Table 1: ITS services and technologies catalogue.

ITS technologies and services general catalogueCommunication technologiesEmployed systems
PFITS value- added serviceScope service CALM IR CEN DSRC/RFID ZIGBEE WAVE/CALM M5* RDS/DAB DVB-T DVB-H Wi-Fi a/b/g/n WiMAX, LTE* GSM/GPRS UMTS/HSPA NS (OBU) US SS APP_S CCTV_S CS** LS RSU
PrimarySecondary

SAFETYWarning by variable message signs (VMS)I2VI2I
Roadwork warningV2V
Pedestrian monitoringV2V
Fog warningI2I, V2V, V2I
Snow warningI2I, V2V, V2I
Approaching emergency vehicle V2VV2I, I2V, I2I
Cooperative forward collision warningV2I, I2V
Highway/rail collisionV2I, I2V, I2I
Postcrash warning V2I, I2V, I2I
Special vehicle detection (tractor, crane, fire truck)V2I, I2V

EFICIENCYMedium speedI2VV2V
Speed controlV2V
Public transport watchingI2I
Borders identificationI2I
Intermodal conteiner trackingI2I
Parking management: discovery of free parking placesI2VV2V, V2I
Hazardous freight Coordination V2V V2I, I2V, I2I
Disaster response managementI2II2V
Vehicles as sensors for gathering dataV2II2I

CONFORTDynamic traffic information (weather, close highways, bridge state, speed limit, etc.)I2VV2V, V2I
Weather forecastI2VV2V
2D/3D POI visualizationI2VV2V
Toll detectionI2VV2V
Toll fares payment I2VV2I, I2I

PF: principal factor; systems and technologies: ■→ fundamental, ●→ used, ▼→support, ▸→ alternative, ♦→ new technological scheme, NS→ navigation systems (on board unit-OBU), US→ users systems, SS→ storage systems, APP_S→ application servers, CCTV_S→ circuit close TV systems, CS→ corporate systems, LS→ legacy systems, RSU→ roadside unit, *→technologies under growth, and **→ new ITS proposal.