The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Review of Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment in Stroke Survivors Tue, 31 May 2016 07:54:19 +0000 In this review, we aimed to identify the risk factors that may influence cognitive impairment among stroke survivors, namely, demographic, clinical, psychological, and physical determinants. A search from Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases was conducted for papers published from year 2004 to 2015 related to risk factors of cognitive impairment among adult stroke survivors. A total of 1931 articles were retrieved, but only 27 articles met the criteria and were reviewed. In more than half of the articles it was found that demographical variables that include age, education level, and history of stroke were significant risk factors of cognitive impairment among stroke survivors. The review also indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, types of stroke and affected region of brain, and stroke characteristics (e.g., size and location of infarctions) were clinical determinants that affected cognitive status. In addition, the presence of emotional disturbances mainly depressive symptoms showed significant effects on cognition. Independent relationships between cognition and functional impairment were also identified as determinants in a few studies. This review provided information on the possible risk factors of cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. This information may be beneficial in the prevention and management strategy of cognitive impairments among stroke survivors. Mohd Faizal Mohd Zulkifly, Shazli Ezzat Ghazali, Normah Che Din, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, and Ponnusamy Subramaniam Copyright © 2016 Mohd Faizal Mohd Zulkifly et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells Wed, 25 May 2016 11:28:29 +0000 Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. Samaneh Sadat Maleki, Kourosh Mohammadi, and Kong-shu Ji Copyright © 2016 Samaneh Sadat Maleki et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Phenotypic Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa” Tue, 24 May 2016 11:36:40 +0000 Yalda Khosravi, Mun Fai Loke, Eng Guan Chua, Sun Tee Tay, and Jamuna Vadivelu Copyright © 2016 Yalda Khosravi et al. All rights reserved. Effects of R-Phase on Mechanical Responses of a Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instrument: Structural Characterization and Finite Element Analysis Sun, 22 May 2016 12:07:13 +0000 The effects of the presence of the R-phase in a near-equiatomic NiTi alloy on the mechanical responses of an endodontic instrument were studied by using finite element analysis. The input data for the constitutive model in the simulation were obtained by tensile testing of three NiTi wires: superelastic austenite NiTi, austenite + R-phase NiTi, and fully R-phased NiTi. The wires were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A commercially available endodontic instrument was scanned using microcomputed tomography, and the resulting images were used to build the geometrical model. The numerical analyses were performed in ABAQUS using load and boundary conditions based on the ISO 3630-1 specification for the bending and torsion of endodontic instruments. The modeled instrument containing only R-phase demanded the lowest moment to be bent, followed by the one with mixed austenite + R-phase. The superelastic instrument, containing essentially austenite, required the highest bending moment. During bending, the fully R-phased instrument reached the lowest stress values; however, it also experienced the highest angular deflection when subjected to torsion. In summary, this simulation showed that NiTi endodontic instruments containing only R-phase in their microstructure would show higher flexibility without compromising their performance under torsion. Leandro de Arruda Santos, Pedro Damas Resende, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia, and Vicente Tadeu Lopes Buono Copyright © 2016 Leandro de Arruda Santos et al. All rights reserved. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility Sun, 22 May 2016 08:46:20 +0000 Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. John D. Bullough and Mark S. Rea Copyright © 2016 John D. Bullough and Mark S. Rea. All rights reserved. Local Integral Estimates for Quasilinear Equations with Measure Data Tue, 17 May 2016 12:00:24 +0000 Local integral estimates as well as local nonexistence results for a class of quasilinear equations for and Hessian equations were established, where is a nonnegative locally integrable function or, more generally, a locally finite measure, is a positive Radon measure, and with and or . Qiaoyu Tian, Shengzhi Zhang, Yonglin Xu, and Jia Mu Copyright © 2016 Qiaoyu Tian et al. All rights reserved. System Review about Function Role of ESCC Driver Gene KDM6A by Network Biology Approach Tue, 17 May 2016 06:07:52 +0000 Background. KDM6A (Lysine (K)-Specific Demethylase 6A) is the driver gene related to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In order to provide more biological insights into KDM6A, in this paper, we treat PPI (protein-protein interaction) network derived from KDM6A as a conceptual framework and follow it to review its biological function. Method. We constructed a PPI network with Cytoscape software and performed clustering of network with Clust&See. Then, we evaluate the pathways, which are statistically involved in the network derived from KDM6A. Lastly, gene ontology analysis of clusters of genes in the network was conducted. Result. The network includes three clusters that consist of 74 nodes connected via 453 edges. Fifty-five pathways are statistically involved in the network and most of them are functionally related to the processes of cell cycle, gene expression, and carcinogenesis. The biology themes of clusters 1, 2, and 3 are chromatin modification, regulation of gene expression by transcription factor complex, and control of cell cycle, respectively. Conclusion. The PPI network presents a panoramic view which can facilitate for us to understand the function role of KDM6A. It is a helpful way by network approach to perform system review on a certain gene. Jihua Ran, Hui Li, and Huiwu Li Copyright © 2016 Jihua Ran et al. All rights reserved. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications Sun, 15 May 2016 12:16:39 +0000 This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results. G. Rohini and V. Jamuna Copyright © 2016 G. Rohini and V. Jamuna. All rights reserved. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study Tue, 10 May 2016 16:21:12 +0000 The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors’ involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. Margaret Grant, Alan Rushton, and John Simmonds Copyright © 2016 Margaret Grant et al. All rights reserved. Development and Evaluation of Stability of a Gel Formulation Containing the Monoterpene Borneol Mon, 09 May 2016 11:33:36 +0000 Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alcohol commonly used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. It is extracted from the essential oil of various medicinal plants. It has antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory action proven in studies that used oral and intraperitoneal applications of this monoterpene in mice. The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation containing the monoterpene borneol using carbopol as gel base and to evaluate its stability. The prepared formulation was subjected to physical characterization and physical-chemistry assessment. The gel was prepared from carbopol and 5% of borneol. The prepared gel was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as its pH, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, centrifugation, and accelerated stability with freezing-thaw cycle. The borneol was successfully incorporated into the carbopol formulation. Borneol gel (BG5) showed good stability after eight months of its development and after 12 days in the freeze-thaw cycle, not showing statistical difference in pH value, conductivity, and viscosity before and after test. Furthermore, the formulation showed a good spreadability. Therefore, it was concluded that the formulation could be very promising alternative for the topical or transdermal treatment of skin diseases. Milla Gabriela Belarmino Dantas, Silvio Alan Gonçalves Bomfim Reis, Camila Mahara Dias Damasceno, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Pedro José Rolim-Neto, Ferdinando Oliveira Carvalho, Lucindo José Quintans-Junior, and Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida Copyright © 2016 Milla Gabriela Belarmino Dantas et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds Thu, 05 May 2016 07:08:06 +0000 Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the , , and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required. Elena García-Navarro, José M. Fernández-Martínez, Begoña Pérez-Vich, and Leonardo Velasco Copyright © 2016 Elena García-Navarro et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness Tue, 03 May 2016 08:52:39 +0000 This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira, Ricardo Kureski, and Claudimar Pereira da Veiga Copyright © 2016 Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira et al. All rights reserved. Energy Conservation Using Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling for Computational Cloud Thu, 28 Apr 2016 09:43:54 +0000 Cloud computing is a new technology which supports resource sharing on a “Pay as you go” basis around the world. It provides various services such as SaaS, IaaS, and PaaS. Computation is a part of IaaS and the entire computational requests are to be served efficiently with optimal power utilization in the cloud. Recently, various algorithms are developed to reduce power consumption and even Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) scheme is also used in this perspective. In this paper we have devised methodology which analyzes the behavior of the given cloud request and identifies the associated type of algorithm. Once the type of algorithm is identified, using their asymptotic notations, its time complexity is calculated. Using best fit strategy the appropriate host is identified and the incoming job is allocated to the victimized host. Using the measured time complexity the required clock frequency of the host is measured. According to that CPU frequency is scaled up or down using DVFS scheme, enabling energy to be saved up to 55% of total Watts consumption. A. Paulin Florence, V. Shanthi, and C. B. Sunil Simon Copyright © 2016 A. Paulin Florence et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans” Thu, 28 Apr 2016 07:05:40 +0000 Vinícius Pedrazzi, Mateus Freire Leite, Reisla Cristina Tavares, Sandra Sato, Glauce Crivelaro do Nascimento, and João Paulo Mardegan Issa Copyright © 2016 Vinícius Pedrazzi et al. All rights reserved. -Distance Based IF-THEN Rules Wed, 27 Apr 2016 07:01:32 +0000 Decision making, reasoning, and analysis in real-world problems are complicated by imperfect information. Real-world imperfect information is mainly characterized by two features. In view of this, Professor Zadeh suggested the concept of a -number as an ordered pair of fuzzy numbers and , the first of which is a linguistic value of a variable of interest, and the second one is a linguistic value of probability measure of the first one, playing a role of its reliability. The concept of distance is one of the important concepts for handling imperfect information in decision making and reasoning. In this paper, we, for the first time, apply the concept of distance of -numbers to the approximate reasoning with -number based IF-THEN rules. We provide an example on solving problem related to psychological issues naturally characterized by imperfect information, which shows applicability and validity of the suggested approach. R. A. Aliev, O. H. Huseynov, and R. X. Zulfugarova Copyright © 2016 R. A. Aliev et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Medical Dataset Classification: A Machine Learning Paradigm Integrating Particle Swarm Optimization with Extreme Learning Machine Classifier Thu, 21 Apr 2016 14:26:10 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Retracted: An Automatic Web Service Composition Framework Using QoS-Based Web Service Ranking Algorithm Thu, 21 Apr 2016 14:25:46 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Retracted: Dynamic Harmony Search with Polynomial Mutation Algorithm for Valve-Point Economic Load Dispatch Thu, 21 Apr 2016 14:25:19 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Retracted: An Improved Differential Evolution Solution for Software Project Scheduling Problem Thu, 21 Apr 2016 14:24:50 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Retracted: Differential Evolution Algorithm with Diversified Vicinity Operator for Optimal Routing and Clustering of Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 21 Apr 2016 14:24:22 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. A New Surgical Approach for the Treatment of Conjunctivochalasis: Reduction of the Conjunctival Fold with Bipolar Electrocautery Forceps Thu, 21 Apr 2016 08:14:55 +0000 Aim. To report a new surgical technique for the treatment of conjunctivochalasis. Methods. A new surgical technique in which specially designed bipolar electrocautery forceps facilitate the complete reduction of the conjunctival folds without creating lesions near the corneoscleral limbus was designed. A retrospective revision of the medical records of patients treated with this technique between the years 2011 and 2013 was made, and eighteen eyes of sixteen patients with conjunctivochalasis treated with this new technique were included. Results. All the eyes treated showed a significant improvement with no evidence of scar lesions after a mean follow-up time of 10 months. Conclusions. The surgical technique presented here could be a good alternative for the management of conjunctivochalasis. Eduardo Arenas and Diana Muñoz Copyright © 2016 Eduardo Arenas and Diana Muñoz. All rights reserved. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Mon, 18 Apr 2016 11:07:48 +0000 Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest. Andimuthu Ramachandran and Parthasarathy Radhapriya Copyright © 2016 Andimuthu Ramachandran and Parthasarathy Radhapriya. All rights reserved. Effect of Opioid on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis Tue, 05 Apr 2016 06:08:50 +0000 During the past decade, the study of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult neurogenesis has significantly progressed. Many studies focus on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells, including addictive drugs such as opioid. Here, we review the most recent works on opiate drugs’ effect on different developmental stages of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We conclude that opiate drugs in general cause a loss of newly born neural progenitors in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus, by either modulating proliferation or interfering with differentiation and maturation. We also discuss the consequent impact of regulation of adult neurogenesis in animal’s opioid addiction behavior. We further look into the future directions in studying the convergence between the adult neurogenesis field and opioid addiction field, since the adult-born granular cells were shown to play a role in neuroplasticity and may help to reduce the vulnerability to drug craving and relapse. Yue Zhang, Horace H. Loh, and Ping-Yee Law Copyright © 2016 Yue Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Multiagent Systems Based Modeling and Implementation of Dynamic Energy Management of Smart Microgrid Using MACSimJX Mon, 04 Apr 2016 13:19:29 +0000 The objective of this paper is implementation of multiagent system (MAS) for the advanced distributed energy management and demand side management of a solar microgrid. Initially, Java agent development environment (JADE) frame work is used to implement MAS based dynamic energy management of solar microgrid. Due to unstable nature of MATLAB, when dealing with multithreading environment, MAS operating in JADE is linked with the MATLAB using a middle ware called Multiagent Control Using Simulink with Jade Extension (MACSimJX). MACSimJX allows the solar microgrid components designed with MATLAB to be controlled by the corresponding agents of MAS. The microgrid environment variables are captured through sensors and given to agents through MATLAB/Simulink and after the agent operations in JADE, the results are given to the actuators through MATLAB for the implementation of dynamic operation in solar microgrid. MAS operating in JADE maximizes operational efficiency of solar microgrid by decentralized approach and increase in runtime efficiency due to JADE. Autonomous demand side management is implemented for optimizing the power exchange between main grid and microgrid with intermittent nature of solar power, randomness of load, and variation of noncritical load and grid price. These dynamics are considered for every time step and complex environment simulation is designed to emulate the distributed microgrid operations and evaluate the impact of agent operations. Leo Raju, R. S. Milton, and Senthilkumaran Mahadevan Copyright © 2016 Leo Raju et al. All rights reserved. Perturbational Blowup Solutions to the Two-Component Dullin-Gottwald-Holm System Thu, 31 Mar 2016 17:39:41 +0000 We construct a family of nonradially symmetric exact solutions for the two-component DGH system by the perturbational method. Depending on the parameters, the class of solutions includes both blowup type and global existence type. Ka Luen Cheung Copyright © 2016 Ka Luen Cheung. All rights reserved. Variability Assessment of Aromatic and Fine Rice Germplasm in Bangladesh Based on Quantitative Traits Thu, 31 Mar 2016 11:22:02 +0000 The study was conducted to investigate genetic variability among 113 aromatic and fine local rice genotypes of which five were exotic in origin. The test genotypes were evaluated for 19 growth traits, yield components, and yield. All the quantitative traits varied significantly among the test genotypes. High heritability along with high genetic advance was observed for flag leaf area, secondary branches per panicle, filled grains per panicle, grain length, grain breadth, grain length breadth ratio, and 1000 grain weight. Such findings suggested preponderance of additive gene action in gene expression for these characters. Grain yield was significantly and positively correlated with days to flowering, days to maturity, panicle length, filled grains per panicle, and 1000 grain weight. According to cluster analysis, 113 test genotypes formed 10 clusters. Selection of parents from the clusters V and X followed by hybridization would possibly result in desirable heterosis for the development of heterotic rice hybrids. Finally, molecular characterizations of the studied germplasm are required for high resolution QTL mapping and validating the presence of candidate genes responsible for valuable characters. M. Z. Islam, M. Khalequzzaman, M. K. Bashar, N. A. Ivy, M. M. Haque, and M. A. K. Mian Copyright © 2016 M. Z. Islam et al. All rights reserved. Compressed Sensing: Applications in Radar and Communications Wed, 30 Mar 2016 08:02:46 +0000 Sandra Costanzo, Álvaro Rocha, and Marco Donald Migliore Copyright © 2016 Sandra Costanzo et al. All rights reserved. On Vertex Covering Transversal Domination Number of Regular Graphs Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:54:45 +0000 A simple graph is said to be -regular if each vertex of is of degree . The vertex covering transversal domination number is the minimum cardinality among all vertex covering transversal dominating sets of . In this paper, we analyse this parameter on different kinds of regular graphs especially for and . Also we provide an upper bound for of a connected cubic graph of order . Then we try to provide a more stronger relationship between and . R. Vasanthi and K. Subramanian Copyright © 2016 R. Vasanthi and K. Subramanian. All rights reserved. Retracted: An Improved Ant Colony Optimization Approach for Optimization of Process Planning Thu, 24 Mar 2016 08:28:44 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Retracted: Changes of Radial Diffusivity and Fractional Anisotopy in the Optic Nerve and Optic Radiation of Glaucoma Patients Thu, 24 Mar 2016 07:21:28 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved.