The Scientific World Journal: Molecular Imaging http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effects of Metformin on the Cerebral Metabolic Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Mon, 24 Mar 2014 07:02:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/694326/ Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic drug, has numerous effects on human metabolism. Based on emerging cellular, animal, and epidemiological studies, we hypothesized that metformin leads to cerebral metabolic changes in diabetic patients. To explore metabolism-influenced foci of brain, we used 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography for type 2 diabetic patients taking metformin (MET, ), withdrawing from metformin (wdMET, ), and not taking metformin (noMET, ). Compared with the noMET group, statistical parametric mapping showed that the MET group had clusters with significantly higher metabolism in right temporal, right frontal, and left occipital lobe white matter and lower metabolism in the left parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In volume of interest (VOI-) based group comparisons, the normalized FDG uptake values of both hypermetabolic and hypometabolic clusters were significantly different between groups. The VOI-based correlation analysis across the MET and wdMET groups showed a significant negative correlation between normalized FDG uptake values of hypermetabolic clusters and metformin withdrawal durations and a positive but nonsignificant correlation in the turn of hypometabolic clusters. Conclusively, metformin affects cerebral metabolism in some white matter and semantic memory related sites in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yung-Cheng Huang, Chien-Chin Hsu, Wei-Che Lin, Tang-Kai Yin, Chi-Wei Huang, Pei-Wen Wang, Han-Hsuan Chang, and Nan-Tsing Chiu Copyright © 2014 Yung-Cheng Huang et al. All rights reserved. Can Na18F PET/CT Be Used to Study Bone Remodeling in the Tibia When Patients Are Being Treated with a Taylor Spatial Frame? Wed, 19 Mar 2014 13:50:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/249326/ Monitoring and quantifying bone remodeling are of interest, for example, in correction osteotomies, delayed fracture healing pseudarthrosis, bone lengthening, and other instances. Seven patients who had operations to attach an Ilizarov-derived Taylor Spatial Frame to the tibia gave informed consent. Each patient was examined by Na18F PET/CT twice, at approximately six weeks and three months after the operation. A validated software tool was used for the following processing steps. The first and second CT volumes were aligned in 3D and the respective PET volumes were aligned accordingly. In the first PET volume spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were delineated for the crural fracture and normal bone and transferred to the second PET volume for evaluation. This method potentially provides clinical insight into questions such as, when has the bone remodeling progressed well enough to safely remove the TSF? and when is intervention required, in a timelier manner than current methods? For example, in two patients who completed treatment, the between the first and second PET/CT examination decreased by 42% and 13%, respectively. Further studies in a larger patient population are needed to verify these preliminary results by correlating regional Na18F PET measurements to clinical and radiological findings. Henrik Lundblad, Gerald Q. Maguire Jr., Henrik Olivecrona, Cathrine Jonsson, Hans Jacobsson, Marilyn E. Noz, Michael P. Zeleznik, Lars Weidenhielm, and Anders Sundin Copyright © 2014 Henrik Lundblad et al. All rights reserved. PET and PET/CT with 68Gallium-Labeled Somatostatin Analogues in Non GEP-NETs Tumors Thu, 13 Feb 2014 12:25:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/194123/ Somatostatin (SST) is a 28-amino-acid cyclic neuropeptide mainly secreted by neurons and endocrine cells. A major interest for SST receptors (SSTR) as target for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic purposes was born since a series of stable synthetic SST-analouges PET became available, being the native somatostatin non feasible for clinical use due to the very low metabolic stability. The rationale for the employment of SST-analogues to image cancer is both based on the expression of SSTR by tumor and on the high affinity of these compounds for SSTR. The primary indication of SST-analogues imaging is for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which usually express a high density of SSTR, so they can be effectively targeted and visualized with radiolabeled SST-analogues in vivo. Particularly, SST-analogues imaging has been widely employed in gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs. Nevertheless, a variety of tumors other than NETs expresses SSTR thus SST-analogues imaging can also be used in these tumors, particularly if treatment with radiolabeled therapeutic SST-analouges PET is being considered. The aim of this paper is to provide a concise overview of the role of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 68Ga-radiolabeled SST-analouges PET in tumors other than GEP-NETs. Martina Sollini, Paola Anna Erba, Alessandro Fraternali, Massimiliano Casali, Maria Liberata Di Paolo, Armando Froio, Andrea Frasoldati, and Annibale Versari Copyright © 2014 Martina Sollini et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Performance of Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Using Fluorine-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose in Detecting Locoregional Nodal Involvement in Patients with Anal Canal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 04 Feb 2014 14:09:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/196068/ Purpose. The diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in detecting nodal involvement in patients with anal canal cancer (ACC) has been investigated by several studies with conflicting results. The aim of our study is to systematically review and meta-analyze published data about this topic. Methods. A comprehensive computer literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Embase databases was carried out on July 10 to find relevant articles concerning the diagnostic performance of FDG-PET in detecting locoregional nodal involvement in patients with ACC. No language restriction was used. Pooled diagnostic performance on a lesion-based analysis was calculated. Results. Seven retrospective and five prospective studies have been reviewed. Six studies allowed assessing pooled sensitivity; five studies allowed assessing pooled specificity. Sensitivity and specificity values of FDG-PET/CT on a lesion-based analysis ranged from 31 to 100% and from 53 to 98%, with pooled estimates of 56% (95% CI: 45–67%) and 90% (95% CI: 86–93%), respectively. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that FDG-PET is a specific diagnostic tool in detecting locoregional lymph node involvement in patients with ACC. Low sensitivity is a major concern; however, higher sensitivity could be reached combining FDG-PET with MR scan. Carmelo Caldarella, Salvatore Annunziata, Giorgio Treglia, Ramin Sadeghi, Narjes Ayati, and Luca Giovanella Copyright © 2014 Carmelo Caldarella et al. All rights reserved. NP-59 SPECT/CT Imaging in Stage 1 Hypertensive and Atypical Primary Aldosteronism: A 5-Year Retrospective Analysis of Clinicolaboratory and Imaging Features Mon, 21 Oct 2013 08:41:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/317934/ Objective. We retrospectively analyzed all primary aldosteronism (PA) patients undergoing NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging with regard to their clinicolaboratory and imaging features, investigation, and outcomes. Material and Methods. 11 PA patients who presented to our hospital for NP-59 SPECT/CT imaging between April 2007 and March 2012 and managed here were analyzed. Results. Among 11 PA patients, eight (73%) had stage 1 hypertension, three (27%) stage 2 hypertension, four (36%) normal plasma aldosterone concentration, nine (82%) nonsuppressed plasma renin activity (PRA), six (55%) normal aldosterone-renin-ratio (ARR), eight (73%) serum potassium ≧3 mEq/L, seven (64%) subclinical presentation, seven (64%) negative confirmatory testing, and four (36%) inconclusive results on CT scan and seven (64%) on planar NP-59 scan. All 11 (100%) patients had positive results on NP-59 SPECT/CT scan. Two (18%) met typical triad and nine (82%) atypical triad. Among nine atypical PA patients, three (33%) had clinical presentation, six (67%) subclinical presentation, six (67%) negative confirmatory testing, and four (44%) inconclusive results on CT scan and six (67%) on planar NP-59 scan. All patients had improved outcomes. Significant differences between typical and atypical PA existed in PRA and ARR. Conclusions. NP-59 SPECT/CT may provide diagnostic potential in stage 1 hypertensive and atypical PA. Yi-Chun Chen, Jainn-Shiun Chiu, and Yuh-Feng Wang Copyright © 2013 Yi-Chun Chen et al. All rights reserved. Is %ΔSUVmax a Useful Indicator of Survival in Patients with Advanced Nonsmall-Cell Lung Cancer? Wed, 09 Oct 2013 08:24:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/910957/ Purpose. To investigate the impact of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), size of primary lung lesion, and %ΔSUVmax on outcome (overall survival (OS) and 2-year disease-free survival (2-year DFS)) of patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods. 86 stage III-IV NSCLC patients underwent 18 F-FDGPET/CT, before and after chemotherapy, and were classified into subgroups according to the response criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. SUVmax values and tumor size with the best prognostic significance were searched. Correlation between the SUVmax value and the initial response to therapy (best response) and the relationship between %ΔSUVmax and OS were assessed. Results. In patients in PD (20/86), the average pretreatment SUVmax was , and the mean size of the primary lesion was . In SD, PR, and CR patients (66/86), the average pretreatment SUVmax was , and the mean size of the primary lesion was . Correlation was identified only for %ΔSUVmax; patients with PD (ΔSUVmax > +25%) showed a worse OS than patients with ΔSUVmax < +25% (CR, PR, and SD) (). Conclusions. In stage III-IV NSCLC, among the assessed factors, only %ΔSUVmax may be considered as a useful prognostic factor. Angelina Cistaro, Natale Quartuccio, Alireza Mojtahedi, Piercarlo Fania, Pier Luigi Filosso, Mariapaola Cucinotta, Alfredo Campennì, Umberto Ficola, and Sergio Baldari Copyright © 2013 Angelina Cistaro et al. All rights reserved. Detection of MUC1-Expressing Ovarian Cancer by C595 Monoclonal Antibody-Conjugated SPIONs Using MR Imaging Mon, 30 Sep 2013 08:27:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/609151/ The aim of this study is to find out the development and application of MUC1-expressing ovarian cancer (OVCAR3) by C595 monoclonal antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) using MR imaging. At the end, its use as a nanosized contrast agent MR imaging probe for ovarian cancer detection was investigated. The strategy is to use SPIONs attached to C595 mAb that binds to the MUC1, to specifically detect ovarian cancer cells. Anticancer effects and MR imaging parameters of the prepared nanoconjugate was investigated both under in vitro and in vivo experiments. The characterization of nanoconjugate includes its size, cell toxicity, flow cytometry, Prussian blue staining test and its cellular uptake as well as its biodistribution, and MR imaging was also investigated. The findings of the study showed good tumor accumulation and detection, no in vivo toxicity, and potential selective antiovarian cancer activity. Overall, based on the findings SPIONs-C595 nanosized probe is a selective ovarian molecular imaging modality. Further subsequent clinical trials appear warranted. Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei and Mohammad Abdolahi Copyright © 2013 Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei and Mohammad Abdolahi. All rights reserved. Molecular Imaging of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Tue, 23 Apr 2013 11:37:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2013/973150/ Current laboratory research in the field of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease often utilizes small animal experimental models induced by genetic manipulation or chemical application. This has led to the use and development of multiple high-resolution molecular imaging modalities capable of tracking disease progression, quantifying the role of inflammation, and evaluating the effects of potential therapeutics. In vivo imaging reduces the number of research animals used, provides molecular and cellular information, and allows for longitudinal studies, a necessity when tracking vessel expansion in a single animal. This review outlines developments of both established and emerging molecular imaging techniques used to study AAA disease. Beyond the typical modalities used for anatomical imaging, which include ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), previous molecular imaging efforts have used magnetic resonance (MR), near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF), bioluminescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET). Mouse and rat AAA models will hopefully provide insight into potential disease mechanisms, and the development of advanced molecular imaging techniques, if clinically useful, may have translational potential. These efforts could help improve the management of aneurysms and better evaluate the therapeutic potential of new treatments for human AAA disease. Aneesh K. Ramaswamy, Mark Hamilton II, Rucha V. Joshi, Benjamin P. Kline, Rui Li, Pu Wang, and Craig J. Goergen Copyright © 2013 Aneesh K. Ramaswamy et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Clinically Significant Extraosseous Findings on Unenhanced CT Portions of 18F-Fluoride PET/CT Bone Scans Mon, 10 Sep 2012 14:15:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/979867/ Objective. Due to the frequently interrupted supply of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate, the use of 18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has become more popular. The study aims to determine the percentage of extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT portion of 18F-fluoride PET/CT scans. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively collected 18F-fluoride PET/CT studies between March 2010 and February 2011. The unenhanced CT portions of 18F-fluoride PET/CT were reviewed for each patient. Significant extraosseous findings related to malignancy from the unenhanced CT were recorded. Results. A total of 158 patients (110 females, 48 males) were included in the study. Clinically significant extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT were found in 43 patients (27.2%). Previously unknown extraosseous findings were identified in 17 patients (10.8%) after a review of the 18F-fluoride PET/CT scan results. Most of the extraosseous findings were small pulmonary metastases or enlarged metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusion. It is not rare to identify new clinically significant extraosseous findings from the unenhanced CT of 18F-fluoride PET/CT studies. Therefore the clinical management of patients may be altered by the results, and a careful review of the unenhanced CT portion of 18F-fluoride PET/CT is mandatory. Chao-Jung Chen and Shih-Ya Ma Copyright © 2012 Chao-Jung Chen and Shih-Ya Ma. All rights reserved. Correlation of Dynamic PET and Gene Array Data in Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors Mon, 04 Jun 2012 15:42:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/721313/ Introduction. The results obtained with dynamic PET (dPET) were compared to gene expression data obtained in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). The primary aim was to assess the association of the dPET results and gene expression data. Material and Methods. dPET was performed following the injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in 22 patients with GIST. All patients were examined prior to surgery for staging purpose. Compartment and noncompartment models were used for the quantitative evaluation of the dPET examinations. Gene array data were based on tumor specimen obtained by surgery after the PET examinations. Results. The data analysis revealed significant correlations for the dPET parameters and the expression of zinc finger genes (znf43, znf85, znf91, znf189). Furthermore, the transport of FDG (k1) was associated with VEGF-A. The cell cycle gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C was correlated with the maximum tracer uptake (SUVmax) in the tumors. Conclusions. The data demonstrate a dependency of the tracer kinetics on genes associated with prognosis in GIST. Furthermore, angiogenesis and cell proliferation have an impact on the tracer uptake. Ludwig G. Strauss, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Dirk Koczan, Leyun Pan, and Peter Hohenberger Copyright © 2012 Ludwig G. Strauss et al. All rights reserved. SPECT and PET Imaging of Meningiomas Tue, 01 May 2012 15:43:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/412580/ Meningiomas arise from the meningothelial cells of the arachnoid membranes. They are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms and represent about 20% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually diagnosed after the third decade of life and they are more frequent in women than in men. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, meningiomas can be classified into grade I meningiomas, which are benign, grade II (atypical) and grade III (anaplastic) meningiomas, which have a much more aggressive clinical behaviour. Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnostic workup of patients with meningiomas. Molecular Nuclear Medicine Imaging with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) could provide complementary information to CT and MRI. Various SPECT and PET tracers may provide information about cellular processes and biological characteristics of meningiomas. Therefore, SPECT and PET imaging could be used for the preoperative noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of meningiomas, prediction of tumor grade and tumor recurrence, response to treatment, target volume delineation for radiation therapy planning, and distinction between residual or recurrent tumour from scar tissue. Varvara Valotassiou, Anastasia Leondi, George Angelidis, Dimitrios Psimadas, and Panagiotis Georgoulias Copyright © 2012 Varvara Valotassiou et al. All rights reserved. Review Analysis of the Association between the Prevalence of Activated Brown Adipose Tissue and Outdoor Temperature Thu, 19 Apr 2012 13:12:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/793039/ Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for regulating body weight. Environmental temperature influences BAT activation. Activated BAT is identifiable using F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F18-FDG PET/CT). F18-FDG PET/CT scans done between June 2005 and May 2009 in our institution in tropical southern Taiwan and BAT studies from PubMed (2002–2011) were reviewed, and the average outdoor temperatures during the study periods were obtained. A simple linear regression was used to analyze the association between the prevalence of activated BAT (P) and the average outdoor temperature (T). The review analysis for 9 BAT studies (n=16,765) showed a significant negative correlation (r=-0.741, P=0.022) between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature. The equation of the regression line is P(%)=6.99−0.20×T  (C∘). The prevalence of activated BAT decreased by 1% for each 5C∘ increase in average outdoor temperature. In a neutral ambient temperature, the prevalence of activated BAT is low and especially rare in the tropics. There is a significant linear negative correlation between the prevalence of activated BAT and the average outdoor temperature. Yung-Cheng Huang, Chien-Chin Hsu, Pei-Wen Wang, Yen-Hsiang Chang, Tai-Been Chen, Bi-Fang Lee, and Nan-Tsing Chiu Copyright © 2012 Yung-Cheng Huang et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Dose Minimisation Protocol for 18F-FDG PET-CT in the Management of Lymphoma Postchemotherapy Followup Sun, 01 Apr 2012 09:25:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/208135/ Introduction. 18F-FDG-PET-CT plays an important role in the management of lymphoma postchemotherapy followup. Some centres perform prechemotherapy baseline CT and postchemotherapy PETCT. With a concern of radiation burden, especially in young patients, this study aimed to assess if PETCT radiation dose could be reduced. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 100 lymphoma patients was performed to record sites of disease on prechemotherapy CT and postchemotherapy PETCT. The potential reduction in radiation and time achieved with PETCT limited to sites of known disease identified on prechemotherapy CT was calculated. Results. No FDG-uptake was seen in 72 cases. FDG uptake at known disease sites was seen in 24. Of the remaining 4, one had clinically significant pathology, a rectal adenocarcinoma. PETCT did not reveal any unexpected sites of lymphoma. Limiting PETCT to sites of known disease would have saved a mean radiation dose of 4 mSv (27.3%), with a mean time of 16 minutes. Conclusion. Our study suggests that young patients may benefit from reduced radiation by limiting PETCT to sites of known disease with low risk of missing significant pathology. However, in older patients, with increased incidence of asymptomatic synchronous malignancies, whole-body PETCT is advisable unless prechemotherapy PETCT has been performed. L. I. Sonoda, B. Sanghera, and W. L. Wong Copyright © 2012 L. I. Sonoda et al. All rights reserved. DWI-MRI: Single, Informative, and Noninvasive Technique for Prostate Cancer Diagnosis Tue, 14 Feb 2012 15:24:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2012/973450/ Aim. To evaluate diffusion weighted image-MRI (DWI) as a single diagnostic noninvasive MRI technique for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis. Material and Methods. A prospective study was conducted between July 2008 and July 2009. Candidates patients were equal or more than 40 years old, with suspicious digital rectal examination (more than clinical T2) or PSA >4 ng/mL. Informed consent was signed. DWI-MRI was performed at 1.5 T with a body coil combined with a spine coil in consecutive 100 cases. The histopathology of biopsies has been used as reference standard. Two examiners were evaluating MRI and TRUS, both of them were blinded regarding pathological findings. Accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were statistically analyzed. Results. Based on pathological diagnosis: group A (cancerous); 75 cases and group B (non-cancerous); 25 cases. Mean age was 65.3 and 62.8 years in groups A and B, respectively. Mean PSA was 30.7 and 9.2 ng/mL in groups A and B, respectively. Sensitivity of DWI was 58.3% while specificity was 83.8%. Accuracy of lesion detection was 52.4–77.8% (𝑃<0.05). Moreover, DWI at ADC value 1.2×10−3 mL/sec could determine 82.4% of true positive cases (𝑃<0.05). ADC values were lower with Gleason score ≥7 (𝑃<0.05). Conclusion. DWI could represent a non invasive single diagnostic tool not only in detection and localization but also in prediction of Gleason score whenever DWI is used prior to invasive TRUS biopsy. Furthermore, targeted single biopsy could be planned after DWI to minimize patient morbidity by invasive techniques. Elhousseiny I. Ibrahiem, Tarek Mohsen, Adel M. Nabeeh, Yasser Osman, Ihab A. Hekal, and Mohamed Abou El-Ghar Copyright © 2012 Elhousseiny I. Ibrahiem et al. All rights reserved. The Usefulness of the Source Images of Magnetic Resonance Angiogram in the Carotid Cavernous Fistula Mon, 02 Jan 2012 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2011/450561/ Bon D. Ku, Hak Yiung Rhee, and Sung Sang Yoon Copyright © 2011 Bon D. Ku et al. All rights reserved. Digital Three-Dimensional Atlas of Quail Development Using High-Resolution MRI Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2007/259090/abs/ We present an archetypal set of three-dimensional digital atlases of the quail embryo based on microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI). The atlases are composed of three modules: (1) images of fixed ex ovo quail, ranging in age from embryonic day 5 to 10 (e05 to e10); (2) a coarsely delineated anatomical atlas of the μMRI data; and (3) an organ system-based hierarchical graph linked to the anatomical delineations. The atlas is designed to be accessed using SHIVA, a free Java application. The atlas is extensible and can contain other types of information including anatomical, physiological, and functional descriptors. It can also be linked to online resources and references. This digital atlas provides a framework to place various data types, such as gene expression and cell migration data, within the normal three-dimensional anatomy of the developing quail embryo. This provides a method for the analysis and examination of the spatial relationships among the different types of information within the context of the entire embryo. Seth W. Ruffins, Melanie Martin, Lindsey Keough, Salina Truong, Scott E. Fraser, Russell E. Jacobs, and Rusty Lansford Copyright © 2007 Seth W. Ruffins et al. All rights reserved. Nanoparticles and Inflammation Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2011/184390/ The development of nanoscale molecular probes capable of diagnosis, characterization, and clinical treatment of disease is leading to a new generation of imaging technologies. Such probes are particularly relevant to inflammation, where the detection of subclinical, early disease states could facilitate speedier detection that could yield enhanced, tailored therapies. Nanoparticles offer robust platforms capable of sensitive detection, and early research has indicated their suitability for the detection of vascular activation and cellular recruitment at subclinical levels. This suggests that nanoparticle techniques may provide excellent biomarkers for the diagnosis and progression of inflammatory diseases with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescent quantum dots (QDs), and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes being just some of the new methodologies employed. Development of these techniques could lead to a range of sensitive probes capable of ultrasensitive, localized detection of inflammation. This article will discuss the merits of each approach, with a general overview to their applicability in inflammatory diseases. Ross Stevenson, Axel J. Hueber, Alan Hutton, Iain B. McInnes, and Duncan Graham Copyright © 2011 Ross Stevenson et al. All rights reserved. Imaging of Bone Marrow Involvement in Lymphoma: State of the Art and Future Directions Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2011/193584/ Accurate detection of bone marrow involvement in patients with lymphoma is of crucial importance because of the prognostic and therapeutic consequences. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is currently regarded as the method of choice for the evaluation of the bone marrow in lymphoma, but it is invasive, has a risk of complications, and lacks sufficient sensitivity due to the possibility of sampling errors. Bone marrow imaging, if accurate, may (partially) replace BMBand/or may improve the sensitivity of BMB by guiding the biopsy to the location that appears to be involved by lymphoma at imaging. In this scientific communication, general concepts of bone marrow imaging, state-of-the-art imaging modalities, and future imaging strategies for the assessment of the bone marrow in lymphoma will be reviewed and discussed. Thomas C. Kwee, John M. H. de Klerk, and Rutger A. J. Nievelstein Copyright © 2011 Thomas Kwee et al. All rights reserved. Confocal Imaging: Blood and Lymphatic Capillaries Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2006/708530/abs/ Traditional imaging techniques are quite limited for the study of the relationship between blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Therefore, a new imaging technique is required based on blood vessel and lymphatic endothelial-specific molecular markers. In this short report, vascular molecular markers are reviewed and a new molecular imaging technique for blood vessel and lymphatic co-staining is introduced. Yingjie Cui Copyright © 2006 Yingjie Cui. All rights reserved. Scintigraphic Demonstration of Urine Extravasation Secondary to Acute Ureteral Obstruction: A Case Report and Some Considerations about Acute Ureteral Obstruction Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2006/845149/abs/ Acute ureteral obstruction produces renal damage and complications that are proportional to the severity and length of the obstruction. Anatomic diagnosis of the obstruction may be insufficient to manage the patient. Intravenous urogram (IVU) is the method usually advised by radiologists to obtain functional information, but requires iodinated contrast agents. IVU anatomic information is superior to anatomic information obtained with renal scintigraphy, but normally the physician already has the anatomic information (unenhanced CT or ultrasound). A renal scan offers better physiologic information than the IVU, has neither adverse effects nor complications, is accurate to confirm or discard significant ureteral obstruction, and depicts obstruction complications. This paper presents a patient with spontaneous urine extravasation secondary to acute renal obstruction who is diagnosed with renal scintigraphy. The authors describe the scintigraphic signs of extraperitoneal, diffuse perinephric, urine extravasation and emphasize the role of renal scintigraphy in diagnosis and follow-up of renal colic. Federico M. Sarmiento, Arístides J.H. Sarmiento, Edgardo Bardoneschi, and Arístides H. Sarmiento Copyright © 2006 Federico M. Sarmiento et al. All rights reserved. Ultraviolet Fluorescence Spectra of Fingerprints Mon, 01 Jan 1900 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2005/861978/abs/ We have studied inherent fluorescence spectra and imaging of fingerprints in the deep ultraviolet (UV) region with a nanosecond-pulsed Nd-YAG laser system that consists of a tunable laser, a cooled CCD camera, and a grating spectrometer. In this paper, we have studied UV fluorescence spectra of fingerprints under 266-nm illumination. Fluorescence spectra of fingerprints have two main peaks, around 330 nm (peak A) and 440 nm (peak B). At first, when a fingerprint has just been pressed, peak A is dominant. However, its intensity reduces as the total illumination time increases. On the other hand, peak B is weak at first. It appears after enough 266-nm illumination and its intensity increases as time elapses. After 3 h of illumination, peak A almost diminishes and peak B becomes dominant. By leaving the fingerprint under a fluorescent lamp in a room without laser illumination, peak A can be restored partly, while the intensity of peak B still increases.Time-resolved fluorescence spectra were also measured for these two peaks. The lifetime of each peak is 2.0 nsec (peak A) and 6.2 nsec (peak B) on average. Both peaks seem to consist of several components with different lifetimes. In the case of peak A, the 330-nm peak decays fast and a new component at 360 nm becomes dominant when the delay time exceeds 20 nsec. In the case of peak B, unlike peak A, no clear peak separation is observed, but the peak position seems to move from 440 to 460 nm when the delay time becomes larger. Naoki Saitoh and Norimitsu Akiba Copyright © 2005 Naoki Saitoh and Norimitsu Akiba. All rights reserved.