The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Oral Tissues Interactions with Lights and Matters Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:38:22 +0000 Samir Nammour, Umberto Romeo, Carlos de Paula Eduardo, and Toni Zeinoun Copyright © 2015 Samir Nammour et al. All rights reserved. Combined Material Recycling Study with Aesthetic of Entropy and Place Making Thu, 26 Mar 2015 09:52:35 +0000 Green building is a hot topic today. The place making and urban cultures are also important issues in postindustrial society. The industrial heritage renovation projects provide a research opportunity in combination with both aspects. This paper tries to shed new light on this issue by interdisciplinary methods, to study six Guangzhou industrial heritage renovation projects, giving aesthetic values for six sites concerning place making and culture creation, especially giving an explanation for old building material’s aesthetic performance in terms of concepts “entropy” and “archetype.” The conclutions regard: the six places are brand spaces of “authentic Guangzhou” that make local experiential knowledge, emotional significance and creative communities in combination with historical and cultural narratives. Yifeng Wen Copyright © 2015 Yifeng Wen. All rights reserved. Nanomaterials and Nanodevices Thu, 26 Mar 2015 09:29:43 +0000 Xiao-Feng Zhao, Mu-Chun Wang, Jen-Ching Huang, You Qiang, and In-Seok Yoon Copyright © 2015 Xiao-Feng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. New Iterative Method for Fractional Gas Dynamics and Coupled Burger’s Equations Thu, 26 Mar 2015 08:46:03 +0000 This paper presents the approximate analytical solutions to solve the nonlinear gas dynamics and coupled Burger’s equations with fractional time derivative. By using initial values, the explicit solutions of the equations are solved by using a reliable algorithm. Numerical results show that the new iterative method is easy to implement and accurate when applied to time-fractional partial differential equations. Mohamed S. Al-luhaibi Copyright © 2015 Mohamed S. Al-luhaibi. All rights reserved. Geometric Construction of Eighth-Order Optimal Families of Ostrowski’s Method Thu, 26 Mar 2015 08:06:08 +0000 Based on well-known fourth-order Ostrowski’s method, we proposed many new interesting optimal families of eighth-order multipoint methods without memory for obtaining simple roots. Its geometric construction consists in approximating at zn in such a way that its average with the known tangent slopes at xn and yn is the same as the known weighted average of secant slopes and then we apply weight function approach. The adaptation of this strategy increases the convergence order of Ostrowski's method from four to eight and its efficiency index from 1.587 to 1.682. Finally, a number of numerical examples are also proposed to illustrate their accuracy by comparing them with the new existing optimal eighth-order methods available in the literature. It is found that they are very useful in high precision computations. Further, it is also noted that larger basins of attraction belong to our methods although the other methods are slow and have darker basins while some of the methods are too sensitive upon the choice of the initial value. Ramandeep Behl and S. S. Motsa Copyright © 2015 Ramandeep Behl and S. S. Motsa. All rights reserved. Research and Development of Advanced Computing Technologies Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:59:57 +0000 Shifei Ding, Zhongzhi Shi, and Ahmad Taher Azar Copyright © 2015 Shifei Ding et al. All rights reserved. Development of Radiolabeled Compounds for Molecular Imaging and Imaging-Based Therapy Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:57:49 +0000 Kazuma Ogawa, Masahiro Ono, Mei Tian, Masashi Ueda, and Takahiro Higuchi Copyright © 2015 Kazuma Ogawa et al. All rights reserved. VEGF Correlates with Inflammation and Fibrosis in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:42:23 +0000 Objective. To investigate the relationship among angiogenic cytokines, inflammatory markers, and fibrinolytic activity in tuberculous pleural effusion (TBPE) and their clinical importance. Methods. Forty-two patients diagnosed with TBPE were studied. Based on chest ultrasonography, there were 26 loculated and 16 nonloculated TBPE patients. The effusion size radiological scores and effusion vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin- (IL-) 8, plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) were measured. Treatment outcome and pleural fibrosis, defined as radiological residual pleural thickening (RPT), were assessed at 6-month follow-up. Results. The effusion size and effusion lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), VEGF, IL-8, PAI-1, and PAI-1/tPA ratio were significantly higher, while effusion glucose, pH value, and tPA were significantly lower, in loculated than in nonloculated TBPE. VEGF and IL-8 correlated positively with LDH and PAI-1/tPA ratio and negatively with tPA in both loculated and nonloculated TBPE. Patients with higher VEGF or greater effusion size were prone to develop RPT (; VEGF, odds ratio 1.28, ; effusion size, odds ratio 1.01, ), and VEGF was an independent predictor of RPT in TBPE (receiver operating characteristic curve , ). Conclusions. Effusion VEGF correlates with pleural inflammation and fibrosis and may be targeted for adjunct therapy for TBPE. Mauo-Ying Bien, Ming-Ping Wu, Wei-Lin Chen, and Chi-Li Chung Copyright © 2015 Mauo-Ying Bien et al. All rights reserved. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:27:14 +0000 One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs), and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF) can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability. Sung-Chih Hsieh, Jeng-Ting Tsao, Wei-Zhen Lew, Ya-Hui Chan, Lin-Wen Lee, Che-Tong Lin, Yung-Kai Huang, and Haw-Ming Huang Copyright © 2015 Sung-Chih Hsieh et al. All rights reserved. Electrification and Renewable Energy Generation Thu, 26 Mar 2015 06:27:37 +0000 Linni Jian, Hua Bai, Wenxiang Zhao, and Jianing Liang Copyright © 2015 Linni Jian et al. All rights reserved. Research and Application of Knowledge Resources Network for Product Innovation Wed, 25 Mar 2015 14:03:07 +0000 In order to enhance the capabilities of knowledge service in product innovation design service platform, a method of acquiring knowledge resources supporting for product innovation from the Internet and providing knowledge active push is proposed. Through knowledge modeling for product innovation based on ontology, the integrated architecture of knowledge resources network is put forward. The technology for the acquisition of network knowledge resources based on focused crawler and web services is studied. Knowledge active push is provided for users by user behavior analysis and knowledge evaluation in order to improve users’ enthusiasm for participation in platform. Finally, an application example is illustrated to prove the effectiveness of the method. Chuan Li, Wen-qiang Li, Yan Li, Hui-zhen Na, and Qian Shi Copyright © 2015 Chuan Li et al. All rights reserved. Optimization and Decision Science Wed, 25 Mar 2015 13:53:03 +0000 F. Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, A. Amirteimoori, Barnett Parker, Mohammad Khodabakhshi, Jie Wu, and M. Vaez-ghasemi Copyright © 2015 F. Hosseinzadeh Lotfi et al. All rights reserved. Soft Computing Methods in Civil Engineering Wed, 25 Mar 2015 12:29:01 +0000 Siamak Talatahari, Vijay P. Singh, Amir H. Alavi, and Fei Kang Copyright © 2015 Siamak Talatahari et al. All rights reserved. Nanoparticle Properties and Synthesis Effects on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Enhancement Factor: An Introduction Wed, 25 Mar 2015 12:22:29 +0000 Raman spectroscopy has enabled researchers to map the specific chemical makeup of surfaces, solutions, and even cells. However, the inherent insensitivity of the technique makes it difficult to use and statistically complicated. When Raman active molecules are near gold or silver nanoparticles, the Raman intensity is significantly amplified. This phenomenon is referred to as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The extent of SERS enhancement is due to a variety of factors such as nanoparticle size, shape, material, and configuration. The choice of Raman reporters and protective coatings will also influence SERS enhancement. This review provides an introduction to how these factors influence signal enhancement and how to optimize them during synthesis of SERS nanoparticles. Nathan D. Israelsen, Cynthia Hanson, and Elizabeth Vargis Copyright © 2015 Nathan D. Israelsen et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Logical Algebras and Their Applications Wed, 25 Mar 2015 12:21:32 +0000 Jianming Zhan, Bijan Davvaz, Wieslaw A. Dudek, Young Bae Jun, and Hee Sik Kim Copyright © 2015 Jianming Zhan et al. All rights reserved. Photocatalytic Removal of Microcystin-LR by Advanced WO3-Based Nanoparticles under Simulated Solar Light Wed, 25 Mar 2015 11:13:30 +0000 A series of advanced WO3-based photocatalysts including CuO/WO3, Pd/WO3, and Pt/WO3 were synthesized for the photocatalytic removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) under simulated solar light. In the present study, Pt/WO3 exhibited the best performance for the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. The MC-LR degradation can be described by pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Chloride ion (Cl−) with proper concentration could enhance the MC-LR degradation. The presence of metal cations (Cu2+ and Fe3+) improved the photocatalytic degradation of MC-LR. This study suggests that Pt/WO3 photocatalytic oxidation under solar light is a promising option for the purification of water containing MC-LR. Chao Zhao, Dawei Li, Yonggang Liu, Chuanping Feng, Zhenya Zhang, Norio Sugiura, and Yingnan Yang Copyright © 2015 Chao Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Semilocal Convergence Theorem for the Inverse-Free Jarratt Method under New Hölder Conditions Wed, 25 Mar 2015 09:38:37 +0000 Under the new Hölder conditions, we consider the convergence analysis of the inverse-free Jarratt method in Banach space which is used to solve the nonlinear operator equation. We establish a new semilocal convergence theorem for the inverse-free Jarratt method and present an error estimate. Finally, three examples are provided to show the application of the theorem. Yueqing Zhao, Rongfei Lin, Zdenek Šmarda, Yasir Khan, Jinbiao Chen, and Qingbiao Wu Copyright © 2015 Yueqing Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications Wed, 25 Mar 2015 09:05:22 +0000 Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. Preeyaporn Koedrith, Thalisa Thasiphu, Jong-Il Weon, Rattana Boonprasert, Kooranee Tuitemwong, and Pravate Tuitemwong Copyright © 2015 Preeyaporn Koedrith et al. All rights reserved. Floral Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure in Mycoheterotrophic Plant, Epipogium aphyllum Sw. (Orchidaceae) Wed, 25 Mar 2015 08:19:46 +0000 Epipogium aphyllum is a European-Asian obligatory mycoheterotrophic orchid containing no chlorophyll. Flowers are not resupinate with a sack-shape spur and cordate lip, which is divided into two parts: the basal (hypochile) and distal one (epichile). The floral analysis provides strong evidence to conclude that nectar is secreted on the upper surface of pink-coloured papillate ridges and epidermal (adaxial) cells at different place in spur, especially at the apex. The exudation on papillae has been observed through the entire anthesis and it has been stained on polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. The dense cytoplasm of papillae contains profuse endoplasmic reticulum, plentiful vesicles (bigger ones with tannin-like materials), numerous mitochondria, sometimes dictyosomes, starch grains, and plastids with tubular structures. The large electron-dense bodies in cell walls are structurally the same as tannin-like materials from vesicles that are in contact with plasmalemma. The rupture of thin layer of swelled cuticle is caused by pressure of gathered substances exuded due to granulocrine secretion. The idioblasts with raphides occur mainly in tepals tissue. The dynamic changes of the nectar exudation, released through endocrine secretion, have been noticeable during the anthesis: both on the lip and inside the spur. The nectar secretion is not dependent on the colour form of E. aphyllum blooming shoots. The floral biology and ultrastructure differ from mycoheterotrophic plants known up to date. Emilia Święczkowska and Agnieszka K. Kowalkowska Copyright © 2015 Emilia Święczkowska and Agnieszka K. Kowalkowska. All rights reserved. On a Derivative-Free Variant of King’s Family with Memory Wed, 25 Mar 2015 07:38:33 +0000 The aim of this paper is to construct a method with memory according to King’s family of methods without memory for nonlinear equations. It is proved that the proposed method possesses higher R-order of convergence using the same number of functional evaluations as King’s family. Numerical experiments are given to illustrate the performance of the constructed scheme. M. Sharifi, S. Karimi Vanani, F. Khaksar Haghani, M. Arab, and S. Shateyi Copyright © 2015 M. Sharifi et al. All rights reserved. Change of Scaling-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine on the Clinical Efficacy of Periodontitis Treatment Wed, 25 Mar 2015 06:58:54 +0000 Proinflammatory cytokines are key inflammatory mediators in periodontitis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokines in saliva and periodontal status. To investigate the usefulness of cytokines in the therapeutic approach for periodontal disease, the relationship between stimulated cytokine changes and the periodontitis treatment outcome was investigated in this study. Saliva was obtained from 22 patients diagnosed by dentists as having chronic periodontitis. The proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-)) levels were determined using a commercially available kit. The IL-1 and IL-6 levels increased, whereas the TNF- levels decreased with the severity of periodontitis (4 mm pocket percentage). Poststimulation IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 levels were higher in patients who had an improved treatment outcome. The differences of IL-6 levels (cut point: 0.05 μg/g) yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 90.0% and 81.82%, respectively, for predicting the periodontitis treatment outcome. Among the proinflammatory cytokines, stimulated IL-6 was an excellent marker for predicting the periodontitis treatment outcome. Kou-Gi Shyu, Cheuk-Sing Choy, Daniel Chung-Lang Wang, Wei-Chen Huang, Shyuan-Yow Chen, Chien-Hsun Chen, Che-Tong Lin, Chao-Chien Chang, and Yung-Kai Huang Copyright © 2015 Kou-Gi Shyu et al. All rights reserved. Self-Consolidation Mechanism of Nanostructured Ti5Si3 Compact Induced by Electrical Discharge Wed, 25 Mar 2015 06:41:11 +0000 Electrical discharge using a capacitance of 450 μF at 7.0 and 8.0 kJ input energies was applied to mechanical alloyed Ti5Si3 powder without applying any external pressure. A solid bulk of nanostructured Ti5Si3 with no compositional deviation was obtained in times as short as 159 μsec by the discharge. During an electrical discharge, the heat generated is the required parameter possibly to melt the Ti5Si3 particles and the pinch force can pressurize the melted powder without allowing the formation of pores. Followed rapid cooling preserved the nanostructure of consolidated Ti5Si3 compact. Three stepped processes during an electrical discharge for the formation of nanostructured Ti5Si3 compact are proposed: (a) a physical breakdown of the surface oxide of Ti5Si3 powder particles, (b) melting and condensation of Ti5Si3 powder by the heat and pinch pressure, respectively, and (c) rapid cooling for the preservation of nanostructure. Complete conversion yielding a single phase Ti5Si3 is primarily dominated by the solid-liquid mechanism. W. H. Lee, Y. W. Cheon, Y. H. Jo, J. G. Seong, Y. J. Jo, Y. H. Kim, M. S. Noh, H. G. Jeong, C. J. Van Tyne, and S. Y. Chang Copyright © 2015 W. H. Lee et al. All rights reserved. WRKY Proteins: Signaling and Regulation of Expression during Abiotic Stress Responses Tue, 24 Mar 2015 13:50:50 +0000 WRKY proteins are emerging players in plant signaling and have been thoroughly reported to play important roles in plants under biotic stress like pathogen attack. However, recent advances in this field do reveal the enormous significance of these proteins in eliciting responses induced by abiotic stresses. WRKY proteins act as major transcription factors, either as positive or negative regulators. Specific WRKY factors which help in the expression of a cluster of stress-responsive genes are being targeted and genetically modified to induce improved abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The knowledge regarding the signaling cascade leading to the activation of the WRKY proteins, their interaction with other proteins of the signaling pathway, and the downstream genes activated by them are altogether vital for justified targeting of the WRKY genes. WRKY proteins have also been considered to generate tolerance against multiple abiotic stresses with possible roles in mediating a cross talk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. In this review, we have reckoned the diverse signaling pattern and biological functions of WRKY proteins throughout the plant kingdom along with the growing prospects in this field of research. Aditya Banerjee and Aryadeep Roychoudhury Copyright © 2015 Aditya Banerjee and Aryadeep Roychoudhury. All rights reserved. A Transfer Hamiltonian Model for Devices Based on Quantum Dot Arrays Tue, 24 Mar 2015 13:06:20 +0000 We present a model of electron transport through a random distribution of interacting quantum dots embedded in a dielectric matrix to simulate realistic devices. The method underlying the model depends only on fundamental parameters of the system and it is based on the Transfer Hamiltonian approach. A set of noncoherent rate equations can be written and the interaction between the quantum dots and between the quantum dots and the electrodes is introduced by transition rates and capacitive couplings. A realistic modelization of the capacitive couplings, the transmission coefficients, the electron/hole tunneling currents, and the density of states of each quantum dot have been taken into account. The effects of the local potential are computed within the self-consistent field regime. While the description of the theoretical framework is kept as general as possible, two specific prototypical devices, an arbitrary array of quantum dots embedded in a matrix insulator and a transistor device based on quantum dots, are used to illustrate the kind of unique insight that numerical simulations based on the theory are able to provide. S. Illera, J. D. Prades, A. Cirera, and A. Cornet Copyright © 2015 S. Illera et al. All rights reserved. Assessments of Wind-Energy Potential in Selected Sites from Three Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria: Implications for Renewable/Sustainable Rural Electrification Tue, 24 Mar 2015 12:41:52 +0000 Electricity generation in rural communities is an acute problem militating against socioeconomic well-being of the populace in these communities in developing countries, including Nigeria. In this paper, assessments of wind-energy potential in selected sites from three major geopolitical zones of Nigeria were investigated. For this, daily wind-speed data from Katsina in northern, Warri in southwestern and Calabar in southeastern Nigeria were analysed using the Gumbel and the Weibull probability distributions for assessing wind-energy potential as a renewable/sustainable solution for the country’s rural-electrification problems. Results showed that the wind-speed models identified Katsina with higher wind-speed class than both Warri and Calabar that were otherwise identified as low wind-speed sites. However, econometrics of electricity power simulation at different hub heights of low wind-speed turbine systems showed that the cost of electric-power generation in the three study sites was converging to affordable cost per kWh of electric energy from the wind resource at each site. These power simulations identified cost/kWh of electricity generation at Kaduna as €0.0507, at Warri as €0.0774, and at Calabar as €0.0819. These bare positive implications on renewable/sustainable rural electrification in the study sites even as requisite options for promoting utilization of this viable wind-resource energy in the remote communities in the environs of the study sites were suggested. Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi, Olayinka Soledayo Ohunakin, and Elizabeth Toyin Okeniyi Copyright © 2015 Joshua Olusegun Okeniyi et al. All rights reserved. From Determinism and Probability to Chaos: Chaotic Evolution towards Philosophy and Methodology of Chaotic Optimization Tue, 24 Mar 2015 11:14:05 +0000 We present and discuss philosophy and methodology of chaotic evolution that is theoretically supported by chaos theory. We introduce four chaotic systems, that is, logistic map, tent map, Gaussian map, and Hénon map, in a well-designed chaotic evolution algorithm framework to implement several chaotic evolution (CE) algorithms. By comparing our previous proposed CE algorithm with logistic map and two canonical differential evolution (DE) algorithms, we analyse and discuss optimization performance of CE algorithm. An investigation on the relationship between optimization capability of CE algorithm and distribution characteristic of chaotic system is conducted and analysed. From evaluation result, we find that distribution of chaotic system is an essential factor to influence optimization performance of CE algorithm. We propose a new interactive EC (IEC) algorithm, interactive chaotic evolution (ICE) that replaces fitness function with a real human in CE algorithm framework. There is a paired comparison-based mechanism behind CE search scheme in nature. A simulation experimental evaluation is conducted with a pseudo-IEC user to evaluate our proposed ICE algorithm. The evaluation result indicates that ICE algorithm can obtain a significant better performance than or the same performance as interactive DE. Some open topics on CE, ICE, fusion of these optimization techniques, algorithmic notation, and others are presented and discussed. Yan Pei Copyright © 2015 Yan Pei. All rights reserved. Unbiased Feature Selection in Learning Random Forests for High-Dimensional Data Tue, 24 Mar 2015 08:52:59 +0000 Random forests (RFs) have been widely used as a powerful classification method. However, with the randomization in both bagging samples and feature selection, the trees in the forest tend to select uninformative features for node splitting. This makes RFs have poor accuracy when working with high-dimensional data. Besides that, RFs have bias in the feature selection process where multivalued features are favored. Aiming at debiasing feature selection in RFs, we propose a new RF algorithm, called xRF, to select good features in learning RFs for high-dimensional data. We first remove the uninformative features using -value assessment, and the subset of unbiased features is then selected based on some statistical measures. This feature subset is then partitioned into two subsets. A feature weighting sampling technique is used to sample features from these two subsets for building trees. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees, while allowing one to reduce dimensionality and the amount of data needed for learning RFs. An extensive set of experiments has been conducted on 47 high-dimensional real-world datasets including image datasets. The experimental results have shown that RFs with the proposed approach outperformed the existing random forests in increasing the accuracy and the AUC measures. Thanh-Tung Nguyen, Joshua Zhexue Huang, and Thuy Thi Nguyen Copyright © 2015 Thanh-Tung Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. NULL Convention Floating Point Multiplier Tue, 24 Mar 2015 07:33:01 +0000 Floating point multiplication is a critical part in high dynamic range and computational intensive digital signal processing applications which require high precision and low power. This paper presents the design of an IEEE 754 single precision floating point multiplier using asynchronous NULL convention logic paradigm. Rounding has not been implemented to suit high precision applications. The novelty of the research is that it is the first ever NULL convention logic multiplier, designed to perform floating point multiplication. The proposed multiplier offers substantial decrease in power consumption when compared with its synchronous version. Performance attributes of the NULL convention logic floating point multiplier, obtained from Xilinx simulation and Cadence, are compared with its equivalent synchronous implementation. Anitha Juliette Albert and Seshasayanan Ramachandran Copyright © 2015 Anitha Juliette Albert and Seshasayanan Ramachandran. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Anterior Two-Unit Cantilever Resin-Bonded Fixed Dental Prostheses Tue, 24 Mar 2015 06:53:00 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different framework materials on biomechanical behaviour of anterior two-unit cantilever resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses (RBFDPs). A three-dimensional finite element model of a two-unit cantilever RBFDP replacing a maxillary lateral incisor was created. Five framework materials were evaluated: direct fibre-reinforced composite (FRC-Z250), indirect fibre-reinforced composite (FRC-ES), gold alloy (M), glass ceramic (GC), and zirconia (ZI). Finite element analysis was performed and stress distribution was evaluated. A similar stress pattern, with stress concentrations in the connector area, was observed in RBFDPs for all materials. Maximal principal stress showed a decreasing order: ZI > M > GC > FRC-ES > FRC-Z250. The maximum displacement of RBFDPs was higher for FRC-Z250 and FRC-ES than for M, GC, and ZI. FE analysis depicted differences in location of the maximum stress at the luting cement interface between materials. For FRC-Z250 and FRC-ES, the maximum stress was located in the upper part of the proximal area of the retainer, whereas, for M, GC, and ZI, the maximum stress was located at the cervical outline of the retainer. The present study revealed differences in biomechanical behaviour between all RBFDPs. The general observation was that a RBFDP made of FRC provided a more favourable stress distribution. Filip Keulemans, Akikazu Shinya, Lippo V. J. Lassila, Pekka K. Vallittu, Cornelis J. Kleverlaan, Albert J. Feilzer, and Roeland J. G. De Moor Copyright © 2015 Filip Keulemans et al. All rights reserved. Exploring Some Aspects Associated with Dentine Hypersensitivity in Children Tue, 24 Mar 2015 06:48:57 +0000 Background. The etiology of dentine hypersensitivity (DH) is still inconclusive and there are few studies concerning it in children. Aim. To evaluate clinical, dietary, and salivary variables in children with DH complaints. Design. Forty-eight children were asked about DH. Data regarding dietary habits were collected from the children’s parents and an examination was performed to determine dental erosion. Dental biofilm was estimated by oral hygiene status, according to Greene and Vermillion’s Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S). Whole saliva was collected under mechanical stimulation and evaluated salivary flow rate, initial pH, buffer capacity, and calcium and phosphate concentrations. The temperature of soft drinks, drinking method, sense of bitter taste, and other variables were also determined. Possible factors associated with DH were analyzed by univariate and multiple Poisson regression analyses. The prevalence ratio (PR) values and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results. DH was associated with the presence of dental erosion (PR; 95% CI = 2.23; 1.05 to 4.71) and salivary flow rate (2.49; 1.05 to 5.91). When the presence of erosion was not included, other variables were retained as follows: bitter taste (2.36; 1.38 to 4.03), OHI-S (0.47; 0.23 to 0.97). Conclusion. DH in children is associated with factors related to dental erosion. Caleb Shitsuka, Fausto Medeiros Mendes, Maria Salete Nahás Pires Corrêa, and Mariana Ferreira Leite Copyright © 2015 Caleb Shitsuka et al. All rights reserved.