The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Precoding Method Interference Management for Quasi-EVD Channel Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:03:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/678578/ The Cholesky decomposition-block diagonalization (CD-BD) interference alignment (IA) for a multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) relay system is proposed, which designs precoders for the multiple access channel (MAC) by employing the singular value decomposition (SVD) as well as the mean square error (MSE) detector for the broadcast Hermitian channel (BHC) taken advantage of in our design. Also, in our proposed CD-BD IA algorithm, the relaying function is made use to restructure the quasieigenvalue decomposition (quasi-EVD) equivalent channel. This approach used for the design of BD precoding matrix can significantly reduce the computational complexity and proposed algorithm can address several optimization criteria, which is achieved by designing the precoding matrices in two steps. In the first step, we use Cholesky decomposition to maximize the sum-of-rate (SR) with the minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection. In the next step, we optimize the system BER performance with the overlap of the row spaces spanned by the effective channel matrices of different users. By iterating the closed form of the solution, we are able not only to maximize the achievable sum-of-rate (ASR), but also to minimize the BER performance at a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region. Wei Duan, Wei Song, Sang Seob Song, and Moon Ho Lee Copyright © 2014 Wei Duan et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:46:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/395282/ This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. Ilker Uz and Ismail Emrah Tavali Copyright © 2014 Ilker Uz and Ismail Emrah Tavali. All rights reserved. Adaptive Low-Power Listening MAC Protocol Based on Transmission Rates Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:45:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/473132/ Even though existing low-power listening (LPL) protocols have enabled ultra-low-power operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN), they do not address trade-off between energy and delay, since they focused only on energy aspect. However, in recent years, a growing interest in various WSN applications is requiring new design factors, such as minimum delay and higher reliability, as well as energy efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we propose a novel sensor multiple access control (MAC) protocol, transmission rate based adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol (TRA-MAC), which is a kind of preamble-based LPL but is capable of controlling preamble sensing cycle adaptively to transmission rates. Through experiments, it is demonstrated that TRA-MAC enables LPL cycle (LC) and preamble transmission length to adapt dynamically to varying transmission rates, compensating trade-off between energy and response time. Kwang-il Hwang and Gangman Yi Copyright © 2014 Kwang-il Hwang and Gangman Yi. All rights reserved. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:32:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/106209/ The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. Huirong Feng, C. W. Lim, Liqun Chen, Xinnian Zhou, Chengjun Zhou, and Yi Lin Copyright © 2014 Huirong Feng et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:30:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/514652/ This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. Omar Tayan, Muhammad N. Kabir, and Yasser M. Alginahi Copyright © 2014 Omar Tayan et al. All rights reserved. Construction of Monitoring Model and Algorithm Design on Passenger Security during Shipping Based on Improved Bayesian Network Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:27:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/158652/ A large number of data is needed by the computation of the objective Bayesian network, but the data is hard to get in actual computation. The calculation method of Bayesian network was improved in this paper, and the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was obtained. Then, the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was used to reason Bayesian network model when the data is limited. The security of passengers during shipping is affected by various factors, and it is hard to predict and control. The index system that has the impact on the passenger safety during shipping was established on basis of the multifield coupling theory in this paper. Meanwhile, the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was applied to monitor the security of passengers in the shipping process. The model was applied to monitor the passenger safety during shipping of a shipping company in Hainan, and the effectiveness of this model was examined. This research work provides guidance for guaranteeing security of passengers during shipping. Jiali Wang, Qingnian Zhang, and Wenfeng Ji Copyright © 2014 Jiali Wang et al. All rights reserved. Development and Application of a ZigBee-Based Building Energy Monitoring and Control System Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:25:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/528410/ Increasing in energy consumption, particularly with the ever-increasing growth and development of urban systems, has become a major concern in most countries. In this paper, the authors propose a cost-effective ZigBee-based building energy monitoring and control system (ZBEMCS), which is composed of a gateway, a base station, and sensors. Specifically, a new hardware platform for power sensor nodes is developed to perform both local/remote power parameter measurement and power on/off switching for electric appliances. The experimental results show that the ZBEMCS can easily monitor energy usage with a high level of accuracy. Two typical applications of ZBEMCS such as subentry metering and household metering of building energy are presented. The former includes lighting socket electricity, HVAC electricity, power electricity and special electricity. The latter includes household metering according to the campus’s main function zone and each college or department. Therefore, this system can be used for energy consumption monitoring, long-term energy conservation planning, and the development of automated energy conservation for building applications. Changhai Peng and Kun Qian Copyright © 2014 Changhai Peng and Kun Qian. All rights reserved. Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Gas Turbines Based on a Kernelized Information Entropy Model Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:24:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/617162/ Gas turbines are considered as one kind of the most important devices in power engineering and have been widely used in power generation, airplanes, and naval ships and also in oil drilling platforms. However, they are monitored without man on duty in the most cases. It is highly desirable to develop techniques and systems to remotely monitor their conditions and analyze their faults. In this work, we introduce a remote system for online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of gas turbine on offshore oil well drilling platforms based on a kernelized information entropy model. Shannon information entropy is generalized for measuring the uniformity of exhaust temperatures, which reflect the overall states of the gas paths of gas turbine. In addition, we also extend the entropy to compute the information quantity of features in kernel spaces, which help to select the informative features for a certain recognition task. Finally, we introduce the information entropy based decision tree algorithm to extract rules from fault samples. The experiments on some real-world data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Weiying Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Rui Tang, Shuying Li, and Wei Wu Copyright © 2014 Weiying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Cortical Source Multivariate EEG Synchronization Analysis on Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type 2 Diabetes Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:38:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/523216/ Is synchronization altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal cognitive functions subjects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)? Resting eye-closed EEG data were recorded in 8 aMCI subjects and 11 age-matched controls in T2DM. Three multivariate synchronization algorithms (-estimator (), synchronization index (SI), and global synchronization index (GSI)) were used to measure the synchronization in five ROIs of sLORETA sources for seven bands. Results showed that aMCI group had lower synchronization values than control groups in parietal delta and beta2 bands, temporal delta and beta2 bands, and occipital theta and beta2 bands significantly. Temporal (; ) and occipital (; ) theta values were significantly positive correlated with Boston Name Testing. In sum, each of methods reflected that the cortical source synchronization was significantly different between aMCI and control group, and these difference correlated with cognitive functions. Dong Cui, Jing Liu, Zhijie Bian, Qiuli Li, Lei Wang, and Xiaoli Li Copyright © 2014 Dong Cui et al. All rights reserved. A Test Data Compression Scheme Based on Irrational Numbers Stored Coding Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:30:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/982728/ Test question has already become an important factor to restrict the development of integrated circuit industry. A new test data compression scheme, namely irrational numbers stored (INS), is presented. To achieve the goal of compress test data efficiently, test data is converted into floating-point numbers, stored in the form of irrational numbers. The algorithm of converting floating-point number to irrational number precisely is given. Experimental results for some ISCAS 89 benchmarks show that the compression effect of proposed scheme is better than the coding methods such as FDR, AARLC, INDC, FAVLC, and VRL. Hai-feng Wu, Yu-sheng Cheng, Wen-fa Zhan, Yi-fei Cheng, Qiong Wu, and Shi-juan Zhu Copyright © 2014 Hai-feng Wu et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Response of Ecological Capacity to Land-Use/Cover Change in Wuhan City: A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Approach Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:20:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/794323/ This research examined the spatiotemporal patterns of land-use/cover and the dynamics of ecological capacity in response to land-use/cover change in Wuhan city, central China. The data were derived from five years’ remote-sensed images, that is, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. This paper used an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques, ecological capacity and the bilateral dynamic degree models. The results are as follows. (1) From 1990 to 2010, remarkable changes in land-use/cover have occurred within the studied area, and the most prominent characteristics of the changes were continuous decline of arable land and rapid increase of built-up land. (2) The total ecological capacity dropped from in 1990 to in 2010. The eastern, western, and southern parts had higher ecological capacity whereas the northwestern hilly areas and the central district had lower ecological capacity. (3) Due to the conversion from arable land to built-up land, the ecological capacity losses during 1990–1995, 1995–2000, 2000–2005, and 2005–2010 were , , , and , respectively. The study would contribute to better understanding of the effects of land-use dynamics and the evolution of ecological capacity, which can provide scientific basis for land management and environment protection. Ying Wang, Xiangmei Li, and Jiangfeng Li Copyright © 2014 Ying Wang et al. All rights reserved. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:07:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/646953/ Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. Insung Hong, Sunghoi Park, Beomseok Lee, Jaekeun Lee, Daebeom Jeong, and Sehyun Park Copyright © 2014 Insung Hong et al. All rights reserved. A Chaotic Cryptosystem for Images Based on Henon and Arnold Cat Map Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:01:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/536930/ The rapid evolution of imaging and communication technologies has transformed images into a widespread data type. Different types of data, such as personal medical information, official correspondence, or governmental and military documents, are saved and transmitted in the form of images over public networks. Hence, a fast and secure cryptosystem is needed for high-resolution images. In this paper, a novel encryption scheme is presented for securing images based on Arnold cat and Henon chaotic maps. The scheme uses Arnold cat map for bit- and pixel-level permutations on plain and secret images, while Henon map creates secret images and specific parameters for the permutations. Both the encryption and decryption processes are explained, formulated, and graphically presented. The results of security analysis of five different images demonstrate the strength of the proposed cryptosystem against statistical, brute force and differential attacks. The evaluated running time for both encryption and decryption processes guarantee that the cryptosystem can work effectively in real-time applications. Ali Soleymani, Md Jan Nordin, and Elankovan Sundararajan Copyright © 2014 Ali Soleymani et al. All rights reserved. On Power Idealization Filter Topologies of Lattice Implication Algebras Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:33:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/812145/ The aim of this paper is to introduce power idealization filter topologies with respect to filter topologies and power ideals of lattice implication algebras, and to investigate some properties of power idealization filter topological spaces and their quotient spaces. Shi-Zhong Bai and Xiu-Yun Wu Copyright © 2014 Shi-Zhong Bai and Xiu-Yun Wu. All rights reserved. On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/307468/ As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems. Yanqin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yanqin Zhang. All rights reserved. A New Look at the Coefficients of a Reciprocal Generating Function Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:33:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/613947/ We study a special property of free cumulants. We prove that coefficients of a reciprocal generating function correspond to “free cumulants with the first two elements in the same block.” Wiktor Ejsmont Copyright © 2014 Wiktor Ejsmont. All rights reserved. Analysis and Simulation of the Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Based on Parallel Immune Optimization in Cognitive Wireless Networks Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:31:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/623670/ Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency. Wu Huixin, Mo Duo, and Li He Copyright © 2014 Wu Huixin et al. All rights reserved. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:30:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/452362/ Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation. Anitha Vijaya Kumar and Akilandeswari Jeyapal Copyright © 2014 Anitha Vijaya Kumar and Akilandeswari Jeyapal. All rights reserved. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:29:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/615927/ A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1) the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2) under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3) the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors. Dongdong Zhang, Yaxin Huang, Qilin Zhao, Fei Li, Feng Li, and Yifeng Gao Copyright © 2014 Dongdong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:29:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/392505/ High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. Qiuwen Zhang, Nana Li, and Yong Gan Copyright © 2014 Qiuwen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:02:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/305930/ Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Reda M. El-Shishtawy, Manal M. El-Zawahry, Fatma Abdelghaffar, and Nahed S. E. Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Reda M. El-Shishtawy et al. All rights reserved. Amino Acid Sequence and Structural Comparison of BACE1 and BACE2 Using Evolutionary Trace Method Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:59:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/482463/ Beta-amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) and beta-amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 2 (BACE2), members of aspartyl protease family, are close homologues and have high similarity in their protein crystal structures. However, their enzymatic properties differ leading to disparate clinical consequences. In order to identify the residues that are responsible for such differences, we used evolutionary trace (ET) method to compare the amino acid conservation patterns of BACE1 and BACE2 in several mammalian species. We found that, in BACE1 and BACE2 structures, most of the ligand binding sites are conserved which indicate their enzymatic property of aspartyl protease family members. The other conserved residues are more or less randomly localized in other parts of the structures. Four group-specific residues were identified at the ligand binding site of BACE1 and BACE2. We postulated that these residues would be essential for selectivity of BACE1 and BACE2 biological functions and could be sites of interest for the design of selective inhibitors targeting either BACE1 or BACE2. Hoda Mirsafian, Adiratna Mat Ripen, Amir Feisal Merican, and Saharuddin Bin Mohamad Copyright © 2014 Hoda Mirsafian et al. All rights reserved. Characterizations of MV-Algebras Based on the Theory of Falling Shadows Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/951796/ Based on the falling shadow theory, the concept of falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals as a generalization of that of a -fuzzy (implicative) ideal is proposed in MV-algebras. The relationships between falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals and -fuzzy (implicative) ideals are discussed, and conditions for a falling fuzzy (implicative) ideal to be a -fuzzy (implicative) ideal are provided. Some characterizations of falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals are presented by studying proprieties of them. The product and the up product operations on falling shadows and the upset of a falling shadow are established, by which -fuzzy ideals are investigated based on probability spaces. Yongwei Yang, Xiaolong Xin, and Pengfei He Copyright © 2014 Yongwei Yang et al. All rights reserved. On the Maximum Estrada Index of 3-Uniform Linear Hypertrees Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:52:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/637865/ For a simple hypergraph on vertices, its Estrada index is defined as , where are the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. In this paper, we determine the unique 3-uniform linear hypertree with the maximum Estrada index. Faxu Li, Liang Wei, Jinde Cao, Feng Hu, and Haixing Zhao Copyright © 2014 Faxu Li et al. All rights reserved. Fast SAR Image Change Detection Using Bayesian Approach Based Difference Image and Modified Statistical Region Merging Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:25:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/862875/ A novel fast SAR image change detection method is presented in this paper. Based on a Bayesian approach, the prior information that speckles follow the Nakagami distribution is incorporated into the difference image (DI) generation process. The new DI performs much better than the familiar log ratio (LR) DI as well as the cumulant based Kullback-Leibler divergence (CKLD) DI. The statistical region merging (SRM) approach is first introduced to change detection context. A new clustering procedure with the region variance as the statistical inference variable is exhibited to tailor SAR image change detection purposes, with only two classes in the final map, the unchanged and changed classes. The most prominent advantages of the proposed modified SRM (MSRM) method are the ability to cope with noise corruption and the quick implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior in both the change detection accuracy and the operation efficiency. Han Zhang, Weiping Ni, Weidong Yan, Hui Bian, and Junzheng Wu Copyright © 2014 Han Zhang et al. All rights reserved. On a New Iterative Scheme without Memory with Optimal Eighth Order Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/727490/ The purpose of this paper is to derive and discuss a three-step iterative expression for solving nonlinear equations. In fact, we derive a derivative-free form for one of the existing optimal eighth-order methods and preserve its convergence order. Theoretical results will be upheld by numerical experiments. M. Sharifi, S. Karimi Vanani, F. Khaksar Haghani, M. Arab, and S. Shateyi Copyright © 2014 M. Sharifi et al. All rights reserved. Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Investigation of Interactions between Reactive Red 223 and Reactive Orange 122 Anionic Dyes and Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) Cationic Surfactant in Aqueous Solution Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/540975/ The present study describes the conductometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of reactive anionic dyes, namely, reactive red 223 and reactive orange 122 with the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). In a systematic investigation, the electrical conductivity data was used to calculate various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy , enthalpy , and the entropy of solubilization. The trend of change in these thermodynamic quantities indicates toward the entropy driven solubilization process. Moreover, the results from spectroscopic data reveal high degree of solubilization, with strong interactions observed in the cases of both dyes and the CTAB. The spontaneous nature of solubilization and binding was evident from the observed negative values of free energies ( and ). Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Usman, Asim Mansha, Nasir Rasool, Muhammad Ibrahim, Usman Ali Rana, Mohammad Siddiq, Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq, Hawa Z. E. Jaafar, and Salah Ud-Din Khan Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Irfan et al. All rights reserved. A QoS Aware Resource Allocation Strategy for 3D A/V Streaming in OFDMA Based Wireless Systems Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/419236/ Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a “killer app” for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. Young-uk Chung, Yong-Hoon Choi, Suwon Park, and Hyukjoon Lee Copyright © 2014 Young-uk Chung et al. All rights reserved. On Local Convergence Analysis of Inexact Newton Method for Singular Systems of Equations under Majorant Condition Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/498016/ We present a local convergence analysis of inexact Newton method for solving singular systems of equations. Under the hypothesis that the derivative of the function associated with the singular systems satisfies a majorant condition, we obtain that the method is well defined and converges. Our analysis provides a clear relationship between the majorant function and the function associated with the singular systems. It also allows us to obtain an estimate of convergence ball for inexact Newton method and some important special cases. Fangqin Zhou Copyright © 2014 Fangqin Zhou. All rights reserved. An Algorithm to Select the Optimal Program Based on Rough Sets and Fuzzy Soft Sets Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/514369/ Combining rough sets and fuzzy soft sets, we propose an algorithm to obtain the optimal decision program. In this algorithm, firstly, according to fuzzy soft sets, we build up information systems; secondly, we compute the significance of each parameter according to rough set theory; thirdly, combining subjective bias, we give an algorithm to obtain the comprehensive weight of each parameter; at last, we put forward a method to choose the optimal program. Example shows that the optimal algorithm is effective and rational. Liu Wenjun and Li Qingguo Copyright © 2014 Liu Wenjun and Li Qingguo. All rights reserved.