The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange Proven Secure against Insider Dictionary Attacks Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:56:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/802359/ While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. Junghyun Nam, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Juryon Paik, and Dongho Won Copyright © 2014 Junghyun Nam et al. All rights reserved. Cooperation-Controlled Learning for Explicit Class Structure in Self-Organizing Maps Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/397927/ We attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple points of view toward neural networks. By restricting ourselves to two points of view of a neuron, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called “cooperation-controlled learning.” In this method, individual and collective neurons are distinguished from one another, and we suppose that the characteristics of individual and collective neurons are different. To implement individual and collective neurons, we prepare two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks. The roles of these networks and the roles of individual and collective neurons are controlled by the cooperation parameter. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning, and the characteristics of collective neurons become more dominant. On the other hand, when the parameter is small, individual neurons play a more important role. We applied the method to the automobile and housing data from the machine learning database and examined whether explicit class boundaries could be obtained. Experimental results showed that cooperation-controlled learning, in particular taking into account information on input units, could be used to produce clearer class structure than conventional self-organizing maps. Ryotaro Kamimura Copyright © 2014 Ryotaro Kamimura. All rights reserved. A Filter-Mediated Communication Model for Design Collaboration in Building Construction Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:17:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/808613/ Multidisciplinary collaboration is an important aspect of modern engineering activities, arising from the growing complexity of artifacts whose design and construction require knowledge and skills that exceed the capacities of any one professional. However, current collaboration in the architecture, engineering, and construction industries often fails due to lack of shared understanding between different participants and limitations of their supporting tools. To achieve a high level of shared understanding, this study proposes a filter-mediated communication model. In the proposed model, participants retain their own data in the form most appropriate for their needs with domain-specific filters that transform the neutral representations into semantically rich ones, as needed by the participants. Conversely, the filters can translate semantically rich, domain-specific data into a neutral representation that can be accessed by other domain-specific filters. To validate the feasibility of the proposed model, we computationally implement the filter mechanism and apply it to a hypothetical test case. The result acknowledges that the filter mechanism can let the participants know ahead of time what will be the implications of their proposed actions, as seen from other participants’ points of view. Jaewook Lee, Yongwook Jeong, Minho Oh, and Seung Wan Hong Copyright © 2014 Jaewook Lee et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/612787/ This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh, Naomie Salim, Amjad Rehman, Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz, Tanzila Saba, Mznah Al-Rodhaan, and Abdullah Al-Dhelaan Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh et al. All rights reserved. Towards Internet QoS Provisioning Based on Generic Distributed QoS Adaptive Routing Engine Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:56:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/694847/ Increasing efficiency and quality demands of modern Internet technologies drive today’s network engineers to seek to provide quality of service (QoS). Internet QoS provisioning gives rise to several challenging issues. This paper introduces a generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine (DQARE) architecture based on OSPFxQoS. The innovation of the proposed work in this paper is its undependability on the used QoS architectures and, moreover, splitting of the control strategy from data forwarding mechanisms, so we guarantee a set of absolute stable mechanisms on top of which Internet QoS can be built. DQARE architecture is furnished with three relevant traffic control schemes, namely, service differentiation, QoS routing, and traffic engineering. The main objective of this paper is to (i) provide a general configuration guideline for service differentiation, (ii) formalize the theoretical properties of different QoS routing algorithms and then introduce a QoS routing algorithm (QOPRA) based on dynamic programming technique, and (iii) propose QoS multipath forwarding (QMPF) model for paths diversity exploitation. NS2-based simulations proved the DQARE superiority in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput, and control overhead. Moreover, extensive simulations are used to compare the proposed QOPRA algorithm and QMPF model with their counterparts in the literature. Amira Y. Haikal, M. Badawy, and Hesham A. Ali Copyright © 2014 Amira Y. Haikal et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Odorous Compounds (VOC and Carbonyl Compounds) in the Ambient Air of Yeosu and Gwangyang, Large Industrial Areas of South Korea Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:25:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/824301/ Odorous compounds play an important role in air pollution in industrial areas and the residential areas surrounding them. This study measured the odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbonyl compounds at Yeosu and Gwangyang, two large industrial areas of South Korea, during four seasons of 2008-2009. Along with these two cities, the same odorous compounds were measured at Suncheon, which was selected as a control site. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyl compounds that were listed as odorous air pollutants by the Ministry of Environment of South Korea are discussed. Benzene and formaldehyde were included in the target analytes because of their carcinogenic nature. Most researchers only examined the concentration of odorous compounds in ambient air but the present study evaluated the odor intensity, which is a new parameter that will help better understand the precise odor perceived by people. This paper describes the seasonal variations and spatial distribution of the above-mentioned odorous compounds at the specified sites. Pearson correlation coefficients between the odorous compounds and other air pollutants, such as ozone, CO, SO2, NO2, and PM10, and meteorological conditions, such as temperature and wind speed, provide the source information of odorous VOC and carbonyl compounds. Young-Kyo Seo, Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu, and Sung-Ok Baek Copyright © 2014 Young-Kyo Seo et al. All rights reserved. A Modular Neural Network Scheme Applied to Fault Diagnosis in Electric Power Systems Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:06:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/176463/ This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system. Agustín Flores, Eduardo Quiles, Emilio García, Francisco Morant, and Antonio Correcher Copyright © 2014 Agustín Flores et al. All rights reserved. Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residue in Soil Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:46:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/617408/ Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE). However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD) or paper (PP), as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area) was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown. Carmen Moreno, Ignacio Mancebo, Antonio Saa, and Marta M. Moreno Copyright © 2014 Carmen Moreno et al. All rights reserved. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:36:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/638276/ This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process. WoonSeong Jeong, Jong Bum Kim, Mark J. Clayton, Jeff S. Haberl, and Wei Yan Copyright © 2014 WoonSeong Jeong et al. All rights reserved. Seismic Performance of RC Beam-Column Connections with Continuous Rectangular Spiral Transverse Reinforcements for Low Ductility Classes Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/802605/ The seismic performance of RC columns could be significantly improved by continuous spiral reinforcement as a result of its adequate ductility and energy dissipation capacity. Due to post-earthquake brittle failure observations in beam-column connections, the seismic behaviour of such connections could greatly be improved by simultaneous application of this method in both beams and columns. In this study, a new proposed detail for beam to column connection introduced as “twisted opposing rectangular spiral” was experimentally and numerically investigated and its seismic performance was compared against normal rectangular spiral and conventional shear reinforcement systems. In this study, three full scale beam to column connections were first designed in conformance with Eurocode (EC2-04) for low ductility class connections and then tested by quasistatic cyclic loading recommended by ACI Building Code (ACI 318-02). Next, the experimental results were validated by numerical methods. Finally, the results revealed that the new proposed connection could improve the ultimate lateral resistance, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity. Mohammadamin Azimi, Azlan Bin Adnan, Abdul Rahman Bin Mohd Sam, Mahmood Md Tahir, Iman Faridmehr, and Reza Hodjati Copyright © 2014 Mohammadamin Azimi et al. All rights reserved. Simulation for Supporting Scale-Up of a Fluidized Bed Reactor for Advanced Water Oxidation Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/348974/ Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe3+ and Fe2+ mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40–90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment. Farhana Tisa, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman, and Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud Copyright © 2014 Farhana Tisa et al. All rights reserved. A Three-Step Approach with Adaptive Additive Magnitude Selection for the Sharpening of Images Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:45:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/528696/ Aimed to find the additive magnitude automatically and adaptively, we propose a three-step and model-based approach for the sharpening of images in this paper. In the first pass, a Grey prediction model is applied to find a global maximal additive magnitude so that the condition of oversharpening in images to be sharpened can be avoided. During the second pass, edge pixels are picked out with our previously proposed edge detection mechanism. In this pass, a low-pass filter is also applied so that isolated pixels will not be regarded as around an edge. In the final pass, those pixels detected as around an edge are adjusted adaptively based on the local statistics, and those nonedge pixels are kept unaltered. Extensive experiments on natural images as well as medical images with subjective and objective evaluations will be given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach. Lih-Jen Kau and Tien-Lin Lee Copyright © 2014 Lih-Jen Kau and Tien-Lin Lee. All rights reserved. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact Tue, 16 Sep 2014 05:47:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/852529/ Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated. Amir Mohajeri and Mohammad Fallah Copyright © 2014 Amir Mohajeri and Mohammad Fallah. All rights reserved. Design and Implementation of a VoIP Broadcasting Service over Embedded Systems in a Heterogeneous Network Environment Mon, 15 Sep 2014 08:21:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/917060/ As the digitization is integrated into daily life, media including video and audio are heavily transferred over the Internet nowadays. Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP), the most popular and mature technology, becomes the focus attracting many researches and investments. However, most of the existing studies focused on a one-to-one communication model in a homogeneous network, instead of one-to-many broadcasting model among diverse embedded devices in a heterogeneous network. In this paper, we present the implementation of a VoIP broadcasting service on the open source—Linphone—in a heterogeneous network environment, including WiFi, 3G, and LAN networks. The proposed system featuring VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated with heterogeneous agile devices, such as embedded devices or mobile phones. VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated into modern smartphones or other embedded devices; thus when users run in a traditional AM/FM signal unreachable area, they still can receive the broadcast voice through the IP network. Also, comprehensive evaluations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implementation. Jenq-Shiou Leu, Wei-Hsiang Lin, Wen-Bin Hsieh, and Chien-Chih Lo Copyright © 2014 Jenq-Shiou Leu et al. All rights reserved. Pixel Color Clustering of Multi-Temporally Acquired Digital Photographs of a Rice Canopy by Luminosity-Normalization and Pseudo-Red-Green-Blue Color Imaging Mon, 15 Sep 2014 06:49:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/450374/ Red-green-blue (RGB) channels of RGB digital photographs were loaded with luminosity-adjusted R, G, and completely white grayscale images, respectively (RGwhtB method), or R, G, and R + G (RGB yellow) grayscale images, respectively (RGrgbyB method), to adjust the brightness of the entire area of multi-temporally acquired color digital photographs of a rice canopy. From the RGwhtB or RGrgbyB pseudocolor image, cyan, magenta, CMYK yellow, black, , , and grayscale images were prepared. Using these grayscale images and R, G, and RGB yellow grayscale images, the luminosity-adjusted pixels of the canopy photographs were statistically clustered. With the RGrgbyB and the RGwhtB methods, seven and five major color clusters were given, respectively. The RGrgbyB method showed clear differences among three rice growth stages, and the vegetative stage was further divided into two substages. The RGwhtB method could not clearly discriminate between the second vegetative and midseason stages. The relative advantages of the RGrgbyB method were attributed to the R, G, B, magenta, yellow, , and grayscale images that contained richer information to show the colorimetrical differences among objects than those of the RGwhtB method. The comparison of rice canopy colors at different time points was enabled by the pseudocolor imaging method. Ryoichi Doi, Chusnul Arif, Budi Indra Setiawan, and Masaru Mizoguchi Copyright © 2014 Ryoichi Doi et al. All rights reserved. Security Enhanced EMV-Based Mobile Payment Protocol Mon, 15 Sep 2014 06:29:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/864571/ Near field communication has enabled customers to put their credit cards into a smartphone and use the phone for credit card transaction. But EMV contactless payment allows unauthorized readers to access credit cards. Besides, in offline transaction, a merchant’s reader cannot verify whether a card has been revoked. Therefore, we propose an EMV-compatible payment protocol to mitigate the transaction risk. And our modifications to the EMV standard are transparent to merchants and users. We also encrypt the communications between a card and a reader to prevent eavesdropping on sensitive data. The protocol is able to resist impersonation attacks and to avoid the security threats in EMV. In offline transactions, our scheme requires a user to apply for a temporary offline certificate in advance. With the certificate, banks no longer need to lower customer’s credits for risk control, and users can have online-equivalent credits in offline transactions. Ming-Hour Yang Copyright © 2014 Ming-Hour Yang. All rights reserved. A Design of Irregular Grid Map for Large-Scale Wi-Fi LAN Fingerprint Positioning Systems Mon, 15 Sep 2014 06:05:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/203419/ The rapid growth of mobile communication and the proliferation of smartphones have drawn significant attention to location-based services (LBSs). One of the most important factors in the vitalization of LBSs is the accurate position estimation of a mobile device. The Wi-Fi positioning system (WPS) is a new positioning method that measures received signal strength indication (RSSI) data from all Wi-Fi access points (APs) and stores them in a large database as a form of radio fingerprint map. Because of the millions of APs in urban areas, radio fingerprints are seriously contaminated and confused. Moreover, the algorithmic advances for positioning face computational limitation. Therefore, we present a novel irregular grid structure and data analytics for efficient fingerprint map management. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is presented using the actual radio fingerprint measurements taken throughout Seoul, Korea. Jae-Hoon Kim, Kyoung Sik Min, and Woon-Young Yeo Copyright © 2014 Jae-Hoon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Biocompatibility and Toxicity of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/N,O-Carboxymethyl Chitosan Scaffold Mon, 15 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/905103/ The in vivo biocompatibility and toxicity of PVA/NOCC scaffold were tested by comparing them with those of a biocompatible inert material HAM in a rat model. On Day 5, changes in the blood parameters of the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats were significantly higher than those of the control. The levels of potassium, creatinine, total protein, A/G, hemoglobulin, erythrocytes, WBC, and platelets were not significantly altered in the HAM-implanted rats, when compared with those in the control. On Day 10, an increase in potassium, urea, and GGT levels and a decrease in ALP, platelet, and eosinophil levels were noted in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, when compared with control. These changes were almost similar to those noted in the HAM-implanted rats, except for the unaltered potassium and increased neutrophil levels. On Day 15, the total protein, A/G, lymphocyte, monocyte, and eosinophil levels remained unaltered in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, whereas urea, A/G, WBC, lymphocyte, and monocyte levels remained unchanged in the HAM-implanted rats. Histology and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed inflammatory infiltration in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, but not in the HAM-implanted rats. Although a low toxic tissue response was observed in the PVA/NOCC-implanted rats, further studies are necessary to justify the use of this material in tissue engineering applications. Tunku Kamarul, G. Krishnamurithy, Noman D. Salih, Nurul Syuhada Ibrahim, Hanumantha Rao Balaji Raghavendran, Abdul Razzaq Suhaeb, and D. S. K. Choon Copyright © 2014 Tunku Kamarul et al. All rights reserved. Existence of Tripled Fixed Points for a Class of Condensing Operators in Banach Spaces Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:48:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/541862/ We give some results concerning the existence of tripled fixed points for a class of condensing operators in Banach spaces. Further, as an application, we study the existence of solutions for a general system of nonlinear integral equations. Vatan Karakaya, Nour El Houda Bouzara, Kadri Doğan, and Yunus Atalan Copyright © 2014 Vatan Karakaya et al. All rights reserved. Soft Mappings Space Sun, 14 Sep 2014 12:08:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/307292/ Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established. Taha Yasin Ozturk and Sadi Bayramov Copyright © 2014 Taha Yasin Ozturk and Sadi Bayramov. All rights reserved. Novel Modulation Method for Multidirectional Matrix Converter Sun, 14 Sep 2014 11:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/645734/ This study presents a new modulation method for multidirectional matrix converter (MDMC), based on the direct duty ratio pulse width modulation (DDPWM). In this study, a new structure of MDMC has been proposed to control the power flow direction through the stand-alone battery based system and hybrid vehicle. The modulation method acts based on the average voltage over one switching period concept. Therefore, in order to determine the duty ratio for each switch, the instantaneous input voltages are captured and compared with triangular waveform continuously. By selecting the proper switching pattern and changing the slope of the carriers, the sinusoidal input current can be synthesized with high power factor and desired output voltage. The proposed system increases the discharging time of the battery by injecting the power to the system from the generator and battery at the same time. Thus, it makes the battery life longer and saves more energy. This paper also derived necessary equation for proposed modulation method as well as detail of analysis and modulation algorithm. The theoretical and modulation concepts presented have been verified in MATLAB simulation. Saman Toosi, Norhisam Misron, Tsuyoshi Hanamoto, Ishak Bin Aris, Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi, and Hiroaki Yamada Copyright © 2014 Saman Toosi et al. All rights reserved. Dual Adaptive Filtering by Optimal Projection Applied to Filter Muscle Artifacts on EEG and Comparative Study Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:45:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/374679/ Muscle artifacts constitute one of the major problems in electroencephalogram (EEG) examinations, particularly for the diagnosis of epilepsy, where pathological rhythms occur within the same frequency bands as those of artifacts. This paper proposes to use the method dual adaptive filtering by optimal projection (DAFOP) to automatically remove artifacts while preserving true cerebral signals. DAFOP is a two-step method. The first step consists in applying the common spatial pattern (CSP) method to two frequency windows to identify the slowest components which will be considered as cerebral sources. The two frequency windows are defined by optimizing convolutional filters. The second step consists in using a regression method to reconstruct the signal independently within various frequency windows. This method was evaluated by two neurologists on a selection of 114 pages with muscle artifacts, from 20 clinical recordings of awake and sleeping adults, subject to pathological signals and epileptic seizures. A blind comparison was then conducted with the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method and conventional low-pass filtering at 30 Hz. The filtering rate was 84.3% for muscle artifacts with a 6.4% reduction of cerebral signals even for the fastest waves. DAFOP was found to be significantly more efficient than CCA and 30 Hz filters. The DAFOP method is fast and automatic and can be easily used in clinical EEG recordings. Samuel Boudet, Laurent Peyrodie, William Szurhaj, Nicolas Bolo, Antonio Pinti, and Philippe Gallois Copyright © 2014 Samuel Boudet et al. All rights reserved. Nonwearable Gaze Tracking System for Controlling Home Appliance Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:05:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/303670/ A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments. Hwan Heo, Jong Man Lee, Dongwook Jung, Ji Woo Lee, and Kang Ryoung Park Copyright © 2014 Hwan Heo et al. All rights reserved. Soft Translations and Soft Extensions of BCI/BCK-Algebras Sun, 14 Sep 2014 08:57:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/536709/ The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored. Nazra Sultana, Nazia Rani, Muhammad Irfan Ali, and Azhar Hussain Copyright © 2014 Nazra Sultana et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization Sun, 14 Sep 2014 06:00:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/943403/ Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. Pauline Ong Copyright © 2014 Pauline Ong. All rights reserved. Modeling and Assessment of Long Afterglow Decay Curves Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/102524/ Multiple exponential equations have been successfully fitted to experimental long afterglow decay curve data for some phosphor materials by previous researchers. The calculated decay constants in such equations are used to assess the phosphorescence characteristics of an object. This study generates decay constants from experimental test data and from existing literature for comparison. It shows that the decay constants of an object may not be invariant and that they are dependent on phosphor material, temperature, irradiation intensity, sample thickness, and phosphor density for samples. In addition, the use of different numbers of exponential components in interpretation leads to different numerical results for decay constants. The relationship between the calculated decay constants and the afterglow characteristics of an object is studied and discussed in this paper. The appearance of the luminescence intensity is less correlated to the decay constants than to the time-invariant constants in an equation. Chi-Yang Tsai, Jeng-Wen Lin, Yih-Ping Huang, and Yung-Chieh Huang Copyright © 2014 Chi-Yang Tsai et al. All rights reserved. Improving RLRN Image Splicing Detection with the Use of PCA and Kernel PCA Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/606570/ Digital image forgery is becoming easier to perform because of the rapid development of various manipulation tools. Image splicing is one of the most prevalent techniques. Digital images had lost their trustability, and researches have exerted considerable effort to regain such trustability by focusing mostly on algorithms. However, most of the proposed algorithms are incapable of handling high dimensionality and redundancy in the extracted features. Moreover, existing algorithms are limited by high computational time. This study focuses on improving one of the image splicing detection algorithms, that is, the run length run number algorithm (RLRN), by applying two dimension reduction methods, namely, principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel PCA. Support vector machine is used to distinguish between authentic and spliced images. Results show that kernel PCA is a nonlinear dimension reduction method that has the best effect on R, G, B, and Y channels and gray-scale images. Zahra Moghaddasi, Hamid A. Jalab, Rafidah Md Noor, and Saeed Aghabozorgi Copyright © 2014 Zahra Moghaddasi et al. All rights reserved. A New Sensors-Based Covert Channel on Android Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/969628/ Covert channels are not new in computing systems, and have been studied since their first definition four decades ago. New platforms invoke thorough investigations to assess their security. Now is the time for Android platform to analyze its security model, in particular the two key principles: process-isolation and the permissions system. Aside from all sorts of malware, one threat proved intractable by current protection solutions, that is, collusion attacks involving two applications communicating over covert channels. Still no universal solution can countermeasure this sort of attack unless the covert channels are known. This paper is an attempt to reveal a new covert channel, not only being specific to smartphones, but also exploiting an unusual resource as a vehicle to carry covert information: sensors data. Accelerometers generate signals that reflect user motions, and malware applications can apparently only read their data. However, if the vibration motor on the device is used properly, programmatically produced vibration patterns can encode stolen data and hence an application can cause discernible effects on acceleration data to be received and decoded by another application. Our evaluations confirmed a real threat where strings of tens of characters could be transmitted errorless if the throughput is reduced to around 2.5–5 bps. The proposed covert channel is very stealthy as no unusual permissions are required and there is no explicit communication between the colluding applications. Ahmed Al-Haiqi, Mahamod Ismail, and Rosdiadee Nordin Copyright © 2014 Ahmed Al-Haiqi et al. All rights reserved. Heuristic Evaluation on Mobile Interfaces: A New Checklist Thu, 11 Sep 2014 12:08:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/434326/ The rapid evolution and adoption of mobile devices raise new usability challenges, given their limitations (in screen size, battery life, etc.) as well as the specific requirements of this new interaction. Traditional evaluation techniques need to be adapted in order for these requirements to be met. Heuristic evaluation (HE), an Inspection Method based on evaluation conducted by experts over a real system or prototype, is based on checklists which are desktop-centred and do not adequately detect mobile-specific usability issues. In this paper, we propose a compilation of heuristic evaluation checklists taken from the existing bibliography but readapted to new mobile interfaces. Selecting and rearranging these heuristic guidelines offer a tool which works well not just for evaluation but also as a best-practices checklist. The result is a comprehensive checklist which is experimentally evaluated as a design tool. This experimental evaluation involved two software engineers without any specific knowledge about usability, a group of ten users who compared the usability of a first prototype designed without our heuristics, and a second one after applying the proposed checklist. The results of this experiment show the usefulness of the proposed checklist for avoiding usability gaps even with nontrained developers. Rosa Yáñez Gómez, Daniel Cascado Caballero, and José-Luis Sevillano Copyright © 2014 Rosa Yáñez Gómez et al. All rights reserved. A Model Independent S/W Framework for Search-Based Software Testing Thu, 11 Sep 2014 11:50:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/126348/ In Model-Based Testing (MBT) area, Search-Based Software Testing (SBST) has been employed to generate test cases from the model of a system under test. However, many types of models have been used in MBT. If the type of a model has changed from one to another, all functions of a search technique must be reimplemented because the types of models are different even if the same search technique has been applied. It requires too much time and effort to implement the same algorithm over and over again. We propose a model-independent software framework for SBST, which can reduce redundant works. The framework provides a reusable common software platform to reduce time and effort. The software framework not only presents design patterns to find test cases for a target model but also reduces development time by using common functions provided in the framework. We show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed framework with two case studies. The framework improves the productivity by about 50% when changing the type of a model. Jungsup Oh, Jongmoon Baik, and Sung-Hwa Lim Copyright © 2014 Jungsup Oh et al. All rights reserved.