Table 1: Comparison of technologies used for decontamination of polluted areas [1].

TechnologyDescription+

BioremediationUse of plants and/or microorganisms(i) In situ/ex situ
(ii) Cheap 
(iii) Economical also for low level contamination
(i) Needs longer time
(ii) Contaminant specific

Physical methods
 Burning/dump siteExcavation of the contaminated soil and its burning at high temperature or deposition on a dump side(i) Ex situ
(ii) Fast 
(iii) Possible to use for wide spectra of contaminants
(i) Destruction of environment
(ii) Needs special equipment
(iii) Burning effective just for organic contaminants
 Solidification/stabilization Immobilization of contaminant on sorbent (i) In situ/ex situ
(ii) Fast
(i) Possible rebounding
contaminant is present forever
 Electrokinetic remediation Removal of contaminants by electromigration and electroosmosis (i) In situ/ex situ
(ii) Fast 
(iii) Organic and heavy metals
(i) Needs special equipment
(ii) Not possible to use for all types of soils
 Washing/flushing Use of water or detergent solution for washing of contaminants (i) In situ/ex situ
(ii) Possible to use for wide spectra of contaminants
(i) Needs special equipment
(ii) Need of decontamination of the resulting solution

Chemical methods
 OxidationApplication of strong oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate ozone gas, or persulfates) (i) In situ/ex situ
(ii) Fast
(i) Only for organic contaminants
(ii) Destruction of the present ecosystems
 Hydrolysis Mostly alkaline hydrolysis (i) In situ/ex situ
(ii) Fast
(i) Only for organic contaminants
(ii) Destruction of the present ecosystems