The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Global Practical Tracking by Output Feedback for Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Growth Rate and Time Delay Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/713081/ This paper is the further investigation of work of Yan and Liu, 2011, and considers the global practical tracking problem by output feedback for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with not only unmeasured states dependent growth but also time-varying time delay. Compared with the closely related works, the remarkableness of the paper is that the time-varying time delay and unmeasurable states are permitted in the system nonlinear growth. Motivated by the related tracking results and flexibly using the ideas and techniques of universal control and dead zone, an adaptive output-feedback tracking controller is explicitly designed with the help of a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, to make the tracking error prescribed arbitrarily small after a finite time while keeping all the closed-loop signals bounded. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the results. Xuehua Yan and Xinmin Song Copyright © 2014 Xuehua Yan and Xinmin Song. All rights reserved. Integer-Linear-Programing Optimization in Scalable Video Multicast with Adaptive Modulation and Coding in Wireless Networks Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/769241/ The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm. Dongyul Lee and Chaewoo Lee Copyright © 2014 Dongyul Lee and Chaewoo Lee. All rights reserved. Coordinated Control of Slip Ratio for Wheeled Mobile Robots Climbing Loose Sloped Terrain Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/396382/ A challenging problem faced by wheeled mobile robots (WMRs) such as planetary rovers traversing loose sloped terrain is the inevitable longitudinal slip suffered by the wheels, which often leads to their deviation from the predetermined trajectory, reduced drive efficiency, and possible failures. This study investigates this problem using terramechanics analysis of the wheel-soil interaction. First, a slope-based wheel-soil interaction terramechanics model is built, and an online slip coordinated algorithm is designed based on the goal of optimal drive efficiency. An equation of state is established using the coordinated slip as the desired input and the actual slip as a state variable. To improve the robustness and adaptability of the control system, an adaptive neural network is designed. Analytical results and those of a simulation using Vortex demonstrate the significantly improved mobile performance of the WMR using the proposed control system. Zhengcai Li and Yang Wang Copyright © 2014 Zhengcai Li and Yang Wang. All rights reserved. An Order Insertion Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Considering Capacity and Time Factors Tue, 02 Sep 2014 14:17:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/530678/ Order insertion often occurs in the scheduling process of logistics service supply chain (LSSC), which disturbs normal time scheduling especially in the environment of mass customization logistics service. This study analyses order similarity coefficient and order insertion operation process and then establishes an order insertion scheduling model of LSSC with service capacity and time factors considered. This model aims to minimize the average unit volume operation cost of logistics service integrator and maximize the average satisfaction degree of functional logistics service providers. In order to verify the viability and effectiveness of our model, a specific example is numerically analyzed. Some interesting conclusions are obtained. First, along with the increase of completion time delay coefficient permitted by customers, the possible inserting order volume first increases and then trends to be stable. Second, supply chain performance reaches the best when the volume of inserting order is equal to the surplus volume of the normal operation capacity in mass service process. Third, the larger the normal operation capacity in mass service process is, the bigger the possible inserting order’s volume will be. Moreover, compared to increasing the completion time delay coefficient, improving the normal operation capacity of mass service process is more useful. Weihua Liu, Yi Yang, Shuqing Wang, and Yang Liu Copyright © 2014 Weihua Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Latin Hypercube Algorithm via Translational Propagation Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:05:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/163949/ Metamodels have been widely used in engineering design to facilitate analysis and optimization of complex systems that involve computationally expensive simulation programs. The accuracy of metamodels is directly related to the experimental designs used. Optimal Latin hypercube designs are frequently used and have been shown to have good space-filling and projective properties. However, the high cost in constructing them limits their use. In this paper, a methodology for creating novel Latin hypercube designs via translational propagation and successive local enumeration algorithm (TPSLE) is developed without using formal optimization. TPSLE algorithm is based on the inspiration that a near optimal Latin Hypercube design can be constructed by a simple initial block with a few points generated by algorithm SLE as a building block. In fact, TPSLE algorithm offers a balanced trade-off between the efficiency and sampling performance. The proposed algorithm is compared to two existing algorithms and is found to be much more efficient in terms of the computation time and has acceptable space-filling and projective properties. Guang Pan, Pengcheng Ye, and Peng Wang Copyright © 2014 Guang Pan et al. All rights reserved. Design and Development of Turbodrill Blade Used in Crystallized Section Tue, 02 Sep 2014 11:21:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/682963/ Turbodrill is a type of hydraulic axial turbomachinery which has a multistage blade consisting of stators and rotors. In this paper, a turbodrill blade that can be applied in crystallized section under high temperature and pressure conditions is developed. On the basis of Euler equations, the law of energy transfer is analyzed and the output characteristics of turbodrill blade are proposed. Moreover, considering the properties of the layer and the bole-hole conditions, the radical size, the geometrical dimension, and the blade profile are optimized. A computational model of a single-stage blade is built on the ANSYS CFD into which the three-dimensional model of turbodrill is input. In light of the distribution law of the pressure and flow field, the functions of the turbodrill blade are improved and optimized. The turbodrill blade optimization model was verified based on laboratory experiments. The results show that the design meets the deep hard rock mineral exploration application and provides good references for further study. Wang Yu, Yao Jianyi, and Li Zhijun Copyright © 2014 Wang Yu et al. All rights reserved. Provably-Secure (Chinese Government) SM2 and Simplified SM2 Key Exchange Protocols Tue, 02 Sep 2014 09:54:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/825984/ We revisit the SM2 protocol, which is widely used in Chinese commercial applications and by Chinese government agencies. Although it is by now standard practice for protocol designers to provide security proofs in widely accepted security models in order to assure protocol implementers of their security properties, the SM2 protocol does not have a proof of security. In this paper, we prove the security of the SM2 protocol in the widely accepted indistinguishability-based Bellare-Rogaway model under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption. We also present a simplified and more efficient version of the SM2 protocol with an accompanying security proof. Ang Yang, Junghyun Nam, Moonseong Kim, and Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo Copyright © 2014 Ang Yang et al. All rights reserved. Land Use/Cover Change Detection and Urban Sprawl Analysis in Bandar Abbas City, Iran Tue, 02 Sep 2014 06:31:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/690872/ The process of land use change and urban sprawl has been considered as a prominent characteristic of urban development. This study aims to investigate urban growth process in Bandar Abbas city, Iran, focusing on urban sprawl and land use change during 1956–2012. To calculate urban sprawl and land use changes, aerial photos and satellite images are utilized in different time spans. The results demonstrate that urban region area has changed from 403.77 to 4959.59 hectares between 1956 and 2012. Moreover, the population has increased more than 30 times in last six decades. The major part of population growth is related to migration from other parts the country to Bandar Abbas city. Considering the speed of urban sprawl growth rate, the scale and the role of the city have changed from medium and regional to large scale and transregional. Due to natural and structural limitations, more than 80% of barren lands, stone cliffs, beach zone, and agricultural lands are occupied by built-up areas. Our results revealed that the irregular expansion of Bandar Abbas city must be controlled so that sustainable development could be achieved. Mohsen Dadras, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Noordin Ahmad, Biswajeet Pradhan, and Sahabeh Safarpour Copyright © 2014 Mohsen Dadras et al. All rights reserved. On the Convergence and Stability Results for a New General Iterative Process Tue, 02 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/852475/ We put forward a new general iterative process. We prove a convergence result as well as a stability result regarding this new iterative process for weak contraction operators. Kadri Doğan and Vatan Karakaya Copyright © 2014 Kadri Doğan and Vatan Karakaya. All rights reserved. Fragipan Horizon Fragmentation in Slaking Experiments with Amendment Materials and Ryegrass Root Tissue Extracts Tue, 02 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/276892/ Slaking experiments were conducted of fragipan clods immersed in solutions of poultry manure, aerobically digested biosolid waste (ADB), fluidized bed combustion byproduct (FBC), D-H2O, CaCO3, NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root biomass. The fragipan clods were sampled from the Btx horizon of an Oxyaquic Fragiudalf in Kentucky. Wet sieving aggregate analysis showed significantly better fragmentation in the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and ryegrass root solutions with a mean weight diameter range of 15.5–18.8 mm compared to the 44.2–47.9 mm of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments. Dissolved Si, Al, Fe, and Mn levels released in solution were ambiguous. The poor efficiency of the poultry manure, ADB, and FBC treatments was attributed to their high ionic strength, while the high efficiency of the NaF, Na-hexa-metaphosphate, and rye grass root solutions to their high sodium soluble ratio (SSR). A slaking mechanism is proposed suggesting that aqueous solutions with high SSR penetrate faster into the fragipan capillaries and generate the critical swelling pressure and shearing stress required to rupture the fragipan into several fragments. Additional fragmentation occurs in a followup stage during which potential Si, Al, Fe, and Mn binding agents may be released into solution. Field experiments testing these findings are in progress. A. D. Karathanasis, L. W. Murdock, C. J. Matocha, J. Grove, and Y. L. Thompson Copyright © 2014 A. D. Karathanasis et al. All rights reserved. Security Considerations and Recommendations in Computer-Based Testing Mon, 01 Sep 2014 13:32:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/562787/ Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee. Saleh M. Al-Saleem and Hanif Ullah Copyright © 2014 Saleh M. Al-Saleem and Hanif Ullah. All rights reserved. A Synthesized Heuristic Task Scheduling Algorithm Mon, 01 Sep 2014 12:15:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/465702/ Aiming at the static task scheduling problems in heterogeneous environment, a heuristic task scheduling algorithm named HCPPEFT is proposed. In task prioritizing phase, there are three levels of priority in the algorithm to choose task. First, the critical tasks have the highest priority, secondly the tasks with longer path to exit task will be selected, and then algorithm will choose tasks with less predecessors to schedule. In resource selection phase, the algorithm is selected task duplication to reduce the interresource communication cost, besides forecasting the impact of an assignment for all children of the current task permits better decisions to be made in selecting resources. The algorithm proposed is compared with STDH, PEFT, and HEFT algorithms through randomly generated graphs and sets of task graphs. The experimental results show that the new algorithm can achieve better scheduling performance. Yanyan Dai and Xiangli Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yanyan Dai and Xiangli Zhang. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Stenosis Geometry on the Coronary Diagnostic Parameters Mon, 01 Sep 2014 12:05:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/354946/ The present study deals with the functional severity of a coronary artery stenosis assessed by the fractional flow reserve (FFR). The effects of different geometrical shapes of lesion on the diagnostic parameters are unknown. In this study, 3D computational simulation of blood flow in three different geometrical shapes of stenosis (triangular, elliptical, and trapezium) is considered in steady and transient conditions for 70% (moderate), 80% (intermediate), and 90% (severe) area stenosis (AS). For a given percentage AS, the variation of diagnostic parameters which are derived from pressure drop across the stenosis was found in three different geometrical shapes of stenosis and it was observed that FFR is higher in triangular shape and lower in trapezium shape. The pressure drop coefficient (CDP) was higher in trapezium shape and lower in triangular model whereas the LFC shows opposite trend. From the clinical perspective, the relationship between percentage AS and FFR is linear and inversely related in all the three models. A cut-off value of 0.75 for FFR was observed at 76.5% AS in trapezium model, 79.5% in elliptical model, and 82.7% AS for the triangular shaped model. The misinterpretation of the functional severity of the stenosis is in the region of 76.5%-82.7 % AS from different shapes of stenosis models. Sarfaraz Kamangar, Govindaraju Kalimuthu, Irfan Anjum Badruddin, A. Badarudin, N. J. Salman Ahmed, and T. M. Yunus Khan Copyright © 2014 Sarfaraz Kamangar et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil Mon, 01 Sep 2014 11:48:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/919456/ Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block. Shanyou Zhu, Hailong Zhang, Ronggao Liu, Yun Cao, and Guixin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shanyou Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Multicriteria Decision-Making Method Based on Generalized Prioritized Aggregation Operator Mon, 01 Sep 2014 11:37:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/645341/ Based on linguistic term sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the concept of hesitant fuzzy linguistic sets was introduced. The focus of this paper is the multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) problems in which the criteria are in different priority levels and the criteria values take the form of hesitant fuzzy linguistic numbers (HFLNs). A new approach to solving these problems is proposed, which is based on the generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs. Firstly, the new operations and comparison method for HFLNs are provided and some linguistic scale functions are applied. Subsequently, two prioritized aggregation operators and a generalized prioritized aggregation operator of HFLNs are developed and applied to MCDM problems. Finally, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method, which are then compared to the existing approach. Jia-ting Wu, Jian-qiang Wang, Jing Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, and Xiao-hong Chen Copyright © 2014 Jia-ting Wu et al. All rights reserved. On the Security of a Simple Three-Party Key Exchange Protocol without Server’s Public Keys Mon, 01 Sep 2014 08:50:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/479534/ Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients’ passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol. Junghyun Nam, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Minkyu Park, Juryon Paik, and Dongho Won Copyright © 2014 Junghyun Nam et al. All rights reserved. EEG-Based Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning Network with Principal Component Based Covariate Shift Adaptation Mon, 01 Sep 2014 08:25:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/627892/ Automatic emotion recognition is one of the most challenging tasks. To detect emotion from nonstationary EEG signals, a sophisticated learning algorithm that can represent high-level abstraction is required. This study proposes the utilization of a deep learning network (DLN) to discover unknown feature correlation between input signals that is crucial for the learning task. The DLN is implemented with a stacked autoencoder (SAE) using hierarchical feature learning approach. Input features of the network are power spectral densities of 32-channel EEG signals from 32 subjects. To alleviate overfitting problem, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract the most important components of initial input features. Furthermore, covariate shift adaptation of the principal components is implemented to minimize the nonstationary effect of EEG signals. Experimental results show that the DLN is capable of classifying three different levels of valence and arousal with accuracy of 49.52% and 46.03%, respectively. Principal component based covariate shift adaptation enhances the respective classification accuracy by 5.55% and 6.53%. Moreover, DLN provides better performance compared to SVM and naive Bayes classifiers. Suwicha Jirayucharoensak, Setha Pan-Ngum, and Pasin Israsena Copyright © 2014 Suwicha Jirayucharoensak et al. All rights reserved. Study of Driving Fatigue Alleviation by Transcutaneous Acupoints Electrical Stimulations Mon, 01 Sep 2014 08:24:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/450249/ Driving fatigue is more likely to bring serious safety trouble to traffic. Therefore, accurately and rapidly detecting driving fatigue state and alleviating fatigue are particularly important. In the present work, the electrical stimulation method stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) of human body is proposed, which is used to alleviate the mental fatigue of drivers. The wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is used to extract , , and subbands of drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Performances of the two algorithms ()/() and are also assessed as possible indicators for fatigue detection. Finally, the differences between the drivers with electrical stimulation and normal driving are discussed. It is shown that stimulating the Láogóng point (劳宫PC8) using electrical stimulation method can alleviate driver fatigue effectively during longtime driving. Fuwang Wang and Hong Wang Copyright © 2014 Fuwang Wang and Hong Wang. All rights reserved. Method for User Interface of Large Displays Using Arm Pointing and Finger Counting Gesture Recognition Mon, 01 Sep 2014 08:08:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/683045/ Although many three-dimensional pointing gesture recognition methods have been proposed, the problem of self-occlusion has not been considered. Furthermore, because almost all pointing gesture recognition methods use a wide-angle camera, additional sensors or cameras are required to concurrently perform finger gesture recognition. In this paper, we propose a method for performing both pointing gesture and finger gesture recognition for large display environments, using a single Kinect device and a skeleton tracking model. By considering self-occlusion, a compensation technique can be performed on the user’s detected shoulder position when a hand occludes the shoulder. In addition, we propose a technique to facilitate finger counting gesture recognition, based on the depth image of the hand position. In this technique, the depth image is extracted from the end of the pointing vector. By using exception handling for self-occlusions, experimental results indicate that the pointing accuracy of a specific reference position was significantly improved. The average root mean square error was approximately 13 pixels for a 1920 × 1080 pixels screen resolution. Moreover, the finger counting gesture recognition accuracy was 98.3%. Hansol Kim, Yoonkyung Kim, and Eui Chul Lee Copyright © 2014 Hansol Kim et al. All rights reserved. Efficiently Hiding Sensitive Itemsets with Transaction Deletion Based on Genetic Algorithms Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:26:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/398269/ Data mining is used to mine meaningful and useful information or knowledge from a very large database. Some secure or private information can be discovered by data mining techniques, thus resulting in an inherent risk of threats to privacy. Privacy-preserving data mining (PPDM) has thus arisen in recent years to sanitize the original database for hiding sensitive information, which can be concerned as an NP-hard problem in sanitization process. In this paper, a compact prelarge GA-based (cpGA2DT) algorithm to delete transactions for hiding sensitive itemsets is thus proposed. It solves the limitations of the evolutionary process by adopting both the compact GA-based (cGA) mechanism and the prelarge concept. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is thus designed to find the appropriate transactions to be deleted in order to hide sensitive itemsets with minimal side effects of hiding failure, missing cost, and artificial cost. Experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed cpGA2DT algorithm compared to the simple GA-based (sGA2DT) algorithm and the greedy approach in terms of execution time and three side effects. Chun-Wei Lin, Binbin Zhang, Kuo-Tung Yang, and Tzung-Pei Hong Copyright © 2014 Chun-Wei Lin et al. All rights reserved. Greedy Data Transportation Scheme with Hard Packet Deadlines for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Mon, 01 Sep 2014 05:52:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/815123/ We present a greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines in ad hoc sensor networks of stationary nodes and multiple mobile nodes with scheduled trajectory path and arrival time. In the proposed routing strategy, each stationary ad hoc node en route decides whether to relay a shortest-path stationary node toward destination or a passing-by mobile node that will carry closer to destination. We aim to utilize mobile nodes to minimize the total routing cost as far as the selected route can satisfy the end-to-end packet deadline. We evaluate our proposed routing algorithm in terms of routing cost, packet delivery ratio, packet delivery time, and usability of mobile nodes based on network level simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm fully exploits the remaining time till packet deadline to turn into networking benefits of reducing the overall routing cost and improving packet delivery performance. Also, we demonstrate that the routing scheme guarantees packet delivery with hard deadlines, contributing to QoS improvement in various network services. HyungJune Lee Copyright © 2014 HyungJune Lee. All rights reserved. Experimental Studies on Wave Interactions of Partially Perforated Wall under Obliquely Incident Waves Mon, 01 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/954174/ This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees), and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall. Jong-In Lee, Young-Taek Kim, and Sungwon Shin Copyright © 2014 Jong-In Lee et al. All rights reserved. Nonuniform Video Size Reduction for Moving Objects Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:44:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/832871/ Moving objects of interest (MOOIs) in surveillance videos are detected and encapsulated by bounding boxes. Since moving objects are defined by temporal activities through the consecutive video frames, it is necessary to examine a group of frames (GoF) to detect the moving objects. To do that, the traces of moving objects in the GoF are quantified by forming a spatiotemporal gradient map (STGM) through the GoF. Each pixel value in the STGM corresponds to the maximum temporal gradient of the spatial gradients at the same pixel location for all frames in the GoF. Therefore, the STGM highlights boundaries of the MOOI in the GoF and the optimal bounding box encapsulating the MOOI can be determined as the local areas with the peak average STGM energy. Once an MOOI and its bounding box are identified, the inside and outside of it can be treated differently for object-aware size reduction. Our optimal encapsulation method for the MOOI in the surveillance videos makes it possible to recognize the moving objects even after the low bitrate video compressions. Anh Vu Le, Seung-Won Jung, and Chee Sun Won Copyright © 2014 Anh Vu Le et al. All rights reserved. Spatiotemporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:43:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/931515/ To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0. Jian Wang, Xin Lv, Jiang-li Wang, and Hai-rong Lin Copyright © 2014 Jian Wang et al. All rights reserved. System Efficiency of a Tap Transformer Based Grid Connection Topology Applied on a Direct Driven Generator for Wind Power Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:40:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/784295/ Results from experiments on a tap transformer based grid connection system for a variable speed vertical axis wind turbine are presented. The tap transformer based system topology consists of a passive diode rectifier, DC-link, IGBT inverter, LCL-filter, and tap transformer. Full range variable speed operation is enabled by using the different step-up ratios of a tap transformer. Simulations using MATLAB/Simulink have been performed in order to study the behavior of the system. A full experimental set up of the system has been used in the laboratory study, where a clone of the on-site generator was driven by an induction motor and the system was connected to a resistive load to better evaluate the performance. Furthermore, the system is run and evaluated for realistic wind speeds and variable speed operation. For a more complete picture of the system performance, a case study using real site Weibull parameters is done, comparing different tap selection options. The results show high system efficiency at nominal power and an increase in overall power output for full tap operation in comparison with the base case, a standard transformer. In addition, the loss distribution at different wind speeds is shown, which highlights the dominant losses at low and high wind speeds. Finally, means for further increasing the overall system efficiency are proposed. Senad Apelfröjd and Sandra Eriksson Copyright © 2014 Senad Apelfröjd and Sandra Eriksson. All rights reserved. Network Anomaly Detection System with Optimized DS Evidence Theory Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:39:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/753659/ Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network—complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each senor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor’s regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly. Yuan Liu, Xiaofeng Wang, and Kaiyu Liu Copyright © 2014 Yuan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Color Image Segmentation Based on Different Color Space Models Using Automatic GrabCut Sun, 31 Aug 2014 13:28:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/126025/ This paper presents a comparative study using different color spaces to evaluate the performance of color image segmentation using the automatic GrabCut technique. GrabCut is considered as one of the semiautomatic image segmentation techniques, since it requires user interaction for the initialization of the segmentation process. The automation of the GrabCut technique is proposed as a modification of the original semiautomatic one in order to eliminate the user interaction. The automatic GrabCut utilizes the unsupervised Orchard and Bouman clustering technique for the initialization phase. Comparisons with the original GrabCut show the efficiency of the proposed automatic technique in terms of segmentation, quality, and accuracy. As no explicit color space is recommended for every segmentation problem, automatic GrabCut is applied with , , , , and color spaces. The comparative study and experimental results using different color images show that color space is the best color space representation for the set of the images used. Dina Khattab, Hala Mousher Ebied, Ashraf Saad Hussein, and Mohamed Fahmy Tolba Copyright © 2014 Dina Khattab et al. All rights reserved. Investigations on the Influence of the In-Stream Pylon and Strut on the Performance of a Scramjet Combustor Sun, 31 Aug 2014 12:16:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/309387/ The influence of the in-stream pylon and strut on the performance of scramjet combustor was experimentally and numerically investigated. The experiments were conducted with a direct-connect supersonic model combustor equipped with multiple cavities. The entrance parameter of combustor corresponds to scramjet flight Mach number 4.0 with a total temperature of 947 K. The research results show that, compared with the scramjet combustor without pylon and strut, the wall pressure and the thrust of the scramjet increase due to the improvement of mixing and combustion effect due to the pylon and strut. The total pressure loss caused by the strut is considerable whereas pylon influence is slight. Hao Ouyang, Weidong Liu, and Mingbo Sun Copyright © 2014 Hao Ouyang et al. All rights reserved. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:57:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/172583/ The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described. Andrey Shorov and Igor Kotenko Copyright © 2014 Andrey Shorov and Igor Kotenko. All rights reserved. Autogenerator-Based Modelling Framework for Development of Strategic Games Simulations: Rational Pigs Game Extended Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:57:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/158679/ When considering strategic games from the conceptual perspective that focuses on the questions of participants’ decision-making rationality, the very issues of modelling and simulation are rarely discussed. The well-known Rational Pigs matrix game has been relatively intensively analyzed in terms of reassessment of the logic of two players involved in asymmetric situations as gluttons that differ significantly by their attributes. This paper presents a successful attempt of using autogenerator for creating the framework of the game, including the predefined scenarios and corresponding payoffs. Autogenerator offers flexibility concerning the specification of game parameters, which consist of variations in the number of simultaneous players and their features and game objects and their attributes as well as some general game characteristics. In the proposed approach the model of autogenerator was upgraded so as to enable program specification updates. For the purpose of treatment of more complex strategic scenarios, we created the Rational Pigs Game Extended (RPGE), in which the introduction of a third glutton entails significant structural changes. In addition, due to the existence of particular attributes of the new player, “the tramp,” one equilibrium point from the original game is destabilized which has an influence on the decision-making of rational players. Robert Fabac, Danijel Radošević, and Ivan Magdalenić Copyright © 2014 Robert Fabac et al. All rights reserved.