The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Recent Developments on Sequence Spaces and Compact Operators with Applications Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:26:10 +0000 S. A. Mohiuddine, M. Mursaleen, Józef Banaś, Suthep Suantai, and Abdullah Alotaibi Copyright © 2015 S. A. Mohiuddine et al. All rights reserved. Measurement Properties and Implementation of a Checklist to Assess Leadership Skills during Interdisciplinary Rounds in the Intensive Care Unit Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:40:56 +0000 The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. A daily recurrent situation in ICUs in which both leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork are integrated concerns the interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs). Although IDRs are recommended to provide optimal interdisciplinary and patient-centered care, there are no checklists available for leading physicians. We tested the measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess the quality of leadership skills in interdisciplinary rounds. The measurement properties of the checklist, which included 10 essential quality indicators, were tested for interrater reliability and internal consistency and by factor analysis. The interrater reliability among 3 raters was good (κ, 0.85) and the internal consistency was acceptable (α, 0.74). Factor analysis showed all factor loadings on 1 domain (>0.65). The checklist was further implemented during videotaped IDRs which were led by senior physicians and in which 99 patients were discussed. Implementation of the checklist showed a wide range of “no” and “yes” scores among the senior physicians. These results may underline the need for such a checklist to ensure tasks are synchronized within the team. Elsbeth C. M. Ten Have, Raoul E. Nap, and Jaap E. Tulleken Copyright © 2015 Elsbeth C. M. Ten Have et al. All rights reserved. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:27:33 +0000 We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual’s needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. Sanaz Aazami, Khadijah Shamsuddin, and Syaqirah Akmal Copyright © 2015 Sanaz Aazami et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Adipose-Derived Stem-Cells-Assisted Lipotransfer Combined with bFGF Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:58:44 +0000 Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) transplanted along with autologous adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival; however, the efficacy of ASCs has been diluted by low vascularization. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) may improve the effects of ASCs because it owns the property to boost angiogenesis. In the present study, human fat tissues were mixed with ASCs, ASCs plus 100 U bFGF, or medium as the control and then injected subcutaneously into immunologically compromised nude mice for 12 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that mixture with the ASCs significantly increased the weight and volume of the fat grafts compared to control grafts, and histological analysis revealed that both ASCs and ASCs plus bFGF grafts consisted predominantly of adipose tissue and had significantly less fibrosis but greater microvascular density compared with control and also grafts mixed with ASCs had a high expression of angiogenic factors. More importantly, the bFGF treated fat grafts shown elevate in survival, vascularization, and angiogenic factors expression when compared with the grafts that received ASCs alone. These results indicated that bFGF together with ASCs can enhance the efficacy of autologous fat transplantation and increase blood vessel generation involved in the benefits from bFGF. Aimei Jiang, Ming Li, Wenjing Duan, Yilong Dong, and Yanmei Wang Copyright © 2015 Aimei Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Study of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Vientiane, Lao PDR, in 1990s Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:25:52 +0000 Phylogenetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was conducted using core-premembrane and envelope gene sequence data of two strains from Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, in 1993 and five from Okinawa, Japan, in 2002 and 2003, and previously published strains. The two Vientiane strains designated as LaVS56 and LaVS145 belonged to genotype 1 (G1) and the same subcluster of G1 as Australian strain in 2000, Thai strains in 1982–1985 and 2004-2005, and Vietnamese strain in 2005, but were distinct from the subcluster of recently distributing G1 strains widely in Asia including Okinawan strains and recent Lao strain in 2009. These clusters with own distinct distributions indicated involvements of different mechanisms and routes of spreading viruses and clarified that Australian G1 strain is from Southeast Asia, not from East Asia. Both Vientiane strains were antigenically close to P19-Br (G1, isolate, Thailand), but distinct from Nakayama (G3, prototype strain, Japan), Beijing-1 (G3, laboratory strain, China), and JaGAr#01 (G3, laboratory strain, Japan), demonstrated by cross-neutralization tests using polyclonal antisera. These results together with seroepidemiologic study conducted in Vientiane strongly suggest that diversified JEV cocirculated there in early 1990s. Mika Saito, Douangdao Soukaloun, Khampe Phongsavath, Bounlay Phommasack, and Yoshihiro Makino Copyright © 2015 Mika Saito et al. All rights reserved. A General Class of Derivative Free Optimal Root Finding Methods Based on Rational Interpolation Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:31:11 +0000 We construct a new general class of derivative free -point iterative methods of optimal order of convergence using rational interpolant. The special cases of this class are obtained. These methods do not need Newton’s iterate in the …first step of their iterative schemes. Numerical computations are presented to show that the new methods are efficient and can be seen as better alternates. Fiza Zafar, Nusrat Yasmin, Saima Akram, and Moin-ud-Din Junjua Copyright © 2015 Fiza Zafar et al. All rights reserved. Some New Sets of Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers with Respect to the Partial Metric Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:18:19 +0000 In this paper, we essentially deal with Köthe-Toeplitz duals of fuzzy level sets defined using a partial metric. Since the utilization of Zadeh’s extension principle is quite difficult in practice, we prefer the idea of level sets in order to construct some classical notions. In this paper, we present the sets of bounded, convergent, and null series and the set of sequences of bounded variation of fuzzy level sets, based on the partial metric. We examine the relationships between these sets and their classical forms and give some properties including definitions, propositions, and various kinds of partial metric spaces of fuzzy level sets. Furthermore, we study some of their properties like completeness and duality. Finally, we obtain the Köthe-Toeplitz duals of fuzzy level sets with respect to the partial metric based on a partial ordering. Uğur Kadak and Muharrem Ozluk Copyright © 2015 Uğur Kadak and Muharrem Ozluk. All rights reserved. Change of Mandibular Position during Two-Phase Orthodontic Treatment of Skeletal Class II in the Chinese Population Wed, 28 Jan 2015 09:23:09 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was  mm in phase I (T0-T1),  mm in phase II (T1-T2), and  mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism. Rhonda Nga Yi Cheung, Urban Hägg, Ricky Wing Kit Wong, Chongshan Liao, and Yanqi Yang Copyright © 2015 Rhonda Nga Yi Cheung et al. All rights reserved. Emerging Trends in Soft Set Theory and Related Topics Wed, 28 Jan 2015 08:47:17 +0000 Feng Feng, Naim Cagman, Violeta Leoreanu-Fotea, and Muhammad Akram Copyright © 2015 Feng Feng et al. All rights reserved. Family Centered Approach in Primary Health Care: Experience from an Urban Area of Mangalore, India Tue, 27 Jan 2015 12:13:00 +0000 Introduction. “Health for All” still eludes public health experts despite many approaches to prevent disease and promote health among urban poor. Several key illness factors lie beyond the conventional healthcare boundaries. Objective. To examine the effectiveness of family centered approach (FCA) in addressing health and related issues in an urban area of Mangalore, India. Method. A longitudinal study was conducted in Bengre, an outreach centre of Mangalore from June 2011 to November 2013. Family folders were created with pertinent details. Demand generation and health education activities were conducted through two female community health link workers. An FCA package was implemented by medical and nursing interns, under supervision, to address the priority issues. Effect was assessed by comparing their practices and service utilization before and after the study. Results. About 809 families participated in this study. Social, cultural, and religious factors were responsible for viciousness of malaria and maternal and child health issues. FCA improved their perceptions and practices towards health and related issues. Significant () and sustained hike in service utilization was evident. Conclusion. FCA exposes key illness factors beyond the conventional care, eases need based healthcare implementation, and provides feasible and enduring solutions. Community involvement makes it more practicable. Siddharudha Shivalli, J. P. Majra, K. M. Akshaya, and Ghulam Jeelani Qadiri Copyright © 2015 Siddharudha Shivalli et al. All rights reserved. Exosomes: Novel Biomarkers for Clinical Diagnosis Tue, 27 Jan 2015 11:57:44 +0000 Exosomes are 30–120 nm endocytic membrane-derived vesicles that participate in cell-to-cell communication and protein and RNA delivery. Exosomes harbor a variety of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids and are present in many and perhaps all bodily fluids. A significant body of literature has demonstrated that molecular constituents of exosomes, especially exosomal proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs), hold great promise as novel biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances in the research of exosomal biomarkers and their potential application in clinical diagnostics. We also provide a brief overview of the formation, function, and isolation of exosomes. Jin Lin, Jing Li, Bo Huang, Jing Liu, Xin Chen, Xi-Min Chen, Yan-Mei Xu, Lin-Feng Huang, and Xiao-Zhong Wang Copyright © 2015 Jin Lin et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Rheological Properties of Recycled Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures Tue, 27 Jan 2015 11:56:54 +0000 Using waste rubber in asphalt mixes has become a common practice in road construction. This paper presents the results of a study on the rheological characteristics of rubber-modified asphalt (RMA) concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions. A number of static and dynamic creep tests were conducted on RMA mix specimens with different rubber sizes and contents, and a series of resonant column tests were conducted to evaluate the shear modulus and damping values. To simulate the stress-strain response of traffic-induced loading, the measurements were taken for different confining pressures and strain levels. The results of the study indicated that rubber modification increases stiffness and damping ratio, making it a very attractive material for use in road construction. However the grain size of the rubber is very important. Although RMA may cost up to 100% more than regular asphalt, the advantages it brings, such as an increased service life of the road and proper waste utilization contributing to a more sustainable infrastructure, may justify the added cost. Murat Karacasu, Volkan Okur, and Arzu Er Copyright © 2015 Murat Karacasu et al. All rights reserved. Constructing RBAC Based Security Model in u-Healthcare Service Platform Tue, 27 Jan 2015 08:57:03 +0000 In today’s era of aging society, people want to handle personal health care by themselves in everyday life. In particular, the evolution of medical and IT convergence technology and mobile smart devices has made it possible for people to gather information on their health status anytime and anywhere easily using biometric information acquisition devices. Healthcare information systems can contribute to the improvement of the nation’s healthcare quality and the reduction of related cost. However, there are no perfect security models or mechanisms for healthcare service applications, and privacy information can therefore be leaked. In this paper, we examine security requirements related to privacy protection in u-healthcare service and propose an extended RBAC based security model. We propose and design u-healthcare service integration platform (u-HCSIP) applying RBAC security model. The proposed u-HCSIP performs four main functions: storing and exchanging personal health records (PHR), recommending meals and exercise, buying/selling private health information or experience, and managing personal health data using smart devices. Moon Sun Shin, Heung Seok Jeon, Yong Wan Ju, Bum Ju Lee, and Seon-Phil Jeong Copyright © 2015 Moon Sun Shin et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Evaluation of Proximal Carious Lesions Using Digital Radiographic Systems Tue, 27 Jan 2015 08:10:57 +0000 The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas. Mayana Soares Vieira, Caroline Parente Ribeiro Nogueira, Marcos André dos Santos Silva, José Roberto de Oliveira Bauer, and Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho Copyright © 2015 Mayana Soares Vieira et al. All rights reserved. Twin-Schnorr: A Security Upgrade for the Schnorr Identity-Based Identification Scheme Tue, 27 Jan 2015 07:58:09 +0000 Most identity-based identification (IBI) schemes proposed in recent literature are built using pairing operations. This decreases efficiency due to the high operation costs of pairings. Furthermore, most of these IBI schemes are proven to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using interactive assumptions such as the one-more RSA inversion assumption or the one-more discrete logarithm assumption, translating to weaker security guarantees due to the interactive nature of these assumptions. The Schnorr-IBI scheme was first proposed through the Kurosawa-Heng transformation from the Schnorr signature. It remains one of the fastest yet most secure IBI schemes under impersonation against passive attacks due to its pairing-free design. However, when required to be secure against impersonators under active and concurrent attacks, it deteriorates greatly in terms of efficiency due to the protocol having to be repeated multiple times. In this paper, we upgrade the Schnorr-IBI scheme to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using only the classical discrete logarithm assumption. This translates to a higher degree of security guarantee with only some minor increments in operational costs. Furthermore, because the scheme operates without pairings, it still retains its efficiency and superiority when compared to other pairing-based IBI schemes. Ji-Jian Chin, Syh-Yuan Tan, Swee-Huay Heng, and Raphael Chung-Wei Phan Copyright © 2015 Ji-Jian Chin et al. All rights reserved. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces Tue, 27 Jan 2015 06:36:49 +0000 We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras’s sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. İzzettin Demir and Oya Bedre Özbakır Copyright © 2015 İzzettin Demir and Oya Bedre Özbakır. All rights reserved. Surgical Treatment of Primary Intracardiac Myxoma: 20-Year Experience in “Shahid Modarres Hospital”—A Tertiary University Hospital—Tehran, Iran Mon, 26 Jan 2015 10:10:35 +0000 Although cardiac tumors are not common they may vary in terms of race and surgical approach in different countries. Method. Patients data of 20 years was collected and evaluated in the “Shahid Modarres Hospital”—a tertiary university hospital—Tehran, Iran. Results. 42 patients with cardiac myxoma (all cases in 20 years) were included in study, 17 males and 25 females, age difference: 13 to 76 years (mean 50.6). Most of patients were in functional classes I, II. 35 patients complained of dyspnea and 3 patients had embolic events. 97.6% of tumors were primary (41 patients) and one tumor was recurrent (2.4%), 85.7% of tumors (36 cases) were located in LA, and 88.1% of tumors (37 cases) were pediculated. 40 patients (95%) had one tumor. In 22 patients (52.3%) after tumor resection septal defects were repaired primarily while in 18 patients (42.8%) the defects were repaired with pericardial patch and In one patient, tumor resected without any septal defect. Mean tumor size was about 5.22 cm (range of 2.2 to 8.2 cm). Postoperatively, 33 patients discharged from hospital without any complication. Discussion. The research reveals that patients’ age and gender were similar to that of other studies in other countries while tumor’s incidence seems to be higher. 3 patients were diagnosed after remote embolic event and one patient was diagnosed after MI reflecting relatively high tumor complications and late diagnosis. Conclusion. In our study mean time from diagnosis to operation was too long. The patients had more preoperative embolic events and complication. However, size of myxoma and location of that was as same as its rate in the other literature. As recommendation we suggested that in all patients with vague chest pain or remote embolic events cardiac myxomas should be ruled out. Zahra Ansari Aval, Hamid Ghaderi, Hassan Tatari, Mahnoosh Foroughi, Seyedeh Adeleh Mirjafari, Mohammad Forozeshfard, Kamal Fani, and Isa Khaheshi Copyright © 2015 Zahra Ansari Aval et al. All rights reserved. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response Mon, 26 Jan 2015 09:54:31 +0000 Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. Abolghassem Emamverdian, Yulong Ding, Farzad Mokhberdoran, and Yinfeng Xie Copyright © 2015 Abolghassem Emamverdian et al. All rights reserved. Machine Learning for Medical Applications Mon, 26 Jan 2015 07:10:25 +0000 Huiyu Zhou, Jinshan Tang, and Huiru Zheng Copyright © 2015 Huiyu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Colonization and Diversity of AM Fungi by Morphological Analysis on Medicinal Plants in Southeast China Mon, 26 Jan 2015 07:08:05 +0000 The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal distributions in the rhizosphere of 20 medicinal plants species in Zhangzhou, southeast China, were studied. The results showed 66 species of 8 genera of AM fungi were identified, of which 38 belonged to Glomus, 12 to Acaulospora, 9 to Scutellospora, 2 to Gigaspora, 2 to Funneliformis, 1 to Septoglomus, 1 to Rhizophagus, and 1 to Archaeospora. Glomus was the dominant genera and G. melanosporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, G. etunicatum, Funneliformis mosseae, and G. rubiforme were the prevalent species. The highest colonization (100%) was recorded in Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth. while the lowest (8.0%) was in Acorus tatarinowii Schott. The AM fungi spore density ranged from 270 to 2860 per 100 g soil (average 1005), and the species richness ranged from 3 to 14 (average 9.7) per soil sample. Shannon-Wiener index ranged from 0.52 to 2 (average 1.45). In the present study, the colonization had a highly negative correlation with available K and electrical conductivity. Species richness correlated positively with electrical conductivity and organic matter. Shannon-Wiener index had a highly significant negative correlation with pH. This study provides a valuable germplasm and theoretical basis for AM fungal biotechnology on medicinal standardization planting. Mingyuan Wang and Pan Jiang Copyright © 2015 Mingyuan Wang and Pan Jiang. All rights reserved. Relation of the Cyclotomic Equation with the Harmonic and Derived Series Thu, 22 Jan 2015 06:20:19 +0000 We associate some (old) convergent series related to definite integrals with the cyclotomic equation , for several natural numbers m; for example, for , leads to . In some cases, we express the results in terms of the Dirichlet characters. Generalizations for arbitrary m are well defined but do imply integrals and/or series summations rather involved. Luis J. Boya and Cristian Rivera Copyright © 2015 Luis J. Boya and Cristian Rivera. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India Wed, 21 Jan 2015 06:55:49 +0000 The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott’s concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur, Dilip Kumar Deka, Saidul Islam, Dilip Kumar Sarma, and Prabhat Chandra Sarmah Copyright © 2015 Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur et al. All rights reserved. The “Gender Factor” in Wearing-Off among Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Post Hoc Analysis of DEEP Study Tue, 20 Jan 2015 14:02:33 +0000 Background. The early detection of wearing-off in Parkinson disease (DEEP) observational study demonstrated that women with Parkinson’s disease (PD) carry an increased risk (80.1%) for wearing-off (WO). This post hoc analysis of DEEP study evaluates gender differences on WO and associated phenomena. Methods. Patients on dopaminergic treatment for ≥1 year were included in this multicenter observational cross-sectional study. In a single visit, WO was diagnosed based on neurologist assessment as well as the use of the 19-item wearing-off questionnaire (WOQ-19); WO was defined for scores ≥2. Post hoc analyses were conducted to investigate gender difference for demographic and clinical features with respect to WO. Results. Of 617 patients enrolled, 236 were women and 381 were men. Prevalence of WO was higher among women, according to both neurologists’ judgment (61.9% versus 53.8%, ) and the WOQ-19 analysis (72.5% versus 64.0%, ). In patients with WO (WOQ-19), women experienced ≥1 motor symptom in 72.5% versus 64.0% in men and ≥1 nonmotor symptom in 44.5% versus 36.7%, in men. Conclusions. Our results suggest WO as more common among women, for both motor and nonmotor symptoms. Prospective studies are warranted to investigate this potential gender-effect. Delia Colombo, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Angelo Antonini, Paolo Barone, Gilberto Bellia, Flavia Franconi, Lucia Simoni, Mahmood Attar, Emanuela Zagni, Shalom Haggiag, and Fabrizio Stocchi Copyright © 2015 Delia Colombo et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Tooth Bleaching Tue, 20 Jan 2015 12:39:25 +0000 The conventional light source used for tooth bleaching has the potential to cause thermal damage, and the actual role of the light source is doubtful. In this study, we evaluated bleaching efficacy, temperature, and morphological safety after tooth bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma. Tooth bleaching combined with plasma had improved efficacy in providing a higher level of brightness. The temperature of the pulp chamber was maintained around 37°C, indicating that the plasma does not cause any thermal damage. The morphological results of tooth bleaching with plasma did not affect mineral composition under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. On the basis of these results, the application of plasma and low concentration of 15% carbamide peroxide (CP) has a high capability for effective tooth bleaching. It can be documented that plasma is a safe energe source, which has no deleterious effects on the tooth surface. Seoul Hee Nam, Hae June Lee, Jin Woo Hong, and Gyoo Cheon Kim Copyright © 2015 Seoul Hee Nam et al. All rights reserved. Evidence for Negative Effects of Elevated Intra-Abdominal Pressure on Pulmonary Mechanics and Oxidative Stress Tue, 20 Jan 2015 11:21:36 +0000 Objective. To compare the effects of pneumoperitoneum on lung mechanics, end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), and oxidative stress markers in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) by using lung-protective ventilation strategy. Materials and Methods. Forty-six patients undergoing LC and abdominal wall hernia (AWH) surgery were assigned into 2 groups. Measurements and blood samples were obtained before, during pneumoperitoneum, and at the end of surgery. BALF samples were obtained after anesthesia induction and at the end of surgery. Results. Peak inspiratory pressure, ETCO2, and pCO2 values at the 30th minute were significantly increased, while there was a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance, pH, and pO2 values in LC group. In BALF samples, total oxidant status (TOS), arylesterase, paraoxonase, and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased; the glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly decreased in LC group. The serum levels of TOS and paraoxonase were significantly higher at the end of surgery in LC group. In addition, arylesterase level in the 30th minute was increased compared to baseline. Serum paraoxonase level at the end of surgery was significantly increased when compared to AWH group. Conclusions. Our study showed negative effects of pneumoperitoneum in both lung and systemic levels despite lung-protective ventilation strategy. I. Davarcı, M. Karcıoğlu, K. Tuzcu, K. İnanoğlu, T. D. Yetim, S. Motor, K. T. Ulutaş, and R. Yüksel Copyright © 2015 I. Davarcı et al. All rights reserved. Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Sets with Application in Multicriteria Group Decision Making Problems Tue, 20 Jan 2015 09:21:55 +0000 Soft sets have been regarded as a useful mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty. In recent years, many scholars have shown an intense interest in soft sets and extended standard soft sets to intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, interval-valued fuzzy soft sets, and generalized fuzzy soft sets. In this paper, hesitant fuzzy soft sets are defined by combining fuzzy soft sets with hesitant fuzzy sets. And some operations on hesitant fuzzy soft sets based on Archimedean t-norm and Archimedean t-conorm are defined. Besides, four aggregation operations, such as the HFSWA, HFSWG, GHFSWA, and GHFSWG operators, are given. Based on these operators, a multicriteria group decision making approach with hesitant fuzzy soft sets is also proposed. To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability, this approach is finally employed to calculate a numerical example. Jian-qiang Wang, Xin-E Li, and Xiao-hong Chen Copyright © 2015 Jian-qiang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Slope Stability Analysis Using Limit Equilibrium Method in Nonlinear Criterion Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:26:20 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2015 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:04:39 +0000 In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. Wensheng Gao, Cuifen Bai, and Tong Liu Copyright © 2015 Wensheng Gao et al. All rights reserved. Association between Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Vitamin D Receptor Gene FokI Polymorphism and Clinical Progress of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Tue, 20 Jan 2015 07:53:57 +0000 Background. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and clinical progress of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in Chinese men. Methods. The DNA was extracted from blood of 200 BPH patients with operation (progression group) and 200 patients without operation (control group), respectively. The genotypes of VDR gene FokI SNP represented by “F/f” were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The odds ratio (OR) of having progression of BPH for having the genotype were calculated. Results. Our date indicated that the f alleles of the VDR gene FokI SNP associated with the progression of BPH (). Conclusion. For the first time, our study demonstrated that VDR gene FokI SNP may be associated with the risk of BPH progress. Li Ruan, Jian-guo Zhu, Cong Pan, Xing Hua, Dong-bo Yuan, Zheng-ming Li, and Wei-de Zhong Copyright © 2015 Li Ruan et al. All rights reserved. Mechanism of Gene Amplification via Yeast Autonomously Replicating Sequences Tue, 20 Jan 2015 06:52:43 +0000 The present investigation was aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of gene amplification. Interplay of fragile sites in promoting gene amplification was also elucidated. The amplification promoting sequences were chosen from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS, 5S rRNA regions of Plantago ovata and P. lagopus, proposed sites of replication pausing at Ste20 gene locus of S. cerevisiae, and the bend DNA sequences within fragile site FRA11A in humans. The gene amplification assays showed that plasmid bearing APS from yeast and human beings led to enhanced protein concentration as compared to the wild type. Both the in silico and in vitro analyses were pointed out at the strong bending potential of these APS. In addition, high mitotic stability and presence of TTTT repeats and SAR amongst these sequences encourage gene amplification. Phylogenetic analysis of S. cerevisiae ARS was also conducted. The combinatorial power of different aspects of APS analyzed in the present investigation was harnessed to reach a consensus about the factors which stimulate gene expression, in presence of these sequences. It was concluded that the mechanism of gene amplification was that AT rich tracts present in fragile sites of yeast serve as binding sites for MAR/SAR and DNA unwinding elements. The DNA protein interactions necessary for ORC activation are facilitated by DNA bending. These specific bindings at ORC promote repeated rounds of DNA replication leading to gene amplification. Shelly Sehgal, Sanjana Kaul, and M. K. Dhar Copyright © 2015 Shelly Sehgal et al. All rights reserved.