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The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 597095, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/597095
Clinical Study

DNA Damage Sensor γ-H2AX Is Increased in Preneoplastic Lesions of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

1Department of Medical Technology, Niigata University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 2-746 Asahimachi-dori, Niigata 951-8518, Japan
2Division of Digestive and General Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 2-746 Asahimachi-dori, Niigata 951-8518, Japan
3Division of Pediatric Surgery, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 2-746 Asahimachi-dori, Niigata 951-8518, Japan
4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 2-746 Asahimachi-dori, Niigata 951-8518, Japan

Received 6 December 2012; Accepted 5 February 2013

Academic Editors: M. Ladekarl, P.-D. Line, and P. Stål

Copyright © 2013 Yasunobu Matsuda et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) is a potential regulator of DNA repair and is a useful tool for detecting DNA damage. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of γ-H2AX in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we measured the level of γ-H2AX in HCC, dysplastic nodule, and nontumorous liver diseases. Methods. The level of γ-H2AX was measured by immunohistochemistry in fifty-eight HCC, 18 chronic hepatitis, 22 liver cirrhosis, and 19 dysplastic nodules. Appropriate cases were also examined by fluorescence analysis and western blotting. Results. All cases with chronic liver disease showed increased levels of γ-H2AX expression. In 40 (69.9%) of 58 cases with HCC, the labeling index (LI) of γ-H2AX was above 50% and was inversely correlated with the histological grade. Mean γ-H2AX LI was the highest in dysplastic nodule , which was significantly higher than HCC . Moreover, γ-H2AX was significantly increased in nontumorous tissues of HCC as compared with liver cirrhosis without HCC ( , from 5.1 to 96.0%, ). Conclusions. γ-H2AX was increased in the preneoplastic lesions of HCC and might be a useful biomarker for predicting the risk of HCC.