The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Numerical Study on Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Using a Submerged Breakwater Tue, 19 Aug 2014 09:26:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/863202/ Most coastal structures have been built in surf zones to protect coastal areas. In general, the transformation of waves in the surf zone is quite complicated and numerous hazards to coastal communities may be associated with such phenomena. Therefore, the behavior of waves in the surf zone should be carefully analyzed and predicted. Furthermore, an accurate analysis of deformed waves around coastal structures is directly related to the construction of economically sound and safe coastal structures because wave height plays an important role in determining the weight and shape of a levee body or armoring material. In this study, a numerical model using a large eddy simulation is employed to predict the runup heights of nonlinear waves that passed a submerged structure in the surf zone. Reduced runup heights are also predicted, and their characteristics in terms of wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients are investigated. Taemin Ha, Jeseon Yoo, Sejong Han, and Yong-Sik Cho Copyright © 2014 Taemin Ha et al. All rights reserved. A Multicriteria Decision Making Approach Based on Fuzzy Theory and Credibility Mechanism for Logistics Center Location Selection Tue, 19 Aug 2014 08:23:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/347619/ As a hot topic in supply chain management, fuzzy method has been widely used in logistics center location selection to improve the reliability and suitability of the logistics center location selection with respect to the impacts of both qualitative and quantitative factors. However, it does not consider the consistency and the historical assessments accuracy of experts in predecisions. So this paper proposes a multicriteria decision making model based on credibility of decision makers by introducing priority of consistency and historical assessments accuracy mechanism into fuzzy multicriteria decision making approach. In this way, only decision makers who pass the credibility check are qualified to perform the further assessment. Finally, a practical example is analyzed to illustrate how to use the model. The result shows that the fuzzy multicriteria decision making model based on credibility mechanism can improve the reliability and suitability of site selection for the logistics center. Bowen Wang, Haitao Xiong, and Chengrui Jiang Copyright © 2014 Bowen Wang et al. All rights reserved. Parameterized Hilbert-Type Integral Inequalities in the Whole Plane Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:14:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/169061/ By the use of the way of real analysis, we estimate the weight functions and give some new Hilbert-type integral inequalities in the whole plane with nonhomogeneous kernels and multiparameters. The constant factors related to the hypergeometric function and the beta function are proved to be the best possible. We also consider the equivalent forms, the reverses, and some particular cases in the homogeneous kernels. Qiliang Huang, Shanhe Wu, and Bicheng Yang Copyright © 2014 Qiliang Huang et al. All rights reserved. A Proposed Method for Solving Fuzzy System of Linear Equations Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:06:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/782093/ This paper proposes a new method for solving fuzzy system of linear equations with crisp coefficients matrix and fuzzy or interval right hand side. Some conditions for the existence of a fuzzy or interval solution of linear system are derived and also a practical algorithm is introduced in detail. The method is based on linear programming problem. Finally the applicability of the proposed method is illustrated by some numerical examples. Reza Kargar, Tofigh Allahviranloo, Mohsen Rostami-Malkhalifeh, and Gholam Reza Jahanshaloo Copyright © 2014 Reza Kargar et al. All rights reserved. Feature Selection and Classifier Parameters Estimation for EEG Signals Peak Detection Using Particle Swarm Optimization Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:50:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/973063/ Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal peak detection is widely used in clinical applications. The peak point can be detected using several approaches, including time, frequency, time-frequency, and nonlinear domains depending on various peak features from several models. However, there is no study that provides the importance of every peak feature in contributing to a good and generalized model. In this study, feature selection and classifier parameters estimation based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) are proposed as a framework for peak detection on EEG signals in time domain analysis. Two versions of PSO are used in the study: (1) standard PSO and (2) random asynchronous particle swarm optimization (RA-PSO). The proposed framework tries to find the best combination of all the available features that offers good peak detection and a high classification rate from the results in the conducted experiments. The evaluation results indicate that the accuracy of the peak detection can be improved up to 99.90% and 98.59% for training and testing, respectively, as compared to the framework without feature selection adaptation. Additionally, the proposed framework based on RA-PSO offers a better and reliable classification rate as compared to standard PSO as it produces low variance model. Asrul Adam, Mohd Ibrahim Shapiai, Mohd Zaidi Mohd Tumari, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, and Marizan Mubin Copyright © 2014 Asrul Adam et al. All rights reserved. A Bayesian Framework for Single Image Dehazing considering Noise Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:30:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/651986/ The single image dehazing algorithms in existence can only satisfy the demand for dehazing efficiency, not for denoising. In order to solve the problem, a Bayesian framework for single image dehazing considering noise is proposed. Firstly, the Bayesian framework is transformed to meet the dehazing algorithm. Then, the probability density function of the improved atmospheric scattering model is estimated by using the statistical prior and objective assumption of degraded image. Finally, the reflectance image is achieved by an iterative approach with feedback to reach the balance between dehazing and denoising. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can remove haze and noise simultaneously and effectively. Dong Nan, Du-yan Bi, Chang Liu, Shi-ping Ma, and Lin-yuan He Copyright © 2014 Dong Nan et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Studies of Chitosan Capped Gold Nanoparticles and Their Reactions with Analytes Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:28:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/184604/ Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been synthesized with various molarities and weights of reducing agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and stabilizer chitosan, respectively. The significance of chitosan as stabilizer was distinguished through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and UV-Vis absorption spectra in which the interparticles distance increases whilst retaining the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) characteristics peak. The most stable AuNPs occurred for composition with the lowest (1 g) weight of chitosan. AuNPs capped with chitosan size stayed small after 1 month aging compared to bare AuNPs. The ability of chitosan capped AuNPs to uptake analyte was studied by employing amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNT), copper oxide (Cu2O), and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) as the target material. The absorption spectra showed dramatic intensity increased and red shifted once the analyte was added to the chitosan capped AuNPs. Norfazila Mohd Sultan and Mohd Rafie Johan Copyright © 2014 Norfazila Mohd Sultan and Mohd Rafie Johan. All rights reserved. A Novel BA Complex Network Model on Color Template Matching Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:15:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/918453/ A novel BA complex network model of color space is proposed based on two fundamental rules of BA scale-free network model: growth and preferential attachment. The scale-free characteristic of color space is discovered by analyzing evolving process of template’s color distribution. And then the template’s BA complex network model can be used to select important color pixels which have much larger effects than other color pixels in matching process. The proposed BA complex network model of color space can be easily integrated into many traditional template matching algorithms, such as SSD based matching and SAD based matching. Experiments show the performance of color template matching results can be improved based on the proposed algorithm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study about how to model the color space of images using a proper complex network model and apply the complex network model to template matching. Risheng Han, Shigen Shen, Guangxue Yue, and Hui Ding Copyright © 2014 Risheng Han et al. All rights reserved. Partitioning Carbon Dioxide Emission and Assessing Dissolved Organic Carbon Leaching of a Drained Peatland Cultivated with Pineapple at Saratok, Malaysia Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:12:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/906021/ Pineapples (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) cultivation on drained peats could affect the release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere and also the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Carbon dioxide emission needs to be partitioned before deciding on whether cultivated peat is net sink or net source of carbon. Partitioning of CO2 emission into root respiration, microbial respiration, and oxidative peat decomposition was achieved using a lysimeter experiment with three treatments: peat soil cultivated with pineapple, bare peat soil, and bare peat soil fumigated with chloroform. Drainage water leached from cultivated peat and bare peat soil was also analyzed for DOC. On a yearly basis, CO2 emissions were higher under bare peat (218.8 t CO2 ha/yr) than under bare peat treated with chloroform (205 t CO2 ha/yr), and they were the lowest (179.6 t CO2 ha/yr) under cultivated peat. Decreasing CO2 emissions under pineapple were attributed to the positive effects of photosynthesis and soil autotrophic activities. An average 235.7 mg/L loss of DOC under bare peat suggests rapid decline of peat organic carbon through heterotrophic respiration and peat decomposition. Soil CO2 emission depended on moderate temperature fluctuations, but it was not affected by soil moisture. Liza Nuriati Lim Kim Choo and Osumanu Haruna Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Liza Nuriati Lim Kim Choo and Osumanu Haruna Ahmed. All rights reserved. Prediction of DNase I Hypersensitive Sites by Using Pseudo Nucleotide Compositions Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:09:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/740506/ DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) associated with a wide variety of regulatory DNA elements. Knowledge about the locations of DHS is helpful for deciphering the function of noncoding genomic regions. With the acceleration of genome sequences in the postgenomic age, it is highly desired to develop cost-effective computational methods to identify DHS. In the present work, a support vector machine based model was proposed to identify DHS by using the pseudo dinucleotide composition. In the jackknife test, the proposed model obtained an accuracy of 83%, which is competitive with that of the existing method. This result suggests that the proposed model may become a useful tool for DHS identifications. Pengmian Feng, Ning Jiang, and Nan Liu Copyright © 2014 Pengmian Feng et al. All rights reserved. Myotubularin-Related Phosphatase 3 Promotes Growth of Colorectal Cancer Cells Tue, 19 Aug 2014 06:00:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/703804/ Due to changes in lifestyle, particularly changes in dietary habits, colorectal cancer (CRC) increased in recent years despite advances in treatment. Nearly one million new cases diagnosed worldwide and half a million deaths make CRC a leading cause of cancer mortality. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of myotubularin-related phosphatase 3 (MTMR3) in CRC cell growth via lentivirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) transduction in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and SW1116. The effect of MTMR3 knockdown on cell growth was evaluated by MTT, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays. The effect of MTMR3 knockdown on cell apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry with Annexin V/7-AAD double staining. The activation of apoptotic markers, Bad and PARP, was detected using Intracellular Signaling Array. Knockdown of MTMR3 resulted in a significant reduction in cell proliferation in both HCT116 and SW1116 cells. Moreover, knockdown of MTMR3 led to S phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, knockdown of MTMR3 induced cell apoptosis via phosphorylation of Bad and cleavage of PARP. These results indicate that MTMR3 may play an important role in the progression of CRC and suggest that siRNA mediated silencing of MTMR3 could be an effective tool in CRC treatment. Bo’an Zheng, Xiaojun Yu, and Rui Chai Copyright © 2014 Bo’an Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Circulating Concentrations of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/926932/ Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common pregnancy complications. Inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of GDM. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether maternal serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, and adiponectin were associated with GDM. A systematic search of PubMed and Medline was undertaken. In total, 27 trials were evaluated by meta-analyses using the software Review Manager 5.0. The results showed that maternal TNF-α () and leptin () concentrations were significantly higher in GDM patients versus controls. However, maternal adiponectin () concentration was significantly lower in GDM patients compared with controls. Subgroup analysis taking in consideration the effect of obesity on maternal adipokine levels showed that circulating levels of TNF-α and leptin remained elevated in GDM patients compared to their body mass index (BMI) matched controls, and adiponectin level remained depressed in GDM individuals. Our findings strengthen the clinical evidence that GDM is accompanied by exaggerated inflammatory responses. Jie Xu, Yan Hong Zhao, Yun Ping Chen, Xiao Lei Yuan, Jiao Wang, Hui Zhu, and Chun Mei Lu Copyright © 2014 Jie Xu et al. All rights reserved. A Simplified Method for Analysis of Geosynthetic Reinforcement Used in Pile Supported Embankments Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/273253/ The inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in the piled embankment can help transfer loads to the piles and reduce total and differential settlements. In order to select the appropriate reinforcement material, the reasonable calculation of the deflection and tension is very important. Current design methods usually do not represent the true three-dimensional (3D) nature of the displacements, strains, and stresses of the geosynthetics, and the resulting error may be large and cannot be neglected in some cases. In this study, two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses were conducted to identify the behavior of geosynthetic reinforcement and investigate the accuracy of the assumptions made in the current design methods. Based on the numerical results, a new 3D deflected shape of the geosynthetic reinforcement was suggested, and then the corresponding governing equation was derived and solved based on the membrane theory. To investigate the validity of the proposed method, the predicted maximum deflection, deflection shape, and the developed tensile force of the geosynthetics have been compared with the experimental data collected from the literatures and finite element analysis results. Kang Fei Copyright © 2014 Kang Fei. All rights reserved. Effect of Extruding Full-Fat Soy Flakes on Trans Fat Content Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/427423/ To evaluate the effects of extrusion process on the trans fatty acids (TFAs) formation in soybean crude oils, three different extrusion parameters, namely, extrusion temperature (80–160°C), feed moisture (10–26%), and screw speed (100–500 rpm), were carried out. It was found that only five different types of TFAs were detected out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before the extrusion started, the initial amount of total TFAs was 3.04 g/100 g. However, after extruding under every level of any variable, the total amounts of TFAs were significantly higher than those in the control sample (). For example, taking the effect of extrusion temperature into account, we can find that the highest amount of total of trans fatty acid (TTFA) was 1.62 times the amount of that in the control sample, whereas the lowest amount of TTFA was 1.54 times the amount of that in the control sample. Importantly, it was observed that the amounts of every type of trans fatty acid were not continuously increasing with the increase of the level of any extrusion variable. This phenomenon demonstrated that the formation and diversification were intricate during extruding process and need to be further studied. Hongxia Feng, Xiaonan Sui, Yunhe Chang, Baokun Qi, Yan Zhang, Yang Li, and Lianzhou Jiang Copyright © 2014 Hongxia Feng et al. All rights reserved. Calculating Super Efficiency of DMUs for Ranking Units in Data Envelopment Analysis Based on SBM Model Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/382390/ There are a number of methods for ranking decision making units (DMUs), among which calculating super efficiency and then ranking the units based on the obtained amount of super efficiency are both valid and efficient. Since most of the proposed models do not provide the projection of Pareto efficiency, a model is developed and presented through this paper based on which in the projection of Pareto-efficient is obtained, in addition to calculating the amount of super efficiency. Moreover, the model is unit invariant, and is always feasible and makes the amount of inefficiency effective in ranking. E. Zanboori, M. Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, G. R. Jahanshahloo, and N. Shoja Copyright © 2014 E. Zanboori et al. All rights reserved. An Inversion-Free Method for Finding Positive Definite Solution of a Rational Matrix Equation Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/560931/ A new iterative scheme has been constructed for finding minimal solution of a rational matrix equation of the form . The new method is inversion-free per computing step. The convergence of the method has been studied and tested via numerical experiments. Fazlollah Soleymani, Mahdi Sharifi, Solat Karimi Vanani, Farhad Khaksar Haghani, and Adem Kılıçman Copyright © 2014 Fazlollah Soleymani et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of an SEIR Epidemic Model with Saturated Incidence and Saturated Treatment Function Mon, 18 Aug 2014 13:02:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/910421/ The dynamics of SEIR epidemic model with saturated incidence rate and saturated treatment function are explored in this paper. The basic reproduction number that determines disease extinction and disease survival is given. The existing threshold conditions of all kinds of the equilibrium points are obtained. Sufficient conditions are established for the existence of backward bifurcation. The local asymptotical stability of equilibrium is verified by analyzing the eigenvalues and using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. We also discuss the global asymptotical stability of the endemic equilibrium by autonomous convergence theorem. The study indicates that we should improve the efficiency and enlarge the capacity of the treatment to control the spread of disease. Numerical simulations are presented to support and complement the theoretical findings. Jinhong Zhang, Jianwen Jia, and Xinyu Song Copyright © 2014 Jinhong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Oscillations for Neutral Functional Differential Equations Mon, 18 Aug 2014 12:33:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/124310/ We will consider a class of neutral functional differential equations. Some infinite integral conditions for the oscillation of all solutions are derived. Our results extend and improve some of the previous results in the literature. Fatima N. Ahmed, Rokiah R. Ahmad, Ummul K. S. Din, and Mohd S. M. Noorani Copyright © 2014 Fatima N. Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Edentulism on Mandibular Morphology: Evaluation of Panoramic Radiographs Mon, 18 Aug 2014 11:13:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/254932/ Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate morphological changes of the mandible in edentulous and dentate subjects using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods. Panoramic radiographs were divided into the following three groups: Group I (completely edentulous group), Group II (old dentate group) and Group III (young dentate group). The research parameters of gonial angle, condylar height, ramus height, ramus notch depth, and antegonial notch depth were measured on panoramic radiographs. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used to determine significant differences in mandibular morphological parameters among the three groups. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the subgroups. Results. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between three groups. According to the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference was exhibited among Groups I and II in the ramus height parameter. No significant differences were found in the gonial angle, condylar height, ramus notch depth, or antegonial notch depth when comparing the young dentate, old dentate, and completely edentulous subjects. Conclusions. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between the groups. Ramus height may be an indicator that changed by years and tooth loss. It must be considered that ramus height can be decreased in edentulism. Rıdvan Okşayan, Bayram Asarkaya, Nizamettin Palta, İrfan Şimşek, Oral Sökücü, and Eren İşman Copyright © 2014 Rıdvan Okşayan et al. All rights reserved. Categorical Properties of Soft Sets Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:54:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/783056/ The present study investigates some novel categorical properties of soft sets. By combining categorical theory with soft set theory, a categorical framework of soft set theory is established. It is proved that the category SFun of soft sets and soft functions has equalizers, finite products, pullbacks, and exponential properties. It is worth mentioning that we find that SFun is both a topological construct and Cartesian closed. The category SRel of soft sets and -soft set relations is also characterized, which shows the existence of the zero objects, biproducts, additive identities, injective objects, projective objects, injective hulls, and projective covers. Finally, by constructing proper adjoint situations, some intrinsic connections between SFun and SRel are established. Min Zhou, Shenggang Li, and Muhammad Akram Copyright © 2014 Min Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Graphical Evaluation of the Ridge-Type Robust Regression Estimators in Mixture Experiments Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:36:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/806471/ In mixture experiments, estimation of the parameters is generally based on ordinary least squares (OLS). However, in the presence of multicollinearity and outliers, OLS can result in very poor estimates. In this case, effects due to the combined outlier-multicollinearity problem can be reduced to certain extent by using alternative approaches. One of these approaches is to use biased-robust regression techniques for the estimation of parameters. In this paper, we evaluate various ridge-type robust estimators in the cases where there are multicollinearity and outliers during the analysis of mixture experiments. Also, for selection of biasing parameter, we use fraction of design space plots for evaluating the effect of the ridge-type robust estimators with respect to the scaled mean squared error of prediction. The suggested graphical approach is illustrated on Hald cement data set. Ali Erkoc, Esra Emiroglu, and Kadri Ulas Akay Copyright © 2014 Ali Erkoc et al. All rights reserved. On Some Approximation Theorems for Power -Bounded Operators on Locally Convex Vector Spaces Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:32:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/513162/ This paper deals with the study of some operator inequalities involving the power -bounded operators along with the most known properties and results, in the more general framework of locally convex vector spaces. Ludovic Dan Lemle Copyright © 2014 Ludovic Dan Lemle. All rights reserved. Radiolabeled Probes Targeting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1-Active Tumor Microenvironments Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:42:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/165461/ Because tumor cells grow rapidly and randomly, hypoxic regions arise from the lack of oxygen supply in solid tumors. Hypoxic regions in tumors are known to be resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) expressed in hypoxic regions regulates the expression of genes related to tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Thus, imaging of HIF-1-active regions in tumors is of great interest. HIF-1 activity is regulated by the expression and degradation of its α subunit (HIF-1α), which is degraded in the proteasome under normoxic conditions, but escapes degradation under hypoxic conditions, allowing it to activate transcription of HIF-1-target genes. Therefore, to image HIF-1-active regions, HIF-1-dependent reporter systems and injectable probes that are degraded in a manner similar to HIF-1α have been recently developed and used in preclinical studies. However, no probe currently used in clinical practice directly assesses HIF-1 activity. Whether the accumulation of 18F-FDG or 18F-FMISO can be utilized as an index of HIF-1 activity has been investigated in clinical studies. In this review, the current status of HIF-1 imaging in preclinical and clinical studies is discussed. Masashi Ueda and Hideo Saji Copyright © 2014 Masashi Ueda and Hideo Saji. All rights reserved. Effect of Lower Body Compression Garments on Hemodynamics in Response to Running Session Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:25:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/353040/ Purpose. Compression garments are often worn during exercise and allegedly have ergogenic and/or physiological effects. In this study, we compared hemodynamics and running performance while wearing compression and loose-fit breeches. We hypothesized that in neutral-warm environment compression breeches impair performance by diminishing body cooling via evaporative sweat loss and redistributing blood from active musculature to skin leading to a larger rise in body temperature and prolonging recovery of hemodynamics after exercise. Methods. Changes in hemodynamics (leg blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure during orthoclinostatic test), calf muscle tissue oxygenation, and skin and core temperatures were measured in response to 30 min running (simulation of aerobic training session) followed by maximal 400 m sprint (evaluation of running performance) in recreationally active females  yrs;  kg) wearing compression or loose-fit breeches in randomized fashion. Results. Wearing compression breeches resulted in larger skin temperature rise under the garment during exercise and recovery (by about 1°C, ; statistical power > 85%), while core temperature dynamics and other measured parameters including circulation, running performance, and sensations were similar compared to wearing loose-fit breeches . Conclusion. Compared with loose-fit breeches, compression breeches have neither positive nor negative physiological and performance effects for females running in thermoneutral environment. Tomas Venckūnas, Eugenijus Trinkūnas, Sigitas Kamandulis, Jonas Poderys, Albinas Grūnovas, and Marius Brazaitis Copyright © 2014 Tomas Venckūnas et al. All rights reserved. Oxidant-Antioxidant Balance during On-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:23:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/263058/ Backround. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in perioperative oxidant-antioxidant balance in ONCABG. Methods. Twenty-three patients were included in this study. Serum total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) values were assessed preoperatively, at 20 minutes after aortic clamping and at 30 minutes, 6 hours, and 48 hours after declamping (reperfusion). The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median aortic cross clamping (XC) time: group 1 (XC time < 42 minutes) and group 2 (XC time ≥ 42 minutes). Results. TOS and OSI values of whole patients at 30 minutes after reperfusion were higher than preoperative values (, ), while perioperative TAS levels of the patients were similar to the preoperative levels (). XC time was correlated with TOS levels at 30 minutes after reperfusion (, ). In group 2, TOS and OSI values at 30 minutes after reperfusion were higher than preoperative values (, ), whereas a significant difference was not found in group 1 (, ). Conclusions. Oxidative imbalance and increase in TOS at reperfusion in ONCABG may be associated with XC time. Umit Mentese, Orhan Veli Dogan, Ibrahim Turan, Sefer Usta, Emre Dogan, Seda Oztas Mentese, Selim Demir, Tanil Ozer, Ahmet Cagri Aykan, and Ahmet Alver Copyright © 2014 Umit Mentese et al. All rights reserved. Why Are We Failing to Implement Imaging Studies with Radiolabelled New Molecular Entities in Early Oncology Drug Development? Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:55:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/269605/ In early drug development advanced imaging techniques can help with progressing new molecular entities (NME) to subsequent phases of drug development and thus reduce attrition. However, several organizational, operational, and regulatory hurdles pose a significant barrier, potentially limiting the impact these techniques can have on modern drug development. Positron emission tomography (PET) of radiolabelled NME is arguably the best example of a complex technique with a potential to deliver unique decision-making data in small cohorts of subjects. However, to realise this potential the impediments to timely inclusion of PET into the drug development process must be overcome. In the present paper, we discuss the value of PET imaging with radiolabelled NME during early anticancer drug development, as exemplified with one such NME. We outline the multiple hurdles and propose options on how to streamline the organizational steps for future studies. Azeem Saleem, Philip Murphy, Christophe Plisson, and Michael Lahn Copyright © 2014 Azeem Saleem et al. All rights reserved. Towards Enhancement of Performance of K-Means Clustering Using Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:55:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/564829/ Traditional K-means clustering algorithms have the drawback of getting stuck at local optima that depend on the random values of initial centroids. Optimization algorithms have their advantages in guiding iterative computation to search for global optima while avoiding local optima. The algorithms help speed up the clustering process by converging into a global optimum early with multiple search agents in action. Inspired by nature, some contemporary optimization algorithms which include Ant, Bat, Cuckoo, Firefly, and Wolf search algorithms mimic the swarming behavior allowing them to cooperatively steer towards an optimal objective within a reasonable time. It is known that these so-called nature-inspired optimization algorithms have their own characteristics as well as pros and cons in different applications. When these algorithms are combined with K-means clustering mechanism for the sake of enhancing its clustering quality by avoiding local optima and finding global optima, the new hybrids are anticipated to produce unprecedented performance. In this paper, we report the results of our evaluation experiments on the integration of nature-inspired optimization methods into K-means algorithms. In addition to the standard evaluation metrics in evaluating clustering quality, the extended K-means algorithms that are empowered by nature-inspired optimization methods are applied on image segmentation as a case study of application scenario. Simon Fong, Suash Deb, Xin-She Yang, and Yan Zhuang Copyright © 2014 Simon Fong et al. All rights reserved. Existence Results for a System of Coupled Hybrid Fractional Differential Equations Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:31:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/426438/ This paper studies the existence of solutions for a system of coupled hybrid fractional differential equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. We make use of the standard tools of the fixed point theory to establish the main results. The existence and uniqueness result is elaborated with the aid of an example. Bashir Ahmad, Sotiris K. Ntouyas, and Ahmed Alsaedi Copyright © 2014 Bashir Ahmad et al. All rights reserved. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:30:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/578372/ The Haihe river basin (HRB) in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) derived terrestrial water storage (TWS) data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI), precipitation anomaly index (PAI), and vegetation anomaly index (AVI) were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB. Jianhua Wang, Dong Jiang, Yaohuan Huang, and Hao Wang Copyright © 2014 Jianhua Wang et al. All rights reserved. New Conditions for Obtaining the Exact Solutions of the General Riccati Equation Mon, 18 Aug 2014 05:54:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/401741/ We propose a direct method for solving the general Riccati equation . We first reduce it into an equivalent equation, and then we formulate the relations between the coefficients functions , and of the equation to obtain an equivalent separable equation from which the previous equation can be solved in closed form. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency of this method. Lazhar Bougoffa Copyright © 2014 Lazhar Bougoffa. All rights reserved.