The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Study on Suitability of EAF Oxidizing Slag in Concrete: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Replacement for Natural Coarse Aggregate Wed, 02 Sep 2015 11:34:08 +0000 Environmental and economic factors increasingly encourage higher utility of industrial by-products. The basic objective of this study was to identify alternative source for good quality aggregates which is depleting very fast due to fast pace of construction activities in India. EAF oxidizing slag as a by-product obtained during the process in steel making industry provides great opportunity to utilize it as an alternative to normally available coarse aggregates. The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and durability properties of concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag in addition to supplementary cementing material fly ash. This study presents the experimental investigations carried out on concrete grades of M20 and M30 with three mixes: (i) Mix A, conventional concrete mix with no material substitution, (ii) Mix B, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash, and (iii) Mix C, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% replacement of coarse aggregate with EAF oxidizing slag. Tests were conducted to determine mechanical and durability properties up to the age of 90 days. The test results concluded that concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash (Mix C) had greater strength and durability characteristics when compared to Mix A and Mix B. Based on the overall observations, it could be recommended that EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash could be effectively utilized as coarse aggregate replacement and cement replacement in all concrete applications. Alan Sekaran, Murthi Palaniswamy, and Sivagnanaprakash Balaraju Copyright © 2015 Alan Sekaran et al. All rights reserved. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:42:49 +0000 This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A () and F () were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 () and E () were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 () and D () were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. Fernanda Morcatti Coura, Soraia de Araújo Diniz, Marcos Xavier Silva, Jamili Maria Suhet Mussi, Silvia Minharro Barbosa, Andrey Pereira Lage, and Marcos Bryan Heinemann Copyright © 2015 Fernanda Morcatti Coura et al. All rights reserved. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:18:05 +0000 Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement. L. Feller, R. A. G. Khammissa, I. Schechter, G. Thomadakis, J. Fourie, and J. Lemmer Copyright © 2015 L. Feller et al. All rights reserved. Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:53:37 +0000 The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system. Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Takaharu Nagahashi, Takuya Akiyama, Hideaki Matsue, Kunio Uekado, Takakazu Namera, Hiroshi Fukui, and Satoshi Nanamatsu Copyright © 2015 Kazuhiro Yamaguchi et al. All rights reserved. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:42:53 +0000 Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. Jane Louie Fresco Zamora, Shigeru Kashihara, and Suguru Yamaguchi Copyright © 2015 Jane Louie Fresco Zamora et al. All rights reserved. Investigations into Recycling Zinc from Used Metal Oxide Varistors via pH Selective Leaching: Characterization, Leaching, and Residue Analysis Tue, 01 Sep 2015 06:08:28 +0000 Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) are a type of resistor with significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly used in power lines to protect against overvoltages. If a proper recycling plan is developed MOVs can be an excellent source of secondary zinc because they contain over 90 weight percent zinc oxide. The oxides of antimony, bismuth, and to a lesser degree cobalt, manganese, and nickel are also present in varistors. Characterization of the MOV showed that cobalt, nickel, and manganese were not present in the varistor material at concentrations greater than one weight percent. This investigation determined whether a pH selective dissolution (leaching) process can be utilized as a starting point for hydrometallurgical recycling of the zinc in MOVs. This investigation showed it was possible to selectively leach zinc from the MOV without coleaching of bismuth and antimony by selecting a suitable pH, mainly higher than 3 for acids investigated. It was not possible to leach zinc without coleaching of manganese, cobalt, and nickel. It can be concluded from results obtained with the acids used, acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric, that sulfate leaching produced the most desirable results with respect to zinc leaching and it is also used extensively in industrial zinc production. Toni Gutknecht, Anna Gustafsson, Christer Forsgren, Christian Ekberg, and Britt-Marie Steenari Copyright © 2015 Toni Gutknecht et al. All rights reserved. Developments in Neurovascular Diseases and Treatments Mon, 31 Aug 2015 11:36:54 +0000 Robert M. Starke, Stephen J. Monteith, Andrew M. Southerland, R. Webster Crowley, Nohra Chalouhi, Dale Ding, David M. Hasan, and Aaron S. Dumont Copyright © 2015 Robert M. Starke et al. All rights reserved. Laminar Wall Jet Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shallow Cavity Sun, 30 Aug 2015 12:02:41 +0000 This paper presents the detailed simulation of two-dimensional incompressible laminar wall jet flow over a shallow cavity. The flow characteristics of wall jet with respect to aspect ratio (AR), step length (), and Reynolds number (Re) of the shallow cavity are expressed. For higher accuracy, third-order discretization is applied for momentum equation which is solved using QUICK scheme with SIMPLE algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. Low Reynolds numbers 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 are assigned for simulation. Results are presented for streamline contour, velocity contour, and vorticity formation at wall and also velocity profiles are reported. The detailed study of vortex formation on shallow cavity region is presented for various AR, , and Re conditions which led to key findings as Re increases and vortex formation moves from leading edge to trailing edge of the wall. Distance between vortices increases when the step length () increases. When Re increases, the maximum temperature contour distributions take place in shallow cavity region and highest convection heat transfer is obtained in heated walls. The finite volume code (FLUENT) is used for solving Navier-Stokes equations and GAMBIT for modeling and meshing. P. Maheandera Prabu and K. P. Padmanaban Copyright © 2015 P. Maheandera Prabu and K. P. Padmanaban. All rights reserved. An Experimental Realization of a Chaos-Based Secure Communication Using Arduino Microcontrollers Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:36:39 +0000 Security and secrecy are some of the important concerns in the communications world. In the last years, several encryption techniques have been proposed in order to improve the secrecy of the information transmitted. Chaos-based encryption techniques are being widely studied as part of the problem because of the highly unpredictable and random-look nature of the chaotic signals. In this paper we propose a digital-based communication system that uses the logistic map which is a mathematically simple model that is chaotic under certain conditions. The input message signal is modulated using a simple Delta modulator and encrypted using a logistic map. The key signal is also encrypted using the same logistic map with different initial conditions. In the receiver side, the binary-coded message is decrypted using the encrypted key signal that is sent through one of the communication channels. The proposed scheme is experimentally tested using Arduino shields which are simple yet powerful development kits that allows for the implementation of the communication system for testing purposes. Mauricio Zapateiro De la Hoz, Leonardo Acho, and Yolanda Vidal Copyright © 2015 Mauricio Zapateiro De la Hoz et al. All rights reserved. Workplace Health Promotion and Wellbeing Wed, 26 Aug 2015 12:08:40 +0000 Lars L. Andersen, Karin I. Proper, Laura Punnett, Richard Wynne, Roger Persson, and Noortje Wiezer Copyright © 2015 Lars L. Andersen et al. All rights reserved. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace Wed, 26 Aug 2015 12:07:21 +0000 Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management’s implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl, Charlotte Ahlgren Særvoll, Lasse Kirkelund, Gisela Sjøgaard, and Lars Louis Andersen Copyright © 2015 Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl et al. All rights reserved. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients’ Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:45:46 +0000 The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ). Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks), posttest (after 12 therapy sessions), and short- (3 months), medium- (6 months), and long-term (12 months) follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention . Similar effects were seen on the HRSD. ATQ significantly decreased at the 12th session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended . We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up. Kai-Jo Chiang, Tsai-Hui Chen, Hsiu-Tsu Hsieh, Jui-Chen Tsai, Keng-Liang Ou, and Kuei-Ru Chou Copyright © 2015 Kai-Jo Chiang et al. All rights reserved. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment Wed, 26 Aug 2015 09:14:28 +0000 The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance. Gisele Lima Bezerra, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Alvaro Henrique Borges, Milton Carlos Kuga, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, and Leily Macedo Firoozmand Copyright © 2015 Gisele Lima Bezerra et al. All rights reserved. The Pathogenesis and Treatment of Emotion Dysregulation in Borderline Personality Disorder Wed, 26 Aug 2015 07:16:28 +0000 Uncontrollable emotional lability and impulsivity are a paramount phenomenon of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). This paper aims to review theories that entertain emotion dysregulation as the core deficit of BPD and a key factor in the etiology of BPD, in order, then, to propose the author’s own theory, which arguably transcends certain limitations of the earlier ones. The author asserts that his psychodynamic theory explains the symptoms of BPD more thoroughly and it inspires a more parsimonious interpretation of brain imaging findings. In closing, the author draws implications of the proposed theory for clinical practice. He reports an efficacy study for treatment of emotion dysregulation based on that theory. Andreas Laddis Copyright © 2015 Andreas Laddis. All rights reserved. Tailoring Healthy Workplace Interventions to Local Healthcare Settings: A Complexity Theory-Informed Workplace of Well-Being Framework Tue, 25 Aug 2015 14:04:15 +0000 Many healthy workplace interventions have been developed for healthcare settings to address the consistently low scores of healthcare professionals on assessments of mental and physical well-being. Complex healthcare settings present challenges for the scale-up and spread of successful interventions from one setting to another. Despite general agreement regarding the importance of the local setting in affecting intervention success across different settings, there is no consensus on what it is about a local setting that needs to be taken into account to design healthy workplace interventions appropriate for different local settings. Complexity theory principles were used to understand a workplace as a complex adaptive system and to create a framework of eight domains (system characteristics) that affect the emergence of system-level behaviour. This Workplace of Well-being (WoW) framework is responsive and adaptive to local settings and allows a shared understanding of the enablers and barriers to behaviour change by capturing local information for each of the eight domains. We use the results of applying the WoW framework to one workplace, a UK National Health Service ward, to describe the utility of this approach in informing design of setting-appropriate healthy workplace interventions that create workplaces conducive to healthy behaviour change. Sarah L. Brand, Lora E. Fleming, and Katrina M. Wyatt Copyright © 2015 Sarah L. Brand et al. All rights reserved. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:47:44 +0000 Background. Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. Methods. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides) utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Results. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational), such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Conclusions. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health. Helena Miranda, Rebecca J. Gore, Jon Boyer, Suzanne Nobrega, and Laura Punnett Copyright © 2015 Helena Miranda et al. All rights reserved. Game Theory Based Trust Model for Cloud Environment Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:44:30 +0000 The aim of this work is to propose a method to establish trust at bootload level in cloud computing environment. This work proposes a game theoretic based approach for achieving trust at bootload level of both resources and users perception. Nash equilibrium (NE) enhances the trust evaluation of the first-time users and providers. It also restricts the service providers and the users to violate service level agreement (SLA). Significantly, the problem of cold start and whitewashing issues are addressed by the proposed method. In addition appropriate mapping of cloud user’s application to cloud service provider for segregating trust level is achieved as a part of mapping. Thus, time complexity and space complexity are handled efficiently. Experiments were carried out to compare and contrast the performance of the conventional methods and the proposed method. Several metrics like execution time, accuracy, error identification, and undecidability of the resources were considered. K. Gokulnath and Rhymend Uthariaraj Copyright © 2015 K. Gokulnath and Rhymend Uthariaraj. All rights reserved. Probability and Statistics with Applications in Finance and Economics Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:27:54 +0000 Sarah Brown and Wing Keung Wong Copyright © 2015 Sarah Brown and Wing Keung Wong. All rights reserved. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:02:10 +0000 Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees’ conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. Louise Hardman Smith, Birgit Aust, and Mari-Ann Flyvholm Copyright © 2015 Louise Hardman Smith et al. All rights reserved. Supervisors’ Strategies to Facilitate Work Functioning among Employees with Musculoskeletal Complaints: A Focus Group Study Tue, 25 Aug 2015 11:53:37 +0000 Aim. To explore what strategies the supervisors found beneficial to prevent or reduce sickness absence among employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Methods. Five focus groups were conducted and 26 supervisors from health and social sector participated. Commonly used strategies to prevent sickness absence and interdisciplinary cooperation in this work were discussed in the focus groups. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse the data. Results. The supervisors described five strategies for sick leave management: (1) promoting well-being and a healthy working environment, (2) providing early support and adjustments, (3) making employees more responsible, (4) using confrontational strategies in relation to employees on long-term sick leave, and (5) cooperation with general practitioners (GPs). Conclusions. Strategies of promoting a healthy working environment and facilitating early return to work were utilised in the follow-up of employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Supportive strategies were found most useful especially in the early phases, while finding a balance between being supportive, on one side, and confronting the employee, on the other, was endeavoured in cases of recurrent or long-term sick leave. Further, the supervisors requested a closer cooperation with the GPs, which they believed would facilitate return to work. Tove Ask and Liv Heide Magnussen Copyright © 2015 Tove Ask and Liv Heide Magnussen. All rights reserved. The Productivity Dilemma in Workplace Health Promotion Tue, 25 Aug 2015 11:23:18 +0000 Background. Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)) have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI) does not merit preventive health investment. Methods/Procedures. Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternate assumptions used in cost benefit analysis (CBA), such as discounting and negative value. The issues are presented in the format of 3 conceptual dilemmas. Principal Findings. In some occupations such as nursing, the utility of patient survival and staff health is undervalued. WHP may miss important components of work related health risk. Altering assumptions on discounting and eliminating the drag of negative value radically change the CBA value. Significance. Simple monetization of a work life and calculation of return on workforce health investment as a simple alternate opportunity involve highly selective interpretations of productivity and utility. Martin Cherniack Copyright © 2015 Martin Cherniack. All rights reserved. Considering the Differential Impact of Three Facets of Organizational Health Climate on Employees’ Well-Being Tue, 25 Aug 2015 11:20:03 +0000 One potential way that healthy organizations can impact employee health is by promoting a climate for health within the organization. Using a definition of health climate that includes support for health from multiple levels within the organization, this study examines whether all three facets of health climate—the workgroup, supervisor, and organization—work together to contribute to employee well-being. Two samples are used in this study to examine health climate at the individual level and group level in order to provide a clearer picture of the impact of the three health climate facets. -means cluster analysis was used on each sample to determine groups of individuals based on their levels of the three health climate facets. A discriminant function analysis was then run on each sample to determine if clusters differed on a function of employee well-being variables. Results provide evidence that having strength in all three of the facets is the most beneficial in terms of employee well-being at work. Findings from this study suggest that organizations must consider how health is treated within workgroups, how supervisors support employee health, and what the organization does to support employee health when promoting employee health. Zandra M. Zweber, Robert A. Henning, Vicki J. Magley, and Pouran Faghri Copyright © 2015 Zandra M. Zweber et al. All rights reserved. The Lambert Way to Gaussianize Heavy-Tailed Data with the Inverse of Tukey’s h Transformation as a Special Case Tue, 25 Aug 2015 10:03:54 +0000 I present a parametric, bijective transformation to generate heavy tail versions of arbitrary random variables. The tail behavior of this heavy tail Lambert   random variable depends on a tail parameter : for , , for has heavier tails than . For being Gaussian it reduces to Tukey’s distribution. The Lambert W function provides an explicit inverse transformation, which can thus remove heavy tails from observed data. It also provides closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution (cdf) and probability density function (pdf). As a special case, these yield analytic expression for Tukey’s pdf and cdf. Parameters can be estimated by maximum likelihood and applications to S&P 500 log-returns demonstrate the usefulness of the presented methodology. The R package LambertW implements most of the introduced methodology and is publicly available on CRAN. Georg M. Goerg Copyright © 2015 Georg M. Goerg. All rights reserved. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:53:37 +0000 Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider’s premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. Shyamala Devi Munisamy and Arun Chokkalingam Copyright © 2015 Shyamala Devi Munisamy and Arun Chokkalingam. All rights reserved. Temperature Effect on Exploitation and Interference Competition among Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii and, Cyclotella meneghiniana Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:19:18 +0000 We studied the effect of temperature (18 and 30°C) on growth and on the exploitation and interference competition of three species: Microcystis aeruginosa (MIJAC), Planktothrix agardhii (PAT), and Cyclotella meneghiniana (CCAP). Coculturing the organisms in batch systems allowed for the examination of both competitive interactions, while the interference competition was studied in cross-cultures. The experiments were done during 10–12 days, and samples were taken for chlorophyll-a analysis, using PHYTO-PAM. The temperature did not influence exploitation competition between MIJAC and other competitors and it was the best competitor in both temperatures. PAT presented higher growth rates than CCAP in competition at 18 and 30°C. The temperature influenced the interference competition. The growth of MIJAC was favored in strains exudates at 30°C, while CCAP was favored at 18°C, revealing that the optimum growth temperature was important to establish the competitive superiority. Therefore, we can propose two hypotheses: (i) different temperatures may results in production of distinct compounds that influence the competition among phytoplankton species and (ii) the target species may have different vulnerability to these compounds depending on the temperature. At last, we suggest that both the sensitivity and the physiological status of competing species can determine their lasting coexistence. Andreia Maria da Anunciação Gomes, Sandra Maria Feliciano de Oliveira e Azevedo, and Miquel Lürling Copyright © 2015 Andreia Maria da Anunciação Gomes et al. All rights reserved. Multivariate Statistical Analysis as a Supplementary Tool for Interpretation of Variations in Salivary Cortisol Level in Women with Major Depressive Disorder Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:12:54 +0000 Multivariate statistical analysis is widely used in medical studies as a profitable tool facilitating diagnosis of some diseases, for instance, cancer, allergy, pneumonia, or Alzheimer’s and psychiatric diseases. Taking this in consideration, the aim of this study was to use two multivariate techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to disclose the relationship between the drugs used in the therapy of major depressive disorder and the salivary cortisol level and the period of hospitalization. The cortisol contents in saliva of depressed women were quantified by HPLC with UV detection day-to-day during the whole period of hospitalization. A data set with 16 variables (e.g., the patients’ age, multiplicity and period of hospitalization, initial and final cortisol level, highest and lowest hormone level, mean contents, and medians) characterizing 97 subjects was used for HCA and PCA calculations. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that various groups of antidepressants affect at the varying degree the salivary cortisol level. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and the polypragmasy reduce most effectively the hormone secretion. Thus, both unsupervised pattern recognition methods, HCA and PCA, can be used as complementary tools for interpretation of the results obtained by laboratory diagnostic methods. Ewelina Dziurkowska and Marek Wesolowski Copyright © 2015 Ewelina Dziurkowska and Marek Wesolowski. All rights reserved. Social Anxiety among Chinese People Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:04:09 +0000 The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. Qianqian Fan and Weining C. Chang Copyright © 2015 Qianqian Fan and Weining C. Chang. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Psychoeducational Intervention in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Antidepressant Medication in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:00:57 +0000 Background. There is evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation (PE) in patients with symptoms of depression in primary care (PC), but very few studies have assessed this intervention in antidepressant-naïve patients. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a PE program in these patients, since the use of antidepressant (AD) medication may interfere with the effects of the intervention. Methods. 106 participants were included, 50 from the PE program (12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions) and 56 from the control group (CG) that received the usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 9 months. The main outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and remission based on the BDI. The analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Results. The PE program group showed remission of symptoms of 40% () posttreatment and 42% () at 6 months. The analysis only showed significant differences in the BDI score posttreatment (; effect size Cohen’s ). Conclusions. The PE intervention is an effective treatment in the depressive population not treated with AD medication. Before taking an AD, psychoeducational intervention should be considered. R. Casañas, R. Catalán, R. Penadés, J. Real, S. Valero, MA. Muñoz, LL. Lalucat-Jo, and M. Casas Copyright © 2015 R. Casañas et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Tue, 25 Aug 2015 07:50:41 +0000 The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. Myriam De-la-Iglesia and José-Sixto Olivar Copyright © 2015 Myriam De-la-Iglesia and José-Sixto Olivar. All rights reserved. The State of the Art of the DSM-5 “with Mixed Features” Specifier Tue, 25 Aug 2015 07:10:01 +0000 The new DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (MFS) has renewed the interest of the scientific community in mixed states, leading not only to new clinical studies but also to new criticisms of the current nosology. Consequently, in our paper we have reviewed the latest literature, trying to understand the reactions of psychiatrists to the new nosology and its epidemiological, prognostic, and clinical consequences. It seems that the most widespread major criticism is the exclusion from the DSM-5 MFS of overlapping symptoms (such as psychomotor agitation, irritability, and distractibility), with a consequent reduction in diagnostic power. On the other hand, undoubtedly the new DSM-5 classification has helped to identify more patients suffering from a mixed state by broadening the narrow DSM-IV-TR criteria. As for the clinical presentation, the epidemiological data, and the therapeutic outcomes, the latest literature does not point out a univocal point of view and further research is needed to fully assess the implications of the new DSM-5 MFS. It is our view that a diagnostic category should be preferred to a specifier and mixed states should be better considered as a spectrum of states, according to what was stated many years ago by Kraepelin. Norma Verdolini, Mark Agius, Laura Ferranti, Patrizia Moretti, Massimiliano Piselli, and Roberto Quartesan Copyright © 2015 Norma Verdolini et al. All rights reserved.