The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Pawlak Algebra and Approximate Structure on Fuzzy Lattice Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:58:47 +0000 The aim of this paper is to investigate the general approximation structure, weak approximation operators, and Pawlak algebra in the framework of fuzzy lattice, lattice topology, and auxiliary ordering. First, we prove that the weak approximation operator space forms a complete distributive lattice. Then we study the properties of transitive closure of approximation operators and apply them to rough set theory. We also investigate molecule Pawlak algebra and obtain some related properties. Ying Zhuang, Wenqi Liu, Chin-Chia Wu, and Jinhai Li Copyright © 2014 Ying Zhuang et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Estrogen Receptor α Polymorphisms on Bone Density in Response to Habitual Exercise in Japanese Postmenopausal Women Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:15:14 +0000 Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is one of candidate genes for osteoporosis. This study examined the influence of ERα gene, PvuII, and XbaI genotypes on bone density of calcaneus in response to habitual exercise. ERα polymorphisms were detected using PvuII and XbaI restriction enzymes in 316 Japanese postmenopausal women. The bone density was significantly lower in the women carrying PP, pp, or xx genotype without habitual exercise than in the age-matched women without those genotypes. The women carrying Pp genotype without habitual exercise had normal bone density compared to those without Pp genotype. The women carrying PPxx or ppxx polymorphism without habitual exercise had low bone density compared to those with habitual exercise. Thus, the reduction of bone density was attenuated in the women carrying PPxx or ppxx with habitual exercise. In addition, habitual exercise was highly effective for the bone density in the women carrying xx homozygote. These findings indicate that analyses of XbaI and PvuII polymorphisms of ERα may be useful to predict the effect of exercise on bone density, and habitual exercise attenuates the reduction of bone density in women with some genotypes. Hiroyo Kondo, Hidemi Fujino, Fumiko Nagatomo, and Akihiko Ishihara Copyright © 2014 Hiroyo Kondo et al. All rights reserved. Gossypol Promotes Degeneration of Ovarian Follicles in Rats Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:06:50 +0000 The present study aimed to determine if gossypol interferes with ovarian follicles in rats. Twenty-four female Wistar rats were assigned to two equal groups: one control group and the other dosed with gossypol (25 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously) for 15 days. Ovarian follicles were histologically classified according to the stage of development and as normal or atretic. Gossypol treatment reduced the length of estrous with an increase in the duration of the diestrus phase. This compound was responsible for reduced serum levels of T4 and progesterone. Treatment with gossypol was responsible for a significant reduction in the number of normal ovarian follicles and a significant increase in the number of atretic follicles, both in all stages of development. Thus, treatment of rats with gossypol was responsible for reduction in the number of viable follicles and changes in hormone levels that resulted in interference of the estrous cycle. Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha, Michelly Fernandes de Macedo, Sílvia Catarina Salgado Oloris, Marilia Martins Melo, and Benito Soto-Blanco Copyright © 2014 Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha et al. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Memetic Estimation of Distribution Algorithm Based on an Incremental Tournament Local Searcher Wed, 23 Jul 2014 10:06:00 +0000 A novel hybrid multiobjective algorithm is presented in this paper, which combines a new multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, an efficient local searcher and ε-dominance. Besides, two multiobjective problems with variable linkages strictly based on manifold distribution are proposed. The Pareto set to the continuous multiobjective optimization problems, in the decision space, is a piecewise low-dimensional continuous manifold. The regularity by the manifold features just build probability distribution model by globally statistical information from the population, yet, the efficiency of promising individuals is not well exploited, which is not beneficial to search and optimization process. Hereby, an incremental tournament local searcher is designed to exploit local information efficiently and accelerate convergence to the true Pareto-optimal front. Besides, since ε-dominance is a strategy that can make multiobjective algorithm gain well distributed solutions and has low computational complexity, ε-dominance and the incremental tournament local searcher are combined here. The novel memetic multiobjective estimation of distribution algorithm, MMEDA, was proposed accordingly. The algorithm is validated by experiment on twenty-two test problems with and without variable linkages of diverse complexities. Compared with three state-of-the-art multiobjective optimization algorithms, our algorithm achieves comparable results in terms of convergence and diversity metrics. Kaifeng Yang, Li Mu, Dongdong Yang, Feng Zou, Lei Wang, and Qiaoyong Jiang Copyright © 2014 Kaifeng Yang et al. All rights reserved. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand Wed, 23 Jul 2014 08:41:11 +0000 This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer’s decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. Liying Li and Yong Wang Copyright © 2014 Liying Li and Yong Wang. All rights reserved. A Parallel Decoding Algorithm for Short Polar Codes Based on Error Checking and Correcting Wed, 23 Jul 2014 07:25:43 +0000 We propose a parallel decoding algorithm based on error checking and correcting to improve the performance of the short polar codes. In order to enhance the error-correcting capacity of the decoding algorithm, we first derive the error-checking equations generated on the basis of the frozen nodes, and then we introduce the method to check the errors in the input nodes of the decoder by the solutions of these equations. In order to further correct those checked errors, we adopt the method of modifying the probability messages of the error nodes with constant values according to the maximization principle. Due to the existence of multiple solutions of the error-checking equations, we formulate a CRC-aided optimization problem of finding the optimal solution with three different target functions, so as to improve the accuracy of error checking. Besides, in order to increase the throughput of decoding, we use a parallel method based on the decoding tree to calculate probability messages of all the nodes in the decoder. Numerical results show that the proposed decoding algorithm achieves better performance than that of some existing decoding algorithms with the same code length. Yingxian Zhang, Xiaofei Pan, Kegang Pan, Zhan Ye, and Chao Gong Copyright © 2014 Yingxian Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Complex Networks Theories with Applications Wed, 23 Jul 2014 06:30:59 +0000 Hamid Reza Karimi, Wei Zhang, Xuebo Yang, and Zhandong Yu Copyright © 2014 Hamid Reza Karimi et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Concept Acquisition Approach Based on Formal Contexts Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 As an important tool for data analysis and knowledge processing, formal concept analysis (FCA) has been applied to many fields. In this paper, we introduce a new method to find all formal concepts based on formal contexts. The amount of intents calculation is reduced by the method. And the corresponding algorithm of our approach is proposed. The main theorems and the corresponding algorithm are examined by examples, respectively. At last, several real-life databases are analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed approach. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is simple and effective. Ting Qian and Ling Wei Copyright © 2014 Ting Qian and Ling Wei. All rights reserved. The Study on Stage Financing Model of IT Project Investment Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. Si-hua Chen, Sheng-hua Xu, Changhoon Lee, Neal N. Xiong, and Wei He Copyright © 2014 Si-hua Chen et al. All rights reserved. Stimulatory Effects of Gamma Irradiation on Phytochemical Properties, Mitotic Behaviour, and Nutritional Composition of Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.) Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. Syn. Onobrychis sativa L.) is a bloat-safe forage crop with high levels of tannins, which is renowned for its medicinal qualities in grazing animals. Mutagenesis technique was applied to investigate the influence of gamma irradiation at 30, 60, 90, and 120 Gy on mitotic behavior, in vitro growth factors, phytochemical and nutritional constituents of sainfoin. Although a percentage of plant necrosis and non-growing seed were enhanced by irradiation increment, the germination speed was significantly decreased. It was observed that gamma irradiated seeds had higher value of crude protein and dry matter digestibility compared to control seeds. Toxicity of copper was reduced in sainfoin irradiated seeds at different doses of gamma rays. Anthocyanin content also decreased in inverse proportion to irradiation intensity. Accumulation of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was enhanced by gamma irradiation exposure in leaf cells. HPLC profiles differed in peak areas of the two important alkaloids, Berberine and Sanguinarine, in 120 Gy irradiated seeds compared to control seeds. There were positive correlations between irradiation dose and some abnormality divisions such as laggard chromosome, micronucleus, binucleated cells, chromosome bridge, and cytomixis. In reality, radiocytological evaluation was proven to be essential in deducing the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to induce somaclonal variation in sainfoin. Sadegh Mohajer, Rosna Mat Taha, Ma Ma Lay, Arash Khorasani Esmaeili, and Mahsa Khalili Copyright © 2014 Sadegh Mohajer et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Reflux Conditions for Total Flavonoid and Total Phenolic Extraction and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity in Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) Using Response Surface Methodology Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Response surface methodology was applied to optimization of the conditions for reflux extraction of Pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb.) in order to achieve a high content of total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), and high antioxidant capacity (AC) in the extracts. Central composite experimental design with three factors and three levels was employed to consider the effects of the operation parameters, including the methanol concentration (MC, 40%–80%), extraction temperature (ET, 40–70°C), and liquid-to-solid ratio (LS ratio, 20–40 mL/g) on the properties of the extracts. Response surface plots showed that increasing these operation parameters induced the responses significantly. The TF content and AC could be maximized when the extraction conditions (MC, ET, and LS ratio) were 78.8%, 69.5°C, and 32.4 mL/g, respectively, whereas the TP content was optimal when these variables were 75.1%, 70°C, and 31.8 mL/g, respectively. Under these optimum conditions, the experimental TF and TP content and AC were 1.78, 6.601 mg/g DW, and 87.38%, respectively. The optimized model was validated by a comparison of the predicted and experimental values. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with the predicted values, indicating the suitability of the model for optimizing the conditions for the reflux extraction of Pandan. Ali Ghasemzadeh and Hawa Z. E. Jaafar Copyright © 2014 Ali Ghasemzadeh and Hawa Z. E. Jaafar. All rights reserved. Research on Multirobot Pursuit Task Allocation Algorithm Based on Emotional Cooperation Factor Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots’ individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm. Baofu Fang, Lu Chen, Hao Wang, Shuanglu Dai, and Qiubo Zhong Copyright © 2014 Baofu Fang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Clinical Response, Microbiological Profile, and Glycemic Control in Malaysian Subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The association between diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease has long been established. Most of the researches linking these two very common chronic diseases were based on type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontal disease. However, this study was conducted to investigate the association between type 1 diabetes and chronic periodontal disease in Malaysian subjects. Forty-one Malaysian subjects, of which 20 subjects were type 1 diabetics and with chronic periodontal disease (test group) and 21 subjects with only chronic periodontal disease (control group), were included in the study. Periodontal parameters and plaque samples for microbiological evaluation were done at baseline, 2 and 3 months after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Blood samples were taken from only the test group and evaluated for HbA1c at baseline and 3 months after periodontal therapy. There were no statistically significant difference in periodontal parameters between groups () and no significant improvement in the level of HbA1c in the test group. Microbiological studies indicated that there were significant reductions in the levels of the tested pathogens in both groups. The results of our study were similar to the findings of several other studies that had been done previously. Samira Mukhtar Buzinin, Aied Mohammed Alabsi, Alexander Tong Boon Tan, Vui King Vincent-Chong, and Dasan Swaminathan Copyright © 2014 Samira Mukhtar Buzinin et al. All rights reserved. An Energy Efficient Simultaneous-Node Repositioning Algorithm for Mobile Sensor Networks Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Recently, wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have seen an increase in interest. In search and rescue, battlefield reconnaissance, and some other such applications, so that a survey of the area of interest can be made collectively, a set of mobile nodes is deployed. Keeping the network nodes connected is vital for WSNs to be effective. The provision of connectivity can be made at the time of startup and can be maintained by carefully coordinating the nodes when they move. However, if a node suddenly fails, the network could be partitioned to cause communication problems. Recently, several methods that use the relocation of nodes for connectivity restoration have been proposed. However, these methods have the tendency to not consider the potential coverage loss in some locations. This paper addresses the concerns of both connectivity and coverage in an integrated way so that this gap can be filled. A novel algorithm for simultaneous-node repositioning is introduced. In this approach, each neighbour of the failed node, one by one, moves in for a certain amount of time to take the place of the failed node, after which it returns to its original location in the network. The effectiveness of this algorithm has been verified by the simulation results. Muhammad Amir Khan, Halabi Hasbullah, Babar Nazir, and Imran Ali Khan Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Amir Khan et al. All rights reserved. The Coral Reefs Optimization Algorithm: A Novel Metaheuristic for Efficiently Solving Optimization Problems Tue, 22 Jul 2014 14:09:53 +0000 This paper presents a novel bioinspired algorithm to tackle complex optimization problems: the coral reefs optimization (CRO) algorithm. The CRO algorithm artificially simulates a coral reef, where different corals (namely, solutions to the optimization problem considered) grow and reproduce in coral colonies, fighting by choking out other corals for space in the reef. This fight for space, along with the specific characteristics of the corals' reproduction, produces a robust metaheuristic algorithm shown to be powerful for solving hard optimization problems. In this research the CRO algorithm is tested in several continuous and discrete benchmark problems, as well as in practical application scenarios (i.e., optimum mobile network deployment and off-shore wind farm design). The obtained results confirm the excellent performance of the proposed algorithm and open line of research for further application of the algorithm to real-world problems. S. Salcedo-Sanz, J. Del Ser, I. Landa-Torres, S. Gil-López, and J. A. Portilla-Figueras Copyright © 2014 S. Salcedo-Sanz et al. All rights reserved. Null Steering of Adaptive Beamforming Using Linear Constraint Minimum Variance Assisted by Particle Swarm Optimization, Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System, and Gravitational Search Algorithm Tue, 22 Jul 2014 14:05:07 +0000 Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. Soodabeh Darzi, Tiong Sieh Kiong, Mohammad Tariqul Islam, Mahamod Ismail, Salehin Kibria, and Balasem Salem Copyright © 2014 Soodabeh Darzi et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Prediction Method about Single Components of Analog Circuits Based on Complex Field Modeling Tue, 22 Jul 2014 14:04:31 +0000 Few researches pay attention to prediction about analog circuits. The few methods lack the correlation with circuit analysis during extracting and calculating features so that FI (fault indicator) calculation often lack rationality, thus affecting prognostic performance. To solve the above problem, this paper proposes a novel prediction method about single components of analog circuits based on complex field modeling. Aiming at the feature that faults of single components hold the largest number in analog circuits, the method starts with circuit structure, analyzes transfer function of circuits, and implements complex field modeling. Then, by an established parameter scanning model related to complex field, it analyzes the relationship between parameter variation and degeneration of single components in the model in order to obtain a more reasonable FI feature set via calculation. According to the obtained FI feature set, it establishes a novel model about degeneration trend of analog circuits’ single components. At last, it uses particle filter (PF) to update parameters for the model and predicts remaining useful performance (RUP) of analog circuits’ single components. Since calculation about the FI feature set is more reasonable, accuracy of prediction is improved to some extent. Finally, the foregoing conclusions are verified by experiments. Jingyu Zhou, Shulin Tian, and Chenglin Yang Copyright © 2014 Jingyu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. δ-Cut Decision-Theoretic Rough Set Approach: Model and Attribute Reductions Tue, 22 Jul 2014 14:02:52 +0000 Decision-theoretic rough set is a quite useful rough set by introducing the decision cost into probabilistic approximations of the target. However, Yao’s decision-theoretic rough set is based on the classical indiscernibility relation; such a relation may be too strict in many applications. To solve this problem, a δ-cut decision-theoretic rough set is proposed, which is based on the δ-cut quantitative indiscernibility relation. Furthermore, with respect to criterions of decision-monotonicity and cost decreasing, two different algorithms are designed to compute reducts, respectively. The comparisons between these two algorithms show us the following: (1) with respect to the original data set, the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion can generate more rules supported by the lower approximation region and less rules supported by the boundary region, and it follows that the uncertainty which comes from boundary region can be decreased; (2) with respect to the reducts based on decision-monotonicity criterion, the reducts based on cost minimum criterion can obtain the lowest decision costs and the largest approximation qualities. This study suggests potential application areas and new research trends concerning rough set theory. Hengrong Ju, Huili Dou, Yong Qi, Hualong Yu, Dongjun Yu, and Jingyu Yang Copyright © 2014 Hengrong Ju et al. All rights reserved. An Effective Measured Data Preprocessing Method in Electrical Impedance Tomography Tue, 22 Jul 2014 12:01:20 +0000 As an advanced process detection technology, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has widely been paid attention to and studied in the industrial fields. But the EIT techniques are greatly limited to the low spatial resolutions. This problem may result from the incorrect preprocessing of measuring data and lack of general criterion to evaluate different preprocessing processes. In this paper, an EIT data preprocessing method is proposed by all rooting measured data and evaluated by two constructed indexes based on all rooted EIT measured data. By finding the optimums of the two indexes, the proposed method can be applied to improve the EIT imaging spatial resolutions. In terms of a theoretical model, the optimal rooting times of the two indexes range in [0.23, 0.33] and in [0.22, 0.35], respectively. Moreover, these factors that affect the correctness of the proposed method are generally analyzed. The measuring data preprocessing is necessary and helpful for any imaging process. Thus, the proposed method can be generally and widely used in any imaging process. Experimental results validate the two proposed indexes. Chenglong Yu, Shihong Yue, Jianpei Wang, and Huaxiang Wang Copyright © 2014 Chenglong Yu et al. All rights reserved. A Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Multimodal Optimization Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:45:51 +0000 Interest in multimodal optimization is expanding rapidly, since many practical engineering problems demand the localization of multiple optima within a search space. On the other hand, the cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is a simple and effective global optimization algorithm which can not be directly applied to solve multimodal optimization problems. This paper proposes a new multimodal optimization algorithm called the multimodal cuckoo search (MCS). Under MCS, the original CS is enhanced with multimodal capacities by means of (1) the incorporation of a memory mechanism to efficiently register potential local optima according to their fitness value and the distance to other potential solutions, (2) the modification of the original CS individual selection strategy to accelerate the detection process of new local minima, and (3) the inclusion of a depuration procedure to cyclically eliminate duplicated memory elements. The performance of the proposed approach is compared to several state-of-the-art multimodal optimization algorithms considering a benchmark suite of fourteen multimodal problems. Experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy is capable of providing better and even a more consistent performance over existing well-known multimodal algorithms for the majority of test problems yet avoiding any serious computational deterioration. Erik Cuevas and Adolfo Reyna-Orta Copyright © 2014 Erik Cuevas and Adolfo Reyna-Orta. All rights reserved. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:32:55 +0000 A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques. Wandji Nanda Nathalie Diane, Sun Xingming, and Fah Kue Moise Copyright © 2014 Wandji Nanda Nathalie Diane et al. All rights reserved. Long Term Effects of Tear Gases on Respiratory System: Analysis of 93 Cases Tue, 22 Jul 2014 11:29:09 +0000 Aim. This study aimed to assess the long-term respiratory effects of tear gases among the subjects with history of frequent exposure. Materials and Methods. A questionnaire by NIOSH and pulmonary function tests was performed in 93 males exposed to the tear gases frequently and 55 nonexposed subjects. Results. The mean numbers of total exposure and last 2 years exposure were times, times, respectively. Tear gas exposed subjects were presented with a higher rate for cough and phlegm more than 3 months (24.7% versus 11.3%, ). Mean FEV1/FVC and % predicted MMFR in smoker exposed subjects are significantly lower than those in smoker controls (81.7% versus 84.1%, and 89.9% versus 109.6%, , resp.). % predicted MMFR in nonsmoker exposed subjects is significantly lower than that in nonsmoker controls (99.4% versus 113.1%, ). Odds ratios for chest tightness, exercise dyspnea, dyspnea on level ground, winter morning cough, phlegm, and daily phlegm were increased almost 2 to 2.5 folds among tear gas exposed subjects. Conclusion. The rates for respiratory complaints were high in the case of the exposure to the tear gases previously. Tears gas exposed subjects were found to be under the risk for chronic bronchitis. Peri Arbak, İlknur Başer, Özlem Ozdemir Kumbasar, Füsun Ülger, Zeki Kılıçaslan, and Fatma Evyapan Copyright © 2014 Peri Arbak et al. All rights reserved. A Community Detection Algorithm Based on Topology Potential and Spectral Clustering Tue, 22 Jul 2014 10:17:43 +0000 Community detection is of great value for complex networks in understanding their inherent law and predicting their behavior. Spectral clustering algorithms have been successfully applied in community detection. This kind of methods has two inadequacies: one is that the input matrixes they used cannot provide sufficient structural information for community detection and the other is that they cannot necessarily derive the proper community number from the ladder distribution of eigenvector elements. In order to solve these problems, this paper puts forward a novel community detection algorithm based on topology potential and spectral clustering. The new algorithm constructs the normalized Laplacian matrix with nodes’ topology potential, which contains rich structural information of the network. In addition, the new algorithm can automatically get the optimal community number from the local maximum potential nodes. Experiments results showed that the new algorithm gave excellent performance on artificial networks and real world networks and outperforms other community detection methods. Zhixiao Wang, Zhaotong Chen, Ya Zhao, and Shaoda Chen Copyright © 2014 Zhixiao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cosolutes on the Sorption of Phenanthrene onto Mineral Surface of River Sediments and Kaolinite Tue, 22 Jul 2014 10:17:10 +0000 Sorption of phenanthrene onto the natural sediment with low organic carbon content (OC%), organic-free sediment, and kaolinite was investigated through isotherm experiments. Effects of cosolutes (pyrene, 4-n-nonyphenol (NP), and humic acid (HA)) on phenanthrene sorption were also studied by comparing apparent solid-water distribution coefficients () of phenanthrene. Two addition sequences, including “cosolute added prior to phenanthrene” and “cosolute and phenanthrene added simultaneously,” were adopted. The Freundlich model fits phenanthrene sorption on all 3 sorbents well. The sorption coefficients on these sorbents were similar, suggesting that mineral surface plays an important role in the sorption of hydrophobic organic contaminants on low OC% sediments. Cosolutes could affect phenanthrene sorption on the sorbents, which depended on their properties, concentrations, and addition sequences. Pyrene inhibited phenanthrene sorption. Sorbed NP inhibited phenanthrene sorption at low levels and promoted sorption at high levels. Similar to NP, effect of HA on phenanthrene sorption onto the natural sediment depended on its concentrations, whereas, for the organic-free sediment and kaolinite, preloading of HA at high levels led to an enhancement in phenanthrene while no obvious effect was observed at low HA levels; dissolved HA could inhibit phenanthrene sorption on the two sorbents. Yinghong Wu, Fang Liu, Wen Zhang, and Lei Wang Copyright © 2014 Yinghong Wu et al. All rights reserved. On Thompson’s Conjecture for Alternating Groups Tue, 22 Jul 2014 10:03:49 +0000 Let be a group. Denote by the set of prime divisors of . Let be the graph with vertex set such that two primes and in are joined by an edge if has an element of order . We set to denote the number of connected components of the prime graph . Denote by the set of nonidentity orders of conjugacy classes of elements in . Alavi and Daneshkhah proved that the groups, where with , are characterized by . As a development of these topics, we will prove that if is a finite group with trivial center and with composite, then is isomorphic to . Shitian Liu and Yong Yang Copyright © 2014 Shitian Liu and Yong Yang. All rights reserved. Theoretical Modeling of Intensity Noise in InGaN Semiconductor Lasers Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:44:13 +0000 This paper introduces modeling and simulation of the noise properties of the blue-violet InGaN laser diodes. The noise is described in terms of the spectral properties of the relative intensity noise (RIN). We examine the validity of the present noise modeling by comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements available in literature. We also compare the obtained noise results with those of AlGaAs lasers. Also, we examine the influence of gain suppression on the quantum RIN. In addition, we examine the changes in the RIN level when describing the gain suppression by the case of inhomogeneous spectral broadening. The results show that RIN of the InGaN laser is nearly 9 dB higher than that of the AlGaAs laser. Moustafa Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Moustafa Ahmed. All rights reserved. Information Filtering via Biased Random Walk on Coupled Social Network Tue, 22 Jul 2014 09:23:24 +0000 The recommender systems have advanced a great deal in the past two decades. However, most researchers focus their attentions on mining the similarities among users or objects in recommender systems and overlook the social influence which plays an important role in users’ purchase process. In this paper, we design a biased random walk algorithm on coupled social networks which gives recommendation results based on both social interests and users’ preference. Numerical analyses on two real data sets, Epinions and Friendfeed, demonstrate the improvement of recommendation performance by taking social interests into account, and experimental results show that our algorithm can alleviate the user cold-start problem more effectively compared with the mass diffusion and user-based collaborative filtering methods. Da-Cheng Nie, Zi-Ke Zhang, Qiang Dong, Chongjing Sun, and Yan Fu Copyright © 2014 Da-Cheng Nie et al. All rights reserved. Vitamin C Protected Human Retinal Pigmented Epithelium from Oxidant Injury Depending on Regulating SIRT1 Tue, 22 Jul 2014 08:43:19 +0000 The purpose was to investigate the protective effects of Vitamin C (Vit C) and the regulatory mechanism between Vit C and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in PREs during oxidative stress as Vit C and SIRT1 exerted famous effects as antioxidants. We found that moderate Vit C (100 µM) prevented ARPE-19 cells from damages induced by H2O2, including increasing viability, reducing apoptosis, and attenuating intracellular ROS levels. But lower and higher concentration of Vit C had no effects. Further results indicated that Vit C caused the dysregulation of some stress responses factors (SIRT1, p53 and FOXO3) in ARPE-19 cells response to H2O2. Moreover we found that SIRT1 activator resveratrol (SRV) stimulated significantly the protective effects of moderate Vit C, provided the property of antioxidative stress for the lower and higher concentration of Vit C in ARPE-19 cells as well. Consistently, nicotinamide (NA) relieved the protective functions of moderate Vit C. Interestingly, data also revealed the dysregulation of p53 and FOXO3 was dependent on the regulation of SIRT1 rather than Vit C. Summarily, the protective effect of Vit C against oxidative stress was involved in regulation of SIRT1. It suggested that combined application of Vit C and RSV might be a promising therapeutic method for AMD. Wei Wei, Langen Li, Yufeng Zhang, Geriletu, Jia Yang, Yanmei Zhang, and Yiqiao Xing Copyright © 2014 Wei Wei et al. All rights reserved. Secure Access Control and Large Scale Robust Representation for Online Multimedia Event Detection Tue, 22 Jul 2014 07:35:31 +0000 We developed an online multimedia event detection (MED) system. However, there are a secure access control issue and a large scale robust representation issue when we want to integrate traditional event detection algorithms into the online environment. For the first issue, we proposed a tree proxy-based and service-oriented access control (TPSAC) model based on the traditional role based access control model. Verification experiments were conducted on the CloudSim simulation platform, and the results showed that the TPSAC model is suitable for the access control of dynamic online environments. For the second issue, inspired by the object-bank scene descriptor, we proposed a 1000-object-bank (1000OBK) event descriptor. Feature vectors of the 1000OBK were extracted from response pyramids of 1000 generic object detectors which were trained on standard annotated image datasets, such as the ImageNet dataset. A spatial bag of words tiling approach was then adopted to encode these feature vectors for bridging the gap between the objects and events. Furthermore, we performed experiments in the context of event classification on the challenging TRECVID MED 2012 dataset, and the results showed that the robust 1000OBK event descriptor outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches. Changyu Liu, Bin Lu, and Huiling Li Copyright © 2014 Changyu Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Value and Ambiguity-Based Ranking Method of Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers and Application to Decision Making Tue, 22 Jul 2014 07:00:49 +0000 The aim of this paper is to develop a method for ranking trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TrIFNs) in the process of decision making in the intuitionistic fuzzy environment. Firstly, the concept of TrIFNs is introduced. Arithmetic operations and cut sets over TrIFNs are investigated. Then, the values and ambiguities of the membership degree and the nonmembership degree for TrIFNs are defined as well as the value-index and ambiguity-index. Finally, a value and ambiguity-based ranking method is developed and applied to solve multiattribute decision making problems in which the ratings of alternatives on attributes are expressed using TrIFNs. A numerical example is examined to demonstrate the implementation process and applicability of the method proposed in this paper. Furthermore, comparison analysis of the proposed method is conducted to show its advantages over other similar methods. Xiang-tian Zeng, Deng-feng Li, and Gao-feng Yu Copyright © 2014 Xiang-tian Zeng et al. All rights reserved.