About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 621596, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/621596
Research Article

Examining Implicit Attitudes towards Exercisers with a Physical Disability

School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, 28 Division Street, Kingston, ON, Canada K7L 3N6

Received 24 January 2013; Accepted 3 March 2013

Academic Editors: Ö. Altindag and K. Nas

Copyright © 2013 Cassandra D. Dionne et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Susman, “Disability, stigma and deviance,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. Thornicroft, D. Rose, A. Kassam, and N. Sartorius, “Stigma: ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 190, pp. 192–193, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. H. Van Brakel, “Measuring health-related stigma—a literature review,” Psychology, Health & Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 307–334, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. R. Pruett and F. Chan, “The development and psychometric validation of the disability attitude implicit association test,” Rehabilitation Psychology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 202–213, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Reeder and J. Pryor, “Dual psychological processes underlying public stigma and the implications for reducing stigma,” Mens Sana Monographs, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 175–186, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. E. Kleck, “Physical stigma and task oriented interactions,” Human Relations, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 53–60, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. J. B. Pryor, G. D. Reeder, C. Yeadon, and M. Hesson-McInnis, “A dual-process model of reactions to perceived stigma,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 436–452, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. R. Hebl and R. E. Kleck, “The social consequences of physical disability,” in The Social Psychology of Stigma, T. F. Heatherton, R. E. Kleck, M. R. Hebl, and J. G. Hull, Eds., pp. 419–439, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
  9. A. Stier and S. P. Hinshaw, “Explicit and implicit stigma against individuals with mental illness,” Australian Psychologist, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 106–117, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Gawronski and G. V. Bodenhausen, “Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: an integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 692–731, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. B. Pryor, G. D. Reeder, and S. Landau, “A social-psychological analysis of HIV-related stigma: a two-factor theory,” American Behavioral Scientist, no. 7, pp. 1193–1211, 1999. View at Scopus
  12. E. R. Smith and J. DeCoster, “Dual-process models in social and cognitive psychology: conceptual integration and links to underlying memory systems,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 108–131, 2000. View at Scopus
  13. F. Strack and R. Deutsch, “Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 220–247, 2004. View at Scopus
  14. R. H. Fazio and M. A. Olson, “Implicit measures in social cognition research: their meaning and use,” Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 54, pp. 297–327, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, and J. L. K. Schwartz, “Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 1464–1480, 1998. View at Scopus
  16. J. P. Mitchell, B. A. Nosek, and M. R. Banaji, “Contextual variations in implicit evaluation,” Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 455–469, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. A. Lane, J. P. Mitchell, and M. R. Banaji, “Me and my group: cultural status can disrupt cognitive consistency,” Social Cognition, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 353–386, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. F. Basset and J. M. Dabbs, “Evaluating explicit and implicit death attitudes in funeral and university students,” Mortality, vol. 8, pp. 352–371, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. B. S. Lowery, C. D. Hardin, and S. Sinclair, “Social influence effects on automatic racial prejudice,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 842–855, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. A. Teachman, K. D. Gapinski, K. D. Brownell, M. Rawlins, and S. Jeyaram, “Demonstrations of implicit anti-fat bias: the impact of providing causal information and evoking empathy,” Health Psychology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 68–78, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. A. Nosek, M. R. Banaji, and A. G. Greenwald, “Math = male, me = female, therefore math me,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 44–59, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. P. Arbour, A. E. Latimer, K. A. Martin Ginis, and M. E. Jung, “Moving beyond the stigma: the impression formation benefits of exercise for individuals with a physical disability,” Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 144–159, 2007. View at Scopus
  23. K. A. Martin Ginis, M. Lindwall, and H. Prapavessis, “Who cares what other people think? Self-presentation in sport and exercise,” in Handbook of Sport Psychology, G. Tenenbaum and R. Eklund, Eds., Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2007.
  24. M. Hodgins, “A person-perception study of the “healthy body-healthy mind” stereotype,” The Irish Journal of Psychology, vol. 13, pp. 161–187, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. K. A. M. Ginis, A. E. Latimer, and M. E. Jung, “No pain no gain? Examining the generalizability of the exerciser stereotype to moderately active and excessively active targets,” Social Behavior and Personality, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 283–290, 2003. View at Scopus
  26. K. A. Martin, A. R. Sinden, and J. C. Fleming, “Inactivity may be hazardous to your image: the effects of exercise participation on impression formation,” Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 283–291, 2000. View at Scopus
  27. W. M. Rodgers, C. R. Hall, P. M. Wilson, and T. R. Berry, “Do nonexercisers also share the positive exerciser stereotype? An elicitation and comparison of beliefs about exercisers,” Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 3–17, 2009. View at Scopus
  28. A. G. Greenwald, “Health of the implicit association test at age 3,” Experimental Psychology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 85–93, 2001. View at Scopus
  29. M. J. White, V. Jackson, and P. Gordon, “Implicit and explicit attitudes toward athletes with disabilities,” Journal of Rehabilitation, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 33–40, 2006. View at Scopus
  30. B. Hardin and M. Hardin, “Conformity and conflict: wheelchair athletes discuss sport media,” Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 246–259, 2003. View at Scopus
  31. B. A. Nosek and K. Lane, “Analyzing paper-pencil IAT data,” Unpublished Manuscript, Yale University, 1999.
  32. J. Utts and R. Heckard, Mind on Statistics, Thomson Brooks/Cole, Canada, 2nd edition, 2004.