The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Based on Regular Expression Matching of Evaluation of the Task Performance in WSN: A Queue Theory Approach Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:16:45 +0000 Due to the limited resources of wireless sensor network, low efficiency of real-time communication scheduling, poor safety defects, and so forth, a queuing performance evaluation approach based on regular expression match is proposed, which is a method that consists of matching preprocessing phase, validation phase, and queuing model of performance evaluation phase. Firstly, the subset of related sequence is generated in preprocessing phase, guiding the validation phase distributed matching. Secondly, in the validation phase, the subset of features clustering, the compressed matching table is more convenient for distributed parallel matching. Finally, based on the queuing model, the sensor networks of task scheduling dynamic performance are evaluated. Experiments show that our approach ensures accurate matching and computational efficiency of more than 70%; it not only effectively detects data packets and access control, but also uses queuing method to determine the parameters of task scheduling in wireless sensor networks. The method for medium scale or large scale distributed wireless node has a good applicability. Jie Wang, Kai Cui, Kuanjiu Zhou, and Yanshuo Yu Copyright © 2014 Jie Wang et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:59:30 +0000 Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands. Waqas Malik, Javaria Ashraf, Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal, Asif Ali Khan, Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Ali Abid, Etrat Noor, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, and Ghulam Hasan Abbasi Copyright © 2014 Waqas Malik et al. All rights reserved. Applications of Organic and Inorganic Amendments Induce Changes in the Mobility of Mercury and Macro- and Micronutrients of Soils Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:56:46 +0000 Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg·kg−1 Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils. Mercedes García-Sánchez, Adéla Šípková, Jiřina Száková, Lukáš Kaplan, Pavla Ochecová, and Pavel Tlustoš Copyright © 2014 Mercedes García-Sánchez et al. All rights reserved. Imaging Findings of Gastric Diverticula Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:50:28 +0000 Introduction. Gastric diverticula (GD) are very rare. Computer tomographic findings in GD have been reported only as case reports previously. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GD on computed tomography (CT) and to analyze their radiological appearances. Materials and Methods. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 14,428 patients were examined by abdominal/thoracic CT at our institution. GD were diagnosed in 18 (0.12%) patients (13 women and 5 men, median age, 64 years). In 9 patients, additional endoscopy and in 7 patients upper gastrointestinal investigation with contrast medium were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was available for 3 cases. Results. In all patients GD were diagnosed incidentally during CT examination. The diverticula were located at the posterior wall of the gastric fundus below the esophagogastric junction. On CT, GD presented as cystic lesions with a thin wall and an air fluid level, located behind the stomach between spleen, adrenal gland, and crus of the left diaphragm. Conclusion. The prevalence of GD encountered in our CT series is 0.12%. GD demonstrate typical CT appearances, namely, cystic lesions located in the left paravertebral region. The radiologist should be familiar with this finding to avoid possible misinterpretations. Dominik Schramm, Andreas Gunter Bach, Alexander Zipprich, and Alexey Surov Copyright © 2014 Dominik Schramm et al. All rights reserved. Overexpression of MMP13 Is Associated with Clinical Outcomes and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:48:06 +0000 Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) plays a central role in the MMP activation cascade that enables degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and it is identified as a potential driver in oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to determine the copy number, mRNA, and protein expression of MMP13 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to associate these expressions with clinicopathological parameters. Copy number, mRNA, and protein expression analysis of MMP13 were determined using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods in OSCC samples. The correlations between MMP13 expressions and clinicopathological parameters were evaluated, and the significance of MMP13 as a prognostic factor was determined. Despite discrepancies between gene amplification and mRNA and protein overexpression rates, OSCC cases showed high amplification of MMP13 and overexpression of MMP13 at both mRNA and protein levels. High level of MMP13 protein expression showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis () and tumor staging (). Multivariate Cox regression model analysis revealed that high level of mRNA and protein expression of MMP13 were significantly associated with poor prognosis (). Taken together, these observations indicate that the MMP13 protein overexpression could be considered as a prognostic marker of OSCC. Vui King Vincent-Chong, Iman Salahshourifar, Lee Peng Karen-Ng, Ming Yhong Siow, Thomas George Kallarakkal, Anand Ramanathan, Yi-Hsin Yang, Goot Heah Khor, Zainal Ariff Abdul Rahman, Siti Mazlipah Ismail, Narayanan Prepageran, Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa, Mannil Thomas Abraham, Keng Kiong Tay, Sok Ching Cheong, and Rosnah Binti Zain Copyright © 2014 Vui King Vincent-Chong et al. All rights reserved. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:42:38 +0000 An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range. Akudo Chigozirim Osuji, Sabinus Oscar O. Eze, Emmanuel Emeka Osayi, and Ferdinand Chiemeka Chilaka Copyright © 2014 Akudo Chigozirim Osuji et al. All rights reserved. An Encoding Technique for Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Applied to Power Distribution System Reconfiguration Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:18:02 +0000 Network reconfiguration is an alternative to reduce power losses and optimize the operation of power distribution systems. In this paper, an encoding scheme for evolutionary algorithms is proposed in order to search efficiently for the Pareto-optimal solutions during the reconfiguration of power distribution systems considering multiobjective optimization. The encoding scheme is based on the edge window decoder (EWD) technique, which was embedded in the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) and the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). The effectiveness of the encoding scheme was proved by solving a test problem for which the true Pareto-optimal solutions are known in advance. In order to prove the practicability of the encoding scheme, a real distribution system was used to find the near Pareto-optimal solutions for different objective functions to optimize. J. L. Guardado, F. Rivas-Davalos, J. Torres, S. Maximov, and E. Melgoza Copyright © 2014 J. L. Guardado et al. All rights reserved. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:46:28 +0000 Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. Si-Yuan Qin, Ming-Yang Yin, Wei Cong, Dong-Hui Zhou, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu, Ji-Zhang Zhou, and Ai-Dong Qian Copyright © 2014 Si-Yuan Qin et al. All rights reserved. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:21:02 +0000 Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. Sadaharu Tabuchi Copyright © 2014 Sadaharu Tabuchi. All rights reserved. Analysis of Herbaceous Plant Succession and Dispersal Mechanisms in Deglaciated Terrain on Mt. Yulong, China Thu, 23 Oct 2014 08:32:23 +0000 Ecological succession itself could be a theoretical reference for ecosystem restoration and reconstruction. Glacier forelands are ideal places for investigating plant succession because there are representative ecological succession records at long temporal scales. Based on field observations and experimental data on the foreland of Baishui number 1 Glacier on Mt. Yulong, the succession and dispersal mechanisms of dominant plant species were examined by using numerical classification and ordination methods. Fifty samples were first classified into nine community types and then into three succession stages. The three succession stages occurred about 9–13, 13–102, and 110–400 years ago, respectively. The earliest succession stage contained the association of Arenaria delavayi + Meconopsis horridula. The middle stage contained the associations of Arenaria delavayi + Kobresia fragilis, Carex capilliformis + Polygonum macrophyllum, Carex kansuensis, and also Pedicularis rupicola. The last stage included the associations of Kobresia fragilis + Carex capilliformis, Kobresia fragilis, Kobresia fragilis + Ligusticum rechingerana, and Kobresia fragilis + Ligusticum sikiangense. The tendency of the succession was from bare land to sparse vegetation and then to alpine meadow. In addition, three modes of dispersal were observed, namely, anemochory, mammalichory, and myrmecochory. The dispersal modes of dominant species in plant succession process were evolved from anemochory to zoochory. Li Chang, Yuanqing He, Taibao Yang, Jiankuo Du, Hewen Niu, and Tao Pu Copyright © 2014 Li Chang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Continuous Cropping Generations on Each Component Biomass of Poplar Seedlings during Different Growth Periods Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:14:38 +0000 In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping. Jiangbao Xia, Shuyong Zhang, Tian Li, Xia Liu, Ronghua Zhang, and Guangcan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Jiangbao Xia et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity Development in Paired Twins: A Chinese Population Study Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:57:36 +0000 Purpose. To determine the differences in risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in paired twins. Methods. A retrospective medical record review was performed for all paired twins screened for ROP between 2007 and 2012. Screening was offered to very low birth weight (≤1500 grams) and preterm (≤32 weeks) neonates. Twins 1 and 2 were categorized based on the order of delivery. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. Results. In 34 pairs of Chinese twins, the mean gestational age (GA) was 30.2 ± 2.0 weeks. In Twin 1, smaller GA (OR = 0.44, ), higher mean oxygen concentration (OR = 1.34, ), presence of thrombocytopenia (OR = 1429.60, ), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR = 18.67, ) were significant risk factors for ROP. For Twin 2, a smaller GA (OR = 0.45, ) was the only risk factor. There were no significant risk factors for ROP in Twin 1 or Twin 2 on multivariate analysis. Conclusion. In Chinese twin pairs, smaller GA was the only common risk factor for ROP while Twin 1 was more susceptible to the postnatal risks for ROP. Gordon S. K. Yau, Jacky W. Y. Lee, Victor T. Y. Tam, Stan Yip, Edith Cheng, Catherine C. L. Liu, Benjamin C. Y. Chu, and Can Y. F. Yuen Copyright © 2014 Gordon S. K. Yau et al. All rights reserved. Variability in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate by Area under the Curve Predicts Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:41:06 +0000 Greater variability in renal function is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have demonstrated the predictive value of renal function variability in relation to renal outcomes. This study investigates the predictive ability of different methods of determining estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) variability for progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. This was a prospective observational study, which enrolled 1,862 CKD patients. The renal end point was defined as commencement of RRT. The variability in eGFR was measured by the area under the eGFR curve (AUC)%. A significant improvement in model prediction was based on the −2 log likelihood ratio statistic. During a median 28.7-month follow-up, there were 564 (30.3%) patients receiving RRT. In an adjusted Cox model, a smaller initial eGFR AUC%_12M (), a smaller peak eGFR AUC%_12M (), and a larger negative eGFR slope_12M () were associated with a higher risk of renal end point. Two calculated formulas: initial eGFR AUC%_12M and eGFR slope_12M were the best predictors. Our results demonstrate that the greater eGFR variability by AUC% is associated with the higher risk of progression to RRT. Szu-Chia Chen, Ming-Yen Lin, Teng-Hui Huang, Chi-Chih Hung, Yi-Wen Chiu, Jer-Ming Chang, Jer-Chia Tsai, Shang-Jyh Hwang, and Hung-Chun Chen Copyright © 2014 Szu-Chia Chen et al. All rights reserved. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Population Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common worldwide infection with known gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal complications. One of the gastrointestinal side effects posed for this organism is its role in diabetes and increased insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HP and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetics. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May to December 2013 on 211 diabetic patients referred to diabetes clinic of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom and 218 patients without diabetes. HP was evaluated using serology method and insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 55.8% and 44.2% in diabetics and nondiabetics . The study population was divided into two HP positive and negative groups. Among nondiabetics, insulin resistance degree was and in HP+ and HP− patients, respectively . Oppositely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in diabetic HP+ patients rather than seronegative ones versus , . In diabetic patients, in addition to higher prevalence of HP, it causes a higher degree of insulin resistance. Jamshid Vafaeimanesh, Mahmoud Parham, Mohammadreza Seyyedmajidi, and Mohammad Bagherzadeh Copyright © 2014 Jamshid Vafaeimanesh et al. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Extraction of Luteolin and Apigenin from Tree Peony Pod and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:24:00 +0000 An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed in simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod. The MAE procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and compared with other conventional extraction techniques of macerate extraction (ME) and heat reflux extraction (HRE). The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: employing 70% ethanol volume fraction as solvent, soaking time of 4 h, liquid-solid ratio of 10 (mL/g), microwave irradiation power of 265 W, microwave irradiation time of 9.6 min, and 3 extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, 151 μg/g luteolin and 104 μg/g apigenin were extracted from the tree peony pod. Compared with ME and HRE, MAE gave the highest extraction efficiency. The antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained by MAE, ME, and HRE were evaluated using a 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and a reducing power assay. Meanwhile, the structural changes of the unprocessed and processed tree peony pod samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Hongzheng Wang, Lei Yang, Yuangang Zu, and Xiuhua Zhao Copyright © 2014 Hongzheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Er:YAG Laser for Brackets Bonding: A SEM Study after Debonding Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:23:30 +0000 Background. The introduction of Er:YAG laser in dentistry for ablation of hard tissues advocated an alternative method of enamel etching for orthodontics purpose. Materials and Methods. 55 extracted human third molars were inserted in acrylic resin blocks and divided into five groups of 11 teeth. Group 1 was treated with 37% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds. Group 2 was treated with laser irradiation (Er:YAG Fidelius III, Fotona, Slovenia) at 80 mJ and 4 Hz. Group 3 underwent laser treatment (80 mJ, 4 Hz), followed by 37% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds. The teeth in Group 4 were treated with laser at 40 mJ and 10 Hz. The teeth in Group 5 were treated with laser (40 mJ, 10 Hz), followed by 37% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds. The adhesive remnant index was determined after debonding. Results. Kruskas-Wallis test showed that location parameters (median and mean) are significantly different between Groups 2 and 4 when compared with control group; on the contrary no significant difference was detected between Groups 3 and 5 with the controls. Conclusion. The use of Er:YAG laser alone, as in Groups 2 and 4, showed no significant advantages over phosphoric acid in the bonding procedure for orthodontics brackets. G. Ierardo, G. Di Carlo, F. Petrillo, V. Luzzi, I. Vozza, G. Migliau, R. Kornblit, J. P. Rocca, and A. Polimeni Copyright © 2014 G. Ierardo et al. All rights reserved. Association of Interleukin-18 Gene Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Visceral Leishmaniasis in Endemic Area of Bihar, an Indian Population Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:11:47 +0000 Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a cytokine that mediates Th1 response by inducing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production in T cells and natural killer cells. Genetic polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene have been found to be associated with its expression in cancer, tuberculosis, HBV infection, and various other diseases. Lower plasma level of IL-18 in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients might be associated with polymorphisms in the regulating or coding region of the gene. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1946519 (−656 G/T) and rs187238 (−137 G/C) in the promoter region and rs549908 (+105 A/C) in the codon region, were genotyped in 204 parasitological confirmed VL patients and 267 controls with no past history of VL. For each locus, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction digestion was performed. IL-18 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from VL patients and controls was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Distribution of G allele at position −656 and double haplotypes GGC/GGA were found to be significantly associated with controls while genotypes TT and single haplotypes TGA , with cases. The inheritance of G allele at the position −656 might be considered as a protective allele for VL. Dinesh Kumar, Puja Tiwary, Jaya Chakravarty, and Shyam Sundar Copyright © 2014 Dinesh Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Update on Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:02:30 +0000 The tools for managing retinoblastoma have been increasing in the past decade. While globe-salvage still relies heavily on intravenous chemotherapy, tumors in advanced stage that failed chemotherapy are now referred for intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) to avoid enucleation. However, IAC still has many obstacles to overcome. We present an update on the indications, complications, limitations, success, and technical aspects of IAC. Given its safety and high efficacy, it is expected that IAC will replace conventional strategies and will become a first-line option even for tumors that are amenable for other strategies. Mario Zanaty, Guilherme Barros, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Philip Manasseh, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Carol L. Shields, David Hasan, Ketan Bulsara, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour Copyright © 2014 Mario Zanaty et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Profiling of the Plasmodium falciparum Population Using Antigenic Molecular Markers Wed, 22 Oct 2014 09:46:33 +0000 About 50% of malaria infections in India are attributed to Plasmodium falciparum but relatively little is known about the genetic structure of the parasite populations. The molecular genotyping of the parasite populations by merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes identifies the existing parasite population in the regions which help in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the parasite’s drive for survival. This study reveals the genetic profile of the parasite population in selected regions across the country with varying degree of endemicity among them. We also report the prevalence of Pfcrt mutations in this parasite population to evaluate the pattern of drug resistance development in them. Purva Gupta, Ruchi Singh, Haris Khan, Adil Raza, Veena Yadavendu, R. M. Bhatt, and Vineeta Singh Copyright © 2014 Purva Gupta et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator Wed, 22 Oct 2014 08:54:33 +0000 Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented. Wei Li, Baoyu Cao, Zhencai Zhu, and Guoan Chen Copyright © 2014 Wei Li et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Flavone C-Glycosides in the Leaves of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau by HPTLC and HPLC-UV/DAD Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:15:40 +0000 Clinacanthus nutans (family Acanthaceae) has been used for the treatment of inflammation and herpes viral infection. Currently, there has not been any report on the qualitative and quantitative determination of the chemical markers in the leaves of C. nutans. The C-glycosidic flavones such as shaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin have been found to be major flavonoids in the leaves of this plant. Therefore, we had developed a two-step method using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the rapid identification and quantification of the flavones C-glycosides in C. nutans leaves. The TLC separation of the chemical markers was achieved on silica gel 60 plate using ethyl acetate : formic acid : acetic acid : water (100 : 11 : 11 : 27 v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. HPLC method was optimized and validated for the quantification of shaftoside, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin and was shown to be linear in concentration range tested (0.4–200 μg/mL, r2 ≥ 0.996), precise (RSD ≤ 4.54%), and accurate (95–105%). The concentration of shaftoside, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin in C. nutans leave samples was 2.55–17.43, 0.00–0.86, 0.00–2.01, and 0.00–0.91 mmol/g, respectively. June Lee Chelyn, Maizatul Hasyima Omar, Nor Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof, Ramesh Ranggasamy, Mohd Isa Wasiman, and Zakiah Ismail Copyright © 2014 June Lee Chelyn et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Reconstruction with the Remnant Ligament Improves Joint Position Sense as well as Functional Ankle Instability: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Chronic functional instability—characterized by repeated ankle inversion sprains and a subjective sensation of instability—is one of the most common residual disabilities after an inversion sprain. However, whether surgical reconstruction improves sensorimotor control has not been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to assess functional improvement of chronic ankle instability after surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament. Materials and Methods. We performed 10 cases in the intervention group and 20 healthy individuals as the control group. Before and after surgical reconstruction, we evaluated joint position sense and functional ankle instability by means of a questionnaire. Results and Discussion. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and intervention groups before surgical reconstruction. Three months after surgery in the intervention group, the joint position sense was significantly different from those found preoperatively. Before surgery, the mean score of functional ankle instability in the intervention group was almost twice as low. Three months after surgery, however, the score significantly increased. The results showed that surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament was effective not only for improving mechanical retensioning but also for ameliorating joint position sense and functional ankle instability. Kamizato Iwao, Deie Masataka, and Fukuhara Kohei Copyright © 2014 Kamizato Iwao et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Infections following Cranioplasty: A Retrospective Review of a Large Single Center Study Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. The variables that predispose to postcranioplasty infections are poorly described in the literature. We formulated a multivariate model that predicts the risk of infection in patients undergoing cranioplasty. Method. Retrospective review of all patients who underwent cranioplasty following craniectomy from January, 2000, to December, 2011. Tested predictors were age, sex, diabetic status, hypertensive status, reason for craniectomy, urgency status of craniectomy, location of cranioplasty, reoperation for hematoma, hydrocephalus postcranioplasty, and material type. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results. Three hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Infection rate was 26.43% (92/348). Of these cases with infection, 56.52% (52/92) were superficial (supragaleal), 43.48% (40/92) were deep (subgaleal), and 31.52% (29/92) were present in both the supragaleal and subgaleal spaces. The predominant pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30.43%) followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (22.83%) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (15.22%). Approximately 15.22% of all cultures were polymicrobial. Multivariate analysis revealed convex craniectomy, hemorrhagic stroke, and hydrocephalus to be associated with an increased risk of infection (; , ; , ; , resp.). Conclusion. Many of the risk factors for infection after cranioplasty are modifiable. Recognition and prevention of the risk factors would help decrease the infection’s rate. Mario Zanaty, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Rohan Chitale, Shannon Hann, Cory D. Bovenzi, Mark P. Saigh, Eric W. Schwartz, Emily S. I. Kunkel, Alexandra S. Efthimiadis-Budike, Pascal Jabbour, Richard Dalyai, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris Copyright © 2014 Mario Zanaty et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation ( = 0.0614 and = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. Melekber Sulusoglu and Aysun Cavusoglu Copyright © 2014 Melekber Sulusoglu and Aysun Cavusoglu. All rights reserved. Grooming Behavior in American Cockroach is Affected by Novelty and Odor Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:02:46 +0000 The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor. Marianna I. Zhukovskaya Copyright © 2014 Marianna I. Zhukovskaya. All rights reserved. Palaeoenvironment and Its Control on the Formation of Miocene Marine Source Rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:57:04 +0000 The main factors of the developmental environment of marine source rocks in continental margin basins have their specificality. This realization, in return, has led to the recognition that the developmental environment and pattern of marine source rocks, especially for the source rocks in continental margin basins, are still controversial or poorly understood. Through the analysis of the trace elements and maceral data, the developmental environment of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin is reconstructed, and the developmental patterns of the Miocene marine source rocks are established. This paper attempts to reveal the hydrocarbon potential of the Miocene marine source rocks in different environment and speculate the quality of source rocks in bathyal region of the continental slope without exploratory well. Our results highlight the palaeoenvironment and its control on the formation of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin of the northern South China Sea and speculate the hydrocarbon potential of the source rocks in the bathyal region. This study provides a window for better understanding the main factors influencing the marine source rocks in the continental margin basins, including productivity, preservation conditions, and the input of terrestrial organic matter. Wenhao Li, Zhihuan Zhang, Weiming Wang, Shuangfang Lu, Youchuan Li, and Ning Fu Copyright © 2014 Wenhao Li et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:20:58 +0000 Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0–1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1+ cells (HSCs) at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs. Zariyantey Abdul Hamid, Winnie Hii Lin Lin, Basma Jibril Abdalla, Ong Bee Yuen, Elda Surhaida Latif, Jamaludin Mohamed, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Chow Paik Wah, Muhd Khairul Akmal Wak Harto, and Siti Balkis Budin Copyright © 2014 Zariyantey Abdul Hamid et al. All rights reserved. Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid: Extracapsular Dissection Compared with Superficial Parotidectomy—A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:41:35 +0000 The purpose of this study was to investigate the complication rates and effectiveness of extracapsular dissection compared with superficial parotidectomy for pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland from 2002 to 2012. The authors carried out a retrospective cohort study of 198 patients with pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland. Extracapsular dissection (ED) or superficial parotidectomy (SP) was performed. The recurrence rate and complications of the two surgical techniques were measured with a univariate analysis of each variable using the appropriate statistical analysis (chi-squared test or t-test). A total of 198 patients were enrolled between January 2003 and December 2012. The study included 97 females (48.99%) and 101 males (51.01%) whose mean age was 50.97 years (range 14–75). The type of surgery performed was ED in 153 patients (77.27%, 80 males and 73 females) and SP in 45 patients (22.73%, 21 males and 24 females). The mean follow-up time was 61.02 +/− 4.9 months for the patients treated with ED and 66.4 +/− 4.5 months for the patients treated with SP. Transient facial nerve injury and facial paralysis were significantly more frequent after SP than after ED ( and , resp.). No significant differences in capsular rupture, recurrence, and salivary fistula were observed after SP or ED: 2.2% versus 3.9%, 2.2% versus 3.3%, and 2.2% versus 0.65%, respectively. Extracapsular dissection may be considered the treatment of choice for pleomorphic adenomas located in the superficial portion of the parotid gland because this technique showed similar effectiveness and fewer side effects than superficial parotidectomy. Maria Giulia Cristofaro, Eugenia Allegra, Amerigo Giudice, Walter Colangeli, Davide Caruso, Ida Barca, and Mario Giudice Copyright © 2014 Maria Giulia Cristofaro et al. All rights reserved. Suaveolic Acid: A Potent Phytotoxic Substance of Hyptis suaveolens Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:06:28 +0000 Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) is an exotic invasive plant in many countries. Earlier studies reported that the aqueous, methanol, and aqueous methanol extract of H. suaveolens and its residues have phytotoxic properties. However, to date, the phytotoxic substances of this plant have not been reported. Therefore, the objectives of this study were isolation and identification of phytotoxic substances of H. suaveolens. Aqueous methanol extract of this plant was purified by several chromatographic runs through bioassay guided fractionation using garden cress (Lepidium sativum) as a test plant. Final purification of a phytotoxic substance was achieved by reverse phase HPLC and characterized as 14α-hydroxy-13β-abiet-8-en-18-oic acid (suaveolic acid) by high-resolution ESI-MS, 1H-,13C-NMR, CD, and specific rotation. Suaveolic acid inhibited the shoot growth of garden cress, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) at concentrations greater than 30 µM. Root growth of all but lettuce was also inhibited at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The inhibitory activities were concentration dependent. Concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of suaveolic acid for those test plant species were ranged from 76 to 1155 µM. Therefore, suaveolic acid is phytotoxic and may be responsible for the phytotoxicity of H. suaveolens plant extracts. A. K. M. Mominul Islam, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga, and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi Copyright © 2014 A. K. M. Mominul Islam et al. All rights reserved. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:02:53 +0000 Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. María M. Adeva-Andany, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo, Elvira Castro-Quintela, and Alberto Domínguez-Montero Copyright © 2014 María M. Adeva-Andany et al. All rights reserved.