The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Comparing the Coronal Seal of Different Thicknesses of MTA with Gutta-Percha after Post Space Preparation Thu, 23 Apr 2015 13:14:19 +0000 Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare the coronal seal of different thicknesses of MTA with gutta-percha after post space preparation. Materials and Methods. A total of 50 maxillary central incisors randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (). After preparation of the root canals with step back technique, in groups 1 and 2, post spaces were prepared and 4 or 5 mm gutta-percha remained in the apical, respectively. In groups 3, 4, and 5, there was 1-2 and 3 mm MTA in the apical, respectively. The ten teeth serve as control groups. The teeth were connected to a bacterial microleakage evaluation system. The study period was 120 days and the samples were evaluated on ten-day intervals; Meier-Kaplan technique was used for estimation of the mean time of microleakage to occur. Log-rank test was used for comparison of microleakage. Results. Number of samples exhibiting microleakage in MTA was less than those of gutta-percha at all intervals. Means of days with no microleakage were maximum and minimum with 3 mm MTA and 4 mm gutta-percha, respectively. Conclusion. Obturation of root canals using the MTA technique provides a proper seal with the minimum thickness of MTA in teeth requiring post space preparation. Mohammad Frough Reyhani, Hamidreza Yavari, Negin Ghasemi, Saeed Rahimi, Mohammad Hosien Soroush Barhaghi, Hadi Mokhtari, and Payman Sarikhani Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Frough Reyhani et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion” Thu, 23 Apr 2015 08:47:35 +0000 Óscar González-Espasandín, Teresa J. Leo, and Emilio Navarro-Arévalo Copyright © 2015 Óscar González-Espasandín et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Experimental Study of Direct Laser Deposition of Ti-6Al-4V and Inconel 718 by Using Pulsed Parameters” Tue, 21 Apr 2015 13:46:37 +0000 Kamran Shah, Izhar Ul Haq, Shaukat Ali Shah, Farid Ullah Khan, Muhammad Tahir Khan, and Sikandar Khan Copyright © 2015 Kamran Shah et al. All rights reserved. Insulin Resistance and Skin Diseases Tue, 21 Apr 2015 12:22:40 +0000 In medical practice, almost every clinician may encounter patients with skin disease. However, it is not always easy for physicians of all specialties to face the daily task of determining the nature and clinical implication of dermatologic manifestations. Are they confined to the skin, representing a pure dermatologic event? Or are they also markers of internal conditions relating to the patient’s overall health? In this review, we will discuss the principal cutaneous conditions which have been linked to metabolic alterations. Particularly, since insulin has an important role in homeostasis and physiology of the skin, we will focus on the relationships between insulin resistance (IR) and skin diseases, analyzing strongly IR-associated conditions such as acanthosis nigricans, acne, and psoriasis, without neglecting emerging and potential scenarios as the ones represented by hidradenitis suppurativa, androgenetic alopecia, and hirsutism. Maddalena Napolitano, Matteo Megna, and Giuseppe Monfrecola Copyright © 2015 Maddalena Napolitano et al. All rights reserved. Improving Lowland Rice (O. sativa L. cv. MR219) Plant Growth Variables, Nutrients Uptake, and Nutrients Recovery Using Crude Humic Substances Tue, 21 Apr 2015 11:10:21 +0000 High cation exchange capacity and organic matter content of crude humic substances from compost could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea and to as well improve rice growth and soil chemical properties for efficient nutrients utilization in lowland rice cultivation. Close-dynamic air flow system was used to determine the effects of crude humic substances on ammonia volatilization. A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of crude humic substances on rice plant growth, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties using an acid soil mixed with three rates of crude humic substances (20, 40, and 60 g pot−1). Standard procedures were used to evaluate rice plant dry matter production, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil chemical properties. Application of crude humic substances increased ammonia volatilization. However, the lowest rate of crude humic substances (20 g pot−1) significantly improved total dry matter, nutrients uptake, nutrients recovery, and soil nutrients availability compared with crude humic substances (40 and 60 g pot−1) and the normal fertilization. Apart from improving growth of rice plants, crude humic substances can be used to ameliorate acid soils in rice cultivation. The findings of this study are being validated in our ongoing field trials. Perumal Palanivell, Osumanu Haruna Ahmed, Nik Muhamad Ab Majid, Mohamadu Boyie Jalloh, and Kasim Susilawati Copyright © 2015 Perumal Palanivell et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Way to Relate Ontology Classes Tue, 21 Apr 2015 06:42:42 +0000 The existing ontologies in the semantic web typically have anonymous union and intersection classes. The anonymous classes are limited in scope and may not be part of the whole inference process. The tools, namely, the pellet, the jena, and the protégé, interpret collection classes as (a) equivalent/subclasses of union class and (b) superclasses of intersection class. As a result, there is a possibility that the tools will produce error prone inference results for relations, namely, sub-, union, intersection, equivalent relations, and those dependent on these relations, namely, complement. To verify whether a class is complement of other involves utilization of sub- and equivalent relations. Motivated by the same, we (i) refine the test data set of the conference ontology by adding named, union, and intersection classes and (ii) propose a match algorithm to (a) calculate corrected subclasses list, (b) correctly relate intersection and union classes with their collection classes, and (c) match union, intersection, sub-, complement, and equivalent classes in a proper sequence, to avoid error prone match results. We compare the results of our algorithms with those of a candidate reasoner, namely, the pellet reasoner. To the best of our knowledge, ours is a unique attempt in establishing a novel way to relate ontology classes. Ami T. Choksi and Devesh C. Jinwala Copyright © 2015 Ami T. Choksi and Devesh C. Jinwala. All rights reserved. The Effects of Tempol on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Micturition Reflexes Mon, 20 Apr 2015 13:08:44 +0000 We hypothesized that cyclophosphamide- (CYP-) induced cystitis results in oxidative stress and contributes to urinary bladder dysfunction. We determined (1) the expression of oxidative stress markers 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inflammatory modulators, neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (Sub P), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) that contribute to the inflammatory process in the urinary tract and (2) the functional role of oxidative stress in urinary bladder dysfunction with an antioxidant, Tempol, (1 mM in drinking water) combined with conscious cystometry. In CYP-treated (4 hr or 48 hr; 150 mg/kg, i.p.) rats, ROS/RNS and 3-NT significantly () increased in urinary bladder. CYP treatment increased ATP, Sub P, and CGRP expression in the urinary bladder and cystometric fluid. In CYP-treated rats, Tempol significantly () increased bladder capacity and reduced voiding frequency compared to CYP-treated rats without Tempol. Tempol significantly () reduced ATP expression, 3-NT, and ROS/RNS expression in the urinary tract of CYP-treated rats. These studies demonstrate that reducing oxidative stress in CYP-induced cystitis improves urinary bladder function and reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Eric J. Gonzalez, Abbey Peterson, Susan Malley, Mitchel Daniel, Daniel Lambert, Michael Kosofsky, and Margaret A. Vizzard Copyright © 2015 Eric J. Gonzalez et al. All rights reserved. Control of White Spot Lesion Adjacent to Orthodontic Bracket with Use of Fluoride Varnish or Chlorhexidine Gel Mon, 20 Apr 2015 13:06:34 +0000 The aims of this study were to compare the effectiveness of fluoride varnish and chlorhexidine gel in controlling white spot lesions (WSLs) adjacent to orthodontic brackets and to compare the ability of Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) to measure mineral uptake with that of transverse microradiography (TMR). Thirty premolars with artificially induced WSLs were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) two applications of 5% NaF-varnish (F), with one-week interval, (2) two applications of 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), with one-week interval, and (3) control (CO), no treatment. QLF was used to measure changes in fluorescence before and after caries induction, 1 week after each application and 1, 2, and 3 months after the last application of F or CHX. TMR was performed to quantify lesion depth and mineral content after caries induction to evaluate the effects of F, CHX, and CO 3 months after the last application of agents. The data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test. All treatments increased the mineral content during the experimental period; however, F induced faster remineralization than CHX. The correlation between QLF and TMR was significantly moderate. Two applications of fluoride varnish or 2% chlorhexidine gel at one-week intervals were effective in controlling WSLs. Manuel Restrepo, Diego G. Bussaneli, Fabiano Jeremias, Rita C. L. Cordeiro, Ana C. Magalhães, Denise M. Palomari Spolidorio, and Lourdes Santos-Pinto Copyright © 2015 Manuel Restrepo et al. All rights reserved. Partial Storage Optimization and Load Control Strategy of Cloud Data Centers Mon, 20 Apr 2015 11:32:10 +0000 We present a novel approach to solve the cloud storage issues and provide a fast load balancing algorithm. Our approach is based on partitioning and concurrent dual direction download of the files from multiple cloud nodes. Partitions of the files are saved on the cloud rather than the full files, which provide a good optimization to the cloud storage usage. Only partial replication is used in this algorithm to ensure the reliability and availability of the data. Our focus is to improve the performance and optimize the storage usage by providing the DaaS on the cloud. This algorithm solves the problem of having to fully replicate large data sets, which uses up a lot of precious space on the cloud nodes. Reducing the space needed will help in reducing the cost of providing such space. Moreover, performance is also increased since multiple cloud servers will collaborate to provide the data to the cloud clients in a faster manner. Klaithem Al Nuaimi, Nader Mohamed, Mariam Al Nuaimi, and Jameela Al-Jaroodi Copyright © 2015 Klaithem Al Nuaimi et al. All rights reserved. Application of Machine Learning Method in Genomics and Proteomics Sun, 19 Apr 2015 11:44:10 +0000 Hao Lin, Wei Chen, Ramu Anandakrishnan, and Dariusz Plewczynski Copyright © 2015 Hao Lin et al. All rights reserved. Novel Computational Tools in Biosignal Processing Sun, 19 Apr 2015 11:25:30 +0000 Gaoxiang Ouyang, Tania Stathaki, Hak-Keung Lam, Jing Li, and Zhaojie Ju Copyright © 2015 Gaoxiang Ouyang et al. All rights reserved. Implication of Fructans in Health: Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Mechanisms Sun, 19 Apr 2015 06:26:29 +0000 Previous studies have shown that fructans, a soluble dietary fiber, are beneficial to human health and offer a promising approach for the treatment of some diseases. Fructans are nonreducing carbohydrates composed of fructosyl units and terminated by a single glucose molecule. These carbohydrates may be straight or branched with varying degrees of polymerization. Additionally, fructans are resistant to hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes but can be fermented by the colonic microbiota to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic by-products that possess immunomodulatory activity. The indirect role of fructans in stimulating probiotic growth is one of the mechanisms through which fructans exert their prebiotic activity and improve health or ameliorate disease. However, a more direct mechanism for fructan activity has recently been suggested; fructans may interact with immune cells in the intestinal lumen to modulate immune responses in the body. Fructans are currently being studied for their potential as “ROS scavengers” that benefit intestinal epithelial cells by improving their redox environment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of fructans interaction with the intestinal immune system, the gut microbiota, and other components of the intestinal lumen to provide an overview of the mechanisms underlying the effects of fructans on health and disease. Elena Franco-Robles and Mercedes G. López Copyright © 2015 Elena Franco-Robles and Mercedes G. López. All rights reserved. The Effect of Changes in Lower Incisor Inclination on Gingival Recession Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:45:58 +0000 Aim. Orthodontic treatment may promote development of recessions. The mechanism by which orthodontic treatment influences occurrence of recessions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a change of mandibular incisor inclination promotes development of labial gingival recessions. Materials and Methods. The study sample comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms obtained from 109 subjects before orthodontic treatment (Tb) and after orthodontic treatment (Ta). Depending on the change of lower incisor inclination during treatment, the subjects were divided into three groups: Retroclination (R), Stable Position (S), and Proclination (P). The presence of gingival recessions of mandibular incisors and clinical crown heights were assessed on plaster models. Results and Conclusions. From Tb to Ta, Inc_Incl showed a statistically significant change in the R, P, and S groups (). Increase of clinical crown heights of the lower incisors (42, 4, and 31) was not statistically significant in any group. The only statistically significant intergroup difference was the greater increase of the clinical crown height of tooth number 32 in the P group in comparison with the R group (). The change of lower incisor inclination during treatment did not lead to development of labial gingival recessions in the study sample. Gulen Kamak, Hasan Kamak, Hakan Keklik, and Hakan Gurcan Gurel Copyright © 2015 Gulen Kamak et al. All rights reserved. Briefing in Application of Machine Learning Methods in Ion Channel Prediction Thu, 16 Apr 2015 14:21:04 +0000 In cells, ion channels are one of the most important classes of membrane proteins which allow inorganic ions to move across the membrane. A wide range of biological processes are involved and regulated by the opening and closing of ion channels. Ion channels can be classified into numerous classes and different types of ion channels exhibit different functions. Thus, the correct identification of ion channels and their types using computational methods will provide in-depth insights into their function in various biological processes. In this review, we will briefly introduce and discuss the recent progress in ion channel prediction using machine learning methods. Hao Lin and Wei Chen Copyright © 2015 Hao Lin and Wei Chen. All rights reserved. Sparse Matrix for ECG Identification with Two-Lead Features Thu, 16 Apr 2015 09:34:24 +0000 Electrocardiograph (ECG) human identification has the potential to improve biometric security. However, improvements in ECG identification and feature extraction are required. Previous work has focused on single lead ECG signals. Our work proposes a new algorithm for human identification by mapping two-lead ECG signals onto a two-dimensional matrix then employing a sparse matrix method to process the matrix. And that is the first application of sparse matrix techniques for ECG identification. Moreover, the results of our experiments demonstrate the benefits of our approach over existing methods. Kuo-Kun Tseng, Jiao Luo, Robert Hegarty, Wenmin Wang, and Dong Haiting Copyright © 2015 Kuo-Kun Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Recognizing Cursive Typewritten Text Using Segmentation-Free System Wed, 15 Apr 2015 12:26:46 +0000 Feature extraction plays an important role in text recognition as it aims to capture essential characteristics of the text image. Feature extraction algorithms widely range between robust and hard to extract features and noise sensitive and easy to extract features. Among those feature types are statistical features which are derived from the statistical distribution of the image pixels. This paper presents a novel method for feature extraction where simple statistical features are extracted from a one-pixel wide window that slides across the text line. The feature set is clustered in the feature space using vector quantization. The feature vector sequence is then injected to a classification engine for training and recognition purposes. The recognition system is applied to a data corpus which includes cursive Arabic text of more than 600 A4-size sheets typewritten in multiple computer-generated fonts. The system performance is compared to a previously published system from the literature with a similar engine but a different feature set. Mohammad S. Khorsheed Copyright © 2015 Mohammad S. Khorsheed. All rights reserved. Reflective Optics Design for an LED High Beam Headlamp of Motorbikes Wed, 15 Apr 2015 09:57:30 +0000 We propose a reflective optics design for an LED motorbike high beam lamp. We set the measuring screen as an elliptical zone and divide it into many small lattices and divide the spatial angle of the LED source into many parts and make relationships between them. According to the conservation law of energy and the Snell’s law, the reflector is generated by freeform optics design method. Then the optical system is simulated by Monte Carlo method using ASAP software. Light pattern of simulation could meet the standard. The high beam headlamp is finally fabricated and assembled into a physical object. Experiment results can fully comply with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) vehicle regulations R113 revision 2 (Class C). Peng Ge, Xiang Wang, Yang Li, and Hong Wang Copyright © 2015 Peng Ge et al. All rights reserved. Rescue and Emergency Management of a Man-Made Disaster: Lesson Learnt from a Collapse Factory Building, Bangladesh Tue, 14 Apr 2015 11:10:06 +0000 A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings. Animesh Biswas, Aminur Rahman, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Tasnuva Humaira, and Koustuv Dalal Copyright © 2015 Animesh Biswas et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Potential of Multidetector Computed Tomography for Characterizing Small Renal Masses Thu, 09 Apr 2015 16:07:02 +0000 Objectives. To assess the potential of CT for characterizing small renal tumors. Methods. 76 patients with <4 cm renal tumors underwent CT examination. The following parameters were assessed: presence of calcifications, densitometry on unenhanced and enhanced scans, washout percentage, urinary tract infiltration, star-shaped scar, and paradoxical effect. Results. Calcifications were found in 7/56 (12.5%) carcinomas. Clear cell carcinomas were as follows: mean density 183.5 HU (arterial phase), 136 HU (portal phase), and 94 HU (delayed phase), washout 34.3%; chromophobe carcinomas were as follows: mean density 135 HU (arterial phase), 161 HU (portal phase), and 148 HU (delayed phase), washout 28%; papillary carcinomas were as follows: mean density 50.3 HU (arterial phase), 60 HU (portal phase), and 58.1 HU (delayed phase), washout 2.7%. In 2/56 (3.6%) cases urinary tract infiltration was found. Oncocytomas were as follows: mean density 126.5 HU (arterial phase), 147.5 HU (portal phase), and 115.5 HU (delayed phase), washout 28.6%. On unenhanced scans, angiomyolipomas were as follows: density values <30 HU in 12/12 (100%) of cases and on enhanced scans: mean density 78 HU (arterial phase), 128 HU (portal phase), and 80 HU (delayed phase), washout 50%. Conclusions. Intralesional calcifications and urinary tract infiltration are suggestive for malignancy, with the evidence of adipose tissue for angiomyolipomas and a modest increase in density with a reduced washout for papillary carcinomas. The intralesional density on enhanced scans, peak enhancement, and washout do not seem significant for differentiating clear cell, chromophobe carcinomas, angiomyolipomas, and oncocytomas. Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Annamaria Albergo, Marco Moschetta, Mariacristina Angelelli, Arnaldo Scardapane, and Giuseppe Angelelli Copyright © 2015 Maria Elisabetta Mancini et al. All rights reserved. Shaping Ability of Reciproc, UnicOne, and Protaper Universal in Simulated Root Canals Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:32:17 +0000 The study aimed to compare the shaping effects, preservation of the original curvature, and transportation of the apical foramen of Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), UnicOne (Medin, Nové Město na Moravě, Czech Republic), and Protaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) in simulated root canals. Thirty resin blocks with simulated curved root canals were distributed into three groups and prepared using Reciproc (RCp), UnicOne (UnO) and the Protaper Universal (PTu). Standardized photographs were taken before and after the instrumentation, after which they were superimposed. Measurements were taken of the quantity of resin removed from the inner and outer walls of the curvature at 6 levels, the curvature angles before and after instrumentation, and the transportation of the apical foramen. RCp obtained the highest values for amount of resin removed from the inner wall while UnO demonstrated similar shaping on both the inner and outer walls. PTu produced the greatest transportation of foramen when compared to the reciprocating instruments. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the change in angle . All the instruments were capable of maintaining the original curvature of the root canal; however, the UnO, which used reciprocating movement, produced more conservative shapes with lower foramen transportation. Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Cláudia de Castro Rizzi, Matheus Bandeca Coelho, Sara Freitas Santos, Luzia Mayanne Oliveira Costa, Ceci Nunes Carvalho, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, and Janir Alves Soares Copyright © 2015 Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho et al. All rights reserved. Dental Students’ Knowledge of Oral Health for Persons with Special Needs: A Pilot Study Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:19:02 +0000 Objectives. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of dental students with respect to oral health care of the person with special health care needs (SHCN) and evaluate effectiveness of an education program on improving their knowledge. Method. An evaluation consisting of a questionnaire was answered before and immediately after a 30-minute educational presentation in the form of a DVD that includes a PowerPoint and a video of oral health care for individuals with SHCN. The questionnaire was based on the materials and information presented in the DVD and included 26 questions (true/false/I do not know). Results. The mean (±SD) score on the pretest was 10.85 (±5.20), which increased to 16.85 (±5.47) on the posttest. This difference was statistically significant (). Forty percent of the students surveyed reported that they were very satisfied with the educational part of the presentation, while 50% were somewhat satisfied. Thirty percent of students expressed that the educational intervention used is very effective. Conclusions. Viewing the educational intervention was effective in informing the sophomore students and providing them with instructive basic information on person with SHCN. Dental colleges should increase students’ knowledge, training, and exposure to individuals with SHCN. Fouad Salama, Bader Al-Balkhi, and Faika Abdelmegid Copyright © 2015 Fouad Salama et al. All rights reserved. Smart TV-Smartphone Multiscreen Interactive Middleware for Public Displays Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:18:25 +0000 A new generation of public displays demands high interactive and multiscreen features to enrich people’s experience in new pervasive environments. Traditionally, research on public display interaction has involved mobile devices as the main characters during the use of personal area network technologies such as Bluetooth or NFC. However, the emergent Smart TV model arises as an interesting alternative for the implementation of a new generation of public displays. This is due to its intrinsic connection capabilities with surrounding devices like smartphones or tablets. Nonetheless, the different approaches proposed by the most important vendors are still underdeveloped to support multiscreen and interaction capabilities for modern public displays, because most of them are intended for domestic environments. This research proposes multiscreen interactive middleware for public displays, which was developed from the principles of a loosely coupled interaction model, simplicity, stability, concurrency, low latency, and the usage of open standards and technologies. Moreover, a validation prototype is proposed in one of the most interesting public display scenarios: the advertising. Francisco Martinez-Pabon, Jaime Caicedo-Guerrero, Jhon Jairo Ibarra-Samboni, Gustavo Ramirez-Gonzalez, and Davinia Hernández-Leo Copyright © 2015 Francisco Martinez-Pabon et al. All rights reserved. Machine Learning in Intelligent Video and Automated Monitoring Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:58:18 +0000 Yu-Bo Yuan, Gao Yang David, and Shan Zhao Copyright © 2015 Yu-Bo Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Simulation and Study of Power Quality Issues in a Fixed Speed Wind Farm Substation Wed, 08 Apr 2015 11:45:42 +0000 Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation. T. Magesh and C. Chellamuthu Copyright © 2015 T. Magesh and C. Chellamuthu. All rights reserved. Recent Theories and Applications in Approximation Theory Wed, 08 Apr 2015 07:00:13 +0000 Fazlollah Soleymani, Predrag S. Stanimirović, Juan R. Torregrosa, Hassan Saberi Nik, and Emran Tohidi Copyright © 2015 Fazlollah Soleymani et al. All rights reserved. The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:09:57 +0000 The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. K. Muzhinji, S. Shateyi, and S. S. Motsa Copyright © 2015 K. Muzhinji et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “A Preliminary Investigation of User Perception and Behavioral Intention for Different Review Types: Customers and Designers Perspective” Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:04:12 +0000 Atika Qazi, Ram Gopal Raj, Muhammad Tahir, Mehwish Waheed, Saif Ur Rehman Khan, and Ajith Abraham Copyright © 2015 Atika Qazi et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosing and Ranking Retinopathy Disease Level Using Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation Approach Tue, 07 Apr 2015 11:37:06 +0000 Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing different types of eye diseases. The existing methods such as Feature Based Macular Edema Detection (FMED) and Optimally Adjusted Morphological Operator (OAMO) effectively detected the presence of exudation in fundus images and identified the true positive ratio of exudates detection, respectively. These mechanically detected exudates did not include more detailed feature selection technique to the system for detection of diabetic retinopathy. To categorize the exudates, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) method based on sliding window approach is developed in this work to select the features of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images. The DFIR feature selection uses collection of sliding windows with varying range to obtain the features based on the histogram value using Group Sparsity Nonoverlapping Function. Using support vector model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy disease level. The ranking of disease level on each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated and assisted diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, ranking efficiency, and feature selection time. K. Somasundaram and P. Alli Rajendran Copyright © 2015 K. Somasundaram and P. Alli Rajendran. All rights reserved. A Novel Rules Based Approach for Estimating Software Birthmark Mon, 06 Apr 2015 11:22:33 +0000 Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. Shah Nazir, Sara Shahzad, Sher Afzal Khan, Norma Binti Alias, and Sajid Anwar Copyright © 2015 Shah Nazir et al. All rights reserved. Effects in Short and Long Term of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Controlled Study with One-Year Follow-Up Mon, 06 Apr 2015 09:52:39 +0000 Objective. Comparing global postural reeducation (GPR) to a standard physiotherapy treatment (PT) based on active exercises, stretching, and massaging for improving pain and function in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Design. Prospective controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Participants. Adult patients with diagnosis of nonspecific, chronic (>6 months) low back pain. Interventions. Both treatments consisted of 15 sessions of one hour each, twice a week including patient education. Measures. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire to evaluate disability, and Numeric Analog Scale for pain. A score change >30% was considered clinically significant. Past treatments, use of medications, smoking habits, height, weight, profession, and physical activity were also recorded on baseline, on discharge, and 1 year after discharge (resp., T0, T1, and T2). Results. At T0 103 patients with cLBP (51 cases and 52 controls) were recruited. The treatment (T1) has been completed by 79 (T1) of which 60 then carried out the 1-year follow-up (T2). Both GPR and PT at T1 were associated with a significant statistical and clinical improvement in pain and function, compared to T0. At T2, only pain in GPR still registered a statistically significant improvement. Chiara Castagnoli, Francesca Cecchi, Antonio Del Canto, Anita Paperini, Roberta Boni, Guido Pasquini, Federica Vannetti, and Claudio Macchi Copyright © 2015 Chiara Castagnoli et al. All rights reserved.