The Scientific World Journal: Computer Science http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Novel -Input Voting Algorithm for -by-Wire Fault-Tolerant Systems Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/672832/ Voting is an important operation in multichannel computation paradigm and realization of ultrareliable and real-time control systems that arbitrates among the results of N redundant variants. These systems include -modular redundant (NMR) hardware systems and diversely designed software systems based on -version programming (NVP). Depending on the characteristics of the application and the type of selected voter, the voting algorithms can be implemented for either hardware or software systems. In this paper, a novel voting algorithm is introduced for real-time fault-tolerant control systems, appropriate for applications in which N is large. Then, its behavior has been software implemented in different scenarios of error-injection on the system inputs. The results of analyzed evaluations through plots and statistical computations have demonstrated that this novel algorithm does not have the limitations of some popular voting algorithms such as median and weighted; moreover, it is able to significantly increase the reliability and availability of the system in the best case to 2489.7% and 626.74%, respectively, and in the worst case to 3.84% and 1.55%, respectively. Abbas Karimi, Faraneh Zarafshan, S. A. R. Al-Haddad, and Abdul Rahman Ramli Copyright © 2014 Abbas Karimi et al. All rights reserved. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics Wed, 15 Oct 2014 09:53:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/528917/ Today’s business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. Nenad Stefanovic Copyright © 2014 Nenad Stefanovic. All rights reserved. Medical Applications of Microwave Imaging Tue, 14 Oct 2014 07:16:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/147016/ Ultrawide band (UWB) microwave imaging is a promising method for the detection of early stage breast cancer, based on the large contrast in electrical parameters between malignant tumour tissue and the surrounding normal breast-tissue. In this paper, the detection and imaging of a malignant tumour are performed through a tomographic based microwave system and signal processing. Simulations of the proposed system are performed and postimage processing is presented. Signal processing involves the extraction of tumour information from background information and then image reconstruction through the confocal method delay-and-sum algorithms. Ultimately, the revision of time-delay and the superposition of more tumour signals are applied to improve accuracy. Zhao Wang, Eng Gee Lim, Yujun Tang, and Mark Leach Copyright © 2014 Zhao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Trust-Based Access Control Model from Sociological Approach in Dynamic Online Social Network Environment Mon, 13 Oct 2014 14:06:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/936319/ There has been an explosive increase in the population of the OSN (online social network) in recent years. The OSN provides users with many opportunities to communicate among friends and family. Further, it facilitates developing new relationships with previously unknown people having similar beliefs or interests. However, the OSN can expose users to adverse effects such as privacy breaches, the disclosing of uncontrolled material, and the disseminating of false information. Traditional access control models such as MAC, DAC, and RBAC are applied to the OSN to address these problems. However, these models are not suitable for the dynamic OSN environment because user behavior in the OSN is unpredictable and static access control imposes a burden on the users to change the access control rules individually. We propose a dynamic trust-based access control for the OSN to address the problems of the traditional static access control. Moreover, we provide novel criteria to evaluate trust factors such as sociological approach and evaluate a method to calculate the dynamic trust values. The proposed method can monitor negative behavior and modify access permission levels dynamically to prevent the indiscriminate disclosure of information. Seungsoo Baek and Seungjoo Kim Copyright © 2014 Seungsoo Baek and Seungjoo Kim. All rights reserved. Cooperation-Controlled Learning for Explicit Class Structure in Self-Organizing Maps Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/397927/ We attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple points of view toward neural networks. By restricting ourselves to two points of view of a neuron, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called “cooperation-controlled learning.” In this method, individual and collective neurons are distinguished from one another, and we suppose that the characteristics of individual and collective neurons are different. To implement individual and collective neurons, we prepare two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks. The roles of these networks and the roles of individual and collective neurons are controlled by the cooperation parameter. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning, and the characteristics of collective neurons become more dominant. On the other hand, when the parameter is small, individual neurons play a more important role. We applied the method to the automobile and housing data from the machine learning database and examined whether explicit class boundaries could be obtained. Experimental results showed that cooperation-controlled learning, in particular taking into account information on input units, could be used to produce clearer class structure than conventional self-organizing maps. Ryotaro Kamimura Copyright © 2014 Ryotaro Kamimura. All rights reserved. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/612787/ This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh, Naomie Salim, Amjad Rehman, Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz, Tanzila Saba, Mznah Al-Rodhaan, and Abdullah Al-Dhelaan Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh et al. All rights reserved. A Three-Step Approach with Adaptive Additive Magnitude Selection for the Sharpening of Images Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:45:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/528696/ Aimed to find the additive magnitude automatically and adaptively, we propose a three-step and model-based approach for the sharpening of images in this paper. In the first pass, a Grey prediction model is applied to find a global maximal additive magnitude so that the condition of oversharpening in images to be sharpened can be avoided. During the second pass, edge pixels are picked out with our previously proposed edge detection mechanism. In this pass, a low-pass filter is also applied so that isolated pixels will not be regarded as around an edge. In the final pass, those pixels detected as around an edge are adjusted adaptively based on the local statistics, and those nonedge pixels are kept unaltered. Extensive experiments on natural images as well as medical images with subjective and objective evaluations will be given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach. Lih-Jen Kau and Tien-Lin Lee Copyright © 2014 Lih-Jen Kau and Tien-Lin Lee. All rights reserved. Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization Sun, 14 Sep 2014 06:00:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/943403/ Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. Pauline Ong Copyright © 2014 Pauline Ong. All rights reserved. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/969628/ Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications. Ahmed Al-Haiqi, Mahamod Ismail, and Rosdiadee Nordin Copyright © 2014 Ahmed Al-Haiqi et al. All rights reserved. Improving RLRN Image Splicing Detection with the Use of PCA and Kernel PCA Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/606570/ Digital image forgery is becoming easier to perform because of the rapid development of various manipulation tools. Image splicing is one of the most prevalent techniques. Digital images had lost their trustability, and researches have exerted considerable effort to regain such trustability by focusing mostly on algorithms. However, most of the proposed algorithms are incapable of handling high dimensionality and redundancy in the extracted features. Moreover, existing algorithms are limited by high computational time. This study focuses on improving one of the image splicing detection algorithms, that is, the run length run number algorithm (RLRN), by applying two dimension reduction methods, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel PCA. Support vector machine is used to distinguish between authentic and spliced images. Results show that kernel PCA is a nonlinear dimension reduction method that has the best effect on R, G, B, and Y channels and gray-scale images. Zahra Moghaddasi, Hamid A. Jalab, Rafidah Md Noor, and Saeed Aghabozorgi Copyright © 2014 Zahra Moghaddasi et al. All rights reserved. Heuristic Evaluation on Mobile Interfaces: A New Checklist Thu, 11 Sep 2014 12:08:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/434326/ The rapid evolution and adoption of mobile devices raise new usability challenges, given their limitations (in screen size, battery life, etc.) as well as the specific requirements of this new interaction. Traditional evaluation techniques need to be adapted in order for these requirements to be met. Heuristic evaluation (HE), an Inspection Method based on evaluation conducted by experts over a real system or prototype, is based on checklists which are desktop-centred and do not adequately detect mobile-specific usability issues. In this paper, we propose a compilation of heuristic evaluation checklists taken from the existing bibliography but readapted to new mobile interfaces. Selecting and rearranging these heuristic guidelines offer a tool which works well not just for evaluation but also as a best-practices checklist. The result is a comprehensive checklist which is experimentally evaluated as a design tool. This experimental evaluation involved two software engineers without any specific knowledge about usability, a group of ten users who compared the usability of a first prototype designed without our heuristics, and a second one after applying the proposed checklist. The results of this experiment show the usefulness of the proposed checklist for avoiding usability gaps even with nontrained developers. Rosa Yáñez Gómez, Daniel Cascado Caballero, and José-Luis Sevillano Copyright © 2014 Rosa Yáñez Gómez et al. All rights reserved. A Model Independent S/W Framework for Search-Based Software Testing Thu, 11 Sep 2014 11:50:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/126348/ In Model-Based Testing (MBT) area, Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) has been employed to generate test cases from the model of a system under test. However, many types of models have been used in MBT. If the type of a model has changed from one to another, all functions of a search technique must be reimplemented because the types of models are different even if the same search technique has been applied. It requires too much time and effort to implement the same algorithm over and over again. We propose a model-independent software framework for SBST, which can reduce redundant works. The framework provides a reusable common software platform to reduce time and effort. The software framework not only presents design patterns to find test cases for a target model but also reduces development time by using common functions provided in the framework. We show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework with two case studies. The framework improves the productivity by about 50% when changing the type of a model. Jungsup Oh, Jongmoon Baik, and Sung-Hwa Lim Copyright © 2014 Jungsup Oh et al. All rights reserved. Generalized Synchronization with Uncertain Parameters of Nonlinear Dynamic System via Adaptive Control Thu, 11 Sep 2014 11:00:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/152485/ An adaptive control scheme is developed to study the generalized adaptive chaos synchronization with uncertain chaotic parameters behavior between two identical chaotic dynamic systems. This generalized adaptive chaos synchronization controller is designed based on Lyapunov stability theory and an analytic expression of the adaptive controller with its update laws of uncertain chaotic parameters is shown. The generalized adaptive synchronization with uncertain parameters between two identical new Lorenz-Stenflo systems is taken as three examples to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The numerical simulations are shown to verify the results. Cheng-Hsiung Yang and Cheng-Lin Wu Copyright © 2014 Cheng-Hsiung Yang and Cheng-Lin Wu. All rights reserved. Improving Vision-Based Motor Rehabilitation Interactive Systems for Users with Disabilities Using Mirror Feedback Thu, 11 Sep 2014 09:05:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/964576/ Observation is recommended in motor rehabilitation. For this reason, the aim of this study was to experimentally test the feasibility and benefit of including mirror feedback in vision-based rehabilitation systems: we projected the user on the screen. We conducted a user study by using a previously evaluated system that improved the balance and postural control of adults with cerebral palsy. We used a within-subjects design with the two defined feedback conditions (mirror and no-mirror) with two different groups of users (8 with disabilities and 32 without disabilities) using usability measures (time-to-start () and time-to-complete ()). A two-tailed paired samples -test confirmed that in case of disabilities the mirror feedback facilitated the interaction in vision-based systems for rehabilitation. The measured times were significantly worse in the absence of the user’s own visual feedback ( () and ()). In vision-based interaction systems, the input device is the user’s own body; therefore, it makes sense that feedback should be related to the body of the user. In case of disabilities the mirror feedback mechanisms facilitated the interaction in vision-based systems for rehabilitation. Results recommends developers and researchers use this improvement in vision-based motor rehabilitation interactive systems. Antoni Jaume-i-Capó, Pau Martínez-Bueso, Biel Moyà-Alcover, and Javier Varona Copyright © 2014 Antoni Jaume-i-Capó et al. All rights reserved. Performance Evaluation of the Machine Learning Algorithms Used in Inference Mechanism of a Medical Decision Support System Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:16:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/137896/ The importance of the decision support systems is increasingly supporting the decision making process in cases of uncertainty and the lack of information and they are widely used in various fields like engineering, finance, medicine, and so forth, Medical decision support systems help the healthcare personnel to select optimal method during the treatment of the patients. Decision support systems are intelligent software systems that support decision makers on their decisions. The design of decision support systems consists of four main subjects called inference mechanism, knowledge-base, explanation module, and active memory. Inference mechanism constitutes the basis of decision support systems. There are various methods that can be used in these mechanisms approaches. Some of these methods are decision trees, artificial neural networks, statistical methods, rule-based methods, and so forth. In decision support systems, those methods can be used separately or a hybrid system, and also combination of those methods. In this study, synthetic data with 10, 100, 1000, and 2000 records have been produced to reflect the probabilities on the ALARM network. The accuracy of 11 machine learning methods for the inference mechanism of medical decision support system is compared on various data sets. Mert Bal, M. Fatih Amasyali, Hayri Sever, Guven Kose, and Ayse Demirhan Copyright © 2014 Mert Bal et al. All rights reserved. Secure Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for the Cognitive Radio Network Using Nonuniform Reliability Thu, 11 Sep 2014 06:02:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/101809/ Both reliable detection of the primary signal in a noisy and fading environment and nullifying the effect of unauthorized users are important tasks in cognitive radio networks. To address these issues, we consider a cooperative spectrum sensing approach where each user is assigned nonuniform reliability based on the sensing performance. Users with poor channel or faulty sensor are assigned low reliability. The nonuniform reliabilities serve as identification tags and are used to isolate users with malicious behavior. We consider a link layer attack similar to the Byzantine attack, which falsifies the spectrum sensing data. Three different strategies are presented in this paper to ignore unreliable and malicious users in the network. Considering only reliable users for global decision improves sensing time and decreases collisions in the control channel. The fusion center uses the degree of reliability as a weighting factor to determine the global decision in scheme I. Schemes II and III consider the unreliability of users, which makes the computations even simpler. The proposed schemes reduce the number of sensing reports and increase the inference accuracy. The advantages of our proposed schemes over conventional cooperative spectrum sensing and the Chair-Varshney optimum rule are demonstrated through simulations. Muhammad Usman and Insoo Koo Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Usman and Insoo Koo. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Approach of Stepwise Regression, Logistic Regression, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree for Forecasting Fraudulent Financial Statements Thu, 11 Sep 2014 05:47:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/968712/ As the fraudulent financial statement of an enterprise is increasingly serious with each passing day, establishing a valid forecasting fraudulent financial statement model of an enterprise has become an important question for academic research and financial practice. After screening the important variables using the stepwise regression, the study also matches the logistic regression, support vector machine, and decision tree to construct the classification models to make a comparison. The study adopts financial and nonfinancial variables to assist in establishment of the forecasting fraudulent financial statement model. Research objects are the companies to which the fraudulent and nonfraudulent financial statement happened between years 1998 to 2012. The findings are that financial and nonfinancial information are effectively used to distinguish the fraudulent financial statement, and decision tree C5.0 has the best classification effect 85.71%. Suduan Chen, Yeong-Jia James Goo, and Zone-De Shen Copyright © 2014 Suduan Chen et al. All rights reserved. FraudMiner: A Novel Credit Card Fraud Detection Model Based on Frequent Itemset Mining Thu, 11 Sep 2014 05:47:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/252797/ This paper proposes an intelligent credit card fraud detection model for detecting fraud from highly imbalanced and anonymous credit card transaction datasets. The class imbalance problem is handled by finding legal as well as fraud transaction patterns for each customer by using frequent itemset mining. A matching algorithm is also proposed to find to which pattern (legal or fraud) the incoming transaction of a particular customer is closer and a decision is made accordingly. In order to handle the anonymous nature of the data, no preference is given to any of the attributes and each attribute is considered equally for finding the patterns. The performance evaluation of the proposed model is done on UCSD Data Mining Contest 2009 Dataset (anonymous and imbalanced) and it is found that the proposed model has very high fraud detection rate, balanced classification rate, Matthews correlation coefficient, and very less false alarm rate than other state-of-the-art classifiers. K. R. Seeja and Masoumeh Zareapoor Copyright © 2014 K. R. Seeja and Masoumeh Zareapoor. All rights reserved. The Assignment of Scores Procedure for Ordinal Categorical Data Thu, 11 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/304213/ Ordinal data are the most frequently encountered type of data in the social sciences. Many statistical methods can be used to process such data. One common method is to assign scores to the data, convert them into interval data, and further perform statistical analysis. There are several authors who have recently developed assigning score methods to assign scores to ordered categorical data. This paper proposes an approach that defines an assigning score system for an ordinal categorical variable based on underlying continuous latent distribution with interpretation by using three case study examples. The results show that the proposed score system is well for skewed ordinal categorical data. Han-Ching Chen and Nae-Sheng Wang Copyright © 2014 Han-Ching Chen and Nae-Sheng Wang. All rights reserved. PhysioDroid: Combining Wearable Health Sensors and Mobile Devices for a Ubiquitous, Continuous, and Personal Monitoring Wed, 10 Sep 2014 17:15:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/490824/ Technological advances on the development of mobile devices, medical sensors, and wireless communication systems support a new generation of unobtrusive, portable, and ubiquitous health monitoring systems for continuous patient assessment and more personalized health care. There exist a growing number of mobile apps in the health domain; however, little contribution has been specifically provided, so far, to operate this kind of apps with wearable physiological sensors. The PhysioDroid, presented in this paper, provides a personalized means to remotely monitor and evaluate users’ conditions. The PhysioDroid system provides ubiquitous and continuous vital signs analysis, such as electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and body motion, intended to help empower patients and improve clinical understanding. The PhysioDroid is composed of a wearable monitoring device and an Android app providing gathering, storage, and processing features for the physiological sensor data. The versatility of the developed app allows its use for both average users and specialists, and the reduced cost of the PhysioDroid puts it at the reach of most people. Two exemplary use cases for health assessment and sports training are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the PhysioDroid. Next technical steps include generalization to other mobile platforms and health monitoring devices. Oresti Banos, Claudia Villalonga, Miguel Damas, Peter Gloesekoetter, Hector Pomares, and Ignacio Rojas Copyright © 2014 Oresti Banos et al. All rights reserved. SVM-RFE Based Feature Selection and Taguchi Parameters Optimization for Multiclass SVM Classifier Wed, 10 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/795624/ Recently, support vector machine (SVM) has excellent performance on classification and prediction and is widely used on disease diagnosis or medical assistance. However, SVM only functions well on two-group classification problems. This study combines feature selection and SVM recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) to investigate the classification accuracy of multiclass problems for Dermatology and Zoo databases. Dermatology dataset contains 33 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 366 testing instances; and the Zoo dataset contains 16 feature variables, 1 class variable, and 101 testing instances. The feature variables in the two datasets were sorted in descending order by explanatory power, and different feature sets were selected by SVM-RFE to explore classification accuracy. Meanwhile, Taguchi method was jointly combined with SVM classifier in order to optimize parameters and to increase classification accuracy for multiclass classification. The experimental results show that the classification accuracy can be more than 95% after SVM-RFE feature selection and Taguchi parameter optimization for Dermatology and Zoo databases. Mei-Ling Huang, Yung-Hsiang Hung, W. M. Lee, R. K. Li, and Bo-Ru Jiang Copyright © 2014 Mei-Ling Huang et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Human Age Estimation with or without Preclassification of Gender and Facial Expression Tue, 09 Sep 2014 13:20:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/905269/ Age estimation has many useful applications, such as age-based face classification, finding lost children, surveillance monitoring, and face recognition invariant to age progression. Among many factors affecting age estimation accuracy, gender and facial expression can have negative effects. In our research, the effects of gender and facial expression on age estimation using support vector regression (SVR) method are investigated. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, the accuracies of age estimation using a single-level local binary pattern (LBP) and a multilevel LBP (MLBP) are compared, and MLBP shows better performance as an extractor of texture features globally. Second, we compare the accuracies of age estimation using global features extracted by MLBP, local features extracted by Gabor filtering, and the combination of the two methods. Results show that the third approach is the most accurate. Third, the accuracies of age estimation with and without preclassification of facial expression are compared and analyzed. Fourth, those with and without preclassification of gender are compared and analyzed. The experimental results show the effectiveness of gender preclassification in age estimation. Dat Tien Nguyen, So Ra Cho, Kwang Yong Shin, Jae Won Bang, and Kang Ryoung Park Copyright © 2014 Dat Tien Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. Robust Framework to Combine Diverse Classifiers Assigning Distributed Confidence to Individual Classifiers at Class Level Mon, 08 Sep 2014 11:33:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/492387/ We have presented a classification framework that combines multiple heterogeneous classifiers in the presence of class label noise. An extension of m-Mediods based modeling is presented that generates model of various classes whilst identifying and filtering noisy training data. This noise free data is further used to learn model for other classifiers such as GMM and SVM. A weight learning method is then introduced to learn weights on each class for different classifiers to construct an ensemble. For this purpose, we applied genetic algorithm to search for an optimal weight vector on which classifier ensemble is expected to give the best accuracy. The proposed approach is evaluated on variety of real life datasets. It is also compared with existing standard ensemble techniques such as Adaboost, Bagging, and Random Subspace Methods. Experimental results show the superiority of proposed ensemble method as compared to its competitors, especially in the presence of class label noise and imbalance classes. Shehzad Khalid, Sannia Arshad, Sohail Jabbar, and Seungmin Rho Copyright © 2014 Shehzad Khalid et al. All rights reserved. Gene Network Biological Validity Based on Gene-Gene Interaction Relevance Mon, 08 Sep 2014 08:41:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/540679/ In recent years, gene networks have become one of the most useful tools for modeling biological processes. Many inference gene network algorithms have been developed as techniques for extracting knowledge from gene expression data. Ensuring the reliability of the inferred gene relationships is a crucial task in any study in order to prove that the algorithms used are precise. Usually, this validation process can be carried out using prior biological knowledge. The metabolic pathways stored in KEGG are one of the most widely used knowledgeable sources for analyzing relationships between genes. This paper introduces a new methodology, GeneNetVal, to assess the biological validity of gene networks based on the relevance of the gene-gene interactions stored in KEGG metabolic pathways. Hence, a complete KEGG pathway conversion into a gene association network and a new matching distance based on gene-gene interaction relevance are proposed. The performance of GeneNetVal was established with three different experiments. Firstly, our proposal is tested in a comparative ROC analysis. Secondly, a randomness study is presented to show the behavior of GeneNetVal when the noise is increased in the input network. Finally, the ability of GeneNetVal to detect biological functionality of the network is shown. Francisco Gómez-Vela and Norberto Díaz-Díaz Copyright © 2014 Francisco Gómez-Vela and Norberto Díaz-Díaz. All rights reserved. Insights into the Prevalence of Software Project Defects Sun, 07 Sep 2014 09:43:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/179105/ This paper analyses the effect of the effort distribution along the software development lifecycle on the prevalence of software defects. This analysis is based on data that was collected by the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group (ISBSG) on the development of 4,106 software projects. Data mining techniques have been applied to gain a better understanding of the behaviour of the project activities and to identify a link between the effort distribution and the prevalence of software defects. This analysis has been complemented with the use of a hierarchical clustering algorithm with a dissimilarity based on the likelihood ratio statistic, for exploratory purposes. As a result, different behaviours have been identified for this collection of software development projects, allowing for the definition of risk control strategies to diminish the number and impact of the software defects. It is expected that the use of similar estimations might greatly improve the awareness of project managers on the risks at hand. Javier Alfonso-Cendón, Manuel Castejón Limas, Joaquín B. Ordieres Meré, and Juan Pavón Copyright © 2014 Javier Alfonso-Cendón et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement Wed, 03 Sep 2014 07:31:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/723213/ Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. Bardia Yousefi and Chu Kiong Loo Copyright © 2014 Bardia Yousefi and Chu Kiong Loo. All rights reserved. LPTA: Location Predictive and Time Adaptive Data Gathering Scheme with Mobile Sink for Wireless Sensor Networks Wed, 03 Sep 2014 06:57:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/476253/ This paper exploits sink mobility to prolong the lifetime of sensor networks while maintaining the data transmission delay relatively low. A location predictive and time adaptive data gathering scheme is proposed. In this paper, we introduce a sink location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization and deduce the time-location formulas of the mobile sink. According to local clocks and the time-location formulas of the mobile sink, nodes in the network are able to calculate the current location of the mobile sink accurately and route data packets timely toward the mobile sink by multihop relay. Considering that data packets generating from different areas may be different greatly, an adaptive dwelling time adjustment method is also proposed to balance energy consumption among nodes in the network. Simulation results show that our data gathering scheme enables data routing with less data transmission time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes. Chuan Zhu, Yao Wang, Guangjie Han, Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues, and Jaime Lloret Copyright © 2014 Chuan Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Integer-Linear-Programing Optimization in Scalable Video Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Wireless Networks Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/769241/ The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm. Dongyul Lee and Chaewoo Lee Copyright © 2014 Dongyul Lee and Chaewoo Lee. All rights reserved. A Novel Latin Hypercube Algorithm via Translational Propagation Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:05:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/163949/ Metamodels have been widely used in engineering design to facilitate analysis and optimization of complex systems that involve computationally expensive simulation programs. The accuracy of metamodels is directly related to the experimental designs used. Optimal Latin hypercube designs are frequently used and have been shown to have good space-filling and projective properties. However, the high cost in constructing them limits their use. In this paper, a methodology for creating novel Latin hypercube designs via translational propagation and successive local enumeration algorithm (TPSLE) is developed without using formal optimization. TPSLE algorithm is based on the inspiration that a near optimal Latin Hypercube design can be constructed by a simple initial block with a few points generated by algorithm SLE as a building block. In fact, TPSLE algorithm offers a balanced trade-off between the efficiency and sampling performance. The proposed algorithm is compared to two existing algorithms and is found to be much more efficient in terms of the computation time and has acceptable space-filling and projective properties. Guang Pan, Pengcheng Ye, and Peng Wang Copyright © 2014 Guang Pan et al. All rights reserved. Security Considerations and Recommendations in Computer-Based Testing Mon, 01 Sep 2014 13:32:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/562787/ Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee. Saleh M. Al-Saleem and Hanif Ullah Copyright © 2014 Saleh M. Al-Saleem and Hanif Ullah. All rights reserved. A Synthesized Heuristic Task Scheduling Algorithm Mon, 01 Sep 2014 12:15:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/465702/ Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance. Yanyan Dai and Xiangli Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yanyan Dai and Xiangli Zhang. All rights reserved. Method for User Interface of Large Displays Using Arm Pointing and Finger Counting Gesture Recognition Mon, 01 Sep 2014 08:08:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/683045/ Although many three-dimensional pointing gesture recognition methods have been proposed, the problem of self-occlusion has not been considered. Furthermore, because almost all pointing gesture recognition methods use a wide-angle camera, additional sensors or cameras are required to concurrently perform finger gesture recognition. In this paper, we propose a method for performing both pointing gesture and finger gesture recognition for large display environments, using a single Kinect device and a skeleton tracking model. By considering self-occlusion, a compensation technique can be performed on the user’s detected shoulder position when a hand occludes the shoulder. In addition, we propose a technique to facilitate finger counting gesture recognition, based on the depth image of the hand position. In this technique, the depth image is extracted from the end of the pointing vector. By using exception handling for self-occlusions, experimental results indicate that the pointing accuracy of a specific reference position was significantly improved. The average root mean square error was approximately 13 pixels for a 1920 × 1080 pixels screen resolution. Moreover, the finger counting gesture recognition accuracy was 98.3%. Hansol Kim, Yoonkyung Kim, and Eui Chul Lee Copyright © 2014 Hansol Kim et al. All rights reserved. Efficiently Hiding Sensitive Itemsets with Transaction Deletion Based on Genetic Algorithms Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:26:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/398269/ Data mining is used to mine meaningful and useful information or knowledge from a very large database. Some secure or private information can be discovered by data mining techniques, thus resulting in an inherent risk of threats to privacy. Privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM) has thus arisen in recent years to sanitize the original database for hiding sensitive information, which can be concerned as an NP-hard problem in sanitization process. In this paper, a compact prelarge GA-based (cpGA2DT) algorithm to delete transactions for hiding sensitive itemsets is thus proposed. It solves the limitations of the evolutionary process by adopting both the compact GA-based (cGA) mechanism and the prelarge concept. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is thus designed to find the appropriate transactions to be deleted in order to hide sensitive itemsets with minimal side effects of hiding failure, missing cost, and artificial cost. Experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed cpGA2DT algorithm compared to the simple GA-based (sGA2DT) algorithm and the greedy approach in terms of execution time and three side effects. Chun-Wei Lin, Binbin Zhang, Kuo-Tung Yang, and Tzung-Pei Hong Copyright © 2014 Chun-Wei Lin et al. All rights reserved. Nonuniform Video Size Reduction for Moving Objects Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:44:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/832871/ Moving objects of interest (MOOIs) in surveillance videos are detected and encapsulated by bounding boxes. Since moving objects are defined by temporal activities through the consecutive video frames, it is necessary to examine a group of frames (GoF) to detect the moving objects. To do that, the traces of moving objects in the GoF are quantified by forming a spatiotemporal gradient map (STGM) through the GoF. Each pixel value in the STGM corresponds to the maximum temporal gradient of the spatial gradients at the same pixel location for all frames in the GoF. Therefore, the STGM highlights boundaries of the MOOI in the GoF and the optimal bounding box encapsulating the MOOI can be determined as the local areas with the peak average STGM energy. Once an MOOI and its bounding box are identified, the inside and outside of it can be treated differently for object-aware size reduction. Our optimal encapsulation method for the MOOI in the surveillance videos makes it possible to recognize the moving objects even after the low bitrate video compressions. Anh Vu Le, Seung-Won Jung, and Chee Sun Won Copyright © 2014 Anh Vu Le et al. All rights reserved. Network Anomaly Detection System with Optimized DS Evidence Theory Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:39:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/753659/ Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network—complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each senor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor’s regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly. Yuan Liu, Xiaofeng Wang, and Kaiyu Liu Copyright © 2014 Yuan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Color Image Segmentation Based on Different Color Space Models Using Automatic GrabCut Sun, 31 Aug 2014 13:28:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/126025/ This paper presents a comparative study using different color spaces to evaluate the performance of color image segmentation using the automatic GrabCut technique. GrabCut is considered as one of the semiautomatic image segmentation techniques, since it requires user interaction for the initialization of the segmentation process. The automation of the GrabCut technique is proposed as a modification of the original semiautomatic one in order to eliminate the user interaction. The automatic GrabCut utilizes the unsupervised Orchard and Bouman clustering technique for the initialization phase. Comparisons with the original GrabCut show the efficiency of the proposed automatic technique in terms of segmentation, quality, and accuracy. As no explicit color space is recommended for every segmentation problem, automatic GrabCut is applied with , , , , and color spaces. The comparative study and experimental results using different color images show that color space is the best color space representation for the set of the images used. Dina Khattab, Hala Mousher Ebied, Ashraf Saad Hussein, and Mohamed Fahmy Tolba Copyright © 2014 Dina Khattab et al. All rights reserved. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:57:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/172583/ The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described. Andrey Shorov and Igor Kotenko Copyright © 2014 Andrey Shorov and Igor Kotenko. All rights reserved. Autogenerator-Based Modelling Framework for Development of Strategic Games Simulations: Rational Pigs Game Extended Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:57:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/158679/ When considering strategic games from the conceptual perspective that focuses on the questions of participants’ decision-making rationality, the very issues of modelling and simulation are rarely discussed. The well-known Rational Pigs matrix game has been relatively intensively analyzed in terms of reassessment of the logic of two players involved in asymmetric situations as gluttons that differ significantly by their attributes. This paper presents a successful attempt of using autogenerator for creating the framework of the game, including the predefined scenarios and corresponding payoffs. Autogenerator offers flexibility concerning the specification of game parameters, which consist of variations in the number of simultaneous players and their features and game objects and their attributes as well as some general game characteristics. In the proposed approach the model of autogenerator was upgraded so as to enable program specification updates. For the purpose of treatment of more complex strategic scenarios, we created the Rational Pigs Game Extended (RPGE), in which the introduction of a third glutton entails significant structural changes. In addition, due to the existence of particular attributes of the new player, “the tramp,” one equilibrium point from the original game is destabilized which has an influence on the decision-making of rational players. Robert Fabac, Danijel Radošević, and Ivan Magdalenić Copyright © 2014 Robert Fabac et al. All rights reserved. SPONGY (SPam ONtoloGY): Email Classification Using Two-Level Dynamic Ontology Sun, 31 Aug 2014 10:51:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/414583/ Email is one of common communication methods between people on the Internet. However, the increase of email misuse/abuse has resulted in an increasing volume of spam emails over recent years. An experimental system has been designed and implemented with the hypothesis that this method would outperform existing techniques, and the experimental results showed that indeed the proposed ontology-based approach improves spam filtering accuracy significantly. In this paper, two levels of ontology spam filters were implemented: a first level global ontology filter and a second level user-customized ontology filter. The use of the global ontology filter showed about 91% of spam filtered, which is comparable with other methods. The user-customized ontology filter was created based on the specific user’s background as well as the filtering mechanism used in the global ontology filter creation. The main contributions of the paper are (1) to introduce an ontology-based multilevel filtering technique that uses both a global ontology and an individual filter for each user to increase spam filtering accuracy and (2) to create a spam filter in the form of ontology, which is user-customized, scalable, and modularized, so that it can be embedded to many other systems for better performance. Seongwook Youn Copyright © 2014 Seongwook Youn. All rights reserved. Comparing Evolutionary Strategies on a Biobjective Cultural Algorithm Sun, 31 Aug 2014 06:35:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/745921/ Evolutionary algorithms have been widely used to solve large and complex optimisation problems. Cultural algorithms (CAs) are evolutionary algorithms that have been used to solve both single and, to a less extent, multiobjective optimisation problems. In order to solve these optimisation problems, CAs make use of different strategies such as normative knowledge, historical knowledge, circumstantial knowledge, and among others. In this paper we present a comparison among CAs that make use of different evolutionary strategies; the first one implements a historical knowledge, the second one considers a circumstantial knowledge, and the third one implements a normative knowledge. These CAs are applied on a biobjective uncapacitated facility location problem (BOUFLP), the biobjective version of the well-known uncapacitated facility location problem. To the best of our knowledge, only few articles have applied evolutionary multiobjective algorithms on the BOUFLP and none of those has focused on the impact of the evolutionary strategy on the algorithm performance. Our biobjective cultural algorithm, called BOCA, obtains important improvements when compared to other well-known evolutionary biobjective optimisation algorithms such as PAES and NSGA-II. The conflicting objective functions considered in this study are cost minimisation and coverage maximisation. Solutions obtained by each algorithm are compared using a hypervolume S metric. Carolina Lagos, Broderick Crawford, Enrique Cabrera, Ricardo Soto, José-Miguel Rubio, and Fernando Paredes Copyright © 2014 Carolina Lagos et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:30:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/514652/ This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. Omar Tayan, Muhammad N. Kabir, and Yasser M. Alginahi Copyright © 2014 Omar Tayan et al. All rights reserved. Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Gas Turbines Based on a Kernelized Information Entropy Model Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:24:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/617162/ Gas turbines are considered as one kind of the most important devices in power engineering and have been widely used in power generation, airplanes, and naval ships and also in oil drilling platforms. However, they are monitored without man on duty in the most cases. It is highly desirable to develop techniques and systems to remotely monitor their conditions and analyze their faults. In this work, we introduce a remote system for online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of gas turbine on offshore oil well drilling platforms based on a kernelized information entropy model. Shannon information entropy is generalized for measuring the uniformity of exhaust temperatures, which reflect the overall states of the gas paths of gas turbine. In addition, we also extend the entropy to compute the information quantity of features in kernel spaces, which help to select the informative features for a certain recognition task. Finally, we introduce the information entropy based decision tree algorithm to extract rules from fault samples. The experiments on some real-world data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Weiying Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Rui Tang, Shuying Li, and Wei Wu Copyright © 2014 Weiying Wang et al. All rights reserved. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:07:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/646953/ Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. Insung Hong, Sunghoi Park, Beomseok Lee, Jaekeun Lee, Daebeom Jeong, and Sehyun Park Copyright © 2014 Insung Hong et al. All rights reserved. A Chaotic Cryptosystem for Images Based on Henon and Arnold Cat Map Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:01:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/536930/ The rapid evolution of imaging and communication technologies has transformed images into a widespread data type. Different types of data, such as personal medical information, official correspondence, or governmental and military documents, are saved and transmitted in the form of images over public networks. Hence, a fast and secure cryptosystem is needed for high-resolution images. In this paper, a novel encryption scheme is presented for securing images based on Arnold cat and Henon chaotic maps. The scheme uses Arnold cat map for bit- and pixel-level permutations on plain and secret images, while Henon map creates secret images and specific parameters for the permutations. Both the encryption and decryption processes are explained, formulated, and graphically presented. The results of security analysis of five different images demonstrate the strength of the proposed cryptosystem against statistical, brute force and differential attacks. The evaluated running time for both encryption and decryption processes guarantee that the cryptosystem can work effectively in real-time applications. Ali Soleymani, Md Jan Nordin, and Elankovan Sundararajan Copyright © 2014 Ali Soleymani et al. All rights reserved. On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/307468/ As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems. Yanqin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yanqin Zhang. All rights reserved. Analysis and Simulation of the Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Based on Parallel Immune Optimization in Cognitive Wireless Networks Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:31:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/623670/ Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency. Wu Huixin, Mo Duo, and Li He Copyright © 2014 Wu Huixin et al. All rights reserved. Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:29:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/392505/ High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. Qiuwen Zhang, Nana Li, and Yong Gan Copyright © 2014 Qiuwen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Smoothing Strategies Combined with ARIMA and Neural Networks to Improve the Forecasting of Traffic Accidents Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/152375/ Two smoothing strategies combined with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive neural networks (ANNs) models to improve the forecasting of time series are presented. The strategy of forecasting is implemented using two stages. In the first stage the time series is smoothed using either, 3-point moving average smoothing, or singular value Decomposition of the Hankel matrix (HSVD). In the second stage, an ARIMA model and two ANNs for one-step-ahead time series forecasting are used. The coefficients of the first ANN are estimated through the particle swarm optimization (PSO) learning algorithm, while the coefficients of the second ANN are estimated with the resilient backpropagation (RPROP) learning algorithm. The proposed models are evaluated using a weekly time series of traffic accidents of Valparaíso, Chilean region, from 2003 to 2012. The best result is given by the combination HSVD-ARIMA, with a MAPE of 0 : 26%, followed by MA-ARIMA with a MAPE of 1 : 12%; the worst result is given by the MA-ANN based on PSO with a MAPE of 15 : 51%. Lida Barba, Nibaldo Rodríguez, and Cecilia Montt Copyright © 2014 Lida Barba et al. All rights reserved. A Multianalyzer Machine Learning Model for Marine Heterogeneous Data Schema Mapping Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/248467/ The main challenges that marine heterogeneous data integration faces are the problem of accurate schema mapping between heterogeneous data sources. In order to improve the schema mapping efficiency and get more accurate learning results, this paper proposes a heterogeneous data schema mapping method basing on multianalyzer machine learning model. The multianalyzer analysis the learning results comprehensively, and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system is introduced for output results’ evaluation and multi factor quantitative judging. Finally, the data mapping comparison experiment on the East China Sea observing data confirms the effectiveness of the model and shows multianalyzer’s obvious improvement of mapping error rate. Wang Yan, Le Jiajin, and Zhang Yun Copyright © 2014 Wang Yan et al. All rights reserved. Ephedrine QoS: An Antidote to Slow, Congested, Bufferless NoCs Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/691865/ Datacenters consolidate diverse applications to improve utilization. However when multiple applications are colocated on such platforms, contention for shared resources like networks-on-chip (NoCs) can degrade the performance of latency-critical online services (high-priority applications). Recently proposed bufferless NoCs (Nychis et al.) have the advantages of requiring less area and power, but they pose challenges in quality-of-service (QoS) support, which usually relies on buffer-based virtual channels (VCs). We propose QBLESS, a QoS-aware bufferless NoC scheme for datacenters. QBLESS consists of two components: a routing mechanism (QBLESS-R) that can substantially reduce flit deflection for high-priority applications and a congestion-control mechanism (QBLESS-CC) that guarantees performance for high-priority applications and improves overall system throughput. We use trace-driven simulation to model a 64-core system, finding that, when compared to BLESS, a previous state-of-the-art bufferless NoC design, QBLESS, improves performance of high-priority applications by an average of 33.2% and reduces network-hops by an average of 42.8%. Juan Fang, Zhicheng Yao, Xiufeng Sui, and Yungang Bao Copyright © 2014 Juan Fang et al. All rights reserved. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/918536/ Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo’s two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. Zhou Jingjing, Cheng Di, Wang Weiming, Jin Rong, and Wu Xiaochun Copyright © 2014 Zhou Jingjing et al. All rights reserved. Discrete Bat Algorithm for Optimal Problem of Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling Wed, 27 Aug 2014 12:56:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/630280/ A discrete bat algorithm (DBA) is proposed for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem (PFSP). Firstly, the discrete bat algorithm is constructed based on the idea of basic bat algorithm, which divide whole scheduling problem into many subscheduling problems and then NEH heuristic be introduced to solve subscheduling problem. Secondly, some subsequences are operated with certain probability in the pulse emission and loudness phases. An intensive virtual population neighborhood search is integrated into the discrete bat algorithm to further improve the performance. Finally, the experimental results show the suitability and efficiency of the present discrete bat algorithm for optimal permutation flow shop scheduling problem. Qifang Luo, Yongquan Zhou, Jian Xie, Mingzhi Ma, and Liangliang Li Copyright © 2014 Qifang Luo et al. All rights reserved. Surface Evaluation by Estimation of Fractal Dimension and Statistical Tools Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:51:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/435935/ Structured and complex data can be found in many applications in research and development, and also in industrial practice. We developed a methodology for describing the structured data complexity and applied it in development and industrial practice. The methodology uses fractal dimension together with statistical tools and with software modification is able to analyse data in a form of sequence (signals, surface roughness), 2D images, and dividing lines. The methodology had not been tested for a relatively large collection of data. For this reason, samples with structured surfaces produced with different technologies and properties were measured and evaluated with many types of parameters. The paper intends to analyse data measured by a surface roughness tester. The methodology shown compares standard and nonstandard parameters, searches the optimal parameters for a complete analysis, and specifies the sensitivity to directionality of samples for these types of surfaces. The text presents application of fractal geometry (fractal dimension) for complex surface analysis in combination with standard roughness parameters (statistical tool). Vlastimil Hotar and Petr Salac Copyright © 2014 Vlastimil Hotar and Petr Salac. All rights reserved. DS-ARP: A New Detection Scheme for ARP Spoofing Attacks Based on Routing Trace for Ubiquitous Environments Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:50:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/264654/ Despite the convenience, ubiquitous computing suffers from many threats and security risks. Security considerations in the ubiquitous network are required to create enriched and more secure ubiquitous environments. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to identify the IP address and the physical address of the associated network card. ARP is designed to work without problems in general environments. However, since it does not include security measures against malicious attacks, in its design, an attacker can impersonate another host using ARP spoofing or access important information. In this paper, we propose a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks using a routing trace, which can be used to protect the internal network. Tracing routing can find the change of network movement path. The proposed scheme provides high constancy and compatibility because it does not alter the ARP protocol. In addition, it is simple and stable, as it does not use a complex algorithm or impose extra load on the computer system. Min Su Song, Jae Dong Lee, Young-Sik Jeong, Hwa-Young Jeong, and Jong Hyuk Park Copyright © 2014 Min Su Song et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Algorithm for Recognition of Human Actions Wed, 27 Aug 2014 06:24:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/875879/ Recognition of human actions is an emerging need. Various researchers have endeavored to provide a solution to this problem. Some of the current state-of-the-art solutions are either inaccurate or computationally intensive while others require human intervention. In this paper a sufficiently accurate while computationally inexpensive solution is provided for the same problem. Image moments which are translation, rotation, and scale invariant are computed for a frame. A dynamic neural network is used to identify the patterns within the stream of image moments and hence recognize actions. Experiments show that the proposed model performs better than other competitive models. Yaser Daanial Khan, Nabeel Sabir Khan, Shoaib Farooq, Adnan Abid, Sher Afzal Khan, Farooq Ahmad, and M. Khalid Mahmood Copyright © 2014 Yaser Daanial Khan et al. All rights reserved. Self-Organized Service Negotiation for Collaborative Decision Making Wed, 27 Aug 2014 06:21:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/814065/ This paper proposes a self-organized service negotiation method for CDM in intelligent and automatic manners. It mainly includes three phases: semantic-based capacity evaluation for the CDM sponsor, trust computation of the CDM organization, and negotiation selection of the decision-making service provider (DMSP). In the first phase, the CDM sponsor produces the formal semantic description of the complex decision task for DMSP and computes the capacity evaluation values according to participator instructions from different DMSPs. In the second phase, a novel trust computation approach is presented to compute the subjective belief value, the objective reputation value, and the recommended trust value. And in the third phase, based on the capacity evaluation and trust computation, a negotiation mechanism is given to efficiently implement the service selection. The simulation experiment results show that our self-organized service negotiation method is feasible and effective for CDM. Bo Zhang, Zhenhua Huang, and Ziming Zheng Copyright © 2014 Bo Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Ranking Procedure by Incomplete Pairwise Comparisons Using Information Entropy and Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory Wed, 27 Aug 2014 06:15:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/904596/ Decision-making, as a way to discover the preference of ranking, has been used in various fields. However, owing to the uncertainty in group decision-making, how to rank alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons has become an open issue. In this paper, an improved method is proposed for ranking of alternatives by incomplete pairwise comparisons using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and information entropy. Firstly, taking the probability assignment of the chosen preference into consideration, the comparison of alternatives to each group is addressed. Experiments verified that the information entropy of the data itself can determine the different weight of each group’s choices objectively. Numerical examples in group decision-making environments are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. Moreover, the divergence of ranking mechanism is analyzed briefly in conclusion section. Dongbo Pan, Xi Lu, Juan Liu, and Yong Deng Copyright © 2014 Dongbo Pan et al. All rights reserved. Research on the Trajectory Model for ZY-3 Wed, 27 Aug 2014 05:46:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/429041/ The new generation Chinese high-resolution three-line stereo-mapping satellite Ziyuan 3 (ZY-3) is equipped with three sensors (nadir, backward, and forward views). Its objective is to manufacture the 1 : 50000 topographic map and revise and update the 1 : 25000 topographic map. For the push-broom satellite, the interpolation accuracy of orbit and attitude determines directly the satellite’s stereo-mapping accuracy and the position accuracy without ground control point. In this study, a new trajectory model is proposed for ZY-3 in this paper, according to researching and analyzing the orbit and attitude of ZY-3. Using the trajectory data set, the correction and accuracy of the new proposed trajectory are validated and compared with the other models, polynomial model (LPM), piecewise polynomial model (PPM), and Lagrange cubic polynomial model (LCPM). Meanwhile, the differential equation is derivate for the bundle block adjustment. Finally, the correction and practicability of piece-point with weight polynomial model for ZY-3 satellite are validated according to the experiment of geometric correction using the ZY-3 image and orbit and attitude data. Yifu Chen and Zhong Xie Copyright © 2014 Yifu Chen and Zhong Xie. All rights reserved. A Method of Extracting Ontology Module Using Concept Relations for Sharing Knowledge in Mobile Cloud Computing Environment Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/382797/ In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge. Keonsoo Lee, Seungmin Rho, and Seok-Won Lee Copyright © 2014 Keonsoo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Chaos Enhanced Differential Evolution in the Task of Evolutionary Control of Selected Set of Discrete Chaotic Systems Tue, 26 Aug 2014 13:28:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/836484/ Evolutionary technique differential evolution (DE) is used for the evolutionary tuning of controller parameters for the stabilization of set of different chaotic systems. The novelty of the approach is that the selected controlled discrete dissipative chaotic system is used also as the chaotic pseudorandom number generator to drive the mutation and crossover process in the DE. The idea was to utilize the hidden chaotic dynamics in pseudorandom sequences given by chaotic map to help differential evolution algorithm search for the best controller settings for the very same chaotic system. The optimizations were performed for three different chaotic systems, two types of case studies and developed cost functions. Roman Senkerik, Ivan Zelinka, Michal Pluhacek, Donald Davendra, and Zuzana Oplatková Kominkova Copyright © 2014 Roman Senkerik et al. All rights reserved. An Opportunistic Routing Mechanism Combined with Long-Term and Short-Term Metrics for WMN Tue, 26 Aug 2014 11:48:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/432123/ WMN (wireless mesh network) is a useful wireless multihop network with tremendous research value. The routing strategy decides the performance of network and the quality of transmission. A good routing algorithm will use the whole bandwidth of network and assure the quality of service of traffic. Since the routing metric ETX (expected transmission count) does not assure good quality of wireless links, to improve the routing performance, an opportunistic routing mechanism combined with long-term and short-term metrics for WMN based on OLSR (optimized link state routing) and ETX is proposed in this paper. This mechanism always chooses the highest throughput links to improve the performance of routing over WMN and then reduces the energy consumption of mesh routers. The simulations and analyses show that the opportunistic routing mechanism is better than the mechanism with the metric of ETX. Weifeng Sun, Haotian Wang, Xianglan Piao, and Tie Qiu Copyright © 2014 Weifeng Sun et al. All rights reserved. Mobile Recommendation Based on Link Community Detection Tue, 26 Aug 2014 11:01:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/259156/ Since traditional mobile recommendation systems have difficulty in acquiring complete and accurate user information in mobile networks, the accuracy of recommendation is not high. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel mobile recommendation algorithm based on link community detection (MRLD). MRLD executes link label diffusion algorithm and maximal extended modularity (EQ) of greedy search to obtain the link community structure, and overlapping nodes belonging analysis (ONBA) is adopted to adjust the overlapping nodes in order to get the more accurate community structure. MRLD is tested on both synthetic and real-world networks, and the experimental results show that our approach is valid and feasible. Kun Deng, Jianpei Zhang, and Jing Yang Copyright © 2014 Kun Deng et al. All rights reserved. A Prerecognition Model for Hot Topic Discovery Based on Microblogging Data Tue, 26 Aug 2014 09:21:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/360934/ The microblogging is prevailing since its easy and anonymous information sharing at Internet, which also brings the issue of dispersing negative topics, or even rumors. Many researchers have focused on how to find and trace emerging topics for analysis. When adopting topic detection and tracking techniques to find hot topics with streamed microblogging data, it will meet obstacles like streamed microblogging data clustering, topic hotness definition, and emerging hot topic discovery. This paper schemes a novel prerecognition model for hot topic discovery. In this model, the concepts of the topic life cycle, the hot velocity, and the hot acceleration are promoted to calculate the change of topic hotness, which aims to discover those emerging hot topics before they boost and break out. Our experiments show that this new model would help to discover potential hot topics efficiently and achieve considerable performance. Tongyu Zhu and Jianjun Yu Copyright © 2014 Tongyu Zhu and Jianjun Yu. All rights reserved. Feature Selection and Classifier Parameters Estimation for EEG Signals Peak Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:50:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/973063/ Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model. Asrul Adam, Mohd Ibrahim Shapiai, Mohd Zaidi Mohd Tumari, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, and Marizan Mubin Copyright © 2014 Asrul Adam et al. All rights reserved. A Novel BA Complex Network Model on Color Template Matching Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:15:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/918453/ A novel BA complex network model of color space is proposed based on two fundamental rules of BA scale-free network model: growth and preferential attachment. The scale-free characteristic of color space is discovered by analyzing evolving process of template’s color distribution. And then the template’s BA complex network model can be used to select important color pixels which have much larger effects than other color pixels in matching process. The proposed BA complex network model of color space can be easily integrated into many traditional template matching algorithms, such as SSD based matching and SAD based matching. Experiments show the performance of color template matching results can be improved based on the proposed algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about how to model the color space of images using a proper complex network model and apply the complex network model to template matching. Risheng Han, Shigen Shen, Guangxue Yue, and Hui Ding Copyright © 2014 Risheng Han et al. All rights reserved. Towards Enhancement of Performance of K-Means Clustering Using Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:55:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/564829/ Traditional K-means clustering algorithms have the drawback of getting stuck at local optima that depend on the random values of initial centroids. Optimization algorithms have their advantages in guiding iterative computation to search for global optima while avoiding local optima. The algorithms help speed up the clustering process by converging into a global optimum early with multiple search agents in action. Inspired by nature, some contemporary optimization algorithms which include Ant, Bat, Cuckoo, Firefly, and Wolf search algorithms mimic the swarming behavior allowing them to cooperatively steer towards an optimal objective within a reasonable time. It is known that these so-called nature-inspired optimization algorithms have their own characteristics as well as pros and cons in different applications. When these algorithms are combined with K-means clustering mechanism for the sake of enhancing its clustering quality by avoiding local optima and finding global optima, the new hybrids are anticipated to produce unprecedented performance. In this paper, we report the results of our evaluation experiments on the integration of nature-inspired optimization methods into K-means algorithms. In addition to the standard evaluation metrics in evaluating clustering quality, the extended K-means algorithms that are empowered by nature-inspired optimization methods are applied on image segmentation as a case study of application scenario. Simon Fong, Suash Deb, Xin-She Yang, and Yan Zhuang Copyright © 2014 Simon Fong et al. All rights reserved. Further Study of Multigranulation -Fuzzy Rough Sets Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:48:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/927014/ The optimistic multigranulation -fuzzy rough set model was established based on multiple granulations under -fuzzy approximation space by Xu et al., 2012. From the reference, a natural idea is to consider pessimistic multigranulation model in -fuzzy approximation space. So, in this paper, the main objective is to make further studies according to Xu et al., 2012. The optimistic multigranulation -fuzzy rough set model is improved deeply by investigating some further properties. And a complete multigranulation -fuzzy rough set model is constituted by addressing the pessimistic multigranulation -fuzzy rough set. The full important properties of multigranulation -fuzzy lower and upper approximation operators are also presented. Moreover, relationships between multigranulation and classical -fuzzy rough sets have been studied carefully. From the relationships, we can find that the -fuzzy rough set model is a special instance of the two new types of models. In order to interpret and illustrate optimistic and pessimistic multigranulation -fuzzy rough set models, a case is considered, which is helpful for applying these theories to practical issues. Wentao Li, Xiaoyan Zhang, and Wenxin Sun Copyright © 2014 Wentao Li et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Adaptive Cuckoo Search for Optimal Query Plan Generation Thu, 14 Aug 2014 15:40:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/727658/ The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. Ramalingam Gomathi and Dhandapani Sharmila Copyright © 2014 Ramalingam Gomathi and Dhandapani Sharmila. All rights reserved. Resource Management Scheme Based on Ubiquitous Data Analysis Wed, 13 Aug 2014 11:55:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/156083/ Resource management of the main memory and process handler is critical to enhancing the system performance of a web server. Owing to the transaction delay time that affects incoming requests from web clients, web server systems utilize several web processes to anticipate future requests. This procedure is able to decrease the web generation time because there are enough processes to handle the incoming requests from web browsers. However, inefficient process management results in low service quality for the web server system. Proper pregenerated process mechanisms are required for dealing with the clients’ requests. Unfortunately, it is difficult to predict how many requests a web server system is going to receive. If a web server system builds too many web processes, it wastes a considerable amount of memory space, and thus performance is reduced. We propose an adaptive web process manager scheme based on the analysis of web log mining. In the proposed scheme, the number of web processes is controlled through prediction of incoming requests, and accordingly, the web process management scheme consumes the least possible web transaction resources. In experiments, real web trace data were used to prove the improved performance of the proposed scheme. Heung Ki Lee, Jaehee Jung, and Gangman Yi Copyright © 2014 Heung Ki Lee et al. All rights reserved. Novel Real-Time Facial Wound Recovery Synthesis Using Subsurface Scattering Tue, 12 Aug 2014 13:17:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/965036/ We propose a wound recovery synthesis model that illustrates the appearance of a wound healing on a 3-dimensional (3D) face. The H3 model is used to determine the size of the recovering wound. Furthermore, we present our subsurface scattering model that is designed to take the multilayered skin structure of the wound into consideration to represent its color transformation. We also propose a novel real-time rendering method based on the results of an analysis of the characteristics of translucent materials. Finally, we validate the proposed methods with 3D wound-simulation experiments using shading models. Taeyoung Choi and Seongah Chin Copyright © 2014 Taeyoung Choi and Seongah Chin. All rights reserved. Satellite Fault Diagnosis Using Support Vector Machines Based on a Hybrid Voting Mechanism Tue, 12 Aug 2014 10:29:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/582042/ The satellite fault diagnosis has an important role in enhancing the safety, reliability, and availability of the satellite system. However, the problem of enormous parameters and multiple faults makes a challenge to the satellite fault diagnosis. The interactions between parameters and misclassifications from multiple faults will increase the false alarm rate and the false negative rate. On the other hand, for each satellite fault, there is not enough fault data for training. To most of the classification algorithms, it will degrade the performance of model. In this paper, we proposed an improving SVM based on a hybrid voting mechanism (HVM-SVM) to deal with the problem of enormous parameters, multiple faults, and small samples. Many experimental results show that the accuracy of fault diagnosis using HVM-SVM is improved. Hong Yin, Shuqiang Yang, Xiaoqian Zhu, Songchang Jin, and Xiang Wang Copyright © 2014 Hong Yin et al. All rights reserved. Group Search Optimizer for the Mobile Location Management Problem Mon, 11 Aug 2014 12:11:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/430705/ We propose a diversity-guided group search optimizer-based approach for solving the location management problem in mobile computing. The location management problem, which is to find the optimal network configurations of management under the mobile computing environment, is considered here as an optimization problem. The proposed diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is realized with the aid of diversity operator, which helps alleviate the premature convergence problem of group search optimizer algorithm, a successful optimization algorithm inspired by the animal behavior. To address the location management problem, diversity-guided group search optimizer algorithm is exploited to optimize network configurations of management by minimizing the sum of location update cost and location paging cost. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Dan Wang, Congcong Xiong, and Wei Huang Copyright © 2014 Dan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Tracking Pedestrians across Multiple Microcells Based on Successive Bayesian Estimations Mon, 11 Aug 2014 11:44:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/719029/ We propose a method for tracking multiple pedestrians using a binary sensor network. In our proposed method, sensor nodes are composed of pairs of binary sensors and placed at specific points, referred to as gates, where pedestrians temporarily change their movement characteristics, such as doors, stairs, and elevators, to detect pedestrian arrival and departure events. Tracking pedestrians in each subregion divided by gates, referred to as microcells, is conducted by matching the pedestrian gate arrival and gate departure events using a Bayesian estimation-based method. To improve accuracy of pedestrian tracking, estimated pedestrian velocity and its reliability in a microcell are used for trajectory estimation in the succeeding microcell. Through simulation experiments, we show that the accuracy of pedestrian tracking using our proposed method is improved by up to 35% compared to the conventional method. Yoshiaki Taniguchi, Masahiro Sasabe, Takafumi Watanabe, and Hirotaka Nakano Copyright © 2014 Yoshiaki Taniguchi et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Algorithm for Imbalance Data Classification Based on Neighborhood Hypergraph Mon, 11 Aug 2014 08:26:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/876875/ The classification problem for imbalance data is paid more attention to. So far, many significant methods are proposed and applied to many fields. But more efficient methods are needed still. Hypergraph may not be powerful enough to deal with the data in boundary region, although it is an efficient tool to knowledge discovery. In this paper, the neighborhood hypergraph is presented, combining rough set theory and hypergraph. After that, a novel classification algorithm for imbalance data based on neighborhood hypergraph is developed, which is composed of three steps: initialization of hyperedge, classification of training data set, and substitution of hyperedge. After conducting an experiment of 10-fold cross validation on 18 data sets, the proposed algorithm has higher average accuracy than others. Feng Hu, Xiao Liu, Jin Dai, and Hong Yu Copyright © 2014 Feng Hu et al. All rights reserved. Approximation Set of the Interval Set in Pawlak's Space Mon, 11 Aug 2014 06:45:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/317387/ The interval set is a special set, which describes uncertainty of an uncertain concept or set with its two crisp boundaries named upper-bound set and lower-bound set. In this paper, the concept of similarity degree between two interval sets is defined at first, and then the similarity degrees between an interval set and its two approximations (i.e., upper approximation set () and lower approximation set ()) are presented, respectively. The disadvantages of using upper-approximation set () or lower-approximation set () as approximation sets of the uncertain set (uncertain concept) are analyzed, and a new method for looking for a better approximation set of the interval set is proposed. The conclusion that the approximation set () is an optimal approximation set of interval set is drawn and proved successfully. The change rules of () with different binary relations are analyzed in detail. Finally, a kind of crisp approximation set of the interval set is constructed. We hope this research work will promote the development of both the interval set model and granular computing theory. Qinghua Zhang, Jin Wang, Guoyin Wang, and Feng Hu Copyright © 2014 Qinghua Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Aggregated Recommendation through Random Forests Mon, 11 Aug 2014 05:31:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/649596/ Aggregated recommendation refers to the process of suggesting one kind of items to a group of users. Compared to user-oriented or item-oriented approaches, it is more general and, therefore, more appropriate for cold-start recommendation. In this paper, we propose a random forest approach to create aggregated recommender systems. The approach is used to predict the rating of a group of users to a kind of items. In the preprocessing stage, we merge user, item, and rating information to construct an aggregated decision table, where rating information serves as the decision attribute. We also model the data conversion process corresponding to the new user, new item, and both new problems. In the training stage, a forest is built for the aggregated training set, where each leaf is assigned a distribution of discrete rating. In the testing stage, we present four predicting approaches to compute evaluation values based on the distribution of each tree. Experiments results on the well-known MovieLens dataset show that the aggregated approach maintains an acceptable level of accuracy. Heng-Ru Zhang, Fan Min, and Xu He Copyright © 2014 Heng-Ru Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Congestion Control for a Fair Packet Delivery in WSN: From a Complex System Perspective Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:24:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/381305/ In this work, we propose that packets travelling across a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be seen as the active agents that make up a complex system, just like a bird flock or a fish school, for instance. From this perspective, the tools and models that have been developed to study this kind of systems have been applied. This is in order to create a distributed congestion control based on a set of simple rules programmed at the nodes of the WSN. Our results show that it is possible to adapt the carried traffic to the network capacity, even under stressing conditions. Also, the network performance shows a smooth degradation when the traffic goes beyond a threshold which is settled by the proposed self-organized control. In contrast, without any control, the network collapses before this threshold. The use of the proposed solution provides an effective strategy to address some of the common problems found in WSN deployment by providing a fair packet delivery. In addition, the network congestion is mitigated using adaptive traffic mechanisms based on a satisfaction parameter assessed by each packet which has impact on the global satisfaction of the traffic carried by the WSN. Daniela Aguirre-Guerrero, Ricardo Marcelín-Jiménez, Enrique Rodriguez-Colina, and Michael Pascoe-Chalke Copyright © 2014 Daniela Aguirre-Guerrero et al. All rights reserved. A Variable Neighborhood Walksat-Based Algorithm for MAX-SAT Problems Wed, 06 Aug 2014 10:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/798323/ The simplicity of the maximum satisfiability problem (MAX-SAT) combined with its applicability in many areas of artificial intelligence and computing science made it one of the fundamental optimization problems. This NP-complete problem refers to the task of finding a variable assignment that satisfies the maximum number of clauses (or the sum of weights of satisfied clauses) in a Boolean formula. The Walksat algorithm is considered to be the main skeleton underlying almost all local search algorithms for MAX-SAT. Most local search algorithms including Walksat rely on the 1-flip neighborhood structure. This paper introduces a variable neighborhood walksat-based algorithm. The neighborhood structure can be combined easily using any local search algorithm. Its effectiveness is compared with existing algorithms using 1-flip neighborhood structure and solvers such as CCLS and Optimax from the eighth MAX-SAT evaluation. Noureddine Bouhmala Copyright © 2014 Noureddine Bouhmala. All rights reserved. A Discrete Wavelet Based Feature Extraction and Hybrid Classification Technique for Microarray Data Analysis Wed, 06 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/195470/ Cancer classification by doctors and radiologists was based on morphological and clinical features and had limited diagnostic ability in olden days. The recent arrival of DNA microarray technology has led to the concurrent monitoring of thousands of gene expressions in a single chip which stimulates the progress in cancer classification. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid approach for microarray data classification based on nearest neighbor (KNN), naive Bayes, and support vector machine (SVM). Feature selection prior to classification plays a vital role and a feature selection technique which combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and moving window technique (MWT) is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional classifiers like support vector machine, nearest neighbor, and naive Bayes. Experiments have been conducted on both real and benchmark datasets and the results indicate that the ensemble approach produces higher classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. This paper serves as an automated system for the classification of cancer and can be applied by doctors in real cases which serve as a boon to the medical community. This work further reduces the misclassification of cancers which is highly not allowed in cancer detection. Jaison Bennet, Chilambuchelvan Arul Ganaprakasam, and Kannan Arputharaj Copyright © 2014 Jaison Bennet et al. All rights reserved. A Modified Active Appearance Model Based on an Adaptive Artificial Bee Colony Wed, 06 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/879031/ Active appearance model (AAM) is one of the most popular model-based approaches that have been extensively used to extract features by highly accurate modeling of human faces under various physical and environmental circumstances. However, in such active appearance model, fitting the model with original image is a challenging task. State of the art shows that optimization method is applicable to resolve this problem. However, another common problem is applying optimization. Hence, in this paper we propose an AAM based face recognition technique, which is capable of resolving the fitting problem of AAM by introducing a new adaptive ABC algorithm. The adaptation increases the efficiency of fitting as against the conventional ABC algorithm. We have used three datasets: CASIA dataset, property 2.5D face dataset, and UBIRIS v1 images dataset in our experiments. The results have revealed that the proposed face recognition technique has performed effectively, in terms of accuracy of face recognition. Mohammed Hasan Abdulameer, Siti Norul Huda Sheikh Abdullah, and Zulaiha Ali Othman Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Hasan Abdulameer et al. All rights reserved. A Comprehensive Availability Modeling and Analysis of a Virtualized Servers System Using Stochastic Reward Nets Tue, 05 Aug 2014 13:13:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/165316/ It is important to assess availability of virtualized systems in IT business infrastructures. Previous work on availability modeling and analysis of the virtualized systems used a simplified configuration and assumption in which only one virtual machine (VM) runs on a virtual machine monitor (VMM) hosted on a physical server. In this paper, we show a comprehensive availability model using stochastic reward nets (SRN). The model takes into account (i) the detailed failures and recovery behaviors of multiple VMs, (ii) various other failure modes and corresponding recovery behaviors (e.g., hardware faults, failure and recovery due to Mandelbugs and aging-related bugs), and (iii) dependency between different subcomponents (e.g., between physical host failure and VMM, etc.) in a virtualized servers system. We also show numerical analysis on steady state availability, downtime in hours per year, transaction loss, and sensitivity analysis. This model provides a new finding on how to increase system availability by combining both software rejuvenations at VM and VMM in a wise manner. Tuan Anh Nguyen, Dong Seong Kim, and Jong Sou Park Copyright © 2014 Tuan Anh Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. A Survey on Personal Data Cloud Tue, 05 Aug 2014 11:48:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/969150/ Personal data represent the e-history of a person and are of great significance to the person, but they are essentially produced and governed by various distributed services and there lacks a global and centralized view. In recent years, researchers pay attention to Personal Data Cloud (PDC) which aggregates the heterogeneous personal data scattered in different clouds into one cloud, so that a person could effectively store, acquire, and share their data. This paper makes a short survey on PDC research by summarizing related papers published in recent years. The concept, classification, and significance of personal data are elaborately introduced and then the semantics correlation and semantics representation of personal data are discussed. A multilayer reference architecture of PDC, including its core components and a real-world operational scenario showing how the reference architecture works, is introduced in detail. Existing commercial PDC products/prototypes are listed and compared from several perspectives. Five open issues to improve the shortcomings of current PDC research are put forward. Jiaqiu Wang and Zhongjie Wang Copyright © 2014 Jiaqiu Wang and Zhongjie Wang. All rights reserved. A New Approach for Resolving Conflicts in Actionable Behavioral Rules Tue, 05 Aug 2014 06:37:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/530483/ Knowledge is considered actionable if users can take direct actions based on such knowledge to their advantage. Among the most important and distinctive actionable knowledge are actionable behavioral rules that can directly and explicitly suggest specific actions to take to influence (restrain or encourage) the behavior in the users’ best interest. However, in mining such rules, it often occurs that different rules may suggest the same actions with different expected utilities, which we call conflicting rules. To resolve the conflicts, a previous valid method was proposed. However, inconsistency of the measure for rule evaluating may hinder its performance. To overcome this problem, we develop a new method that utilizes rule ranking procedure as the basis for selecting the rule with the highest utility prediction accuracy. More specifically, we propose an integrative measure, which combines the measures of the support and antecedent length, to evaluate the utility prediction accuracies of conflicting rules. We also introduce a tunable weight parameter to allow the flexibility of integration. We conduct several experiments to test our proposed approach and evaluate the sensitivity of the weight parameter. Empirical results indicate that our approach outperforms those from previous research. Peng Su, Dan Zhu, and Daniel Zeng Copyright © 2014 Peng Su et al. All rights reserved. Tuning of Kalman Filter Parameters via Genetic Algorithm for State-of-Charge Estimation in Battery Management System Tue, 05 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/176052/ In this work, a state-space battery model is derived mathematically to estimate the state-of-charge (SoC) of a battery system. Subsequently, Kalman filter (KF) is applied to predict the dynamical behavior of the battery model. Results show an accurate prediction as the accumulated error, in terms of root-mean-square (RMS), is a very small value. From this work, it is found that different sets of and values (KF’s parameters) can be applied for better performance and hence lower RMS error. This is the motivation for the application of a metaheuristic algorithm. Hence, the result is further improved by applying a genetic algorithm (GA) to tune and parameters of the KF. In an online application, a GA can be applied to obtain the optimal parameters of the KF before its application to a real plant (system). This simply means that the instantaneous response of the KF is not affected by the time consuming GA as this approach is applied only once to obtain the optimal parameters. The relevant workable MATLAB source codes are given in the appendix to ease future work and analysis in this area. T. O. Ting, Ka Lok Man, Eng Gee Lim, and Mark Leach Copyright © 2014 T. O. Ting et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method of the Generalized Interval-Valued Fuzzy Rough Approximation Operators Mon, 04 Aug 2014 09:02:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/783940/ Rough set theory is a suitable tool for dealing with the imprecision, uncertainty, incompleteness, and vagueness of knowledge. In this paper, new lower and upper approximation operators for generalized fuzzy rough sets are constructed, and their definitions are expanded to the interval-valued environment. Furthermore, the properties of this type of rough sets are analyzed. These operators are shown to be equivalent to the generalized interval fuzzy rough approximation operators introduced by Dubois, which are determined by any interval-valued fuzzy binary relation expressed in a generalized approximation space. Main properties of these operators are discussed under different interval-valued fuzzy binary relations, and the illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the main features of the proposed operators. Tianyu Xue, Zhan’ao Xue, Huiru Cheng, Jie Liu, and Tailong Zhu Copyright © 2014 Tianyu Xue et al. All rights reserved. A CBR-Based and MAHP-Based Customer Value Prediction Model for New Product Development Mon, 04 Aug 2014 07:29:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/459765/ In the fierce market environment, the enterprise which wants to meet customer needs and boost its market profit and share must focus on the new product development. To overcome the limitations of previous research, Chan et al. proposed a dynamic decision support system to predict the customer lifetime value (CLV) for new product development. However, to better meet the customer needs, there are still some deficiencies in their model, so this study proposes a CBR-based and MAHP-based customer value prediction model for a new product (C&M-CVPM). CBR (case based reasoning) can reduce experts’ workload and evaluation time, while MAHP (multiplicative analytic hierarchy process) can use actual but average influencing factor’s effectiveness in stimulation, and at same time C&M-CVPM uses dynamic customers’ transition probability which is more close to reality. This study not only introduces the realization of CBR and MAHP, but also elaborates C&M-CVPM’s three main modules. The application of the proposed model is illustrated and confirmed to be sensible and convincing through a stimulation experiment. Yu-Jie Zhao, Xin-xing Luo, and Li Deng Copyright © 2014 Yu-Jie Zhao et al. All rights reserved. An Adaboost-Backpropagation Neural Network for Automated Image Sentiment Classification Mon, 04 Aug 2014 05:06:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/364649/ The development of multimedia technology and the popularisation of image capture devices have resulted in the rapid growth of digital images. The reliance on advanced technology to extract and automatically classify the emotional semantics implicit in images has become a critical problem. We proposed an emotional semantic classification method for images based on the Adaboost-backpropagation (BP) neural network, using natural scenery images as examples. We described image emotions using the Ortony, Clore, and Collins emotion model and constructed a strong classifier by integrating 15 outputs of a BP neural network based on the Adaboost algorithm. The objective of the study was to improve the efficiency of emotional image classification. Using 600 natural scenery images downloaded from the Baidu photo channel to train and test the model, our experiments achieved results superior to the results obtained using the BP neural network method. The accuracy rate increased by approximately 15% compared with the method previously reported in the literature. The proposed method provides a foundation for the development of additional automatic sentiment image classification methods and demonstrates practical value. Jianfang Cao, Junjie Chen, and Haifang Li Copyright © 2014 Jianfang Cao et al. All rights reserved. Crossover versus Mutation: A Comparative Analysis of the Evolutionary Strategy of Genetic Algorithms Applied to Combinatorial Optimization Problems Mon, 04 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/154676/ Since their first formulation, genetic algorithms (GAs) have been one of the most widely used techniques to solve combinatorial optimization problems. The basic structure of the GAs is known by the scientific community, and thanks to their easy application and good performance, GAs are the focus of a lot of research works annually. Although throughout history there have been many studies analyzing various concepts of GAs, in the literature there are few studies that analyze objectively the influence of using blind crossover operators for combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, in this paper a deep study on the influence of using them is conducted. The study is based on a comparison of nine techniques applied to four well-known combinatorial optimization problems. Six of the techniques are GAs with different configurations, and the remaining three are evolutionary algorithms that focus exclusively on the mutation process. Finally, to perform a reliable comparison of these results, a statistical study of them is made, performing the normal distribution -test. E. Osaba, R. Carballedo, F. Diaz, E. Onieva, I. de la Iglesia, and A. Perallos Copyright © 2014 E. Osaba et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Analysis of Swarm Intelligence Techniques for Feature Selection in Cancer Classification Sun, 03 Aug 2014 10:36:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/693831/ Feature selection in cancer classification is a central area of research in the field of bioinformatics and used to select the informative genes from thousands of genes of the microarray. The genes are ranked based on T-statistics, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and F-test values. The swarm intelligence (SI) technique finds the informative genes from the top-m ranked genes. These selected genes are used for classification. In this paper the shuffled frog leaping with Lévy flight (SFLLF) is proposed for feature selection. In SFLLF, the Lévy flight is included to avoid premature convergence of shuffled frog leaping (SFL) algorithm. The SI techniques such as particle swarm optimization (PSO), cuckoo search (CS), SFL, and SFLLF are used for feature selection which identifies informative genes for classification. The k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) technique is used to classify the samples. The proposed work is applied on 10 different benchmark datasets and examined with SI techniques. The experimental results show that the results obtained from k-NN classifier through SFLLF feature selection method outperform PSO, CS, and SFL. Chellamuthu Gunavathi and Kandasamy Premalatha Copyright © 2014 Chellamuthu Gunavathi and Kandasamy Premalatha. All rights reserved. Improved Bat Algorithm Applied to Multilevel Image Thresholding Sun, 03 Aug 2014 08:21:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/176718/ Multilevel image thresholding is a very important image processing technique that is used as a basis for image segmentation and further higher level processing. However, the required computational time for exhaustive search grows exponentially with the number of desired thresholds. Swarm intelligence metaheuristics are well known as successful and efficient optimization methods for intractable problems. In this paper, we adjusted one of the latest swarm intelligence algorithms, the bat algorithm, for the multilevel image thresholding problem. The results of testing on standard benchmark images show that the bat algorithm is comparable with other state-of-the-art algorithms. We improved standard bat algorithm, where our modifications add some elements from the differential evolution and from the artificial bee colony algorithm. Our new proposed improved bat algorithm proved to be better than five other state-of-the-art algorithms, improving quality of results in all cases and significantly improving convergence speed. Adis Alihodzic and Milan Tuba Copyright © 2014 Adis Alihodzic and Milan Tuba. All rights reserved. Focusing on the Golden Ball Metaheuristic: An Extended Study on a Wider Set of Problems Sun, 03 Aug 2014 07:02:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/563259/ Nowadays, the development of new metaheuristics for solving optimization problems is a topic of interest in the scientific community. In the literature, a large number of techniques of this kind can be found. Anyway, there are many recently proposed techniques, such as the artificial bee colony and imperialist competitive algorithm. This paper is focused on one recently published technique, the one called Golden Ball (GB). The GB is a multiple-population metaheuristic based on soccer concepts. Although it was designed to solve combinatorial optimization problems, until now, it has only been tested with two simple routing problems: the traveling salesman problem and the capacitated vehicle routing problem. In this paper, the GB is applied to four different combinatorial optimization problems. Two of them are routing problems, which are more complex than the previously used ones: the asymmetric traveling salesman problem and the vehicle routing problem with backhauls. Additionally, one constraint satisfaction problem (the n-queen problem) and one combinatorial design problem (the one-dimensional bin packing problem) have also been used. The outcomes obtained by GB are compared with the ones got by two different genetic algorithms and two distributed genetic algorithms. Additionally, two statistical tests are conducted to compare these results. E. Osaba, F. Diaz, R. Carballedo, E. Onieva, and A. Perallos Copyright © 2014 E. Osaba et al. All rights reserved. Models and Frameworks: A Synergistic Association for Developing Component-Based Applications Sun, 03 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/687346/ The use of frameworks and components has been shown to be effective in improving software productivity and quality. However, the results in terms of reuse and standardization show a dearth of portability either of designs or of component-based implementations. This paper, which is based on the model driven software development paradigm, presents an approach that separates the description of component-based applications from their possible implementations for different platforms. This separation is supported by automatic integration of the code obtained from the input models into frameworks implemented using object-oriented technology. Thus, the approach combines the benefits of modeling applications from a higher level of abstraction than objects, with the higher levels of code reuse provided by frameworks. In order to illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach, two representative case studies that use both an existing framework and an ad hoc framework, are described. Finally, our approach is compared with other alternatives in terms of the cost of software development. Diego Alonso, Francisco Sánchez-Ledesma, Pedro Sánchez, Juan A. Pastor, and Bárbara Álvarez Copyright © 2014 Diego Alonso et al. All rights reserved. A Partition-Based Active Contour Model Incorporating Local Information for Image Segmentation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:19:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/840305/ Active contour models are always designed on the assumption that images are approximated by regions with piecewise-constant intensities. This assumption, however, cannot be satisfied when describing intensity inhomogeneous images which frequently occur in real world images and induced considerable difficulties in image segmentation. A milder assumption that the image is statistically homogeneous within different local regions may better suit real world images. By taking local image information into consideration, an enhanced active contour model is proposed to overcome difficulties caused by intensity inhomogeneity. In addition, according to curve evolution theory, only the region near contour boundaries is supposed to be evolved in each iteration. We try to detect the regions near contour boundaries adaptively for satisfying the requirement of curve evolution theory. In the proposed method, pixels within a selected region near contour boundaries have the opportunity to be updated in each iteration, which enables the contour to be evolved gradually. Experimental results on synthetic and real world images demonstrate the advantages of the proposed model when dealing with intensity inhomogeneity images. Jiao Shi, Jiaji Wu, Anand Paul, Licheng Jiao, and Maoguo Gong Copyright © 2014 Jiao Shi et al. All rights reserved. N-Screen Aware Multicriteria Hybrid Recommender System Using Weight Based Subspace Clustering Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:15:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/679849/ This paper presents a recommender system for N-screen services in which users have multiple devices with different capabilities. In N-screen services, a user can use various devices in different locations and time and can change a device while the service is running. N-screen aware recommendation seeks to improve the user experience with recommended content by considering the user N-screen device attributes such as screen resolution, media codec, remaining battery time, and access network and the user temporal usage pattern information that are not considered in existing recommender systems. For N-screen aware recommendation support, this work introduces a user device profile collaboration agent, manager, and N-screen control server to acquire and manage the user N-screen devices profile. Furthermore, a multicriteria hybrid framework is suggested that incorporates the N-screen devices information with user preferences and demographics. In addition, we propose an individual feature and subspace weight based clustering (IFSWC) to assign different weights to each subspace and each feature within a subspace in the hybrid framework. The proposed system improves the accuracy, precision, scalability, sparsity, and cold start issues. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and prove the aforementioned statements. Farman Ullah, Ghulam Sarwar, and Sungchang Lee Copyright © 2014 Farman Ullah et al. All rights reserved. A Primal Analysis System of Brain Neurons Data Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:02:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/348526/ It is a very challenging work to classify the 86 billions of neurons in the human brain. The most important step is to get the features of these neurons. In this paper, we present a primal system to analyze and extract features from brain neurons. First, we make analysis on the original data of neurons in which one neuron contains six parameters: room type, , , coordinate range, total number of leaf nodes, and fuzzy volume of neurons. Then, we extract three important geometry features including rooms type, number of leaf nodes, and fuzzy volume. As application, we employ the feature database to fit the basic procedure of neuron growth. The result shows that the proposed system is effective. Dong-Mei Pu, Da-Qi Gao, and Yu-Bo Yuan Copyright © 2014 Dong-Mei Pu et al. All rights reserved. A User Authentication Scheme Using Physiological and Behavioral Biometrics for Multitouch Devices Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:27:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/781234/ With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage. Chorng-Shiuh Koong, Tzu-I Yang, and Chien-Chao Tseng Copyright © 2014 Chorng-Shiuh Koong et al. All rights reserved. Instance Transfer Learning with Multisource Dynamic TrAdaBoost Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:08:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/282747/ Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy. Qian Zhang, Haigang Li, Yong Zhang, and Ming Li Copyright © 2014 Qian Zhang et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Algorithm for Maximizing Range Sum Queries in a Road Network Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:32:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/541602/ Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Tien-Khoi Phan, HaRim Jung, and Ung-Mo Kim Copyright © 2014 Tien-Khoi Phan et al. All rights reserved. AVQS: Attack Route-Based Vulnerability Quantification Scheme for Smart Grid Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/713012/ A smart grid is a large, consolidated electrical grid system that includes heterogeneous networks and systems. Based on the data, a smart grid system has a potential security threat in its network connectivity. To solve this problem, we develop and apply a novel scheme to measure the vulnerability in a smart grid domain. Vulnerability quantification can be the first step in security analysis because it can help prioritize the security problems. However, existing vulnerability quantification schemes are not suitable for smart grid because they do not consider network vulnerabilities. We propose a novel attack route-based vulnerability quantification scheme using a network vulnerability score and an end-to-end security score, depending on the specific smart grid network environment to calculate the vulnerability score for a particular attack route. To evaluate the proposed approach, we derive several attack scenarios from the advanced metering infrastructure domain. The experimental results of the proposed approach and the existing common vulnerability scoring system clearly show that we need to consider network connectivity for more optimized vulnerability quantification. Jongbin Ko, Hyunwoo Lim, Seokjun Lee, and Taeshik Shon Copyright © 2014 Jongbin Ko et al. All rights reserved. A Service Based Adaptive U-Learning System Using UX Wed, 23 Jul 2014 11:37:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/109435/ In recent years, traditional development techniques for e-learning systems have been changing to become more convenient and efficient. One new technology in the development of application systems includes both cloud and ubiquitous computing. Cloud computing can support learning system processes by using services while ubiquitous computing can provide system operation and management via a high performance technical process and network. In the cloud computing environment, a learning service application can provide a business module or process to the user via the internet. This research focuses on providing the learning material and processes of courses by learning units using the services in a ubiquitous computing environment. And we also investigate functions that support users’ tailored materials according to their learning style. That is, we analyzed the user’s data and their characteristics in accordance with their user experience. We subsequently applied the learning process to fit on their learning performance and preferences. Finally, we demonstrate how the proposed system outperforms learning effects to learners better than existing techniques. Hwa-Young Jeong and Gangman Yi Copyright © 2014 Hwa-Young Jeong and Gangman Yi. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Memetic Estimation of Distribution Algorithm Based on an Incremental Tournament Local Searcher Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:06:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/836272/ A novel hybrid multiobjective algorithm is presented in this paper, which combines a new multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, an efficient local searcher and ε-dominance. Besides, two multiobjective problems with variable linkages strictly based on manifold distribution are proposed. The Pareto set to the continuous multiobjective optimization problems, in the decision space, is a piecewise low-dimensional continuous manifold. The regularity by the manifold features just build probability distribution model by globally statistical information from the population, yet, the efficiency of promising individuals is not well exploited, which is not beneficial to search and optimization process. Hereby, an incremental tournament local searcher is designed to exploit local information efficiently and accelerate convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front. Besides, since ε-dominance is a strategy that can make multiobjective algorithm gain well distributed solutions and has low computational complexity, ε-dominance and the incremental tournament local searcher are combined here. The novel memetic multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, MMEDA, was proposed accordingly. The algorithm is validated by experiment on twenty-two test problems with and without variable linkages of diverse complexities. Compared with three state-of-the-art multiobjective optimization algorithms, our algorithm achieves comparable results in terms of convergence and diversity metrics. Kaifeng Yang, Li Mu, Dongdong Yang, Feng Zou, Lei Wang, and Qiaoyong Jiang Copyright © 2014 Kaifeng Yang et al. All rights reserved. The Study on Stage Financing Model of IT Project Investment Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/321710/ Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. Si-hua Chen, Sheng-hua Xu, Changhoon Lee, Neal N. Xiong, and Wei He Copyright © 2014 Si-hua Chen et al. All rights reserved. The Coral Reefs Optimization Algorithm: A Novel Metaheuristic for Efficiently Solving Optimization Problems Tue, 22 Jul 2014 14:09:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/739768/ This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. S. Salcedo-Sanz, J. Del Ser, I. Landa-Torres, S. Gil-López, and J. A. Portilla-Figueras Copyright © 2014 S. Salcedo-Sanz et al. All rights reserved. Null Steering of Adaptive Beamforming Using Linear Constraint Minimum Variance Assisted by Particle Swarm Optimization, Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System, and Gravitational Search Algorithm Tue, 22 Jul 2014 14:05:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/724639/ Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. Soodabeh Darzi, Tiong Sieh Kiong, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mahamod Ismail, Salehin Kibria, and Balasem Salem Copyright © 2014 Soodabeh Darzi et al. All rights reserved. δ-Cut Decision-Theoretic Rough Set Approach: Model and Attribute Reductions Tue, 22 Jul 2014 14:02:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/382439/ Decision-theoretic rough set is a quite useful rough set by introducing the decision cost into probabilistic approximations of the target. However, Yao’s decision-theoretic rough set is based on the classical indiscernibility relation; such a relation may be too strict in many applications. To solve this problem, a δ-cut decision-theoretic rough set is proposed, which is based on the δ-cut quantitative indiscernibility relation. Furthermore, with respect to criterions of decision-monotonicity and cost decreasing, two different algorithms are designed to compute reducts, respectively. The comparisons between these two algorithms show us the following: (1) with respect to the original data set, the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion can generate more rules supported by the lower approximation region and less rules supported by the boundary region, and it follows that the uncertainty which comes from boundary region can be decreased; (2) with respect to the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion, the reducts based on cost minimum criterion can obtain the lowest decision costs and the largest approximation qualities. This study suggests potential application areas and new research trends concerning rough set theory. Hengrong Ju, Huili Dou, Yong Qi, Hualong Yu, Dongjun Yu, and Jingyu Yang Copyright © 2014 Hengrong Ju et al. All rights reserved. A Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Multimodal Optimization Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:45:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/497514/ Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. Erik Cuevas and Adolfo Reyna-Orta Copyright © 2014 Erik Cuevas and Adolfo Reyna-Orta. All rights reserved. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:32:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/975456/ A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques. Wandji Nanda Nathalie Diane, Sun Xingming, and Fah Kue Moise Copyright © 2014 Wandji Nanda Nathalie Diane et al. All rights reserved. A Community Detection Algorithm Based on Topology Potential and Spectral Clustering Tue, 22 Jul 2014 10:17:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/329325/ Community detection is of great value for complex networks in understanding their inherent law and predicting their behavior. Spectral clustering algorithms have been successfully applied in community detection. This kind of methods has two inadequacies: one is that the input matrixes they used cannot provide sufficient structural information for community detection and the other is that they cannot necessarily derive the proper community number from the ladder distribution of eigenvector elements. In order to solve these problems, this paper puts forward a novel community detection algorithm based on topology potential and spectral clustering. The new algorithm constructs the normalized Laplacian matrix with nodes’ topology potential, which contains rich structural information of the network. In addition, the new algorithm can automatically get the optimal community number from the local maximum potential nodes. Experiments results showed that the new algorithm gave excellent performance on artificial networks and real world networks and outperforms other community detection methods. Zhixiao Wang, Zhaotong Chen, Ya Zhao, and Shaoda Chen Copyright © 2014 Zhixiao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Information Filtering via Biased Random Walk on Coupled Social Network Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:23:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/829137/ The recommender systems have advanced a great deal in the past two decades. However, most researchers focus their attentions on mining the similarities among users or objects in recommender systems and overlook the social influence which plays an important role in users’ purchase process. In this paper, we design a biased random walk algorithm on coupled social networks which gives recommendation results based on both social interests and users’ preference. Numerical analyses on two real data sets, Epinions and Friendfeed, demonstrate the improvement of recommendation performance by taking social interests into account, and experimental results show that our algorithm can alleviate the user cold-start problem more effectively compared with the mass diffusion and user-based collaborative filtering methods. Da-Cheng Nie, Zi-Ke Zhang, Qiang Dong, Chongjing Sun, and Yan Fu Copyright © 2014 Da-Cheng Nie et al. All rights reserved. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection Tue, 22 Jul 2014 07:35:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/219732/ We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. Changyu Liu, Bin Lu, and Huiling Li Copyright © 2014 Changyu Liu et al. All rights reserved. CUDT: A CUDA Based Decision Tree Algorithm Tue, 22 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/745640/ Decision tree is one of the famous classification methods in data mining. Many researches have been proposed, which were focusing on improving the performance of decision tree. However, those algorithms are developed and run on traditional distributed systems. Obviously the latency could not be improved while processing huge data generated by ubiquitous sensing node in the era without new technology help. In order to improve data processing latency in huge data mining, in this paper, we design and implement a new parallelized decision tree algorithm on a CUDA (compute unified device architecture), which is a GPGPU solution provided by NVIDIA. In the proposed system, CPU is responsible for flow control while the GPU is responsible for computation. We have conducted many experiments to evaluate system performance of CUDT and made a comparison with traditional CPU version. The results show that CUDT is 5∼55 times faster than Weka-j48 and is 18 times speedup than SPRINT for large data set. Win-Tsung Lo, Yue-Shan Chang, Ruey-Kai Sheu, Chun-Chieh Chiu, and Shyan-Ming Yuan Copyright © 2014 Win-Tsung Lo et al. All rights reserved. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm Mon, 21 Jul 2014 11:13:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/670190/ The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. Omar Elizarraras, Marco Panduro, Aldo L. Méndez, and Alberto Reyna Copyright © 2014 Omar Elizarraras et al. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Aspectual UML Approach to Support AspectJ Mon, 21 Jul 2014 10:37:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/327808/ Unified Modeling Language is the most popular and widely used Object-Oriented modelling language in the IT industry. This study focuses on investigating the ability to expand UML to some extent to model crosscutting concerns (Aspects) to support AspectJ. Through a comprehensive literature review, we identify and extensively examine all the available Aspect-Oriented UML modelling approaches and find that the existing Aspect-Oriented Design Modelling approaches using UML cannot be considered to provide a framework for a comprehensive Aspectual UML modelling approach and also that there is a lack of adequate Aspect-Oriented tool support. This study also proposes a set of Aspectual UML semantic rules and attempts to generate AspectJ pseudocode from UML diagrams. The proposed Aspectual UML modelling approach is formally evaluated using a focus group to test six hypotheses regarding performance; a “good design” criteria-based evaluation to assess the quality of the design; and an AspectJ-based evaluation as a reference measurement-based evaluation. The results of the focus group evaluation confirm all the hypotheses put forward regarding the proposed approach. The proposed approach provides a comprehensive set of Aspectual UML structural and behavioral diagrams, which are designed and implemented based on a comprehensive and detailed set of AspectJ programming constructs. Aws Magableh, Zarina Shukur, and Noorazean Mohd. Ali Copyright © 2014 Aws Magableh et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Deployment Method for Communication-Intensive Applications in Service Clouds Mon, 21 Jul 2014 10:26:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/290913/ The service platforms are migrating to clouds for reasonably solving long construction periods, low resource utilizations, and isolated constructions of service platforms. However, when the migration is conducted in service clouds, there is a little focus of deploying communication-intensive applications in previous deployment methods. To address this problem, this paper proposed the combination of the online deployment and the offline deployment for deploying communication-intensive applications in service clouds. Firstly, the system architecture was designed for implementing the communication-aware deployment method for communication-intensive applications in service clouds. Secondly, in the online-deployment algorithm and the offline-deployment algorithm, service instances were deployed in an optimal cloud node based on the communication overhead which is determined by the communication traffic between services, as well as the communication performance between cloud nodes. Finally, the experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods deployed communication-intensive applications effectively with lower latency and lower load compared with existing algorithms. Chuanchang Liu and Jingqi Yang Copyright © 2014 Chuanchang Liu and Jingqi Yang. All rights reserved. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering Mon, 21 Jul 2014 08:18:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/312521/ Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. Seyedjamal Zolhavarieh, Saeed Aghabozorgi, and Ying Wah Teh Copyright © 2014 Seyedjamal Zolhavarieh et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Approach to Information Security Management System Model for Industrial Control System Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/348305/ Organizations make use of important information in day-to-day business. Protecting sensitive information is imperative and must be managed. Companies in many parts of the world protect sensitive information using the international standard known as the information security management system (ISMS). ISO 27000 series is the international standard ISMS used to protect confidentiality, integrity, and availability of sensitive information. While an ISMS based on ISO 27000 series has no particular flaws for general information systems, it is unfit to manage sensitive information for industrial control systems (ICSs) because the first priority of industrial control is safety of the system. Therefore, a new information security management system based on confidentiality, integrity, and availability as well as safety is required for ICSs. This new ISMS must be mutually exclusive of an ICS. This paper provides a new paradigm of ISMS for ICSs, which will be shown to be more suitable than the existing ISMS. Sanghyun Park and Kyungho Lee Copyright © 2014 Sanghyun Park and Kyungho Lee. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme Mon, 21 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/418090/ Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a -threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable , and change a range of prime in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. Sang-Ho Shin, Gil-Je Lee, and Kee-Young Yoo Copyright © 2014 Sang-Ho Shin et al. All rights reserved. Software Authority Transition through Multiple Distributors Sun, 20 Jul 2014 13:21:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/295789/ The rapid growth in the use of smartphones and tablets has changed the software distribution ecosystem. The trend today is to purchase software through application stores rather than from traditional offline markets. Smartphone and tablet users can install applications easily by purchasing from the online store deployed in their device. Several systems, such as Android or PC-based OS units, allow users to install software from multiple sources. Such openness, however, can promote serious threats, including malware and illegal usage. In order to prevent such threats, several stores use online authentication techniques. These methods can, however, also present a problem whereby even licensed users cannot use their purchased application. In this paper, we discuss these issues and provide an authentication method that will make purchased applications available to the registered user at all times. Kyusunk Han and Taeshik Shon Copyright © 2014 Kyusunk Han and Taeshik Shon. All rights reserved. Automatic Foreground Extraction Based on Difference of Gaussian Sun, 20 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/296074/ A novel algorithm for automatic foreground extraction based on difference of Gaussian (DoG) is presented. In our algorithm, DoG is employed to find the candidate keypoints of an input image in different color layers. Then, a keypoints filter algorithm is proposed to get the keypoints by removing the pseudo-keypoints and rebuilding the important keypoints. Finally, Normalized cut (Ncut) is used to segment an image into several regions and locate the foreground with the number of keypoints in each region. Experiments on the given image data set demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. Yubo Yuan, Yun Liu, Guanghui Dai, Jing Zhang, and Zhihua Chen Copyright © 2014 Yubo Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Semi-Supervised Learning of Statistical Models for Natural Language Understanding Sun, 20 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/121650/ Natural language understanding is to specify a computational model that maps sentences to their semantic mean representation. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to train the statistical models without using expensive fully annotated data. In particular, the input of our framework is a set of sentences labeled with abstract semantic annotations. These annotations encode the underlying embedded semantic structural relations without explicit word/semantic tag alignment. The proposed framework can automatically induce derivation rules that map sentences to their semantic meaning representations. The learning framework is applied on two statistical models, the conditional random fields (CRFs) and the hidden Markov support vector machines (HM-SVMs). Our experimental results on the DARPA communicator data show that both CRFs and HM-SVMs outperform the baseline approach, previously proposed hidden vector state (HVS) model which is also trained on abstract semantic annotations. In addition, the proposed framework shows superior performance than two other baseline approaches, a hybrid framework combining HVS and HM-SVMs and discriminative training of HVS, with a relative error reduction rate of about 25% and 15% being achieved in -measure. Deyu Zhou and Yulan He Copyright © 2014 Deyu Zhou and Yulan He. All rights reserved. An Evaluation and Implementation of Rule-Based Home Energy Management System Using the Rete Algorithm Sun, 20 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/591478/ In recent years, sensors become popular and Home Energy Management System (HEMS) takes an important role in saving energy without decrease in QoL (Quality of Life). Currently, many rule-based HEMSs have been proposed and almost all of them assume “IF-THEN” rules. The Rete algorithm is a typical pattern matching algorithm for IF-THEN rules. Currently, we have proposed a rule-based Home Energy Management System (HEMS) using the Rete algorithm. In the proposed system, rules for managing energy are processed by smart taps in network, and the loads for processing rules and collecting data are distributed to smart taps. In addition, the number of processes and collecting data are reduced by processing rules based on the Rete algorithm. In this paper, we evaluated the proposed system by simulation. In the simulation environment, rules are processed by a smart tap that relates to the action part of each rule. In addition, we implemented the proposed system as HEMS using smart taps. Tomoya Kawakami, Naotaka Fujita, Tomoki Yoshihisa, and Masahiko Tsukamoto Copyright © 2014 Tomoya Kawakami et al. All rights reserved. Covert Network Analysis for Key Player Detection and Event Prediction Using a Hybrid Classifier Sun, 20 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/615431/ National security has gained vital importance due to increasing number of suspicious and terrorist events across the globe. Use of different subfields of information technology has also gained much attraction of researchers and practitioners to design systems which can detect main members which are actually responsible for such kind of events. In this paper, we present a novel method to predict key players from a covert network by applying a hybrid framework. The proposed system calculates certain centrality measures for each node in the network and then applies novel hybrid classifier for detection of key players. Our system also applies anomaly detection to predict any terrorist activity in order to help law enforcement agencies to destabilize the involved network. As a proof of concept, the proposed framework has been implemented and tested using different case studies including two publicly available datasets and one local network. Wasi Haider Butt, M. Usman Akram, Shoab A. Khan, and Muhammad Younus Javed Copyright © 2014 Wasi Haider Butt et al. All rights reserved. An Ant Colony Optimization Based Feature Selection for Web Page Classification Thu, 17 Jul 2014 13:51:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/649260/ The increased popularity of the web has caused the inclusion of huge amount of information to the web, and as a result of this explosive information growth, automated web page classification systems are needed to improve search engines’ performance. Web pages have a large number of features such as HTML/XML tags, URLs, hyperlinks, and text contents that should be considered during an automated classification process. The aim of this study is to reduce the number of features to be used to improve runtime and accuracy of the classification of web pages. In this study, we used an ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm to select the best features, and then we applied the well-known C4.5, naive Bayes, and k nearest neighbor classifiers to assign class labels to web pages. We used the WebKB and Conference datasets in our experiments, and we showed that using the ACO for feature selection improves both accuracy and runtime performance of classification. We also showed that the proposed ACO based algorithm can select better features with respect to the well-known information gain and chi square feature selection methods. Esra Saraç and Selma Ayşe Özel Copyright © 2014 Esra Saraç and Selma Ayşe Özel. All rights reserved. Induced Unbalanced Linguistic Ordered Weighted Average and Its Application in Multiperson Decision Making Thu, 17 Jul 2014 12:53:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/642165/ Linguistic variables are very useful to evaluate alternatives in decision making problems because they provide a vocabulary in natural language rather than numbers. Some aggregation operators for linguistic variables force the use of a symmetric and uniformly distributed set of terms. The need to relax these conditions has recently been posited. This paper presents the induced unbalanced linguistic ordered weighted average (IULOWA) operator. This operator can deal with a set of unbalanced linguistic terms that are represented using fuzzy sets. We propose a new order-inducing criterion based on the specificity and fuzziness of the linguistic terms. Different relevancies are given to the fuzzy values according to their uncertainty degree. To illustrate the behaviour of the precision-based IULOWA operator, we present an environmental assessment case study in which a multiperson multicriteria decision making model is applied. Lucas Marin, Aida Valls, David Isern, Antonio Moreno, and José M. Merigó Copyright © 2014 Lucas Marin et al. All rights reserved. A Routing Path Construction Method for Key Dissemination Messages in Sensor Networks Thu, 17 Jul 2014 12:53:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/185156/ Authentication is an important security mechanism for detecting forged messages in a sensor network. Each cluster head (CH) in dynamic key distribution schemes forwards a key dissemination message that contains encrypted authentication keys within its cluster to next-hop nodes for the purpose of authentication. The forwarding path of the key dissemination message strongly affects the number of nodes to which the authentication keys in the message are actually distributed. We propose a routing method for the key dissemination messages to increase the number of nodes that obtain the authentication keys. In the proposed method, each node selects next-hop nodes to which the key dissemination message will be forwarded based on secret key indexes, the distance to the sink node, and the energy consumption of its neighbor nodes. The experimental results show that the proposed method can increase by 50–70% the number of nodes to which authentication keys in each cluster are distributed compared to geographic and energy-aware routing (GEAR). In addition, the proposed method can detect false reports earlier by using the distributed authentication keys, and it consumes less energy than GEAR when the false traffic ratio (FTR) is ≥10%. Soo Young Moon and Tae Ho Cho Copyright © 2014 Soo Young Moon and Tae Ho Cho. All rights reserved. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:58:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/712826/ Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. Nawsher Khan, Ibrar Yaqoob, Ibrahim Abaker Targio Hashem, Zakira Inayat, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud Ali, Muhammad Alam, Muhammad Shiraz, and Abdullah Gani Copyright © 2014 Nawsher Khan et al. All rights reserved. Realistic Facial Expression of Virtual Human Based on Color, Sweat, and Tears Effects Thu, 17 Jul 2014 08:57:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/367013/ Generating extreme appearances such as scared awaiting sweating while happy fit for tears (cry) and blushing (anger and happiness) is the key issue in achieving the high quality facial animation. The effects of sweat, tears, and colors are integrated into a single animation model to create realistic facial expressions of 3D avatar. The physical properties of muscles, emotions, or the fluid properties with sweating and tears initiators are incorporated. The action units (AUs) of facial action coding system are merged with autonomous AUs to create expressions including sadness, anger with blushing, happiness with blushing, and fear. Fluid effects such as sweat and tears are simulated using the particle system and smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods which are combined with facial animation technique to produce complex facial expressions. The effects of oxygenation of the facial skin color appearance are measured using the pulse oximeter system and the 3D skin analyzer. The result shows that virtual human facial expression is enhanced by mimicking actual sweating and tears simulations for all extreme expressions. The proposed method has contribution towards the development of facial animation industry and game as well as computer graphics. Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz, Ahmad Hoirul Basori, Dzulkifli Mohamad, and Farhan Mohamed Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of a Novel Common Subexpression Elimination Method for Low Power and Area Efficient DCT Architecture Wed, 16 Jul 2014 10:27:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/620868/ A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively. M. F. Siddiqui, A. W. Reza, J. Kanesan, and H. Ramiah Copyright © 2014 M. F. Siddiqui et al. All rights reserved. Reinforcement Learning for Routing in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks Wed, 16 Jul 2014 10:06:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/960584/ Cognitive radio (CR) enables unlicensed users (or secondary users, SUs) to sense for and exploit underutilized licensed spectrum owned by the licensed users (or primary users, PUs). Reinforcement learning (RL) is an artificial intelligence approach that enables a node to observe, learn, and make appropriate decisions on action selection in order to maximize network performance. Routing enables a source node to search for a least-cost route to its destination node. While there have been increasing efforts to enhance the traditional RL approach for routing in wireless networks, this research area remains largely unexplored in the domain of routing in CR networks. This paper applies RL in routing and investigates the effects of various features of RL (i.e., reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate) through simulation. New approaches and recommendations are proposed to enhance the features in order to improve the network performance brought about by RL to routing. Simulation results show that the RL parameters of the reward function, exploitation, and exploration, as well as learning rate, must be well regulated, and the new approaches proposed in this paper improves SUs’ network performance without significantly jeopardizing PUs’ network performance, specifically SUs’ interference to PUs. Hasan A. A. Al-Rawi, Kok-Lim Alvin Yau, Hafizal Mohamad, Nordin Ramli, and Wahidah Hashim Copyright © 2014 Hasan A. A. Al-Rawi et al. All rights reserved. Event-Based User Classification in Weibo Media Wed, 16 Jul 2014 08:52:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/479872/ Weibo media, known as the real-time microblogging services, has attracted massive attention and support from social network users. Weibo platform offers an opportunity for people to access information and changes the way people acquire and disseminate information significantly. Meanwhile, it enables people to respond to the social events in a more convenient way. Much of the information in Weibo media is related to some events. Users who post different contents, and exert different behavior or attitude may lead to different contribution to the specific event. Therefore, classifying the large amount of uncategorized social circles generated in Weibo media automatically from the perspective of events has been a promising task. Under this circumstance, in order to effectively organize and manage the huge amounts of users, thereby further managing their contents, we address the task of user classification in a more granular, event-based approach in this paper. By analyzing real data collected from Sina Weibo, we investigate the Weibo properties and utilize both content information and social network information to classify the numerous users into four primary groups: celebrities, organizations/media accounts, grassroots stars, and ordinary individuals. The experiments results show that our method identifies the user categories accurately. Liang Guo, Wendong Wang, Shiduan Cheng, and Xirong Que Copyright © 2014 Liang Guo et al. All rights reserved. Features Extraction of Flotation Froth Images and BP Neural Network Soft-Sensor Model of Concentrate Grade Optimized by Shuffled Cuckoo Searching Algorithm Wed, 16 Jul 2014 08:51:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/208094/ For meeting the forecasting target of key technology indicators in the flotation process, a BP neural network soft-sensor model based on features extraction of flotation froth images and optimized by shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is proposed. Based on the digital image processing technique, the color features in HSI color space, the visual features based on the gray level cooccurrence matrix, and the shape characteristics based on the geometric theory of flotation froth images are extracted, respectively, as the input variables of the proposed soft-sensor model. Then the isometric mapping method is used to reduce the input dimension, the network size, and learning time of BP neural network. Finally, a shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is adopted to optimize the BP neural network soft-sensor model. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization results and prediction accuracy. Jie-sheng Wang, Shuang Han, Na-na Shen, and Shu-xia Li Copyright © 2014 Jie-sheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method for Functional Annotation Prediction Based on Combination of Classification Methods Wed, 16 Jul 2014 07:41:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/542824/ Automated protein function prediction defines the designation of functions of unknown protein functions by using computational methods. This technique is useful to automatically assign gene functional annotations for undefined sequences in next generation genome analysis (NGS). NGS is a popular research method since high-throughput technologies such as DNA sequencing and microarrays have created large sets of genes. These huge sequences have greatly increased the need for analysis. Previous research has been based on the similarities of sequences as this is strongly related to the functional homology. However, this study aimed to designate protein functions by automatically predicting the function of the genome by utilizing InterPro (IPR), which can represent the properties of the protein family and groups of the protein function. Moreover, we used gene ontology (GO), which is the controlled vocabulary used to comprehensively describe the protein function. To define the relationship between IPR and GO terms, three pattern recognition techniques have been employed under different conditions, such as feature selection and weighted value, instead of a binary one. Jaehee Jung, Heung Ki Lee, and Gangman Yi Copyright © 2014 Jaehee Jung et al. All rights reserved. A Novel User Classification Method for Femtocell Network by Using Affinity Propagation Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/253787/ An artificial neural network (ANN) and affinity propagation (AP) algorithm based user categorization technique is presented. The proposed algorithm is designed for closed access femtocell network. ANN is used for user classification process and AP algorithm is used to optimize the ANN training process. AP selects the best possible training samples for faster ANN training cycle. The users are distinguished by using the difference of received signal strength in a multielement femtocell device. A previously developed directive microstrip antenna is used to configure the femtocell device. Simulation results show that, for a particular house pattern, the categorization technique without AP algorithm takes 5 indoor users and 10 outdoor users to attain an error-free operation. While integrating AP algorithm with ANN, the system takes 60% less training samples reducing the training time up to 50%. This procedure makes the femtocell more effective for closed access operation. Afaz Uddin Ahmed, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mahamod Ismail, Salehin Kibria, and Haslina Arshad Copyright © 2014 Afaz Uddin Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. Part-Based Visual Tracking via Online Weighted P-N Learning Tue, 15 Jul 2014 07:26:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/402185/ We propose a novel part-based tracking algorithm using online weighted P-N learning. An online weighted P-N learning method is implemented via considering the weight of samples during classification, which improves the performance of classifier. We apply weighted P-N learning to track a part-based target model instead of whole target. In doing so, object is segmented into fragments and parts of them are selected as local feature blocks (LFBs). Then, the weighted P-N learning is employed to train classifier for each local feature block (LFB). Each LFB is tracked through the corresponding classifier, respectively. According to the tracking results of LFBs, object can be then located. During tracking process, to solve the issues of occlusion or pose change, we use a substitute strategy to dynamically update the set of LFB, which makes our tracker robust. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art trackers. Heng Fan, Jinhai Xiang, Jun Xu, and Honghong Liao Copyright © 2014 Heng Fan et al. All rights reserved. Preserving Differential Privacy for Similarity Measurement in Smart Environments Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/581426/ Advances in both sensor technologies and network infrastructures have encouraged the development of smart environments to enhance people’s life and living styles. However, collecting and storing user’s data in the smart environments pose severe privacy concerns because these data may contain sensitive information about the subject. Hence, privacy protection is now an emerging issue that we need to consider especially when data sharing is essential for analysis purpose. In this paper, we consider the case where two agents in the smart environment want to measure the similarity of their collected or stored data. We use similarity coefficient function as the measurement metric for the comparison with differential privacy model. Unlike the existing solutions, our protocol can facilitate more than one request to compute without modifying the protocol. Our solution ensures privacy protection for both the inputs and the computed results. Kok-Seng Wong and Myung Ho Kim Copyright © 2014 Kok-Seng Wong and Myung Ho Kim. All rights reserved. A Simple Quality Assessment Index for Stereoscopic Images Based on 3D Gradient Magnitude Tue, 15 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/890562/ We present a simple quality assessment index for stereoscopic images based on 3D gradient magnitude. To be more specific, we construct 3D volume from the stereoscopic images across different disparity spaces and calculate pointwise 3D gradient magnitude similarity (3D-GMS) along three horizontal, vertical, and viewpoint directions. Then, the quality score is obtained by averaging the 3D-GMS scores of all points in the 3D volume. Experimental results on four publicly available 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that, in comparison with the most related existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistency alignment with subjective assessment. Shanshan Wang, Feng Shao, Fucui Li, Mei Yu, and Gangyi Jiang Copyright © 2014 Shanshan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Online Handwritten Signature Verification Using Neural Network Classifier Based on Principal Component Analysis Mon, 14 Jul 2014 11:30:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/381469/ One of the main difficulties in designing online signature verification (OSV) system is to find the most distinctive features with high discriminating capabilities for the verification, particularly, with regard to the high variability which is inherent in genuine handwritten signatures, coupled with the possibility of skilled forgeries having close resemblance to the original counterparts. In this paper, we proposed a systematic approach to online signature verification through the use of multilayer perceptron (MLP) on a subset of principal component analysis (PCA) features. The proposed approach illustrates a feature selection technique on the usually discarded information from PCA computation, which can be significant in attaining reduced error rates. The experiment is performed using 4000 signature samples from SIGMA database, which yielded a false acceptance rate (FAR) of 7.4% and a false rejection rate (FRR) of 6.4%. Vahab Iranmanesh, Sharifah Mumtazah Syed Ahmad, Wan Azizun Wan Adnan, Salman Yussof, Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu, and Fahad Layth Malallah Copyright © 2014 Vahab Iranmanesh et al. All rights reserved. Node Deployment Algorithm Based on Viscous Fluid Model for Wireless Sensor Networks Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:24:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/350789/ With the scale expands, traditional deployment algorithms are becoming increasingly complicated than before, which are no longer fit for sensor networks. In order to reduce the complexity, we propose a node deployment algorithm based on viscous fluid model. In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes are abstracted as fluid particles. Similar to the diffusion and self-propagation behavior of fluid particles, sensor nodes realize deployment in unknown region following the motion rules of fluid. Simulation results show that our algorithm archives good coverage rate and homogeneity in large-scale sensor networks. Jiguang Chen and Huanyan Qian Copyright © 2014 Jiguang Chen and Huanyan Qian. All rights reserved. Obtaining P3P Privacy Policies for Composite Services Sun, 13 Jul 2014 09:39:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/961659/ With the development of web services technology, web services have changed from single to composite services. Privacy protection in composite services is becoming an important issue. P3P (platform for privacy preferences) is a privacy policy language which was designed for single web services. It enables service providers to express how they will deal with the privacy information of service consumers. In order to solve the problem that P3P cannot be applied to composite services directly, we propose a method to obtain P3P privacy policies for composite services. In this method, we present the definitions of Purpose, Recipient, and Retention elements as well as Optional and Required attributes for P3P policies of composite services. We also provide an instantiation to illustrate the feasibility of the method. Yi Sun, Zhiqiu Huang, and Changbo Ke Copyright © 2014 Yi Sun et al. All rights reserved. The Potential of Using Brain Images for Authentication Thu, 10 Jul 2014 19:41:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/749096/ Biometric recognition (also known as biometrics) refers to the automated recognition of individuals based on their biological or behavioral traits. Examples of biometric traits include fingerprint, palmprint, iris, and face. The brain is the most important and complex organ in the human body. Can it be used as a biometric trait? In this study, we analyze the uniqueness of the brain and try to use the brain for identity authentication. The proposed brain-based verification system operates in two stages: gray matter extraction and gray matter matching. A modified brain segmentation algorithm is implemented for extracting gray matter from an input brain image. Then, an alignment-based matching algorithm is developed for brain matching. Experimental results on two data sets show that the proposed brain recognition system meets the high accuracy requirement of identity authentication. Though currently the acquisition of the brain is still time consuming and expensive, brain images are highly unique and have the potential possibility for authentication in view of pattern recognition. Fanglin Chen, Zongtan Zhou, Hui Shen, and Dewen Hu Copyright © 2014 Fanglin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Outlier Detection Method in Linear Regression Based on Sum of Arithmetic Progression Thu, 10 Jul 2014 12:29:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/821623/ We introduce a new nonparametric outlier detection method for linear series, which requires no missing or removed data imputation. For an arithmetic progression (a series without outliers) with elements, the ratio () of the sum of the minimum and the maximum elements and the sum of all elements is always . always implies the existence of outliers. Usually, implies that the minimum is an outlier, and implies that the maximum is an outlier. Based upon this, we derived a new method for identifying significant and nonsignificant outliers, separately. Two different techniques were used to manage missing data and removed outliers: (1) recalculate the terms after (or before) the removed or missing element while maintaining the initial angle in relation to a certain point or (2) transform data into a constant value, which is not affected by missing or removed elements. With a reference element, which was not an outlier, the method detected all outliers from data sets with 6 to 1000 elements containing 50% outliers which deviated by a factor of to from the correct value. K. K. L. B. Adikaram, M. A. Hussein, M. Effenberger, and T. Becker Copyright © 2014 K. K. L. B. Adikaram et al. All rights reserved. Moving Object Localization Using Optical Flow for Pedestrian Detection from a Moving Vehicle Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:27:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/196415/ This paper presents a pedestrian detection method from a moving vehicle using optical flows and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). A moving object is extracted from the relative motion by segmenting the region representing the same optical flows after compensating the egomotion of the camera. To obtain the optical flow, two consecutive images are divided into grid cells pixels; then each cell is tracked in the current frame to find corresponding cell in the next frame. Using at least three corresponding cells, affine transformation is performed according to each corresponding cell in the consecutive images, so that conformed optical flows are extracted. The regions of moving object are detected as transformed objects, which are different from the previously registered background. Morphological process is applied to get the candidate human regions. In order to recognize the object, the HOG features are extracted on the candidate region and classified using linear support vector machine (SVM). The HOG feature vectors are used as input of linear SVM to classify the given input into pedestrian/nonpedestrian. The proposed method was tested in a moving vehicle and also confirmed through experiments using pedestrian dataset. It shows a significant improvement compared with original HOG using ETHZ pedestrian dataset. Joko Hariyono, Van-Dung Hoang, and Kang-Hyun Jo Copyright © 2014 Joko Hariyono et al. All rights reserved. A Synchronous-Asynchronous Particle Swarm Optimisation Algorithm Thu, 10 Jul 2014 08:36:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/123019/ In the original particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm, the particles’ velocities and positions are updated after the whole swarm performance is evaluated. This algorithm is also known as synchronous PSO (S-PSO). The strength of this update method is in the exploitation of the information. Asynchronous update PSO (A-PSO) has been proposed as an alternative to S-PSO. A particle in A-PSO updates its velocity and position as soon as its own performance has been evaluated. Hence, particles are updated using partial information, leading to stronger exploration. In this paper, we attempt to improve PSO by merging both update methods to utilise the strengths of both methods. The proposed synchronous-asynchronous PSO (SA-PSO) algorithm divides the particles into smaller groups. The best member of a group and the swarm’s best are chosen to lead the search. Members within a group are updated synchronously, while the groups themselves are asynchronously updated. Five well-known unimodal functions, four multimodal functions, and a real world optimisation problem are used to study the performance of SA-PSO, which is compared with the performances of S-PSO and A-PSO. The results are statistically analysed and show that the proposed SA-PSO has performed consistently well. Nor Azlina Ab Aziz, Marizan Mubin, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, and Kamarulzaman Ab Aziz Copyright © 2014 Nor Azlina Ab Aziz et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems Wed, 09 Jul 2014 09:04:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/684587/ Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm’s life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. Moamin A. Mahmoud, Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad, Mohd Zaliman Mohd Yusoff, and Aida Mustapha Copyright © 2014 Moamin A. Mahmoud et al. All rights reserved. Scene Consistency Verification Based on PatchNet Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:54:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/298524/ In the real world, the object does not exist in isolation, and it always appears in a certain scene. Usually the object is fixed in a particular scene and even in special spatial location. In this paper, we propose a method for judging scene consistency effectively. Scene semantics and geometry relation play a key role. In this paper, we use PatchNet to deal with these high-level scene structures. We construct a consistent scene database, using semantic information of PatchNet to determine whether the scene is consistent. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by a lot of experiments. Jinjiang Li, Xiaoqing Guo, Zhen Hua, and Zhiyong An Copyright © 2014 Jinjiang Li et al. All rights reserved. Security Techniques for Prevention of Rank Manipulation in Social Tagging Services including Robotic Domains Wed, 09 Jul 2014 08:53:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/832638/ With smartphone distribution becoming common and robotic applications on the rise, social tagging services for various applications including robotic domains have advanced significantly. Though social tagging plays an important role when users are finding the exact information through web search, reliability and semantic relation between web contents and tags are not considered. Spams are making ill use of this aspect and put irrelevant tags deliberately on contents and induce users to advertise contents when they click items of search results. Therefore, this study proposes a detection method for tag-ranking manipulation to solve the problem of the existing methods which cannot guarantee the reliability of tagging. Similarity is measured for ranking the grade of registered tag on the contents, and weighted values of each tag are measured by means of synonym relevance, frequency, and semantic distances between tags. Lastly, experimental evaluation results are provided and its efficiency and accuracy are verified through them. Okkyung Choi, Hanyoung Jung, and Seungbin Moon Copyright © 2014 Okkyung Choi et al. All rights reserved. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames Wed, 09 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/460973/ Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames. Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu, Sharifah Mumtazah Syed Ahmad, Wan Azizun Wan Adnan, Salman Yussof, Vahab Iranmanesh, and Fahad Layth Malallah Copyright © 2014 Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu et al. All rights reserved. Stochastic Optimized Relevance Feedback Particle Swarm Optimization for Content Based Image Retrieval Wed, 09 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/752090/ One of the major challenges for the CBIR is to bridge the gap between low level features and high level semantics according to the need of the user. To overcome this gap, relevance feedback (RF) coupled with support vector machine (SVM) has been applied successfully. However, when the feedback sample is small, the performance of the SVM based RF is often poor. To improve the performance of RF, this paper has proposed a new technique, namely, PSO-SVM-RF, which combines SVM based RF with particle swarm optimization (PSO). The aims of this proposed technique are to enhance the performance of SVM based RF and also to minimize the user interaction with the system by minimizing the RF number. The PSO-SVM-RF was tested on the coral photo gallery containing 10908 images. The results obtained from the experiments showed that the proposed PSO-SVM-RF achieved 100% accuracy in 8 feedback iterations for top 10 retrievals and 80% accuracy in 6 iterations for 100 top retrievals. This implies that with PSO-SVM-RF technique high accuracy rate is achieved at a small number of iterations. Muhammad Imran, Rathiah Hashim, Abd Khalid Noor Elaiza, and Aun Irtaza Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Imran et al. All rights reserved. Applying Dynamic Priority Scheduling Scheme to Static Systems of Pinwheel Task Model in Power-Aware Scheduling Tue, 08 Jul 2014 09:20:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/587321/ Power-aware scheduling reduces CPU energy consumption in hard real-time systems through dynamic voltage scaling (DVS). In this paper, we deal with pinwheel task model which is known as static and predictable task model and could be applied to various embedded or ubiquitous systems. In pinwheel task model, each task’s priority is static and its execution sequence could be predetermined. There have been many static approaches to power-aware scheduling in pinwheel task model. But, in this paper, we will show that the dynamic priority scheduling results in power-aware scheduling could be applied to pinwheel task model. This method is more effective than adopting the previous static priority scheduling methods in saving energy consumption and, for the system being still static, it is more tractable and applicable to small sized embedded or ubiquitous computing. Also, we introduce a novel power-aware scheduling algorithm which exploits all slacks under preemptive earliest-deadline first scheduling which is optimal in uniprocessor system. The dynamic priority method presented in this paper could be applied directly to static systems of pinwheel task model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with the algorithmic complexity of O(n) reduces the energy consumption by 10–80% over the existing algorithms. Ye-In Seol and Young-Kuk Kim Copyright © 2014 Ye-In Seol and Young-Kuk Kim. All rights reserved. Efficient and Scalable Graph Similarity Joins in MapReduce Tue, 08 Jul 2014 08:19:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/749028/ Along with the emergence of massive graph-modeled data, it is of great importance to investigate graph similarity joins due to their wide applications for multiple purposes, including data cleaning, and near duplicate detection. This paper considers graph similarity joins with edit distance constraints, which return pairs of graphs such that their edit distances are no larger than a given threshold. Leveraging the MapReduce programming model, we propose MGSJoin, a scalable algorithm following the filtering-verification framework for efficient graph similarity joins. It relies on counting overlapping graph signatures for filtering out nonpromising candidates. With the potential issue of too many key-value pairs in the filtering phase, spectral Bloom filters are introduced to reduce the number of key-value pairs. Furthermore, we integrate the multiway join strategy to boost the verification, where a MapReduce-based method is proposed for GED calculation. The superior efficiency and scalability of the proposed algorithms are demonstrated by extensive experimental results. Yifan Chen, Xiang Zhao, Chuan Xiao, Weiming Zhang, and Jiuyang Tang Copyright © 2014 Yifan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:41:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/136018/ Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons. Sanghyuk Lee and Seungsoo Shin Copyright © 2014 Sanghyuk Lee and Seungsoo Shin. All rights reserved. A Procedure for Extending Input Selection Algorithms to Low Quality Data in Modelling Problems with Application to the Automatic Grading of Uploaded Assignments Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:27:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/468405/ When selecting relevant inputs in modeling problems with low quality data, the ranking of the most informative inputs is also uncertain. In this paper, this issue is addressed through a new procedure that allows the extending of different crisp feature selection algorithms to vague data. The partial knowledge about the ordinal of each feature is modelled by means of a possibility distribution, and a ranking is hereby applied to sort these distributions. It will be shown that this technique makes the most use of the available information in some vague datasets. The approach is demonstrated in a real-world application. In the context of massive online computer science courses, methods are sought for automatically providing the student with a qualification through code metrics. Feature selection methods are used to find the metrics involved in the most meaningful predictions. In this study, 800 source code files, collected and revised by the authors in classroom Computer Science lectures taught between 2013 and 2014, are analyzed with the proposed technique, and the most relevant metrics for the automatic grading task are discussed. José Otero, Ana Palacios, Rosario Suárez, Luis Junco, Inés Couso, and Luciano Sánchez Copyright © 2014 José Otero et al. All rights reserved. Detecting Community Structures in Networks by Label Propagation with Prediction of Percolation Transition Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:16:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/148686/ Though label propagation algorithm (LPA) is one of the fastest algorithms for community detection in complex networks, the problem of trivial solutions frequently occurring in the algorithm affects its performance. We propose a label propagation algorithm with prediction of percolation transition (LPAp). After analyzing the reason for multiple solutions of LPA, by transforming the process of community detection into network construction process, a trivial solution in label propagation is considered as a giant component in the percolation transition. We add a prediction process of percolation transition in label propagation to delay the occurrence of trivial solutions, which makes small communities easier to be found. We also give an incomplete update condition which considers both neighbor purity and the contribution of small degree vertices to community detection to reduce the computation time of LPAp. Numerical tests are conducted. Experimental results on synthetic networks and real-world networks show that the LPAp is more accurate, more sensitive to small community, and has the ability to identify a single community structure. Moreover, LPAp with the incomplete update process can use less computation time than LPA, nearly without modularity loss. Aiping Zhang, Guang Ren, Yejin Lin, Baozhu Jia, Hui Cao, Jundong Zhang, and Shubin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Aiping Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Rhythm-Based Authentication Scheme for Smart Media Devices Mon, 07 Jul 2014 11:04:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/781014/ In recent years, ubiquitous computing has been rapidly emerged in our lives and extensive studies have been conducted in a variety of areas related to smart devices, such as tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, smart refrigerators, and smart media devices, as a measure for realizing the ubiquitous computing. In particular, smartphones have significantly evolved from the traditional feature phones. Increasingly higher-end smartphone models that can perform a range of functions are now available. Smart devices have become widely popular since they provide high efficiency and great convenience for not only private daily activities but also business endeavors. Rapid advancements have been achieved in smart device technologies to improve the end users’ convenience. Consequently, many people increasingly rely on smart devices to store their valuable and important data. With this increasing dependence, an important aspect that must be addressed is security issues. Leaking of private information or sensitive business data due to loss or theft of smart devices could result in exorbitant damage. To mitigate these security threats, basic embedded locking features are provided in smart devices. However, these locking features are vulnerable. In this paper, an original security-locking scheme using a rhythm-based locking system (RLS) is proposed to overcome the existing security problems of smart devices. RLS is a user-authenticated system that addresses vulnerability issues in the existing locking features and provides secure confidentiality in addition to convenience. Jae Dong Lee, Young-Sik Jeong, and Jong Hyuk Park Copyright © 2014 Jae Dong Lee et al. All rights reserved. Density-Based Penalty Parameter Optimization on C-SVM Mon, 07 Jul 2014 09:32:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/851814/ The support vector machine (SVM) is one of the most widely used approaches for data classification and regression. SVM achieves the largest distance between the positive and negative support vectors, which neglects the remote instances away from the SVM interface. In order to avoid a position change of the SVM interface as the result of an error system outlier, C-SVM was implemented to decrease the influences of the system’s outliers. Traditional C-SVM holds a uniform parameter C for both positive and negative instances; however, according to the different number proportions and the data distribution, positive and negative instances should be set with different weights for the penalty parameter of the error terms. Therefore, in this paper, we propose density-based penalty parameter optimization of C-SVM. The experiential results indicated that our proposed algorithm has outstanding performance with respect to both precision and recall. Yun Liu, Jie Lian, Michael R. Bartolacci, and Qing-An Zeng Copyright © 2014 Yun Liu et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Ant Colony Optimization Approach for Optimization of Process Planning Sun, 06 Jul 2014 09:12:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/294513/ Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) is an important interface between computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) in computer-integrated manufacturing environments (CIMs). In this paper, process planning problem is described based on a weighted graph, and an ant colony optimization (ACO) approach is improved to deal with it effectively. The weighted graph consists of nodes, directed arcs, and undirected arcs, which denote operations, precedence constraints among operation, and the possible visited path among operations, respectively. Ant colony goes through the necessary nodes on the graph to achieve the optimal solution with the objective of minimizing total production costs (TPCs). A pheromone updating strategy proposed in this paper is incorporated in the standard ACO, which includes Global Update Rule and Local Update Rule. A simple method by controlling the repeated number of the same process plans is designed to avoid the local convergence. A case has been carried out to study the influence of various parameters of ACO on the system performance. Extensive comparative experiments have been carried out to validate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed approach. JinFeng Wang, XiaoLiang Fan, and Haimin Ding Copyright © 2014 JinFeng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Protecting Location Privacy for Outsourced Spatial Data in Cloud Storage Sun, 06 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/108072/ As cloud computing services and location-aware devices are fully developed, a large amount of spatial data needs to be outsourced to the cloud storage provider, so the research on privacy protection for outsourced spatial data gets increasing attention from academia and industry. As a kind of spatial transformation method, Hilbert curve is widely used to protect the location privacy for spatial data. But sufficient security analysis for standard Hilbert curve (SHC) is seldom proceeded. In this paper, we propose an index modification method for SHC (SHC∗) and a density-based space filling curve (DSC) to improve the security of SHC; they can partially violate the distance-preserving property of SHC, so as to achieve better security. We formally define the indistinguishability and attack model for measuring the privacy disclosure risk of spatial transformation methods. The evaluation results indicate that SHC∗ and DSC are more secure than SHC, and DSC achieves the best index generation performance. Feng Tian, Xiaolin Gui, Jian An, Pan Yang, Jianqiang Zhao, and Xuejun Zhang Copyright © 2014 Feng Tian et al. All rights reserved. Integrated Model of Multiple Kernel Learning and Differential Evolution for EUR/USD Trading Sun, 06 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/914641/ Currency trading is an important area for individual investors, government policy decisions, and organization investments. In this study, we propose a hybrid approach referred to as MKL-DE, which combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) with differential evolution (DE) for trading a currency pair. MKL is used to learn a model that predicts changes in the target currency pair, whereas DE is used to generate the buy and sell signals for the target currency pair based on the relative strength index (RSI), while it is also combined with MKL as a trading signal. The new hybrid implementation is applied to EUR/USD trading, which is the most traded foreign exchange (FX) currency pair. MKL is essential for utilizing information from multiple information sources and DE is essential for formulating a trading rule based on a mixture of discrete structures and continuous parameters. Initially, the prediction model optimized by MKL predicts the returns based on a technical indicator called the moving average convergence and divergence. Next, a combined trading signal is optimized by DE using the inputs from the prediction model and technical indicator RSI obtained from multiple timeframes. The experimental results showed that trading using the prediction learned by MKL yielded consistent profits. Shangkun Deng and Akito Sakurai Copyright © 2014 Shangkun Deng and Akito Sakurai. All rights reserved. A Local Stability Supported Parallel Distributed Constraint Optimization Algorithm Thu, 03 Jul 2014 12:01:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/734975/ This paper presents a new distributed constraint optimization algorithm called LSPA, which can be used to solve large scale distributed constraint optimization problem (DCOP). Different from the access of local information in the existing algorithms, a new criterion called local stability is defined and used to evaluate which is the next agent whose value needs to be changed. The propose of local stability opens a new research direction of refining initial solution by finding key agents which can seriously effect global solution once they modify assignments. In addition, the construction of initial solution could be received more quickly without repeated assignment and conflict. In order to execute parallel search, LSPA finds final solution by constantly computing local stability of compatible agents. Experimental evaluation shows that LSPA outperforms some of the state-of-the-art incomplete distributed constraint optimization algorithms, guaranteeing better solutions received within ideal time. Duan Peibo, Zhang Changsheng, and Zhang Bin Copyright © 2014 Duan Peibo et al. All rights reserved. Anomaly Detection Based on Local Nearest Neighbor Distance Descriptor in Crowded Scenes Thu, 03 Jul 2014 12:00:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/632575/ We propose a novel local nearest neighbor distance (LNND) descriptor for anomaly detection in crowded scenes. Comparing with the commonly used low-level feature descriptors in previous works, LNND descriptor has two major advantages. First, LNND descriptor efficiently incorporates spatial and temporal contextual information around the video event that is important for detecting anomalous interaction among multiple events, while most existing feature descriptors only contain the information of single event. Second, LNND descriptor is a compact representation and its dimensionality is typically much lower than the low-level feature descriptor. Therefore, not only the computation time and storage requirement can be accordingly saved by using LNND descriptor for the anomaly detection method with offline training fashion, but also the negative aspects caused by using high-dimensional feature descriptor can be avoided. We validate the effectiveness of LNND descriptor by conducting extensive experiments on different benchmark datasets. Experimental results show the promising performance of LNND-based method against the state-of-the-art methods. It is worthwhile to notice that the LNND-based approach requires less intermediate processing steps without any subsequent processing such as smoothing but achieves comparable event better performance. Xing Hu, Shiqiang Hu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Huanlong Zhang, and Lingkun Luo Copyright © 2014 Xing Hu et al. All rights reserved. A Distributed Parallel Genetic Algorithm of Placement Strategy for Virtual Machines Deployment on Cloud Platform Thu, 03 Jul 2014 11:39:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/259139/ The cloud platform provides various services to users. More and more cloud centers provide infrastructure as the main way of operating. To improve the utilization rate of the cloud center and to decrease the operating cost, the cloud center provides services according to requirements of users by sharding the resources with virtualization. Considering both QoS for users and cost saving for cloud computing providers, we try to maximize performance and minimize energy cost as well. In this paper, we propose a distributed parallel genetic algorithm (DPGA) of placement strategy for virtual machines deployment on cloud platform. It executes the genetic algorithm parallelly and distributedly on several selected physical hosts in the first stage. Then it continues to execute the genetic algorithm of the second stage with solutions obtained from the first stage as the initial population. The solution calculated by the genetic algorithm of the second stage is the optimal one of the proposed approach. The experimental results show that the proposed placement strategy of VM deployment can ensure QoS for users and it is more effective and more energy efficient than other placement strategies on the cloud platform. Yu-Shuang Dong, Gao-Chao Xu, and Xiao-Dong Fu Copyright © 2014 Yu-Shuang Dong et al. All rights reserved. QoS Measurement of Workflow-Based Web Service Compositions Using Colored Petri Net Thu, 03 Jul 2014 08:36:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/847930/ Workflow-based web service compositions (WB-WSCs) is one of the main composition categories in service oriented architecture (SOA). Eflow, polymorphic process model (PPM), and business process execution language (BPEL) are the main techniques of the category of WB-WSCs. Due to maturity of web services, measuring the quality of composite web services being developed by different techniques becomes one of the most important challenges in today’s web environments. Business should try to provide good quality regarding the customers’ requirements to a composed web service. Thus, quality of service (QoS) which refers to nonfunctional parameters is important to be measured since the quality degree of a certain web service composition could be achieved. This paper tried to find a deterministic analytical method for dependability and performance measurement using Colored Petri net (CPN) with explicit routing constructs and application of theory of probability. A computer tool called WSET was also developed for modeling and supporting QoS measurement through simulation. Hossein Nematzadeh, Homayun Motameni, Radziah Mohamad, and Zahra Nematzadeh Copyright © 2014 Hossein Nematzadeh et al. All rights reserved. An Adaptive Framework for Real-Time ECG Transmission in Mobile Environments Thu, 03 Jul 2014 07:09:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/678309/ Wireless electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring involves the measurement of ECG signals and their timely transmission over wireless networks to remote healthcare professionals. However, fluctuations in wireless channel conditions pose quality-of-service challenges for real-time ECG monitoring services in a mobile environment. We present an adaptive framework for layered coding and transmission of ECG data that can cope with a time-varying wireless channel. The ECG is segmented into layers with differing importance with respect to the quality of the reconstructed signal. According to this observation, we have devised a simple and efficient real-time scheduling algorithm based on the earliest deadline first (EDF) policy, which decides the order of transmitting or retransmitting packets that contain ECG data at any given time for the delivery of scalable ECG data over a lossy channel. The algorithm takes into account the differing priorities of packets in each layer, which prevents the perceived quality of the reconstructed ECG signal from degrading abruptly as channel conditions worsen, while using the available bandwidth efficiently. Extensive simulations demonstrate this improvement in perceived quality. Kyungtae Kang Copyright © 2014 Kyungtae Kang. All rights reserved. The Laws of Natural Deduction in Inference by DNA Computer Thu, 03 Jul 2014 05:53:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/834237/ We present a DNA-based implementation of reaction system with molecules encoding elements of the propositional logic, that is, propositions and formulas. The protocol can perform inference steps using, for example, modus ponens and modus tollens rules and de Morgan’s laws. The set of the implemented operations allows for inference of formulas using the laws of natural deduction. The system can also detect whether a certain proposition a can be deduced from the basic facts and given rules. The whole protocol is fully autonomous; that is, after introducing the initial set of molecules, no human assistance is needed. Only one restriction enzyme is used throughout the inference process. Unlike some other similar implementations, our improved design allows representing simultaneously a fact a and its negation ~a, including special reactions to detect the inconsistency, that is, a simultaneous occurrence of a fact and its negation. An analysis of correctness, completeness, and complexity is included. Łukasz Rogowski and Petr Sosík Copyright © 2014 Łukasz Rogowski and Petr Sosík. All rights reserved. A Survey of Research Progress and Development Tendency of Attribute-Based Encryption Wed, 02 Jul 2014 12:29:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/193426/ With the development of cryptography, the attribute-based encryption (ABE) draws widespread attention of the researchers in recent years. The ABE scheme, which belongs to the public key encryption mechanism, takes attributes as public key and associates them with the ciphertext or the user’s secret key. It is an efficient way to solve open problems in access control scenarios, for example, how to provide data confidentiality and expressive access control at the same time. In this paper, we survey the basic ABE scheme and its two variants: the key-policy ABE (KP-ABE) scheme and the ciphertext-policy ABE (CP-ABE) scheme. We also pay attention to other researches relating to the ABE schemes, including multiauthority, user/attribute revocation, accountability, and proxy reencryption, with an extensive comparison of their functionality and performance. Finally, possible future works and some conclusions are pointed out. Liaojun Pang, Jie Yang, and Zhengtao Jiang Copyright © 2014 Liaojun Pang et al. All rights reserved. Utility-Oriented Placement of Actuator Nodes with a Collaborative Serving Scheme for Facilitated Business and Working Environments Wed, 02 Jul 2014 11:43:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/835260/ Places to be served by cyber-physical systems (CPS) are usually distributed unevenly over the area. Thus, different areas usually have different importance and values of serving. In other words, serving power can be excessive or insufficient in practice. Therefore, actuator nodes (ANs) in CPS should be focused on serving around points of interest (POIs) with considerations of “service utility.” In this paper, a utility-oriented AN placement framework with a collaborative serving scheme is proposed. Through spreading serving duties among correctly located ANs, deployment cost can be reduced, utility of ANs can be fully utilized, and the system longevity can be improved. The problem has been converted into a binary integer linear programming optimization problem. Service fading, 3D placements, multiscenario placements, and fault-tolerant placements have been modeled in the framework. An imitated example of a CPS deployment in a smart laboratory has been used for evaluations. Chi-Un Lei, Woon Kian Chong, and Ka Lok Man Copyright © 2014 Chi-Un Lei et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time Terrain Storage Generation from Multiple Sensors towards Mobile Robot Operation Interface Wed, 02 Jul 2014 08:06:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/769149/ A mobile robot mounted with multiple sensors is used to rapidly collect 3D point clouds and video images so as to allow accurate terrain modeling. In this study, we develop a real-time terrain storage generation and representation system including a nonground point database (PDB), ground mesh database (MDB), and texture database (TDB). A voxel-based flag map is proposed for incrementally registering large-scale point clouds in a terrain model in real time. We quantize the 3D point clouds into 3D grids of the flag map as a comparative table in order to remove the redundant points. We integrate the large-scale 3D point clouds into a nonground PDB and a node-based terrain mesh using the CPU. Subsequently, we program a graphics processing unit (GPU) to generate the TDB by mapping the triangles in the terrain mesh onto the captured video images. Finally, we produce a nonground voxel map and a ground textured mesh as a terrain reconstruction result. Our proposed methods were tested in an outdoor environment. Our results show that the proposed system was able to rapidly generate terrain storage and provide high resolution terrain representation for mobile mapping services and a graphical user interface between remote operators and mobile robots. Wei Song, Seoungjae Cho, Yulong Xi, Kyungeun Cho, and Kyhyun Um Copyright © 2014 Wei Song et al. All rights reserved. A Socially Aware Routing Based on Local Contact Information in Delay-Tolerant Networks Tue, 01 Jul 2014 07:59:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/408676/ In delay-tolerant networks, network topology changes dynamically and there is no guarantee of continuous connectivity between any two nodes. These features make DTN routing one of important research issues, and the application of social network metrics has led to the design of recent DTN routing schemes. In this paper, we propose an efficient routing scheme by using a node’s local contact history and social network metrics. Each node first chooses a proper relay node based on the closeness to the destination node. A locally computed betweenness centrality is additionally utilized to enhance the routing efficiency. Through intensive simulation, we finally demonstrate that our algorithm performs efficiently compared to the existing epidemic or friendship routing scheme. Chan-Myung Kim, Youn-Hee Han, Joo-Sang Youn, and Young-Sik Jeong Copyright © 2014 Chan-Myung Kim et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Lock-Free Based Concurrent Garbage Collectors for Multicore Platform Mon, 30 Jun 2014 07:24:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/237356/ Concurrent garbage collectors (CGC) have recently obtained extensive concern on multicore platform. Excellent designed CGC can improve the efficiency of runtime systems by exploring the full potential processing resources of multicore computers. Two major performance critical components for designing CGC are studied in this paper, stack scanning and heap compaction. Since the lock-based algorithms do not scale well, we present a lock-free solution for constructing a highly concurrent garbage collector. We adopt CAS/MCAS synchronization primitives to guarantee that the programs will never be blocked by the collector thread while the garbage collection process is ongoing. The evaluation results of this study demonstrate that our approach achieves competitive performance. Hao Wu and Zhen-Zhou Ji Copyright © 2014 Hao Wu and Zhen-Zhou Ji. All rights reserved. LED Context Lighting System in Residential Areas Sun, 29 Jun 2014 09:43:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/851930/ As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one’s life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user’s surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context. Sook-Youn Kwon, Kyoung-Mi Im, and Jae-Hyun Lim Copyright © 2014 Sook-Youn Kwon et al. All rights reserved. Energy Saving in Data Processing and Communication Systems Sun, 29 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/452863/ The power management of ICT systems, that is, data processing (Dp) and telecommunication (Tlc) systems, is becoming a relevant problem in economical terms. Dp systems totalize millions of servers and associated subsystems (processors, monitors, storage devices, etc.) all over the world that need to be electrically powered. Dp systems are also used in the government of Tlc systems, which, besides requiring Dp electrical power, also require Tlc-specific power, both for mobile networks (with their cell-phone towers and associated subsystems: base stations, subscriber stations, switching nodes, etc.) and for wired networks (with their routers, gateways, switches, etc.). ICT research is thus expected to investigate into methods to reduce Dp- and Tlc-specific power consumption. However, saving power may turn into waste of performance, in other words, into waste of ICT quality of service (QoS). This paper investigates the Dp and Tlc power management policies that look at compromises between power saving and QoS. Giuseppe Iazeolla and Alessandra Pieroni Copyright © 2014 Giuseppe Iazeolla and Alessandra Pieroni. All rights reserved. An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Uncertain Portfolio Selection Thu, 26 Jun 2014 13:35:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/578182/ Portfolio selection is an important issue for researchers and practitioners. In this paper, under the assumption that security returns are given by experts’ evaluations rather than historical data, we discuss the portfolio adjusting problem which takes transaction costs and diversification degree of portfolio into consideration. Uncertain variables are employed to describe the security returns. In the proposed mean-variance-entropy model, the uncertain mean value of the return is used to measure investment return, the uncertain variance of the return is used to measure investment risk, and the entropy is used to measure diversification degree of portfolio. In order to solve the proposed model, a modified artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is designed. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the modelling idea and the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Wei Chen Copyright © 2014 Wei Chen. All rights reserved. Similarity Measure Learning in Closed-Form Solution for Image Classification Thu, 26 Jun 2014 13:32:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/747105/ Adopting a measure is essential in many multimedia applications. Recently, distance learning is becoming an active research problem. In fact, the distance is the natural measure for dissimilarity. Generally, a pairwise relationship between two objects in learning tasks includes two aspects: similarity and dissimilarity. The similarity measure provides different information for pairwise relationships. However, similarity learning has been paid less attention in learning problems. In this work, firstly, we propose a general framework for similarity measure learning (SML). Additionally, we define a generalized type of correlation as a similarity measure. By a set of parameters, generalized correlation provides flexibility for learning tasks. Based on this similarity measure, we present a specific algorithm under the SML framework, called correlation similarity measure learning (CSML), to learn a parameterized similarity measure over input space. A nonlinear extension version of CSML, kernel CSML, is also proposed. Particularly, we give a closed-form solution avoiding iterative search for a local optimal solution in the high-dimensional space as the previous work did. Finally, classification experiments have been performed on face databases and a handwritten digits database to demonstrate the efficiency and reliability of CSML and KCSML. Jing Chen, Yuan Yan Tang, C. L. Philip Chen, Bin Fang, Zhaowei Shang, and Yuewei Lin Copyright © 2014 Jing Chen et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Broadcasting Mechanism for Bandwidth Allocation in Mobile Services Thu, 26 Jun 2014 11:33:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/735457/ This paper proposes a tree-based adaptive broadcasting (TAB) algorithm for data dissemination to improve data access efficiency. The proposed TAB algorithm first constructs a broadcast tree to determine the broadcast frequency of each data and splits the broadcast tree into some broadcast wood to generate the broadcast program. In addition, this paper develops an analytical model to derive the mean access latency of the generated broadcast program. In light of the derived results, both the index channel’s bandwidth and the data channel’s bandwidth can be optimally allocated to maximize bandwidth utilization. This paper presents experiments to help evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed mechanism is feasible in practice. Gwo-Jiun Horng, Chi-Hsuan Wang, and Chih-Lun Chou Copyright © 2014 Gwo-Jiun Horng et al. All rights reserved. Hot News Recommendation System from Heterogeneous Websites Based on Bayesian Model Thu, 26 Jun 2014 08:13:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/734351/ The most current news recommendations are suitable for news which comes from a single news website, not for news from different heterogeneous news websites. Previous researches about news recommender systems based on different strategies have been proposed to provide news personalization services for online news readers. However, little research work has been reported on utilizing hundreds of heterogeneous news websites to provide top hot news services for group customers (e.g., government staffs). In this paper, we propose a hot news recommendation model based on Bayesian model, which is from hundreds of different news websites. In the model, we determine whether the news is hot news by calculating the joint probability of the news. We evaluate and compare our proposed recommendation model with the results of human experts on the real data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the reliability and effectiveness of our method. We also implement this model in hot news recommendation system of Hangzhou city government in year 2013, which achieves very good results. Zhengyou Xia, Shengwu Xu, Ningzhong Liu, and Zhengkang Zhao Copyright © 2014 Zhengyou Xia et al. All rights reserved. A Combination of Extended Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy GRA for Government E-Tendering in Hybrid Fuzzy Environment Thu, 26 Jun 2014 07:48:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/123675/ The recent government tendering process being conducted in an electronic way is becoming an inevitable affair for numerous governmental agencies to further exploit the superiorities of conventional tendering. Thus, developing an effective web-based bid evaluation methodology so as to realize an efficient and effective government E-tendering (GeT) system is imperative. This paper firstly investigates the potentiality of employing fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) along with fuzzy gray relational analysis (GRA) for optimal selection of candidate tenderers in GeT process with consideration of a hybrid fuzzy environment with incomplete weight information. We proposed a novel hybrid fuzzy AHP-GRA (HFAHP-GRA) method that combines an extended fuzzy AHP with a modified fuzzy GRA. The extended fuzzy AHP which combines typical AHP with interval AHP is proposed to obtain the exact weight information, and the modified fuzzy GRA is applied to aggregate different types of evaluation information so as to identify the optimal candidate tenderers. Finally, a prototype system is built and validated with an illustrative example for GeT to confirm the feasibility of our approach. Yan Wang, Chengyu Xi, Shuai Zhang, Dejian Yu, Wenyu Zhang, and Yong Li Copyright © 2014 Yan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Fault Detection of Aircraft System with Random Forest Algorithm and Similarity Measure Thu, 26 Jun 2014 07:32:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/727359/ Research on fault detection algorithm was developed with the similarity measure and random forest algorithm. The organized algorithm was applied to unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) that was readied by us. Similarity measure was designed by the help of distance information, and its usefulness was also verified by proof. Fault decision was carried out by calculation of weighted similarity measure. Twelve available coefficients among healthy and faulty status data group were used to determine the decision. Similarity measure weighting was done and obtained through random forest algorithm (RFA); RF provides data priority. In order to get a fast response of decision, a limited number of coefficients was also considered. Relation of detection rate and amount of feature data were analyzed and illustrated. By repeated trial of similarity calculation, useful data amount was obtained. Sanghyuk Lee, Wookje Park, and Sikhang Jung Copyright © 2014 Sanghyuk Lee et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Business Intelligence by Means of Suggestive Reviews Thu, 26 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/879323/ Appropriate identification and classification of online reviews to satisfy the needs of current and potential users pose a critical challenge for the business environment. This paper focuses on a specific kind of reviews: the suggestive type. Suggestions have a significant influence on both consumers’ choices and designers’ understanding and, hence, they are key for tasks such as brand positioning and social media marketing. The proposed approach consists of three main steps: (1) classify comparative and suggestive sentences; (2) categorize suggestive sentences into different types, either explicit or implicit locutions; (3) perform sentiment analysis on the classified reviews. A range of supervised machine learning approaches and feature sets are evaluated to tackle the problem of suggestive opinion mining. Experimental results for all three tasks are obtained on a dataset of mobile phone reviews and demonstrate that extending a bag-of-words representation with suggestive and comparative patterns is ideal for distinguishing suggestive sentences. In particular, it is observed that classifying suggestive sentences into implicit and explicit locutions works best when using a mixed sequential rule feature representation. Sentiment analysis achieves maximum performance when employing additional preprocessing in the form of negation handling and target masking, combined with sentiment lexicons. Atika Qazi, Ram Gopal Raj, Muhammad Tahir, Erik Cambria, and Karim Bux Shah Syed Copyright © 2014 Atika Qazi et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time Hand Gesture Recognition Using Finger Segmentation Wed, 25 Jun 2014 12:43:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/267872/ Hand gesture recognition is very significant for human-computer interaction. In this work, we present a novel real-time method for hand gesture recognition. In our framework, the hand region is extracted from the background with the background subtraction method. Then, the palm and fingers are segmented so as to detect and recognize the fingers. Finally, a rule classifier is applied to predict the labels of hand gestures. The experiments on the data set of 1300 images show that our method performs well and is highly efficient. Moreover, our method shows better performance than a state-of-art method on another data set of hand gestures. Zhi-hua Chen, Jung-Tae Kim, Jianning Liang, Jing Zhang, and Yu-Bo Yuan Copyright © 2014 Zhi-hua Chen et al. All rights reserved. An Effective Approach to Improving Low-Cost GPS Positioning Accuracy in Real-Time Navigation Wed, 25 Jun 2014 08:19:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/671494/ Positioning accuracy is a challenging issue for location-based applications using a low-cost global positioning system (GPS). This paper presents an effective approach to improving the positioning accuracy of a low-cost GPS receiver for real-time navigation. The proposed method precisely estimates position by combining vehicle movement direction, velocity averaging, and distance between waypoints using coordinate data (latitude, longitude, time, and velocity) of the GPS receiver. The previously estimated precious reference point, coordinate translation, and invalid data check also improve accuracy. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we conducted an experiment using a GARMIN GPS 19xHVS receiver attached to a car and used Google Maps to plot the processed data. The proposed method achieved improvement of 4–10 meters in several experiments. In addition, we compared the proposed approach with two other state-of-the-art methods: recursive averaging and ARMA interpolation. The experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of positioning accuracy. Md. Rashedul Islam and Jong-Myon Kim Copyright © 2014 Md. Rashedul Islam and Jong-Myon Kim. All rights reserved. First- and Second-Order Full-Differential in Edge Analysis of Images Wed, 25 Jun 2014 05:47:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/121928/ Two concepts of first- and second-order differential of images are presented to deal with the changes of pixels. These are the basic ideas in mathematics. We propose and reformulate them with a uniform definition framework. Based on our observation and analysis with the difference, we propose an algorithm to detect the edge from image. Experiments on Corel5K and PASCAL VOC 2007 are done to show the difference between the first order and the second order. After comparison with Canny operator and the proposed first-order differential, the main result is that the second-order differential has the better performance in analysis of changes of the context of images with good selection of control parameter. Dong-Mei Pu and Yu-Bo Yuan Copyright © 2014 Dong-Mei Pu and Yu-Bo Yuan. All rights reserved. Sloped Terrain Segmentation for Autonomous Drive Using Sparse 3D Point Cloud Tue, 24 Jun 2014 10:46:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/582753/ A ubiquitous environment for road travel that uses wireless networks requires the minimization of data exchange between vehicles. An algorithm that can segment the ground in real time is necessary to obtain location data between vehicles simultaneously executing autonomous drive. This paper proposes a framework for segmenting the ground in real time using a sparse three-dimensional (3D) point cloud acquired from undulating terrain. A sparse 3D point cloud can be acquired by scanning the geography using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. For efficient ground segmentation, 3D point clouds are quantized in units of volume pixels (voxels) and overlapping data is eliminated. We reduce nonoverlapping voxels to two dimensions by implementing a lowermost heightmap. The ground area is determined on the basis of the number of voxels in each voxel group. We execute ground segmentation in real time by proposing an approach to minimize the comparison between neighboring voxels. Furthermore, we experimentally verify that ground segmentation can be executed at about 19.31 ms per frame. Seoungjae Cho, Jonghyun Kim, Warda Ikram, Kyungeun Cho, Young-Sik Jeong, Kyhyun Um, and Sungdae Sim Copyright © 2014 Seoungjae Cho et al. All rights reserved. A DAG Scheduling Scheme on Heterogeneous Computing Systems Using Tuple-Based Chemical Reaction Optimization Tue, 24 Jun 2014 06:20:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/404375/ A complex computing problem can be solved efficiently on a system with multiple computing nodes by dividing its implementation code into several parallel processing modules or tasks that can be formulated as directed acyclic graph (DAG) problems. The DAG jobs may be mapped to and scheduled on the computing nodes to minimize the total execution time. Searching an optimal DAG scheduling solution is considered to be NP-complete. This paper proposed a tuple molecular structure-based chemical reaction optimization (TMSCRO) method for DAG scheduling on heterogeneous computing systems, based on a very recently proposed metaheuristic method, chemical reaction optimization (CRO). Comparing with other CRO-based algorithms for DAG scheduling, the design of tuple reaction molecular structure and four elementary reaction operators of TMSCRO is more reasonable. TMSCRO also applies the concept of constrained critical paths (CCPs), constrained-critical-path directed acyclic graph (CCPDAG) and super molecule for accelerating convergence. In this paper, we have also conducted simulation experiments to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of TMSCRO upon a large set of randomly generated graphs and the graphs for real world problems. Yuyi Jiang, Zhiqing Shao, and Yi Guo Copyright © 2014 Yuyi Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Swarm Intelligence and Its Applications 2014 Mon, 23 Jun 2014 07:55:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/204294/ Yudong Zhang, Praveen Agarwal, Vishal Bhatnagar, Saeed Balochian, and Xuewu Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yudong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Path Planning Method for UUV Homing and Docking in Movement Disorders Environment Sun, 22 Jun 2014 08:19:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/246469/ Path planning method for unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) homing and docking in movement disorders environment is proposed in this paper. Firstly, cost function is proposed for path planning. Then, a novel particle swarm optimization (NPSO) is proposed and applied to find the waypoint with minimum value of cost function. Then, a strategy for UUV enters into the mother vessel with a fixed angle being proposed. Finally, the test function is introduced to analyze the performance of NPSO and compare with basic particle swarm optimization (BPSO), inertia weight particle swarm optimization (LWPSO, EPSO), and time-varying acceleration coefficient (TVAC). It has turned out that, for unimodal functions, NPSO performed better searching accuracy and stability than other algorithms, and, for multimodal functions, the performance of NPSO is similar to TVAC. Then, the simulation of UUV path planning is presented, and it showed that, with the strategy proposed in this paper, UUV can dodge obstacles and threats, and search for the efficiency path. Zheping Yan, Chao Deng, Dongnan Chi, Tao Chen, and Shuping Hou Copyright © 2014 Zheping Yan et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Routing Protocols of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 22 Jun 2014 05:13:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/415415/ Recently, heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) routing protocols have drawn more and more attention. Various HWSN routing protocols have been proposed to improve the performance of HWSNs. Among these protocols, hierarchical HWSN routing protocols can improve the performance of the network significantly. In this paper, we will evaluate three hierarchical HWSN protocols proposed recently—EDFCM, MCR, and EEPCA—together with two previous classical routing protocols—LEACH and SEP. We mainly focus on the round of the first node dies (also called the stable period) and the number of packets sent to sink, which is an important aspect to evaluate the monitoring ability of a protocol. We conduct a lot of experiments and simulations on Matlab to analyze the performance of the five routing protocols. Guangjie Han, Xu Jiang, Aihua Qian, Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues, and Long Cheng Copyright © 2014 Guangjie Han et al. All rights reserved. Singularity-Free Neural Control for the Exponential Trajectory Tracking in Multiple-Input Uncertain Systems with Unknown Deadzone Nonlinearities Thu, 19 Jun 2014 13:02:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/951983/ The trajectory tracking for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems in which the number of possible states is equal to the number of inputs and each input is preceded by an unknown symmetric deadzone is considered. The unknown dynamics is identified by means of a continuous time recurrent neural network in which the control singularity is conveniently avoided by guaranteeing the invertibility of the coupling matrix. Given this neural network-based mathematical model of the uncertain system, a singularity-free feedback linearization control law is developed in order to compel the system state to follow a reference trajectory. By means of Lyapunov-like analysis, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone can be proven. Likewise, the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed. J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz, José de Jesús Rubio, Rodrigo Encinas, and Ricardo Balcazar Copyright © 2014 J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz et al. All rights reserved. New Sufficient Conditions for Hamiltonian Paths Thu, 19 Jun 2014 13:00:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/743431/ A Hamiltonian path in a graph is a path involving all the vertices of the graph. In this paper, we revisit the famous Hamiltonian path problem and present new sufficient conditions for the existence of a Hamiltonian path in a graph. M. Sohel Rahman, M. Kaykobad, and Jesun Sahariar Firoz Copyright © 2014 M. Sohel Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Information Technology Thu, 19 Jun 2014 11:52:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/746479/ Fei Yu, Chin-Chen Chang, Yiqin Lu, Jian Shu, Yan Gao, Guangxue Yue, and Zuo Chen Copyright © 2014 Fei Yu et al. All rights reserved. Intuitionistic Linguistic Weighted Bonferroni Mean Operator and Its Application to Multiple Attribute Decision Making Thu, 19 Jun 2014 11:41:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/545049/ The intuitionistic linguistic variables are easier to describe the fuzzy information which widely exists in the real world, and Bonferroni mean can capture the interrelationship of the individual arguments. However, the traditional Bonferroni mean can only process the crisp number. In this paper, we will extend Bonferroni mean to the intuitionistic linguistic environment and propose a multiple attribute decision making method with intuitionistic linguistic information based on the extended Bonferroni mean which can consider the interrelationship of the attributes. Firstly, score function and accuracy function of intuitionistic linguistic numbers are introduced. Then, an intuitionistic linguistic Bonferroni mean (ILBM) operator and an intuitionistic linguistic weighted Bonferroni mean (ILWBM) operator are developed, and some desirable characteristics of them are studied. At the same time, some special cases with respect to the parameters and in Bonferroni are analyzed. Based on the ILWBM operator, the approach to multiple attribute decision making with intuitionistic linguistic information is proposed. Finally, an illustrative example is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its effectiveness. Peide Liu, Lili Rong, Yanchang Chu, and Yanwei Li Copyright © 2014 Peide Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Fast Density-Based Clustering Algorithm for Real-Time Internet of Things Stream Thu, 19 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/926020/ Data streams are continuously generated over time from Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The faster all of this data is analyzed, its hidden trends and patterns discovered, and new strategies created, the faster action can be taken, creating greater value for organizations. Density-based method is a prominent class in clustering data streams. It has the ability to detect arbitrary shape clusters, to handle outlier, and it does not need the number of clusters in advance. Therefore, density-based clustering algorithm is a proper choice for clustering IoT streams. Recently, several density-based algorithms have been proposed for clustering data streams. However, density-based clustering in limited time is still a challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a density-based clustering algorithm for IoT streams. The method has fast processing time to be applicable in real-time application of IoT devices. Experimental results show that the proposed approach obtains high quality results with low computation time on real and synthetic datasets. Amineh Amini, Hadi Saboohi, Teh Ying Wah, and Tutut Herawan Copyright © 2014 Amineh Amini et al. All rights reserved. Smart HVAC Control in IoT: Energy Consumption Minimization with User Comfort Constraints Wed, 18 Jun 2014 12:40:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/161874/ Smart grid is one of the main applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm. Within this context, this paper addresses the efficient energy consumption management of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in smart grids with variable energy price. To that end, first, we propose an energy scheduling method that minimizes the energy consumption cost for a particular time interval, taking into account the energy price and a set of comfort constraints, that is, a range of temperatures according to user’s preferences for a given room. Then, we propose an energy scheduler where the user may select to relax the temperature constraints to save more energy. Moreover, thanks to the IoT paradigm, the user may interact remotely with the HVAC control system. In particular, the user may decide remotely the temperature of comfort, while the temperature and energy consumption information is sent through Internet and displayed at the end user’s device. The proposed algorithms have been implemented in a real testbed, highlighting the potential gains that can be achieved in terms of both energy and cost. Jordi Serra, David Pubill, Angelos Antonopoulos, and Christos Verikoukis Copyright © 2014 Jordi Serra et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Support Vector Machine with Globality-Locality Preserving Tue, 17 Jun 2014 05:28:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/872697/ Support vector machine (SVM) is regarded as a powerful method for pattern classification. However, the solution of the primal optimal model of SVM is susceptible for class distribution and may result in a nonrobust solution. In order to overcome this shortcoming, an improved model, support vector machine with globality-locality preserving (GLPSVM), is proposed. It introduces globality-locality preserving into the standard SVM, which can preserve the manifold structure of the data space. We complete rich experiments on the UCI machine learning data sets. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed model, especially on the Wine and Iris databases; the recognition rate is above 97% and outperforms all the algorithms that were developed from SVM. Cheng-Long Ma and Yu-Bo Yuan Copyright © 2014 Cheng-Long Ma and Yu-Bo Yuan. All rights reserved. An Improved Pearson’s Correlation Proximity-Based Hierarchical Clustering for Mining Biological Association between Genes Mon, 16 Jun 2014 12:05:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/357873/ Microarray gene expression datasets has concerned great awareness among molecular biologist, statisticians, and computer scientists. Data mining that extracts the hidden and usual information from datasets fails to identify the most significant biological associations between genes. A search made with heuristic for standard biological process measures only the gene expression level, threshold, and response time. Heuristic search identifies and mines the best biological solution, but the association process was not efficiently addressed. To monitor higher rate of expression levels between genes, a hierarchical clustering model was proposed, where the biological association between genes is measured simultaneously using proximity measure of improved Pearson's correlation (PCPHC). Additionally, the Seed Augment algorithm adopts average linkage methods on rows and columns in order to expand a seed PCPHC model into a maximal global PCPHC (GL-PCPHC) model and to identify association between the clusters. Moreover, a GL-PCPHC applies pattern growing method to mine the PCPHC patterns. Compared to existing gene expression analysis, the PCPHC model achieves better performance. Experimental evaluations are conducted for GL-PCPHC model with standard benchmark gene expression datasets extracted from UCI repository and GenBank database in terms of execution time, size of pattern, significance level, biological association efficiency, and pattern quality. P. M. Booma, S. Prabhakaran, and R. Dhanalakshmi Copyright © 2014 P. M. Booma et al. All rights reserved. Signal Waveform Detection with Statistical Automaton for Internet and Web Service Streaming Mon, 16 Jun 2014 08:55:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/647216/ In recent years, many approaches have been suggested for Internet and web streaming detection. In this paper, we propose an approach to signal waveform detection for Internet and web streaming, with novel statistical automatons. The system records network connections over a period of time to form a signal waveform and compute suspicious characteristics of the waveform. Network streaming according to these selected waveform features by our newly designed Aho-Corasick (AC) automatons can be classified. We developed two versions, that is, basic AC and advanced AC-histogram waveform automata, and conducted comprehensive experimentation. The results confirm that our approach is feasible and suitable for deployment. Kuo-Kun Tseng, Yuzhu Ji, Yiming Liu, Nai-Lun Huang, Fufu Zeng, and Fang-Ying Lin Copyright © 2014 Kuo-Kun Tseng et al. All rights reserved. The Need for Specific Penalties for Hacking in Criminal Law Mon, 16 Jun 2014 06:06:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/736738/ In spite of the fact that hacking is a widely used term, it is still not legally established. Moreover, the definition of the concept of hacking has been deployed in a wide variety of ways in national literature. This ambiguity has led to various side effects. Recently in the United States, reforms collectively known as Aaron's Law were proposed as intended amendments to the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA). Most experts expect that this change will put the brakes on the CFAA as a severe punishment policy, and result in a drop in controversial court decisions. In this study, we analyze the definitions and the penalties for hacking for each country and compare them with the national law and then make suggestions through more specific legislation. We expect it will reduce legal controversy and prevent excessive punishment. Sangkyo Oh and Kyungho Lee Copyright © 2014 Sangkyo Oh and Kyungho Lee. All rights reserved. Adaptive MANET Multipath Routing Algorithm Based on the Simulated Annealing Approach Mon, 16 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/872526/ Mobile ad hoc network represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize network topologies without any preexisting communication infrastructure. Due to characteristics like temporary topology and absence of centralized authority, routing is one of the major issues in ad hoc networks. In this paper, a new multipath routing scheme is proposed by employing simulated annealing approach. The proposed metaheuristic approach can achieve greater and reciprocal advantages in a hostile dynamic real world network situation. Therefore, the proposed routing scheme is a powerful method for finding an effective solution into the conflict mobile ad hoc network routing problem. Simulation results indicate that the proposed paradigm adapts best to the variation of dynamic network situations. The average remaining energy, network throughput, packet loss probability, and traffic load distribution are improved by about 10%, 10%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, more than the existing schemes. Sungwook Kim Copyright © 2014 Sungwook Kim. All rights reserved. Emerging Trends in Soft Computing Models in Bioinformatics and Biomedicine Sun, 15 Jun 2014 07:24:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/683029/ Yudong Zhang, Saeed Balochian, and Vishal Bhatnagar Copyright © 2014 Yudong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Bioinspired Computation and Its Applications in Operation Management Thu, 12 Jun 2014 11:53:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/356571/ Tinggui Chen, Jianjun Yang, Kai Huang, and Qiang Cheng Copyright © 2014 Tinggui Chen et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid PolyLingual Object Model: An Efficient and Seamless Integration of Java and Native Components on the Dalvik Virtual Machine Thu, 12 Jun 2014 10:52:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/785434/ JNI in the Android platform is often observed with low efficiency and high coding complexity. Although many researchers have investigated the JNI mechanism, few of them solve the efficiency and the complexity problems of JNI in the Android platform simultaneously. In this paper, a hybrid polylingual object (HPO) model is proposed to allow a CAR object being accessed as a Java object and as vice in the Dalvik virtual machine. It is an acceptable substitute for JNI to reuse the CAR-compliant components in Android applications in a seamless and efficient way. The metadata injection mechanism is designed to support the automatic mapping and reflection between CAR objects and Java objects. A prototype virtual machine, called HPO-Dalvik, is implemented by extending the Dalvik virtual machine to support the HPO model. Lifespan management, garbage collection, and data type transformation of HPO objects are also handled in the HPO-Dalvik virtual machine automatically. The experimental result shows that the HPO model outweighs the standard JNI in lower overhead on native side, better executing performance with no JNI bridging code being demanded. Yukun Huang, Rong Chen, Jingbo Wei, Xilong Pei, Jing Cao, Prem Prakash Jayaraman, and Rajiv Ranjan Copyright © 2014 Yukun Huang et al. All rights reserved.