The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effect Analysis of Design Variables on the Disc in a Double-Eccentric Butterfly Valve Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:24:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/305085/ We have performed a shape optimization of the disc in an industrial double-eccentric butterfly valve using the effect analysis of design variables to enhance the valve performance. For the optimization, we select three performance quantities such as pressure drop, maximum stress, and mass (weight) as the responses and three dimensions regarding the disc shape as the design variables. Subsequently, we compose a layout of orthogonal array (L16) by performing numerical simulations on the flow and structure using a commercial package, ANSYS v13.0, and then make an effect analysis of the design variables on the responses using the design of experiments. Finally, we formulate a multiobjective function consisting of the three responses and then propose an optimal combination of the design variables to maximize the valve performance. Simulation results show that the disc thickness makes the most significant effect on the performance and the optimal design provides better performance than the initial design. Sangmo Kang, Da-Eun Kim, Kuk-Kyeom Kim, and Jun-Oh Kim Copyright © 2014 Sangmo Kang et al. All rights reserved. Optimized Scheduling Technique of Null Subcarriers for Peak Power Control in 3GPP LTE Downlink Thu, 17 Apr 2014 13:23:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/279217/ Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) is a key multiple access technique for the long term evolution (LTE) downlink. However, high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) can cause the degradation of power efficiency. The well-known PAPR reduction technique, dummy sequence insertion (DSI), can be a realistic solution because of its structural simplicity. However, the large usage of subcarriers for the dummy sequences may decrease the transmitted data rate in the DSI scheme. In this paper, a novel DSI scheme is applied to the LTE system. Firstly, we obtain the null subcarriers in single-input single-output (SISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, respectively; then, optimized dummy sequences are inserted into the obtained null subcarrier. Simulation results show that Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) sequence is the best for the dummy sequence and the ratio of 16 to 20 for the WHT and randomly generated sequences has the maximum PAPR reduction performance. The number of near optimal iteration is derived to prevent exhausted iterations. It is also shown that there is no bit error rate (BER) degradation with the proposed technique in LTE downlink system. Soobum Cho and Sang Kyu Park Copyright © 2014 Soobum Cho and Sang Kyu Park. All rights reserved. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras Thu, 17 Apr 2014 12:22:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/757382/ In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if and . We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. Biao Long Meng and Xiao Long Xin Copyright © 2014 Biao Long Meng and Xiao Long Xin. All rights reserved. Balance Maintenance in High-Speed Motion of Humanoid Robot Arm-Based on the 6D Constraints of Momentum Change Rate Thu, 17 Apr 2014 11:37:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/535294/ Based on the 6D constraints of momentum change rate (CMCR), this paper puts forward a real-time and full balance maintenance method for the humanoid robot during high-speed movement of its 7-DOF arm. First, the total momentum formula for the robot’s two arms is given and the momentum change rate is defined by the time derivative of the total momentum. The author also illustrates the idea of full balance maintenance and analyzes the physical meaning of 6D CMCR and its fundamental relation to full balance maintenance. Moreover, discretization and optimization solution of CMCR has been provided with the motion constraint of the auxiliary arm’s joint, and the solving algorithm is optimized. The simulation results have shown the validity and generality of the proposed method on the full balance maintenance in the 6 DOFs of the robot body under 6D CMCR. This method ensures 6D dynamics balance performance and increases abundant ZMP stability margin. The resulting motion of the auxiliary arm has large abundance in joint space, and the angular velocity and the angular acceleration of these joints lie within the predefined limits. The proposed algorithm also has good real-time performance. Da-song Zhang, Rong Xiong, Jun Wu, and Jian Chu Copyright © 2014 Da-song Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Human Behavior-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Thu, 17 Apr 2014 10:14:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/194706/ Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has attracted many researchers interested in dealing with various optimization problems, owing to its easy implementation, few tuned parameters, and acceptable performance. However, the algorithm is easy to trap in the local optima because of rapid losing of the population diversity. Therefore, improving the performance of PSO and decreasing the dependence on parameters are two important research hot points. In this paper, we present a human behavior-based PSO, which is called HPSO. There are two remarkable differences between PSO and HPSO. First, the global worst particle was introduced into the velocity equation of PSO, which is endowed with random weight which obeys the standard normal distribution; this strategy is conducive to trade off exploration and exploitation ability of PSO. Second, we eliminate the two acceleration coefficients and in the standard PSO (SPSO) to reduce the parameters sensitivity of solved problems. Experimental results on 28 benchmark functions, which consist of unimodal, multimodal, rotated, and shifted high-dimensional functions, demonstrate the high performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence accuracy and speed with lower computation cost. Hao Liu, Gang Xu, Gui-yan Ding, and Yu-bo Sun Copyright © 2014 Hao Liu et al. All rights reserved. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty Thu, 17 Apr 2014 08:53:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/430190/ An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. Qiang Feng, Yiran Chen, Bo Sun, and Songjie Li Copyright © 2014 Qiang Feng et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation on Hydromechanical Coupling in Porous Media Adopting Three-Dimensional Pore-Scale Model Thu, 17 Apr 2014 08:46:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/140206/ A novel approach of simulating hydromechanical coupling in pore-scale models of porous media is presented in this paper. Parameters of the sandstone samples, such as the stress-strain curve, Poisson’s ratio, and permeability under different pore pressure and confining pressure, are tested in laboratory scale. The micro-CT scanner is employed to scan the samples for three-dimensional images, as input to construct the model. Accordingly, four physical models possessing the same pore and rock matrix characteristics as the natural sandstones are developed. Based on the micro-CT images, the three-dimensional finite element models of both rock matrix and pore space are established by MIMICS and ICEM software platform. Navier-Stokes equation and elastic constitutive equation are used as the mathematical model for simulation. A hydromechanical coupling analysis in pore-scale finite element model of porous media is simulated by ANSYS and CFX software. Hereby, permeability of sandstone samples under different pore pressure and confining pressure has been predicted. The simulation results agree well with the benchmark data. Through reproducing its stress state underground, the prediction accuracy of the porous rock permeability in pore-scale simulation is promoted. Consequently, the effects of pore pressure and confining pressure on permeability are revealed from the microscopic view. Jianjun Liu, Rui Song, and Mengmeng Cui Copyright © 2014 Jianjun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Modeling and Simulation of Network-on-Chip Systems with DEVS and DEUS Thu, 17 Apr 2014 07:15:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/982569/ Networks on-chip (NoCs) provide enhanced performance, scalability, modularity, and design productivity as compared with previous communication architectures for VLSI systems on-chip (SoCs), such as buses and dedicated signal wires. Since the NoC design space is very large and high dimensional, evaluation methodologies rely heavily on analytical modeling and simulation. Unfortunately, there is no standard modeling framework. In this paper we illustrate how to design and evaluate NoCs by integrating the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS) modeling framework and the simulation environment called DEUS. The advantage of such an approach is that both DEVS and DEUS support modularity—the former being a sound and complete modeling framework and the latter being an open, general-purpose platform, characterized by a steep learning curve and the possibility to simulate any system at any level of detail. Michele Amoretti Copyright © 2014 Michele Amoretti. All rights reserved. End-Completely-Regular and End-Inverse Lexicographic Products of Graphs Thu, 17 Apr 2014 06:41:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/432073/ A graph is said to be End-completely-regular (resp., End-inverse) if its endomorphism monoid End() is completely regular (resp., inverse). In this paper, we will show that if [] is End-completely-regular (resp., End-inverse), then both and are End-completely-regular (resp., End-inverse). We give several approaches to construct new End-completely-regular graphs by means of the lexicographic products of two graphs with certain conditions. In particular, we determine the End-completely-regular and End-inverse lexicographic products of bipartite graphs. Hailong Hou and Rui Gu Copyright © 2014 Hailong Hou and Rui Gu. All rights reserved. Detection of Burst Suppression Patterns in EEG Using Recurrence Rate Thu, 17 Apr 2014 06:29:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/295070/ Burst suppression is a unique electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern commonly seen in cases of severely reduced brain activity such as overdose of general anesthesia. It is important to detect burst suppression reliably during the administration of anesthetic or sedative agents, especially for cerebral-protective treatments in various neurosurgical diseases. This study investigates recurrent plot (RP) analysis for the detection of the burst suppression pattern (BSP) in EEG. The RP analysis is applied to EEG data containing BSPs collected from 14 patients. Firstly we obtain the best selection of parameters for RP analysis. Then, the recurrence rate (RR), determinism (DET), and entropy (ENTR) are calculated. Then RR was selected as the best BSP index one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison tests. Finally, the performance of RR analysis is compared with spectral analysis, bispectral analysis, approximate entropy, and the nonlinear energy operator (NLEO). ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that the RR could detect BSP and that it was superior to other measures with the highest sensitivity of suppression detection (96.49%, ). Tracking BSP patterns is essential for clinical monitoring in critically ill and anesthetized patients. The purposed RR may provide an effective burst suppression detector for developing new patient monitoring systems. Zhenhu Liang, Yinghua Wang, Yongshao Ren, Duan Li, Logan Voss, Jamie Sleigh, and Xiaoli Li Copyright © 2014 Zhenhu Liang et al. All rights reserved. Improved Stabilization Method for Lurie Networked Control Systems Thu, 17 Apr 2014 06:28:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/789398/ The problem of stabilization of Lurie networked control systems (NCSs) is investigated in this paper. The network-induced delays in NCSs are assumed to be time-varying and bounded. By utilizing a reciprocally convex technique to consider the relationship between the network-induced delay and its varying interval, a new absolute stability condition is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Based on the obtained condition, an improved cone complementary linearisation (CCL) iteration algorithm is presented to design a state feedback controller. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a numerical example. Hong-Bing Zeng, Lei Ding, Shen-Ping Xiao, and Fei Yu Copyright © 2014 Hong-Bing Zeng et al. All rights reserved. The Asymptotic Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Singular Perturbed Differential Systems with Time delays Wed, 16 Apr 2014 16:12:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/965376/ We study a kind of vector singular perturbed delay-differential equations. By using the methods of boundary function and fractional steps, we construct the formula of asymptotic expansion and confirm the interior layer at . Meanwhile, on the basis of functional analysis skill, the existence of the smooth solution and the uniform validity of the asymptotic expansion are proved. Han Xu and Yinlai Jin Copyright © 2014 Han Xu and Yinlai Jin. All rights reserved. Application of the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving the Set Covering Problem Wed, 16 Apr 2014 14:10:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/189164/ The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show that our artificial bee colony algorithm is competitive in terms of solution quality with other recent metaheuristic approaches for the set covering problem. Broderick Crawford, Ricardo Soto, Rodrigo Cuesta, and Fernando Paredes Copyright © 2014 Broderick Crawford et al. All rights reserved. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:53:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/352809/ This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. Meiqin Tang, Lili Shang, Yalin Xin, Xiaohua Liu, and Xinjiang Wei Copyright © 2014 Meiqin Tang et al. All rights reserved. Novel MSVPWM to Reduce the Inductor Current Ripple for Z-Source Inverter in Electric Vehicle Applications Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:52:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/586082/ A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results. Qianfan Zhang, Shuai Dong, Ping Xue, Chaowei Zhou, and ShuKang Cheng Copyright © 2014 Qianfan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Relationship: Word Alignment, Phrase Table, and Translation Quality Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:36:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/438106/ In the last years, researchers conducted several studies to evaluate the machine translation quality based on the relationship between word alignments and phrase table. However, existing methods usually employ ad-hoc heuristics without theoretical support. So far, there is no discussion from the aspect of providing a formula to describe the relationship among word alignments, phrase table, and machine translation performance. In this paper, on one hand, we focus on formulating such a relationship for estimating the size of extracted phrase pairs given one or more word alignment points. On the other hand, a corpus-motivated pruning technique is proposed to prune the default large phrase table. Experiment proves that the deduced formula is feasible, which not only can be used to predict the size of the phrase table, but also can be a valuable reference for investigating the relationship between the translation performance and phrase tables based on different links of word alignment. The corpus-motivated pruning results show that nearly 98% of phrases can be reduced without any significant loss in translation quality. Liang Tian, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, and Francisco Oliveira Copyright © 2014 Liang Tian et al. All rights reserved. Multivariate-Statistical Assessment of Heavy Metals for Agricultural Soils in Northern China Wed, 16 Apr 2014 12:56:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/517020/ The study evaluated eight heavy metals content and soil pollution from agricultural soils in northern China. Multivariate and geostatistical analysis approaches were used to determine the anthropogenic and natural contribution of soil heavy metal concentrations. Single pollution index and integrated pollution index could be used to evaluate soil heavy metal risk. The results show that the first factor explains 27.3% of the eight soil heavy metals with strong positive loadings on Cu, Zn, and Cd, which indicates that Cu, Zn, and Cd are associated with and controlled by anthropic activities. The average value of heavy metal is lower than the second grade standard values of soil environmental quality standards in China. Single pollution index is lower than 1, and the Nemerow integrated pollution index is 0.305, which means that study area has not been polluted. The semivariograms of soil heavy metal single pollution index fitted spherical and exponential models. The variable ratio of single pollution index showed moderately spatial dependence. Heavy metal contents showed relative safety in the study area. Pingguo Yang, Miao Yang, Renzhao Mao, and Hongbo Shao Copyright © 2014 Pingguo Yang et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Realization of a Multiscroll Chaotic Oscillator with Optimal Maximum Lyapunov Exponent Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:28:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/303614/ Nowadays, different kinds of experimental realizations of chaotic oscillators have been already presented in the literature. However, those realizations do not consider the value of the maximum Lyapunov exponent, which gives a quantitative measure of the grade of unpredictability of chaotic systems. That way, this paper shows the experimental realization of an optimized multiscroll chaotic oscillator based on saturated function series. First, from the mathematical description having four coefficients (a, b, c, d1), an optimization evolutionary algorithm varies them to maximize the value of the positive Lyapunov exponent. Second, a realization of those optimized coefficients using operational amplifiers is given. Herein a, b, c, d1 are implemented with precision potentiometers to tune up to four decimals of the coefficients having the range between 0.0001 and 1.0000. Finally, experimental results of the phase-space portraits for generating from 2 to 10 scrolls are listed to show that their associated value for the optimal maximum Lyapunov exponent increases by increasing the number of scrolls, thus guaranteeing a more complex chaotic behavior. Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle, Ana Dalia Pano-Azucena, Victor Hugo Carbajal-Gomez, and Mauro Sanchez-Sanchez Copyright © 2014 Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle et al. All rights reserved. Research on Grading Detection of the Wheat Seeds Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/702906/ Evaluating the merits of the wheat seed is an important significance for wheat breeding. We studied analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for seeds grading by digital image processing techniques in the paper. Firstly, preprocess the collected wheat seed images; extract some parameters, such as area, plumpness, rectangular, and elongation of the seed, and then build the level model. Experiments showed the model is right, and level accuracy rate is more than 95%. Xian-Zhong Han, Ke-Jian Wang, Yingchun Yuan, Chen Chen, and Liang Liang Copyright © 2014 Xian-Zhong Han et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of a New Flux-Modulated Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor for EVs Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:04:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/540797/ This paper presents a flux-modulated direct drive (FMDD) motor. The key is to integrate the magnetic gear with the PM motor while removing the gear inner-rotor. Hence, the proposed FMDD motor can achieve the low-speed high-torque output and high-speed compact design requirements as well as high-torque density with a simple structure. The output power equation is analytically derived. By using finite element analysis (FEA), the static characteristics of the proposed motor are obtained. Based on these characteristics, the system mathematical model can be established. Hence, the evaluation of system performances is conducted by computer simulation using the Matlab/Simulink. A prototype is designed and built for experimentation. Experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis and simulation. Ying Fan, Lingling Gu, Yong Luo, Xuedong Han, and Ming Cheng Copyright © 2014 Ying Fan et al. All rights reserved. Vertical Velocity Distribution in Open-Channel Flow with Rigid Vegetation Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:03:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/146829/ In order to experimentally investigate the effects of rigid vegetation on the characteristics of flow, the vegetations were modeled by rigid cylindrical rod. Flow field is measured under the conditions of submerged rigid rod in flume with single layer and double layer vegetations. Experiments were performed for various spacings of the rigid rods. The vegetation models were aligned with the approaching flow in a rectangular channel. Vertical distributions of time-averaged velocity at various streamwise distances were evaluated using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The results indicate that, in submerged conditions, it is difficult to described velocity distribution along the entire depth using unified function. The characteristic of vertical distribution of longitudinal velocity is the presence of inflection. Under the inflection, the line is convex and groove above inflection. The interaction of high and low momentum fluids causes the flow to fold and creates strong vortices within each mixing layer. Understanding the flow phenomena in the area surrounding the tall vegetation, especially in the downstream region, is very important when modeling or studying the riparian environment. ADV measures of rigid vegetation distribution of the flow velocity field can give people a new understanding. Changjun Zhu, Wenlong Hao, and Xiangping Chang Copyright © 2014 Changjun Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Analysis on Future Housing Markets: Economic Development and Housing Implications Wed, 16 Apr 2014 09:47:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/838021/ A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand. Xin Liu and Lizhe Wang Copyright © 2014 Xin Liu and Lizhe Wang. All rights reserved. Bifurcations of Nontwisted Heteroclinic Loop with Resonant Eigenvalues Wed, 16 Apr 2014 09:36:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/716082/ By using the foundational solutions of the linear variational equation of the unperturbed system along the heteroclinic orbits to establish the local coordinate systems in the small tubular neighborhoods of the heteroclinic orbits, we study the bifurcation problems of nontwisted heteroclinic loop with resonant eigenvalues. The existence, numbers, and existence regions of 1-heteroclinic loop, 1-homoclinic loop, 1-periodic orbit, 2-fold 1-periodic orbit, and two 1-periodic orbits are obtained. Meanwhile, we give the corresponding bifurcation surfaces. Yinlai Jin, Xiaowei Zhu, Zheng Guo, Han Xu, Liqun Zhang, and Benyan Ding Copyright © 2014 Yinlai Jin et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Numerical Study on Tensile Strength of Concrete under Different Strain Rates Wed, 16 Apr 2014 07:32:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/173531/ The dynamic characterization of concrete is fundamental to understand the material behavior in case of heavy earthquakes and dynamic events. The implementation of material constitutive law is of capital importance for the numerical simulation of the dynamic processes as those caused by earthquakes. Splitting tensile concrete specimens were tested at strain rates of 10−7 s−1 to 10−4 s−1 in an MTS material test machine. Results of tensile strength versus strain rate are presented and compared with compressive strength and existing models at similar strain rates. Dynamic increase factor versus strain rate curves for tensile strength were also evaluated and discussed. The same tensile data are compared with strength data using a thermodynamic model. Results of the tests show a significant strain rate sensitive behavior, exhibiting dynamic tensile strength increasing with strain rate. In the quasistatic strain rate regime, the existing models often underestimate the experimental results. The thermodynamic theory for the splitting tensile strength of concrete satisfactorily describes the experimental findings of strength as effect of strain rates. Fanlu Min, Zhanhu Yao, and Teng Jiang Copyright © 2014 Fanlu Min et al. All rights reserved. Palmprint Based Multidimensional Fuzzy Vault Scheme Wed, 16 Apr 2014 06:26:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/819031/ Fuzzy vault scheme (FVS) is one of the most popular biometric cryptosystems for biometric template protection. However, error correcting code (ECC) proposed in FVS is not appropriate to deal with real-valued biometric intraclass variances. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme (MDFVS) in which a general subspace error-tolerant mechanism is designed and embedded into FVS to handle intraclass variances. Palmprint is one of the most important biometrics; to protect palmprint templates; a palmprint based MDFVS implementation is also presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only can deal with intraclass variances effectively but also could maintain the accuracy and meanwhile enhance security. Hailun Liu, Dongmei Sun, Ke Xiong, and Zhengding Qiu Copyright © 2014 Hailun Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Electric Load Curve Changes in an Urban Low-Voltage Substation in Spain during the Economic Crisis (2008–2013) Tue, 15 Apr 2014 14:12:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/948361/ This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008–2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period. Pedro M. Lara-Santillán, Montserrat Mendoza-Villena, L. Alfredo Fernández-Jiménez, and Mario Mañana-Canteli Copyright © 2014 Pedro M. Lara-Santillán et al. All rights reserved. iSentenizer-: Multilingual Sentence Boundary Detection Model Tue, 15 Apr 2014 14:00:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/196574/ Sentence boundary detection (SBD) system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ) for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i+Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets. Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, and Xiaodong Zeng Copyright © 2014 Derek F. Wong et al. All rights reserved. Visual Quality Assessment after Network Transmission Incorporating NS2 and Evalvid Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:55:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/267403/ On the basis of Evalvid tool integrated in NS2 (Network Simulator version 2), the paper gets new set of tools, myEvalvid, to establish the simulation and evaluation platform for multimedia transmission. Then the paper investigates the effects of various influence factors when multimedia information is transmitted in the network and the relationships among these factors. Based on the analysis, the paper gets different evaluation models, respectively. In this paper, we study the impact on performance of several basic source and network parameters of video streams, namely, GOP (Group of Pictures) pattern, compression quantitative parameters, packet length, and packet error rate. Simulation results show that different parameters lead to different distortion levels which are calculated according to the reconstruction images at the receiver and the original images. The experimental results show that the video transmission and quality evaluation model we designed can evaluate multimedia transmission performance over complex environment very well. Zhengyou Wang, Wan Wang, Yanhui Xia, Zheng Wan, Jin Wang, Liying Li, and Cong Cai Copyright © 2014 Zhengyou Wang et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Coefficients of High-Order Schemes for Riemann-Liouville Derivative Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:02:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/402373/ Although there have existed some numerical algorithms for the fractional differential equations, developing high-order methods (i.e., with convergence order greater than or equal to 2) is just the beginning. Lubich has ever proposed the high-order schemes when he studied the fractional linear multistep methods, where he constructed the th order schemes for the th order Riemann-Liouville integral and th order Riemann-Liouville derivative. In this paper, we study such a problem and develop recursion formulas to compute these coefficients in the higher-order schemes. The coefficients of higher-order schemes are also obtained. We first find that these coefficients are oscillatory, which is similar to Runge’s phenomenon. So, they are not suitable for numerical calculations. Finally, several numerical examples are implemented to testify the efficiency of the numerical schemes for . Rifang Wu, Hengfei Ding, and Changpin Li Copyright © 2014 Rifang Wu et al. All rights reserved. Novel Web Service Selection Model Based on Discrete Group Search Tue, 15 Apr 2014 09:08:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/460593/ In our earlier work, we present a novel formal method for the semiautomatic verification of specifications and for describing web service composition components by using abstract concepts. After verification, the instantiations of components were selected to satisfy the complex service performance constraints. However, selecting an optimal instantiation, which comprises different candidate services for each generic service, from a large number of instantiations is difficult. Therefore, we present a new evolutionary approach on the basis of the discrete group search service (D-GSS) model. With regard to obtaining the optimal multiconstraint instantiation of the complex component, the D-GSS model has competitive performance compared with other service selection models in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and ability to solve high-dimensional service composition component problems. We propose the cost function and the discrete group search optimizer (D-GSO) algorithm and study the convergence of the D-GSS model through verification and test cases. Jie Zhai, Zhiqing Shao, Yi Guo, and Haiteng Zhang Copyright © 2014 Jie Zhai et al. All rights reserved.