The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Asymptotic Solutions for a Class of Nonlinear Singular Perturbed Differential Systems with Time delays Wed, 16 Apr 2014 16:12:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/965376/ We study a kind of vector singular perturbed delay-differential equations. By using the methods of boundary function and fractional steps, we construct the formula of asymptotic expansion and confirm the interior layer at . Meanwhile, on the basis of functional analysis skill, the existence of the smooth solution and the uniform validity of the asymptotic expansion are proved. Han Xu and Yinlai Jin Copyright © 2014 Han Xu and Yinlai Jin. All rights reserved. Application of the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving the Set Covering Problem Wed, 16 Apr 2014 14:10:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/189164/ The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show that our artificial bee colony algorithm is competitive in terms of solution quality with other recent metaheuristic approaches for the set covering problem. Broderick Crawford, Ricardo Soto, Rodrigo Cuesta, and Fernando Paredes Copyright © 2014 Broderick Crawford et al. All rights reserved. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:53:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/352809/ This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. Meiqin Tang, Lili Shang, Yalin Xin, Xiaohua Liu, and Xinjiang Wei Copyright © 2014 Meiqin Tang et al. All rights reserved. Novel MSVPWM to Reduce the Inductor Current Ripple for Z-Source Inverter in Electric Vehicle Applications Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:52:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/586082/ A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results. Qianfan Zhang, Shuai Dong, Ping Xue, Chaowei Zhou, and ShuKang Cheng Copyright © 2014 Qianfan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Relationship: Word Alignment, Phrase Table, and Translation Quality Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:36:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/438106/ In the last years, researchers conducted several studies to evaluate the machine translation quality based on the relationship between word alignments and phrase table. However, existing methods usually employ ad-hoc heuristics without theoretical support. So far, there is no discussion from the aspect of providing a formula to describe the relationship among word alignments, phrase table, and machine translation performance. In this paper, on one hand, we focus on formulating such a relationship for estimating the size of extracted phrase pairs given one or more word alignment points. On the other hand, a corpus-motivated pruning technique is proposed to prune the default large phrase table. Experiment proves that the deduced formula is feasible, which not only can be used to predict the size of the phrase table, but also can be a valuable reference for investigating the relationship between the translation performance and phrase tables based on different links of word alignment. The corpus-motivated pruning results show that nearly 98% of phrases can be reduced without any significant loss in translation quality. Liang Tian, Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, and Francisco Oliveira Copyright © 2014 Liang Tian et al. All rights reserved. Multivariate-Statistical Assessment of Heavy Metals for Agricultural Soils in Northern China Wed, 16 Apr 2014 12:56:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/517020/ The study evaluated eight heavy metals content and soil pollution from agricultural soils in northern China. Multivariate and geostatistical analysis approaches were used to determine the anthropogenic and natural contribution of soil heavy metal concentrations. Single pollution index and integrated pollution index could be used to evaluate soil heavy metal risk. The results show that the first factor explains 27.3% of the eight soil heavy metals with strong positive loadings on Cu, Zn, and Cd, which indicates that Cu, Zn, and Cd are associated with and controlled by anthropic activities. The average value of heavy metal is lower than the second grade standard values of soil environmental quality standards in China. Single pollution index is lower than 1, and the Nemerow integrated pollution index is 0.305, which means that study area has not been polluted. The semivariograms of soil heavy metal single pollution index fitted spherical and exponential models. The variable ratio of single pollution index showed moderately spatial dependence. Heavy metal contents showed relative safety in the study area. Pingguo Yang, Miao Yang, Renzhao Mao, and Hongbo Shao Copyright © 2014 Pingguo Yang et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Realization of a Multiscroll Chaotic Oscillator with Optimal Maximum Lyapunov Exponent Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:28:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/303614/ Nowadays, different kinds of experimental realizations of chaotic oscillators have been already presented in the literature. However, those realizations do not consider the value of the maximum Lyapunov exponent, which gives a quantitative measure of the grade of unpredictability of chaotic systems. That way, this paper shows the experimental realization of an optimized multiscroll chaotic oscillator based on saturated function series. First, from the mathematical description having four coefficients (a, b, c, d1), an optimization evolutionary algorithm varies them to maximize the value of the positive Lyapunov exponent. Second, a realization of those optimized coefficients using operational amplifiers is given. Herein a, b, c, d1 are implemented with precision potentiometers to tune up to four decimals of the coefficients having the range between 0.0001 and 1.0000. Finally, experimental results of the phase-space portraits for generating from 2 to 10 scrolls are listed to show that their associated value for the optimal maximum Lyapunov exponent increases by increasing the number of scrolls, thus guaranteeing a more complex chaotic behavior. Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle, Ana Dalia Pano-Azucena, Victor Hugo Carbajal-Gomez, and Mauro Sanchez-Sanchez Copyright © 2014 Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle et al. All rights reserved. Research on Grading Detection of the Wheat Seeds Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/702906/ Evaluating the merits of the wheat seed is an important significance for wheat breeding. We studied analytic hierarchy process (AHP) for seeds grading by digital image processing techniques in the paper. Firstly, preprocess the collected wheat seed images; extract some parameters, such as area, plumpness, rectangular, and elongation of the seed, and then build the level model. Experiments showed the model is right, and level accuracy rate is more than 95%. Xian-Zhong Han, Ke-Jian Wang, Yingchun Yuan, Chen Chen, and Liang Liang Copyright © 2014 Xian-Zhong Han et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of a New Flux-Modulated Permanent Magnet Brushless Motor for EVs Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:04:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/540797/ This paper presents a flux-modulated direct drive (FMDD) motor. The key is to integrate the magnetic gear with the PM motor while removing the gear inner-rotor. Hence, the proposed FMDD motor can achieve the low-speed high-torque output and high-speed compact design requirements as well as high-torque density with a simple structure. The output power equation is analytically derived. By using finite element analysis (FEA), the static characteristics of the proposed motor are obtained. Based on these characteristics, the system mathematical model can be established. Hence, the evaluation of system performances is conducted by computer simulation using the Matlab/Simulink. A prototype is designed and built for experimentation. Experimental results are given to verify the theoretical analysis and simulation. Ying Fan, Lingling Gu, Yong Luo, Xuedong Han, and Ming Cheng Copyright © 2014 Ying Fan et al. All rights reserved. Vertical Velocity Distribution in Open-Channel Flow with Rigid Vegetation Wed, 16 Apr 2014 10:03:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/146829/ In order to experimentally investigate the effects of rigid vegetation on the characteristics of flow, the vegetations were modeled by rigid cylindrical rod. Flow field is measured under the conditions of submerged rigid rod in flume with single layer and double layer vegetations. Experiments were performed for various spacings of the rigid rods. The vegetation models were aligned with the approaching flow in a rectangular channel. Vertical distributions of time-averaged velocity at various streamwise distances were evaluated using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). The results indicate that, in submerged conditions, it is difficult to described velocity distribution along the entire depth using unified function. The characteristic of vertical distribution of longitudinal velocity is the presence of inflection. Under the inflection, the line is convex and groove above inflection. The interaction of high and low momentum fluids causes the flow to fold and creates strong vortices within each mixing layer. Understanding the flow phenomena in the area surrounding the tall vegetation, especially in the downstream region, is very important when modeling or studying the riparian environment. ADV measures of rigid vegetation distribution of the flow velocity field can give people a new understanding. Changjun Zhu, Wenlong Hao, and Xiangping Chang Copyright © 2014 Changjun Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Spatial Analysis on Future Housing Markets: Economic Development and Housing Implications Wed, 16 Apr 2014 09:47:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/838021/ A coupled projection method combining formal modelling and other statistical techniques was developed to delineate the relationship between economic and social drivers for net new housing allocations. Using the example of employment growth in Tyne and Wear, UK, until 2016, the empirical analysis yields housing projections at the macro- and microspatial levels (e.g., region to subregion to elected ward levels). The results have important implications for the strategic planning of locations for housing and employment, demonstrating both intuitively and quantitatively how local economic developments affect housing demand. Xin Liu and Lizhe Wang Copyright © 2014 Xin Liu and Lizhe Wang. All rights reserved. Bifurcations of Nontwisted Heteroclinic Loop with Resonant Eigenvalues Wed, 16 Apr 2014 09:36:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/716082/ By using the foundational solutions of the linear variational equation of the unperturbed system along the heteroclinic orbits to establish the local coordinate systems in the small tubular neighborhoods of the heteroclinic orbits, we study the bifurcation problems of nontwisted heteroclinic loop with resonant eigenvalues. The existence, numbers, and existence regions of 1-heteroclinic loop, 1-homoclinic loop, 1-periodic orbit, 2-fold 1-periodic orbit, and two 1-periodic orbits are obtained. Meanwhile, we give the corresponding bifurcation surfaces. Yinlai Jin, Xiaowei Zhu, Zheng Guo, Han Xu, Liqun Zhang, and Benyan Ding Copyright © 2014 Yinlai Jin et al. All rights reserved. Experimental and Numerical Study on Tensile Strength of Concrete under Different Strain Rates Wed, 16 Apr 2014 07:32:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/173531/ The dynamic characterization of concrete is fundamental to understand the material behavior in case of heavy earthquakes and dynamic events. The implementation of material constitutive law is of capital importance for the numerical simulation of the dynamic processes as those caused by earthquakes. Splitting tensile concrete specimens were tested at strain rates of 10−7 s−1 to 10−4 s−1 in an MTS material test machine. Results of tensile strength versus strain rate are presented and compared with compressive strength and existing models at similar strain rates. Dynamic increase factor versus strain rate curves for tensile strength were also evaluated and discussed. The same tensile data are compared with strength data using a thermodynamic model. Results of the tests show a significant strain rate sensitive behavior, exhibiting dynamic tensile strength increasing with strain rate. In the quasistatic strain rate regime, the existing models often underestimate the experimental results. The thermodynamic theory for the splitting tensile strength of concrete satisfactorily describes the experimental findings of strength as effect of strain rates. Fanlu Min, Zhanhu Yao, and Teng Jiang Copyright © 2014 Fanlu Min et al. All rights reserved. Palmprint Based Multidimensional Fuzzy Vault Scheme Wed, 16 Apr 2014 06:26:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/819031/ Fuzzy vault scheme (FVS) is one of the most popular biometric cryptosystems for biometric template protection. However, error correcting code (ECC) proposed in FVS is not appropriate to deal with real-valued biometric intraclass variances. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme (MDFVS) in which a general subspace error-tolerant mechanism is designed and embedded into FVS to handle intraclass variances. Palmprint is one of the most important biometrics; to protect palmprint templates; a palmprint based MDFVS implementation is also presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only can deal with intraclass variances effectively but also could maintain the accuracy and meanwhile enhance security. Hailun Liu, Dongmei Sun, Ke Xiong, and Zhengding Qiu Copyright © 2014 Hailun Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Electric Load Curve Changes in an Urban Low-Voltage Substation in Spain during the Economic Crisis (2008–2013) Tue, 15 Apr 2014 14:12:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/948361/ This paper presents a comparative study of the electricity consumption (EC) in an urban low-voltage substation before and during the economic crisis (2008–2013). This low-voltage substation supplies electric power to near 400 users. The EC was measured for an 11-year period (2002–2012) with a sampling time of 1 minute. The study described in the paper consists of detecting the changes produced in the load curves of this substation along the time due to changes in the behaviour of consumers. The EC was compared using representative curves per time period (precrisis and crisis). These representative curves were obtained after a computational process, which was based on a search for days with similar curves to the curve of a determined (base) date. This similitude was assessed by the proximity on the calendar, day of the week, daylight time, and outdoor temperature. The last selection parameter was the error between the nearest neighbour curves and the base date curve. The obtained representative curves were linearized to determine changes in their structure (maximum and minimum consumption values, duration of the daily time slot, etc.). The results primarily indicate an increase in the EC in the night slot during the summer months in the crisis period. Pedro M. Lara-Santillán, Montserrat Mendoza-Villena, L. Alfredo Fernández-Jiménez, and Mario Mañana-Canteli Copyright © 2014 Pedro M. Lara-Santillán et al. All rights reserved. iSentenizer-: Multilingual Sentence Boundary Detection Model Tue, 15 Apr 2014 14:00:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/196574/ Sentence boundary detection (SBD) system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ) for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i+Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets. Derek F. Wong, Lidia S. Chao, and Xiaodong Zeng Copyright © 2014 Derek F. Wong et al. All rights reserved. Visual Quality Assessment after Network Transmission Incorporating NS2 and Evalvid Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:55:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/267403/ On the basis of Evalvid tool integrated in NS2 (Network Simulator version 2), the paper gets new set of tools, myEvalvid, to establish the simulation and evaluation platform for multimedia transmission. Then the paper investigates the effects of various influence factors when multimedia information is transmitted in the network and the relationships among these factors. Based on the analysis, the paper gets different evaluation models, respectively. In this paper, we study the impact on performance of several basic source and network parameters of video streams, namely, GOP (Group of Pictures) pattern, compression quantitative parameters, packet length, and packet error rate. Simulation results show that different parameters lead to different distortion levels which are calculated according to the reconstruction images at the receiver and the original images. The experimental results show that the video transmission and quality evaluation model we designed can evaluate multimedia transmission performance over complex environment very well. Zhengyou Wang, Wan Wang, Yanhui Xia, Zheng Wan, Jin Wang, Liying Li, and Cong Cai Copyright © 2014 Zhengyou Wang et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Coefficients of High-Order Schemes for Riemann-Liouville Derivative Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:02:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/402373/ Although there have existed some numerical algorithms for the fractional differential equations, developing high-order methods (i.e., with convergence order greater than or equal to 2) is just the beginning. Lubich has ever proposed the high-order schemes when he studied the fractional linear multistep methods, where he constructed the th order schemes for the th order Riemann-Liouville integral and th order Riemann-Liouville derivative. In this paper, we study such a problem and develop recursion formulas to compute these coefficients in the higher-order schemes. The coefficients of higher-order schemes are also obtained. We first find that these coefficients are oscillatory, which is similar to Runge’s phenomenon. So, they are not suitable for numerical calculations. Finally, several numerical examples are implemented to testify the efficiency of the numerical schemes for . Rifang Wu, Hengfei Ding, and Changpin Li Copyright © 2014 Rifang Wu et al. All rights reserved. Novel Web Service Selection Model Based on Discrete Group Search Tue, 15 Apr 2014 09:08:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/460593/ In our earlier work, we present a novel formal method for the semiautomatic verification of specifications and for describing web service composition components by using abstract concepts. After verification, the instantiations of components were selected to satisfy the complex service performance constraints. However, selecting an optimal instantiation, which comprises different candidate services for each generic service, from a large number of instantiations is difficult. Therefore, we present a new evolutionary approach on the basis of the discrete group search service (D-GSS) model. With regard to obtaining the optimal multiconstraint instantiation of the complex component, the D-GSS model has competitive performance compared with other service selection models in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and ability to solve high-dimensional service composition component problems. We propose the cost function and the discrete group search optimizer (D-GSO) algorithm and study the convergence of the D-GSS model through verification and test cases. Jie Zhai, Zhiqing Shao, Yi Guo, and Haiteng Zhang Copyright © 2014 Jie Zhai et al. All rights reserved. PEM-PCA: A Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA Face Recognition Architecture Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:16:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/468176/ Principal component analysis or PCA has been traditionally used as one of the feature extraction techniques in face recognition systems yielding high accuracy when requiring a small number of features. However, the covariance matrix and eigenvalue decomposition stages cause high computational complexity, especially for a large database. Thus, this research presents an alternative approach utilizing an Expectation-Maximization algorithm to reduce the determinant matrix manipulation resulting in the reduction of the stages’ complexity. To improve the computational time, a novel parallel architecture was employed to utilize the benefits of parallelization of matrix computation during feature extraction and classification stages including parallel preprocessing, and their combinations, so-called a Parallel Expectation-Maximization PCA architecture. Comparing to a traditional PCA and its derivatives, the results indicate lower complexity with an insignificant difference in recognition precision leading to high speed face recognition systems, that is, the speed-up over nine and three times over PCA and Parallel PCA. Kanokmon Rujirakul, Chakchai So-In, and Banchar Arnonkijpanich Copyright © 2014 Kanokmon Rujirakul et al. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling with a Time-Varying Number of Tasks Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:12:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/420101/ In resource-constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problems, ongoing tasks are restricted to utilizing a fixed number of resources. This paper investigates a dynamic version of the RCPS problem where the number of tasks varies in time. Our previous work investigated a technique called mapping of task IDs for centroid-based approach with random immigrants (McBAR) that was used to solve the dynamic problem. However, the solution-searching ability of McBAR was investigated over only a few instances of the dynamic problem. As a consequence, only a small number of characteristics of McBAR, under the dynamics of the RCPS problem, were found. Further, only a few techniques were compared to McBAR with respect to its solution-searching ability for solving the dynamic problem. In this paper, (a) the significance of the subalgorithms of McBAR is investigated by comparing McBAR to several other techniques; and (b) the scope of investigation in the previous work is extended. In particular, McBAR is compared to a technique called, Estimation Distribution Algorithm (EDA). As with McBAR, EDA is applied to solve the dynamic problem, an application that is unique in the literature. Manuel Blanco Abello and Zbigniew Michalewicz Copyright © 2014 Manuel Blanco Abello and Zbigniew Michalewicz. All rights reserved. A Collaborative Scheduling Model for the Supply-Hub with Multiple Suppliers and Multiple Manufacturers Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:09:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/894573/ This paper investigates a collaborative scheduling model in the assembly system, wherein multiple suppliers have to deliver their components to the multiple manufacturers under the operation of Supply-Hub. We first develop two different scenarios to examine the impact of Supply-Hub. One is that suppliers and manufacturers make their decisions separately, and the other is that the Supply-Hub makes joint decisions with collaborative scheduling. The results show that our scheduling model with the Supply-Hub is a NP-complete problem, therefore, we propose an auto-adapted differential evolution algorithm to solve this problem. Moreover, we illustrate that the performance of collaborative scheduling by the Supply-Hub is superior to separate decision made by each manufacturer and supplier. Furthermore, we also show that the algorithm proposed has good convergence and reliability, which can be applicable to more complicated supply chain environment. Guo Li, Fei Lv, and Xu Guan Copyright © 2014 Guo Li et al. All rights reserved. Cloud Computing Based Systems for Healthcare Tue, 15 Apr 2014 07:09:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/692619/ Vladimir Stantchev, Ricardo Colomo-Palacios, and Michael Niedermayer Copyright © 2014 Vladimir Stantchev et al. All rights reserved. Parallel-Batch Scheduling and Transportation Coordination with Waiting Time Constraint Tue, 15 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/356364/ This paper addresses a parallel-batch scheduling problem that incorporates transportation of raw materials or semifinished products before processing with waiting time constraint. The orders located at the different suppliers are transported by some vehicles to a manufacturing facility for further processing. One vehicle can load only one order in one shipment. Each order arriving at the facility must be processed in the limited waiting time. The orders are processed in batches on a parallel-batch machine, where a batch contains several orders and the processing time of the batch is the largest processing time of the orders in it. The goal is to find a schedule to minimize the sum of the total flow time and the production cost. We prove that the general problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. We also demonstrate that the problem with equal processing times on the machine is NP-hard. Furthermore, a dynamic programming algorithm in pseudopolynomial time is provided to prove its ordinarily NP-hardness. An optimal algorithm in polynomial time is presented to solve a special case with equal processing times and equal transportation times for each order. Hua Gong, Daheng Chen, and Ke Xu Copyright © 2014 Hua Gong et al. All rights reserved. Tissue Fractions of Cadmium in Two Hyperaccumulating Jerusalem Artichoke Genotypes Mon, 14 Apr 2014 12:45:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/421249/ In order to investigate the mechanisms in two Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) genotypes that hyperaccumulate Cd, a sand-culture experiment was carried out to characterize fractionation of Cd in tissue of Cd-hyperaccumulating genotypes NY2 and NY5. The sequential extractants were: 80% v/v ethanol (), deionized water (), 1 M NaCl (), 2% v/v acetic acid (), and 0.6 M HCl (). After 20 days of treatments, NY5 had greater plant biomass and greater Cd accumulation in tissues than NY2. In both genotypes the fraction was the highest in roots and stems, whereas the and fractions were the highest in leaves. With an increase in Cd concentration in the culture solution, the content of every Cd fraction also increased. The and ratios in roots were lower in NY5 than in NY2, while the amount of other Cd forms was higher. It implied that, in high accumulator, namely, NY5, the complex of insoluble phosphate tends to be shaped more easily which was much better for Cd accumulation. Besides, translocation from plasma to vacuole after combination with protein may be one of the main mechanisms in Cd-accumulator Jerusalem artichoke genotypes. Xiaohua Long, Ni Ni, Zhaopu Liu, Zed Rengel, Xin Jiang, and Hongbo Shao Copyright © 2014 Xiaohua Long et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Computation with Spatial Receding Horizon Control to Minimize Network Coding Resources Mon, 14 Apr 2014 12:36:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/268152/ The minimization of network coding resources, such as coding nodes and links, is a challenging task, not only because it is a NP-hard problem, but also because the problem scale is huge; for example, networks in real world may have thousands or even millions of nodes and links. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have a good potential of resolving NP-hard problems like the network coding problem (NCP), but as a population-based algorithm, serious scalability and applicability problems are often confronted when GAs are applied to large- or huge-scale systems. Inspired by the temporal receding horizon control in control engineering, this paper proposes a novel spatial receding horizon control (SRHC) strategy as a network partitioning technology, and then designs an efficient GA to tackle the NCP. Traditional network partitioning methods can be viewed as a special case of the proposed SRHC, that is, one-step-wide SRHC, whilst the method in this paper is a generalized -step-wide SRHC, which can make a better use of global information of network topologies. Besides the SRHC strategy, some useful designs are also reported in this paper. The advantages of the proposed SRHC and GA for the NCP are illustrated by extensive experiments, and they have a good potential of being extended to other large-scale complex problems. Xiao-Bing Hu and Mark S. Leeson Copyright © 2014 Xiao-Bing Hu and Mark S. Leeson. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Investigation of Sesamol on Myeloperoxidase and Colon Morphology in Acetic Acid-Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disorder in Albino Rats” Mon, 14 Apr 2014 10:45:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/430734/ Phani Krishna Kondamudi, Hemalatha Kovelamudi, Geetha Mathew, Pawan G. Nayak, Mallikarjuna C. Rao, and Rekha R. Shenoy Copyright © 2014 Phani Krishna Kondamudi et al. All rights reserved. Trajectory-Based Morphological Operators: A Model for Efficient Image Processing Mon, 14 Apr 2014 09:26:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/801587/ Mathematical morphology has been an area of intensive research over the last few years. Although many remarkable advances have been achieved throughout these years, there is still a great interest in accelerating morphological operations in order for them to be implemented in real-time systems. In this work, we present a new model for computing mathematical morphology operations, the so-called morphological trajectory model (MTM), in which a morphological filter will be divided into a sequence of basic operations. Then, a trajectory-based morphological operation (such as dilation, and erosion) is defined as the set of points resulting from the ordered application of the instant basic operations. The MTM approach allows working with different structuring elements, such as disks, and from the experiments, it can be extracted that our method is independent of the structuring element size and can be easily applied to industrial systems and high-resolution images. Antonio Jimeno-Morenilla, Francisco A. Pujol, Rafael Molina-Carmona, José L. Sánchez-Romero, and Mar Pujol Copyright © 2014 Antonio Jimeno-Morenilla et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Phase Rolling for Opportunistic Beamforming in OFDMA Systems with a Small Number of Users Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:58:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/625421/ The performance of opportunistic beamforming might be degraded if the number of users is small. This paper proposes an adaptive opportunistic beamforming technique for orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems, which can produce good results even with a small number of users. This paper also proposes a modified proportional fairness scheduling algorithm, which can further improve the performance of the proposed opportunistic beamforming technique. Minjoong Rim Copyright © 2014 Minjoong Rim. All rights reserved. CGE Simulation Analysis on the Labor Transfer, Agricultural Technical Progress, and Economic Development in Chongqing Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:14:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/148479/ The basic structure of a CGE model dividing Mainland China into two parts, including Chongqing and rest regions, is described. Based on this CGE model, both the unilateral impact and collaborative impact of two policies, agricultural technical progress and supporting policies for improving rural labor transfer on the economic development in Chongqing, are simulated and analyzed. The results demonstrate that compared with the sum of each unilateral policy effect, the collaboration of two policies has more effective impact on facilitating the labor transfer, promoting regional economic growth, and improving income and welfare of urban and rural residents. Heng Wang and Maosheng Ran Copyright © 2014 Heng Wang and Maosheng Ran. All rights reserved.