Nevo, E. Golenberg, A. Beiles, A. H. D. Brown, and D. Zohary, “Genetic diversity and environmental associations of wild wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, in Israel,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 241–254, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Z. Peleg, Y. Saranga, T. Krugman, S. Abbo, E. Nevo, and T. Fahima, “Allelic diversity associated with aridity gradient in wild emmer wheat populations,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 39–49, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. R. Wang, Y. M. Wei, X. Y. Long et al., “Molecular evolution of dimeric α-amylase inhibitor genes in wild emmer wheat and its ecological association,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 8, no. 1, article 91, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Z. Peleg, T. Fahima, S. Abbo et al., “Genetic diversity for drought resistance in wild emmer wheat and its ecogeographical associations,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 176–191, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Peng, D. Sun, and E. Nevo, “Domestication evolution, genetics and genomics in wheat,” Molecular Breeding, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 281–301, 2011.
  27. J. Peng, D. Sun, and E. Nevo, “Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, occupies a pivotal position in wheat domestication process,” Australian Journal of Crop Science, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1127–1143, 2011.
  28. J. H. Peng, D. F. Sun, Y. L. Peng, and E. Nevo, “Gene discovery in Triticum dicoccoides, the direct progenitor of cultivated wheats,” Cereal Research Communications, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2013.
  29. N. Z. Ergen, J. Thimmapuram, H. J. Bohnert, and H. Budak, “Transcriptome pathways unique to dehydration tolerant relatives of modern wheat,” Functional and Integrative Genomics, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 377–396, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Krugman, V. Chagué, Z. Peleg et al., “Multilevel regulation and signalling processes associated with adaptation to terminal drought in wild emmer wheat,” Functional and Integrative Genomics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 167–186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. Lucas, E. Dogan, and H. Budak, “TMPIT1 from wild emmer wheat: first characterisation of a stress-inducible integral membrane protein,” Gene, vol. 483, no. 1-2, pp. 22–28, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Lucas, E. Durmaz, B. A. Akpnar, and H. Budak, “The drought response displayed by a DRE-binding protein from Triticum dicoccoides,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 346–351, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Kuzuoglu-Ozturk, O. Cebeci Yalcinkaya, B. A. Akpinar, et al., “Autophagy-related gene, TdAtg8, in wild emmer wheat plays a role in drought and osmotic stress response,” Planta, vol. 236, no. 4, pp. 1081–1092, 2012.
  34. H. Liu, X. Zhou, N. Dong, X. Liu, H. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, “Expression of a wheat MYB gene in transgenic tobacco enhances resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum, and to drought and salt stresses,” Functional & Integrative Genomics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 431–443, 2011.
  35. X. He, X. Hou, Y. Shen, and Z. Huang, “TaSRG, a wheat transcription factor, significantly affects salt tolerance in transgenic rice and Arabidopsis,” FEBS Letters, vol. 585, no. 8, pp. 1231–1237, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Cai, S. Tian, C. Liu, and H. Dong, “Identification of a MYB3R gene involved in drought, salt and cold stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Gene, vol. 485, no. 2, pp. 146–152, 2011.
  37. Y. Tang, M. Liu, S. Gao, et al., “Molecular characterization of novel TaNAC genes in wheat and overexpression of TaNAC2a confers drought tolerance in tobacco,” Plant Physiology, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 210–224, 2012.
  38. Y. Qin, M. Wang, Y. Tian, W. He, L. Han, and G. Xia, “Over-expression of TaMYB33 encoding a novel wheat MYB transcription factor increases salt and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 7183–7192, 2012.
  39. C. F. Niu, W. Wei, Q. Y. Zhou, et al., “Wheat WRKY genes TaWRKY2 and TaWRKY19 regulate abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 1156–1170, 2012.
  40. C. Wang, R. Jing, X. Mao, X. Chang, and A. Li, “TaABC1, a member of the activity of bc1 complex protein kinase family from common wheat, confers enhanced tolerance to abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1299–1311, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. X. Mao, H. Zhang, S. Tian, X. Chang, and R. Jing, “TaSnRK2.4, an SNF1-type serine/threonine protein kinase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), confers enhanced multistress tolerance in Arabidopsis,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 683–696, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Zhang, X. Mao, R. Jing, X. Chang, and H. Xie, “Characterization of a common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) TaSnRK2.7 gene involved in abiotic stress responses,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 975–988, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. I. Zaïdi, C. Ebel, M. Touzri et al., “TMKP1 is a novel wheat stress responsive MAP kinase phosphatase localized in the nucleus,” Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 325–338, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. C. Li, J. Lv, X. Zhao et al., “TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance,” Plant Physiology, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 211–221, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Q. W. Zang, C. X. Wang, X. Y. Li et al., “Isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a polyethylene glycol-induced cysteine protease in common wheat,” Journal of Biosciences, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 379–388, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Y. Y. Han, A. X. Li, F. Li, M. R. Zhao, and W. Wang, “Characterization of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, TaEXPB23, involved in the abiotic stress response and phytohormone regulation,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 54, pp. 49–58, 2012.
  47. G. Z. Kang, H. F. Peng, Q. X. Han, Y. H. Wang, and T. C. Guo, “Identification and expression pattern of ribosomal L5 gene in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Gene, vol. 493, no. 1, pp. 62–68, 2012.
  48. M. Ayadi, D. Cavez, N. Miled, F. Chaumont, and K. Masmoudi, “Identification and characterization of two plasma membrane aquaporins in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) and their role in abiotic stress tolerance,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 1029–1039, 2011.
  49. H. Manmathan, D. Shaner, J. Snelling, N. Tisserat, and N. Lapitan, “Virus-induced gene silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana gene homologues in wheat identifies genes conferring improved drought tolerance,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 1381–1392, 2013.
  50. M. Reynolds and R. Tuberosa, “Translational research impacting on crop productivity in drought-prone environments,” Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 171–179, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Reynolds and G. Rebetzke, “Application of plant physiology in wheat breeding,” in The World Wheat Book: A History of Wheat Breeding, A. P. Bonjean, W. J. Angus, and M. van Ginkel, Eds., vol. 2, Paris, France, 2011.
  52. C. M. Cossani and M. P. Reynolds, “Physiological traits for improving heat tolerance in wheat,” Plant Physiology, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 1710–1718, 2012.
  53. R. A. Richards and Z. Lukacs, “Seedling vigour in wheat—sources of variation for genetic and agronomic improvement,” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. P. O. Lim, H. J. Kim, and H. G. Nam, “Leaf senescence,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 58, pp. 115–136, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. U. Kumar, A. K. Joshi, M. Kumari, R. Paliwal, S. Kumar, and M. S. Röder, “Identification of QTLs for stay green trait in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the “Chirya 3” × “Sonalika” population,” Euphytica, vol. 174, no. 3, pp. 437–445, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. A. J. Parry, M. Reynolds, M. E. Salvucci et al., “Raising yield potential of wheat. II. Increasing photosynthetic capacity and efficiency,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 453–467, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. E. Salvucci and S. J. Crafts-Brandner, “Inhibition of photosynthesis by heat stress: the activation state of Rubisco as a limiting factor in photosynthesis,” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 179–186, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. I. Kurek, K. C. Thom, S. M. Bertain et al., “Enhanced thermostability of Arabidopsis rubisco activase improves photosynthesis and growth rates under moderate heat stress,” The Plant Cell, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 3230–3241, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. Krugman, V. Chagué, Z. Peleg et al., “Multilevel regulation and signalling processes associated with adaptation to terminal drought in wild emmer wheat,” Functional and Integrative Genomics, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 167–186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Sečenji, Á. Lendvai, P. Miskolczi et al., “Differences in root functions during long-term drought adaptation: comparison of active gene sets of two wheat genotypes,” Plant Biology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 871–882, 2010. View at Scopus
  61. H.-Y. Du, Y.-Z. Shen, and Z.-J. Huang, “Function of the wheat TaSIP gene in enhancing drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis and rice,” Plant Molecular Biology, vol. 81, no. 4-5, pp. 417–429, 2013.
  62. H. Chauhan and P. Khurana, “Use of doubled haploid technology for development of stable drought tolerant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transgenics,” Plant Biotechnology Journal, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 408–417, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. X. Ji, B. Dong, B. Shiran, et al., “Control of abscisic acid catabolism and abscisic acid homeostasis is important for reproductive stage stress tolerance in cereals,” Plant Physiology, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 647–662, 2011.
  64. A. A. Diab, R. V. Kantety, N. Z. Ozturk, D. Benscher, M. M. Nachit, and M. E. Sorrells, “Drought—inducible genes and differentially expressed sequence tags associated with components of drought tolerance in durum wheat,” Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 9–27, 2008. View at Scopus
  65. M. Maccaferri, M. C. Sanguineti, S. Corneti et al., “Quantitative trait loci for grain yield and adaptation of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) across a wide range of water availability,” Genetics, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 489–511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. K. L. Mathews, M. Malosetti, S. Chapman et al., “Multi-environment QTL mixed models for drought stress adaptation in wheat,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 117, no. 7, pp. 1077–1091, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. C. L. McIntyre, K. L. Mathews, A. Rattey et al., “Molecular detection of genomic regions associated with grain yield and yield-related components in an elite bread wheat cross evaluated under irrigated and rainfed conditions,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 527–541, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. Z. Peleg, T. Fahima, T. Krugman et al., “Genomic dissection of drought resistance in durum wheat × wild emmer wheat recombinant inbreed line population,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 758–779, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. D. Bennett, M. Reynolds, D. Mullan, et al., “Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 125, no. 7, pp. 1473–1485, 2012.
  70. D. Bennett, A. Izanloo, M. Reynolds, H. Kuchel, P. Langridge, and T. Schnurbusch, “Genetic dissection of grain yield and physical grain quality in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under water-limited environments,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 125, no. 2, pp. 255–271, 2012.
  71. D. Bennett, A. Izanloo, J. Edwards, et al., “Identification of novel quantitative trait loci for days to ear emergence and flag leaf glaucousness in a bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) population adapted to southern Australian conditions,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 697–711, 2012.
  72. J. Bonneau, J. Taylor, B. Parent, et al., “Multi-environment analysis and improved mapping of a yield-related QTL on chromosome 3B of wheat,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 747–761, 2013.
  73. Z. Zhang, X. Liu, X. Wang, et al., “An R2R3 MYB transcription factor in wheat, TaPIMP1, mediates host resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana and drought stresses through regulation of defense- and stress-related genes,” New Phytologist, vol. 196, no. 4, pp. 1155–1170, 2012.
  74. P. K. Agarwal, P. Agarwal, M. K. Reddy, and S. K. Sopory, “Role of DREB transcription factors in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in plants,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1263–1274, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. C. Egawa, F. Kobayashi, M. Ishibashi, T. Nakamura, C. Nakamura, and S. Takumi, “Differential regulation of transcript accumulation and alternative splicing of a DREB2 homolog under abiotic stress conditions in common wheat,” Genes & Genetic Systems, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 77–91, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. Kantar, S. J. Lucas, and H. Budak, “Drought stress: molecular genetics and genomics approaches,” Advances in Botanical Research, vol. 57, pp. 445–493, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. A. Nio, G. R. Cawthray, L. J. Wade, and T. D. Colmer, “Pattern of solutes accumulated during leaf osmotic adjustment as related to duration of water deficit for wheat at the reproductive stage,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1126–1137, 2011.
  78. N. Loutfy, M. A. El-Tayeb, A. M. Hassanen, M. F. Moustafa, Y. Sakuma, and M. Inouhe, “Changes in the water status and osmotic solute contents in response to drought and salicylic acid treatments in four different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum),” Journal of Plant Research, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 173–184, 2012.
  79. I. I. Vaseva, B. S. Grigorova, L. P. Simova-Stoilova, K. N. Demirevska, and U. Feller, “Abscisic acid and late embryogenesis abundant protein profile changes in winter wheat under progressive drought stress,” Plant Biology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 698–707, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. Mondini, M. Nachit, E. Porceddu, and M. A. Pagnotta, “Identification of SNP mutations in DREB1, HKT1, and WRKY1 genes involved in drought and salt stress tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum),” OMICS, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 178–187, 2012.
  81. S. Geng, Y. Zhao, L. Tang et al., “Molecular evolution of two duplicated CDPK genes CPK7 and CPK12 in grass species: a case study in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Gene, vol. 475, no. 2, pp. 94–103, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. I. Tari, A. Guóth, D. Benyó, J. Kovács, P. Poór, and B. Wodala, “The roles of ABA, reactive oxygen species and Nitric Oxide in root growth during osmotic stress in wheat: comparison of a tolerant and a sensitive variety,” Acta Biologica Hungarica, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 189–196, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. V. Vassileva, C. Signarbieux, I. Anders, and U. Feller, “Genotypic variation in drought stress response and subsequent recovery of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),” Journal of Plant Research, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 147–154, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. R. Singh-Tomar, S. Mathur, S. I. Allakhverdiev, and A. Jajoo, “Changes in PS II heterogeneity in response to osmotic and ionic stress in wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum),” Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 411–419, 2012.
  85. J. Csiszar, A. Gallé, E. Horváth, et al., “Different peroxidase activities and expression of abiotic stress-related peroxidases in apical root segments of wheat genotypes with different drought stress tolerance under osmotic stress,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 52, pp. 119–129, 2012.
  86. M. Mahdid, A. Kameli, C. Ehlert, and T. Simonneau, “Rapid changes in leaf elongation, ABA and water status during the recovery phase following application of water stress in two durum wheat varieties differing in drought tolerance,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1077–1083, 2011.
  87. M. Volgger, I. Lang, M. Ovečka, and I. Lichtscheidl, “Plasmolysis and cell wall deposition in wheat root hairs under osmotic stress,” Protoplasma, vol. 243, no. 1–4, pp. 51–62, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Rahaie, G. P. Xue, M. R. Naghavi, H. Alizadeh, and P. M. Schenk, “A MYB gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is up-regulated during salt and drought stresses and differentially regulated between salt-tolerant and sensitive genotypes,” Plant Cell Reports, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 835–844, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. T. Unver and H. Budak, “Conserved micrornas and their targets in model grass species brachypodium distachyon,” Planta, vol. 230, no. 4, pp. 659–669, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. H. Budak and A. Akpinar, “Dehydration stress-responsive miRNA in Brachypodium distachyon: evident by genome-wide screening of microRNAs expression,” OMICS, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 791–799, 2011.
  91. S. J. Lucas and H. Budak, “Sorting the wheat from the chaff: identifying miRNAs in genomic survey sequences of Triticum aestivum chromosome 1AL,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 7, Article ID e40859, 2012.
  92. M. Kantar, B. A. Akpınar, M. Valárik, et al., “Subgenomic analysis of microRNAs in polyploid wheat,” Functional & Integrative Genomics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 465–479, 2012.
  93. L. Simova-Stoilova, I. Vaseva, B. Grigorova, K. Demirevska, and U. Feller, “Proteolytic activity and cysteine protease expression in wheat leaves under severe soil drought and recovery,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 200–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. D. S. Selote and R. Khanna-Chopra, “Antioxidant response of wheat roots to drought acclimation,” Protoplasma, vol. 245, no. 1–4, pp. 153–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. Y.-L. Du, Z.-Y. Wang, J.-W. Fan, N. C. Turner, T. Wang, and F.-M. Li, “Beta-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 63, no. 13, pp. 4849–4860, 2012.
  96. I. M. Huseynova, “Photosynthetic characteristics and enzymatic antioxidant capacity of leaves from wheat cultivars exposed to drought,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1817, no. 8, pp. 1516–1523, 2012.
  97. H. Liu, Y. H. Zhang, H. Yin, W. X. Wang, X. M. Zhao, and Y. G. Du, “Alginate oligosaccharides enhanced Triticum aestivum L. tolerance to drought stress,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 62, pp. 33–40, 2013.
  98. J. R. Witcombe, P. A. Hollington, C. J. Howarth, S. Reader, and K. A. Steele, “Breeding for abiotic stresses for sustainable agriculture,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 363, no. 1492, pp. 703–716, 2008.
  99. S. Gulnaz, M. Sajjad, I. Khaliq, A. S. Khan, and S. H. Khan, “Relationship among coleoptile length, plant height and tillering capacity for developing improved wheat varieties,” International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 130–133, 2011. View at Scopus
  100. B. Wei, R. Jing, C. Wang et al., “Dreb1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): development of functional markers and gene mapping based on SNPs,” Molecular Breeding, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 13–22, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. E. Nevo and G. Chen, “Drought and salt tolerances in wild relatives for wheat and barley improvement,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 670–685, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. P. Guo, M. Baum, S. Grando et al., “Differentially expressed genes between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive barley genotypes in response to drought stress during the reproductive stage,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 3531–3544, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. Pellegrineschi, M. Reynolds, M. Pacheco et al., “Stress-induced expression in wheat of the Arabidopsis thaliana DREB1A gene delays water stress symptoms under greenhouse conditions,” Genome, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 493–500, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. D. Hoisington and R. Ortiz, “Research and field monitoring on transgenic crops by the Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT),” Euphytica, vol. 164, no. 3, pp. 893–902, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. A. Bahieldin, H. T. Mahfouz, H. F. Eissa et al., “Field evaluation of transgenic wheat plants stably expressing the HVA1 gene for drought tolerance,” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. 421–427, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S.-S. Jiang, X. N. Liang, X. Li, et al., “Wheat drought-responsive grain proteome analysis by linear and nonlinear 2-DE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 16065–16083, 2012.
  107. H. Budak, B. A. Akpinar, T. Unver, and M. Turktas, “Proteome changes in wild and modern wheat leaves upon drought stress by two-dimensional electrophoresis and nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS,” Plant Molecular Biology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar