- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 813249, 5 pages
Rovibrational Interaction and Vibrational Constants of the Symmetric Top Molecule 14NF3
Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Équipe de Spectrométrie Physique, Département de Physique, Université Ibn Tofaïl, Faculté des Sciences, BP 133, 14000 Kénitra, Morocco
Received 8 April 2013; Accepted 8 May 2013
Academic Editors: A. F. Borghesani and A. Kochur
Copyright © 2013 Hamid Najib. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Several accurate experimental values of the and rotation-vibration interaction parameters and , , and vibrational constants have been extracted from the most recent high-resolution Fourier transform infrared, millimeter wave, and centimeter wave investigations in the spectra of the oblate symmetric top molecule 14NF3. The band-centres used are those of the four fundamental, the overtones, the combination, and hot bands identified in the region between 400 cm−1 and 2000 cm−1. Comparison of our constants with the ones measured previously, by infrared spectroscopy at low resolution, reveals orders of magnitude higher accuracy of the new values. The agreement between our values and those determined by ab initio calculations employing the TZ2Pf basis is excellent.
Nitrogen trifluoride NF3 is a pyramidal symmetric top molecule belonging to point group. It has four vibrational normal modes:(i)two totally symmetric ( type): and ;(ii)two doubly degenerate ( type): and .Today, NF3 is employed in the cleaning of the PECVD chambers in the high volume production of liquid crystal displays and silicon-based thin film solar cells. It has been considered as an environmentally preferable substitute for sulphur hexafluoride or perfluorocarbons such as hexafluoroethane . But, recent publications [2–7] reported that NF3 is 17,000 times more potent a greenhouse gas than CO2 and recommended to include it in the basket of gases controlled by Kyoto protocol and to monitor its environmental levels.
Nitrogen trifluoride is also used in hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride lasers, which are types of chemical lasers.
In spite of these interesting properties and important applications, the spectra of this molecule have not yet been much studied in the past, because of difficulties to obtain high quality spectra and to interpret its perturbed bands. Many of these difficulties have now been overcome through the advent of high-resolution spectrometers and the development of computers.
This is within the framework of this research orientation and the Moroccan/European collaboration that several bands of NF3 gas were recently analysed [8–14]. We used independent and complementary methods, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), millimetre wave (MMW), and centimetre wave (CMW) spectroscopies. All studied IR spectra were recorded at Wuppertal (Germany) with the Bruker 120 HR interferometer, except for the region around 1032 cm−1, which was recorded at the University of Giessen (Germany). The rotational spectra were measured in Lille (France) with a computer-controlled MMW spectrometer. The measurements in the CMW range were performed at Kiel (Germany) by means of wave-guide microwave Fourier transform spectroscopy.
The subject of this work is to extract accurate experimental rotation-vibration interaction parameters and anharmonicity constants of the potential function of 14NF3 from our recent studies by high-resolution spectroscopy and the latest results available in the literature.
2. Relationships Linking Vibrational Constants
More recently, we have established the following relationships linking band-centres, harmonic wavenumbers, and anharmonicity constants of a symmetric top molecule .
2.1. Fundamental Bands
is the normal wavenumber of the th mode; is its vibrational quantum number; refers to a totally symmetric or to a degenerate vibration; and are the anharmonicity constants; and is the vibrational angular momentum: , or 0 only exists for a doubly degenerate vibration.
2.2. Harmonic Bands (Integer > 1)
2.3. Combination Bands and (Integer),
For the oblate symmetric top NF3, we count , , and ; .
3. The Ground State Constants of
The experimental ground state (GS) axial rotational parameters for the symmetric top molecule 14NF3 employed in the present study and reported in Table 1 come from different sources.
For the -dependent constant, we used in our high-resolution studies the following values:(i) = 0.1949980 (10): a preliminary value obtained in the course of our work on the overtone band of 14NF3,(ii) = 0.19499250 (44): the definitive value adopted in the study of the = 2 state of 14NF3. In the two cases, we used the “loop method” as described in .For the -dependent constant, the values adopted were determined by Höhe et al. , Breidung et al. , and Cazzoli and Puzzarini .
4. The Rovibrational Bands of Observed below 2000 cm−1
4.1. The Fundamental Band 
The = 1 excited state of 14NF3 was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy and with saturation technique using CO2 side bands as a tunable infrared source. This level was considered unperturbed, and the fit gave the band-centre: = 1032.00123750 (47) cm−1. For the excited rotational constants, the values were determined relative to the GS.
4.2. The Fundamental Band 
The lowest fundamental band of the nitrogen trifluoride 14NF3 was studied by high-resolution FTIR, MMW, and CMW spectroscopies near 493 cm−1. The analysis of the = 1 state included , and intravibrational interactions and gave the band-centre: = 493.4227759 (89) cm−1.
4.3. The Fundamental, Hot, Overtone, and Combination Bands 
They were analysed by FTIR and MMW spectroscopies. The corresponding excited states were treated as isolated levels, and the following band-centres were determined: Because of the low intensity of the overtone, the = 2 state constants were determined from the hot and fundamental bands.
We point out that any explanation was offered for a severe intensity perturbation observed in the spectra of and bands (see ).
4.4. The Fundamental Band 
The perpendicular band of the symmetric top 14NF3 was analysed by high-resolution FTIR and MMW spectroscopies. The = 1 excited state was considered vibrationally isolated, but several intravibrational interactions were included in the final fit. The band-centre obtained is = 907.5413300 (72) cm−1.
4.5. The Overtone Band 
The = 2 excited state of the oblate molecule 14NF3, lying near 985 cm−1, was successfully studied by high-resolution FTIR and MMW spectroscopies. Assumed to be isolated, the treatment of this level gave the following band-centres for the parallel and perpendicular components:
4.6. The Overtone and Combination Bands 
In the analysis of these bands, we used spectra recorded by Fourier transform spectrometer. The same models applied to the and excited states were applied to treat the 2 and + bands. We obtained the following results:
The perpendicular band of 14NF3 was studied by high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. It was treated by a model taking into account - and -type intervibrational interactions. The band-centre obtained in the -reduction of the rovibrational Hamiltonian is = 1523.040783 (34) cm−1.
5. Results and Discussion
In Table 2, we gather the recent measurements, at high-resolution, of the centres of the all studied bands between 400 cm−1 and 2000 cm−1 and the corresponding experimental rotation-vibration interaction constants: and and and being the constants of the upper level.
The values of the rovibrational interaction constants were determined by ab initio calculations (Table 2) for only the fundamental bands. The agreement with our values is excellent.
Equation (2) leads to = −2.280208 (11) cm−1.
For the harmonic band, we obtain the system of equations: We derive = −0.841743 (22) cm−1 and = 0.730149 (21) cm−1.
As for , we deduce = −4.15278 (18) cm−1 and = 1.82344 (18) cm−1.
Using the band-centres of and , we obtain = −2.383248 (49) cm−1. We can also derive, from the band-centres of and , the anharmonic constant: = −7.965051 (26) cm−1.
All experimental anharmonicity constants determined in this work for the nitrogen trifluoride 14NF3 are given in Table 3.
The experimental centre of the band was estimated from the branches edge at 1292.26 cm−1. But a precise value can be obtained combining the values of the experimental centres of and (Table 2). From the relationships: we can indeed deduce that = 1292.25004 (21) cm−1 and = −1.006059 (11).
The values obtained for , , and are small suggesting that the corresponding levels and are not significantly affected by the anharmonic perturbations, whereas the vibrational dependence is extremely important for the and levels.
It is worth noting that our values of the anharmonicity constants of 14NF3 are in good agreement with previous medium experimental studies (column 4 of Table 3), but significantly more accurate by at least three orders of magnitude.
One can notice the fair agreement between our values and those obtained by ab initio methods  employing the TZ2Pf basis.
We can also extract accurate values of the harmonic wavenumbers of the oblate symmetric top molecule 14NF3. The results are gathered in Table 4.
The agreement between our values and those determined by the theoretical ab initio calculations is significantly worse. We think that it is necessary to give much more credibility to our values which were deduced from experimental constants.
Using the recent accurate results obtained for the bands below 2000 cm−1, of the symmetric top molecule 14NF3, several rovibrational interaction and anharmonicity constants have been deduced.
Our results contribute incontestably to the experimental knowledge of the molecular potential of this molecule which helps to test and improve theoretical models.
- H. Reichardt, A. Frenzel, and K. Schober, “Environmentally friendly wafer production: NF3 remote microwave plasma for chamber cleaning,” Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 56, no. 1-2, pp. 73–76, 2001.
- V. Fthenakis, D. O. Clark, M. Moalem et al., “Life-cycle nitrogen trifluoride emissions from photovoltaics,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 44, no. 22, pp. 8750–8757, 2010.
- M. J. Prather and J. Hsu, “Correction to ‘NF3, the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto’,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 37, no. 11, 2010.
- T. Wen-Tien, “Environmental and health risk analysis of nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), a toxic and potent greenhouse gas,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 257–263, 2008.
- M. J. Prather and J. Hsu, “NF3, the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 35, no. 12, 2008.
- R. F. Weiss, J. Mühler, P. K. Salameh, and C. M. Harth, “Nitrogen trifluoride in the global atmosphere,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 35, no. 20, 2008.
- J. I. Robson, L. K. Gohar, M. D. Hurley, K. P. Shine, and T. Wallington, “Revised IR spectrum, radiative efficiency and global warming potential of nitrogen trifluoride,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, no. 10, 2006.
- H. Najib, S. Hmimou, and H. Msahal, “High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of the ν1 + ν4 band of 14NF3: reductions of the rovibrational hamiltonian,” European Journal of Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 253–259, 2012.
- S. Hmimou, H. Msahal, and H. Najib, “First high-resolution FTIR study of the ν1 = ν4 = 1 rovibrational state of 14NF3 near 1523 cm−1,” Molecular Physics, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 787–794, 2010.
- N. B. Sari-Zizi and H. Najib, “High-resolution infrared study of the 2ν3 (A1, E) and ν1 + ν3 (E) bands of 14NF3,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 240, no. 2, pp. 210–226, 2006.
- N. B. Sari-Zizi, H. Najib, J. Demaison, B. Bakri, J. M. Colmont, and H. Bürger, “High-resolution FTIR and MMW study of the ν4 = 2 (A1, E) excited state of 14NF3 near 985 cm−1: the axial ground state rotational constants derived by the “loop-method”,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 228, no. 2, pp. 511–527, 2004.
- H. Najib, N. B. Sari-Zizi, J. Demaison, B. Bakri, J. M. Colmont, and E. B. MKadmi, “High-resolution infrared and millimeterwave spectra of the ν3 = 1 vibrational state of 14NF3 at 907 cm−1,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 214–222, 2003.
- K. Akkad, N. B. Sari-Zizi, B. Bakri, J. Demaison, H. Bürger, and E. B. Mkadmi, “Fourier transform infrared and millimeter-wave study of the ν2 = 1 ν2 = 1, 2 and the ν2 = ν4 = 1 ν2 = ν4 = 1 rovibrational states of 14NF3,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 218, no. 1, pp. 36–47, 2003.
- N. Boulaftali, N. B. Sari-Zizi, U. Wötzel et al., “The 44 = 1 state of 14NF3 at 493 cm−1 studied by high-resolution FTIR, centimeter-wave, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 212, no. 1, pp. 41–52, 2002.
- H. Najib, “Vibrational constants of the symmetric top molecule PF3,” Molecular Physics, vol. 106, no. 9-10, pp. 1199–1204, 2008.
- Z. Kisiel, M. Yu-Tretyakov, J. Demaison, L. Margulès, and P. Pracna, “High-resolution FTIR and millimeter-wave study of D3SiF: the ground, ν3 = 1, and ν6 = 1 and 2 states,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 197, no. 1, pp. 85–99, 1999.
- W. Höhe, U. Häring, W. A. Kreiner, H. Essig, and A. Ruoff, “Analysis of the IR spectrum of NF3 combining FT and laser saturation spectroscopy,” Canadian Journal of Physics, vol. 72, pp. 1051–1059, 1994.
- J. Breidung, L. Constantin, J. Demaison, L. Margulès, and W. Thiel, “Ground state rotational spectrum, K = 3 splittings, ab initio anharmonic force field and equilibrium structure of trifluoroamine,” Molecular Physics, vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 1113–1122, 2003.
- G. Cazzoli and C. Puzzarini, “Ground state rotational spectrum of nitrogen trifluoride: the K = 3 splittings of 14NF3 and 15NF3,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 239, no. 1, pp. 59–63, 2006.
- R. J. L. Popplewell, F. N. Masri, and H. W. Thompson, “Infra-red spectrum and molecular constants of nitrogen trifluoride,” Spectrochimica Acta A, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 2797–2807, 1967.
- R. Reichman and J. Schatz, “l-type resonance in an overtone band. The 2v4 spectrum of nitrogen trifluoride,” Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 277–282, 1973.
- R. Tarroni, P. Palmieri, M. L. Senent, and A. Willets, “Ab initio calculation of the anharmonic force and dipole fields of nitrogen trifluoride,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 257, no. 1, pp. 23–30, 1996.