The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Investigations into Recycling Zinc from Used Metal Oxide Varistors via pH Selective Leaching: Characterization, Leaching, and Residue Analysis Tue, 01 Sep 2015 06:08:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/653219/ Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) are a type of resistor with significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly used in power lines to protect against overvoltages. If a proper recycling plan is developed MOVs can be an excellent source of secondary zinc because they contain over 90 weight percent zinc oxide. The oxides of antimony, bismuth, and to a lesser degree cobalt, manganese, and nickel are also present in varistors. Characterization of the MOV showed that cobalt, nickel, and manganese were not present in the varistor material at concentrations greater than one weight percent. This investigation determined whether a pH selective dissolution (leaching) process can be utilized as a starting point for hydrometallurgical recycling of the zinc in MOVs. This investigation showed it was possible to selectively leach zinc from the MOV without coleaching of bismuth and antimony by selecting a suitable pH, mainly higher than 3 for acids investigated. It was not possible to leach zinc without coleaching of manganese, cobalt, and nickel. It can be concluded from results obtained with the acids used, acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric, that sulfate leaching produced the most desirable results with respect to zinc leaching and it is also used extensively in industrial zinc production. Toni Gutknecht, Anna Gustafsson, Christer Forsgren, Christian Ekberg, and Britt-Marie Steenari Copyright © 2015 Toni Gutknecht et al. All rights reserved. Developments in Neurovascular Diseases and Treatments Mon, 31 Aug 2015 11:36:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/608607/ Robert M. Starke, Stephen J. Monteith, Andrew M. Southerland, R. Webster Crowley, Nohra Chalouhi, Dale Ding, David M. Hasan, and Aaron S. Dumont Copyright © 2015 Robert M. Starke et al. All rights reserved. Laminar Wall Jet Flow and Heat Transfer over a Shallow Cavity Sun, 30 Aug 2015 12:02:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/926249/ This paper presents the detailed simulation of two-dimensional incompressible laminar wall jet flow over a shallow cavity. The flow characteristics of wall jet with respect to aspect ratio (AR), step length (), and Reynolds number (Re) of the shallow cavity are expressed. For higher accuracy, third-order discretization is applied for momentum equation which is solved using QUICK scheme with SIMPLE algorithm for pressure-velocity coupling. Low Reynolds numbers 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, and 600 are assigned for simulation. Results are presented for streamline contour, velocity contour, and vorticity formation at wall and also velocity profiles are reported. The detailed study of vortex formation on shallow cavity region is presented for various AR, , and Re conditions which led to key findings as Re increases and vortex formation moves from leading edge to trailing edge of the wall. Distance between vortices increases when the step length () increases. When Re increases, the maximum temperature contour distributions take place in shallow cavity region and highest convection heat transfer is obtained in heated walls. The finite volume code (FLUENT) is used for solving Navier-Stokes equations and GAMBIT for modeling and meshing. P. Maheandera Prabu and K. P. Padmanaban Copyright © 2015 P. Maheandera Prabu and K. P. Padmanaban. All rights reserved. An Experimental Realization of a Chaos-Based Secure Communication Using Arduino Microcontrollers Thu, 27 Aug 2015 12:36:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/123080/ Security and secrecy are some of the important concerns in the communications world. In the last years, several encryption techniques have been proposed in order to improve the secrecy of the information transmitted. Chaos-based encryption techniques are being widely studied as part of the problem because of the highly unpredictable and random-look nature of the chaotic signals. In this paper we propose a digital-based communication system that uses the logistic map which is a mathematically simple model that is chaotic under certain conditions. The input message signal is modulated using a simple Delta modulator and encrypted using a logistic map. The key signal is also encrypted using the same logistic map with different initial conditions. In the receiver side, the binary-coded message is decrypted using the encrypted key signal that is sent through one of the communication channels. The proposed scheme is experimentally tested using Arduino shields which are simple yet powerful development kits that allows for the implementation of the communication system for testing purposes. Mauricio Zapateiro De la Hoz, Leonardo Acho, and Yolanda Vidal Copyright © 2015 Mauricio Zapateiro De la Hoz et al. All rights reserved. Workplace Health Promotion and Wellbeing Wed, 26 Aug 2015 12:08:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/606875/ Lars L. Andersen, Karin I. Proper, Laura Punnett, Richard Wynne, Roger Persson, and Noortje Wiezer Copyright © 2015 Lars L. Andersen et al. All rights reserved. When Intervention Meets Organisation, a Qualitative Study of Motivation and Barriers to Physical Exercise at the Workplace Wed, 26 Aug 2015 12:07:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/518561/ Objective. To provide a comprehensive understanding of the motivational factors and barriers that are important for compliance with high-intensity workplace physical exercise that is aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders. Method. The present study, which used semideductive, thematic, and structured in-depth interviews, was nested in a 20-week cluster randomised controlled trial among office workers. Interviews were conducted with 18 informants with diverse fields of sedentary office work who participated in strength training at the workplace for 20 minutes, three times per week. Organisational, implementational, and individual motives and barriers were explored. Results & Discussion. The results show that attention should be given to the interaction between the management, the employees, and the intervention, as the main barrier to compliance was the internal working culture. The results emphasised the need for a clear connection between the management’s implementational intentions and the actual implementation. The results emphasise the importance of ensuring the legitimacy of the intervention among managers, participants, and colleagues. Moreover, it is important to centrally organise, structure, and ensure flexibility in the working day to free time for participants to attend the intervention. Recommendations from this study suggest that a thorough intervention mapping process should be performed to analyse organisational and implementational factors before initiating workplace physical exercise training. Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl, Charlotte Ahlgren Særvoll, Lasse Kirkelund, Gisela Sjøgaard, and Lars Louis Andersen Copyright © 2015 Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup Bredahl et al. All rights reserved. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients’ Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:45:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/373149/ The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ). Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks), posttest (after 12 therapy sessions), and short- (3 months), medium- (6 months), and long-term (12 months) follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention . Similar effects were seen on the HRSD. ATQ significantly decreased at the 12th session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended . We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up. Kai-Jo Chiang, Tsai-Hui Chen, Hsiu-Tsu Hsieh, Jui-Chen Tsai, Keng-Liang Ou, and Kuei-Ru Chou Copyright © 2015 Kai-Jo Chiang et al. All rights reserved. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment Wed, 26 Aug 2015 09:14:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/903451/ The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance. Gisele Lima Bezerra, Carlos Rocha Gomes Torres, Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto, Alvaro Henrique Borges, Milton Carlos Kuga, Matheus Coelho Bandeca, and Leily Macedo Firoozmand Copyright © 2015 Gisele Lima Bezerra et al. All rights reserved. The Pathogenesis and Treatment of Emotion Dysregulation in Borderline Personality Disorder Wed, 26 Aug 2015 07:16:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/179276/ Uncontrollable emotional lability and impulsivity are a paramount phenomenon of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). This paper aims to review theories that entertain emotion dysregulation as the core deficit of BPD and a key factor in the etiology of BPD, in order, then, to propose the author’s own theory, which arguably transcends certain limitations of the earlier ones. The author asserts that his psychodynamic theory explains the symptoms of BPD more thoroughly and it inspires a more parsimonious interpretation of brain imaging findings. In closing, the author draws implications of the proposed theory for clinical practice. He reports an efficacy study for treatment of emotion dysregulation based on that theory. Andreas Laddis Copyright © 2015 Andreas Laddis. All rights reserved. Tailoring Healthy Workplace Interventions to Local Healthcare Settings: A Complexity Theory-Informed Workplace of Well-Being Framework Tue, 25 Aug 2015 14:04:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/340820/ Many healthy workplace interventions have been developed for healthcare settings to address the consistently low scores of healthcare professionals on assessments of mental and physical well-being. Complex healthcare settings present challenges for the scale-up and spread of successful interventions from one setting to another. Despite general agreement regarding the importance of the local setting in affecting intervention success across different settings, there is no consensus on what it is about a local setting that needs to be taken into account to design healthy workplace interventions appropriate for different local settings. Complexity theory principles were used to understand a workplace as a complex adaptive system and to create a framework of eight domains (system characteristics) that affect the emergence of system-level behaviour. This Workplace of Well-being (WoW) framework is responsive and adaptive to local settings and allows a shared understanding of the enablers and barriers to behaviour change by capturing local information for each of the eight domains. We use the results of applying the WoW framework to one workplace, a UK National Health Service ward, to describe the utility of this approach in informing design of setting-appropriate healthy workplace interventions that create workplaces conducive to healthy behaviour change. Sarah L. Brand, Lora E. Fleming, and Katrina M. Wyatt Copyright © 2015 Sarah L. Brand et al. All rights reserved. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:47:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/915359/ Background. Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. Methods. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides) utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Results. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational), such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Conclusions. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health. Helena Miranda, Rebecca J. Gore, Jon Boyer, Suzanne Nobrega, and Laura Punnett Copyright © 2015 Helena Miranda et al. All rights reserved. Game Theory Based Trust Model for Cloud Environment Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:44:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/709827/ The aim of this work is to propose a method to establish trust at bootload level in cloud computing environment. This work proposes a game theoretic based approach for achieving trust at bootload level of both resources and users perception. Nash equilibrium (NE) enhances the trust evaluation of the first-time users and providers. It also restricts the service providers and the users to violate service level agreement (SLA). Significantly, the problem of cold start and whitewashing issues are addressed by the proposed method. In addition appropriate mapping of cloud user’s application to cloud service provider for segregating trust level is achieved as a part of mapping. Thus, time complexity and space complexity are handled efficiently. Experiments were carried out to compare and contrast the performance of the conventional methods and the proposed method. Several metrics like execution time, accuracy, error identification, and undecidability of the resources were considered. K. Gokulnath and Rhymend Uthariaraj Copyright © 2015 K. Gokulnath and Rhymend Uthariaraj. All rights reserved. Probability and Statistics with Applications in Finance and Economics Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:27:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/618785/ Sarah Brown and Wing Keung Wong Copyright © 2015 Sarah Brown and Wing Keung Wong. All rights reserved. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector Tue, 25 Aug 2015 12:02:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/272347/ Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees’ conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. Louise Hardman Smith, Birgit Aust, and Mari-Ann Flyvholm Copyright © 2015 Louise Hardman Smith et al. All rights reserved. Supervisors’ Strategies to Facilitate Work Functioning among Employees with Musculoskeletal Complaints: A Focus Group Study Tue, 25 Aug 2015 11:53:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/865628/ Aim. To explore what strategies the supervisors found beneficial to prevent or reduce sickness absence among employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Methods. Five focus groups were conducted and 26 supervisors from health and social sector participated. Commonly used strategies to prevent sickness absence and interdisciplinary cooperation in this work were discussed in the focus groups. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse the data. Results. The supervisors described five strategies for sick leave management: (1) promoting well-being and a healthy working environment, (2) providing early support and adjustments, (3) making employees more responsible, (4) using confrontational strategies in relation to employees on long-term sick leave, and (5) cooperation with general practitioners (GPs). Conclusions. Strategies of promoting a healthy working environment and facilitating early return to work were utilised in the follow-up of employees with musculoskeletal complaints. Supportive strategies were found most useful especially in the early phases, while finding a balance between being supportive, on one side, and confronting the employee, on the other, was endeavoured in cases of recurrent or long-term sick leave. Further, the supervisors requested a closer cooperation with the GPs, which they believed would facilitate return to work. Tove Ask and Liv Heide Magnussen Copyright © 2015 Tove Ask and Liv Heide Magnussen. All rights reserved. The Productivity Dilemma in Workplace Health Promotion Tue, 25 Aug 2015 11:23:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/937063/ Background. Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)) have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI) does not merit preventive health investment. Methods/Procedures. Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternate assumptions used in cost benefit analysis (CBA), such as discounting and negative value. The issues are presented in the format of 3 conceptual dilemmas. Principal Findings. In some occupations such as nursing, the utility of patient survival and staff health is undervalued. WHP may miss important components of work related health risk. Altering assumptions on discounting and eliminating the drag of negative value radically change the CBA value. Significance. Simple monetization of a work life and calculation of return on workforce health investment as a simple alternate opportunity involve highly selective interpretations of productivity and utility. Martin Cherniack Copyright © 2015 Martin Cherniack. All rights reserved. Considering the Differential Impact of Three Facets of Organizational Health Climate on Employees’ Well-Being Tue, 25 Aug 2015 11:20:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/407232/ One potential way that healthy organizations can impact employee health is by promoting a climate for health within the organization. Using a definition of health climate that includes support for health from multiple levels within the organization, this study examines whether all three facets of health climate—the workgroup, supervisor, and organization—work together to contribute to employee well-being. Two samples are used in this study to examine health climate at the individual level and group level in order to provide a clearer picture of the impact of the three health climate facets. -means cluster analysis was used on each sample to determine groups of individuals based on their levels of the three health climate facets. A discriminant function analysis was then run on each sample to determine if clusters differed on a function of employee well-being variables. Results provide evidence that having strength in all three of the facets is the most beneficial in terms of employee well-being at work. Findings from this study suggest that organizations must consider how health is treated within workgroups, how supervisors support employee health, and what the organization does to support employee health when promoting employee health. Zandra M. Zweber, Robert A. Henning, Vicki J. Magley, and Pouran Faghri Copyright © 2015 Zandra M. Zweber et al. All rights reserved. The Lambert Way to Gaussianize Heavy-Tailed Data with the Inverse of Tukey’s h Transformation as a Special Case Tue, 25 Aug 2015 10:03:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/909231/ I present a parametric, bijective transformation to generate heavy tail versions of arbitrary random variables. The tail behavior of this heavy tail Lambert   random variable depends on a tail parameter : for , , for has heavier tails than . For being Gaussian it reduces to Tukey’s distribution. The Lambert W function provides an explicit inverse transformation, which can thus remove heavy tails from observed data. It also provides closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution (cdf) and probability density function (pdf). As a special case, these yield analytic expression for Tukey’s pdf and cdf. Parameters can be estimated by maximum likelihood and applications to S&P 500 log-returns demonstrate the usefulness of the presented methodology. The R package LambertW implements most of the introduced methodology and is publicly available on CRAN. Georg M. Goerg Copyright © 2015 Georg M. Goerg. All rights reserved. Universal Keyword Classifier on Public Key Based Encrypted Multikeyword Fuzzy Search in Public Cloud Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:53:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/706102/ Cloud computing has pioneered the emerging world by manifesting itself as a service through internet and facilitates third party infrastructure and applications. While customers have no visibility on how their data is stored on service provider’s premises, it offers greater benefits in lowering infrastructure costs and delivering more flexibility and simplicity in managing private data. The opportunity to use cloud services on pay-per-use basis provides comfort for private data owners in managing costs and data. With the pervasive usage of internet, the focus has now shifted towards effective data utilization on the cloud without compromising security concerns. In the pursuit of increasing data utilization on public cloud storage, the key is to make effective data access through several fuzzy searching techniques. In this paper, we have discussed the existing fuzzy searching techniques and focused on reducing the searching time on the cloud storage server for effective data utilization. Our proposed Asymmetric Classifier Multikeyword Fuzzy Search method provides classifier search server that creates universal keyword classifier for the multiple keyword request which greatly reduces the searching time by learning the search path pattern for all the keywords in the fuzzy keyword set. The objective of using BTree fuzzy searchable index is to resolve typos and representation inconsistencies and also to facilitate effective data utilization. Shyamala Devi Munisamy and Arun Chokkalingam Copyright © 2015 Shyamala Devi Munisamy and Arun Chokkalingam. All rights reserved. Temperature Effect on Exploitation and Interference Competition among Microcystis aeruginosa, Planktothrix agardhii and, Cyclotella meneghiniana Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:19:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/834197/ We studied the effect of temperature (18 and 30°C) on growth and on the exploitation and interference competition of three species: Microcystis aeruginosa (MIJAC), Planktothrix agardhii (PAT), and Cyclotella meneghiniana (CCAP). Coculturing the organisms in batch systems allowed for the examination of both competitive interactions, while the interference competition was studied in cross-cultures. The experiments were done during 10–12 days, and samples were taken for chlorophyll-a analysis, using PHYTO-PAM. The temperature did not influence exploitation competition between MIJAC and other competitors and it was the best competitor in both temperatures. PAT presented higher growth rates than CCAP in competition at 18 and 30°C. The temperature influenced the interference competition. The growth of MIJAC was favored in strains exudates at 30°C, while CCAP was favored at 18°C, revealing that the optimum growth temperature was important to establish the competitive superiority. Therefore, we can propose two hypotheses: (i) different temperatures may results in production of distinct compounds that influence the competition among phytoplankton species and (ii) the target species may have different vulnerability to these compounds depending on the temperature. At last, we suggest that both the sensitivity and the physiological status of competing species can determine their lasting coexistence. Andreia Maria da Anunciação Gomes, Sandra Maria Feliciano de Oliveira e Azevedo, and Miquel Lürling Copyright © 2015 Andreia Maria da Anunciação Gomes et al. All rights reserved. Multivariate Statistical Analysis as a Supplementary Tool for Interpretation of Variations in Salivary Cortisol Level in Women with Major Depressive Disorder Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:12:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/987435/ Multivariate statistical analysis is widely used in medical studies as a profitable tool facilitating diagnosis of some diseases, for instance, cancer, allergy, pneumonia, or Alzheimer’s and psychiatric diseases. Taking this in consideration, the aim of this study was to use two multivariate techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to disclose the relationship between the drugs used in the therapy of major depressive disorder and the salivary cortisol level and the period of hospitalization. The cortisol contents in saliva of depressed women were quantified by HPLC with UV detection day-to-day during the whole period of hospitalization. A data set with 16 variables (e.g., the patients’ age, multiplicity and period of hospitalization, initial and final cortisol level, highest and lowest hormone level, mean contents, and medians) characterizing 97 subjects was used for HCA and PCA calculations. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that various groups of antidepressants affect at the varying degree the salivary cortisol level. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and the polypragmasy reduce most effectively the hormone secretion. Thus, both unsupervised pattern recognition methods, HCA and PCA, can be used as complementary tools for interpretation of the results obtained by laboratory diagnostic methods. Ewelina Dziurkowska and Marek Wesolowski Copyright © 2015 Ewelina Dziurkowska and Marek Wesolowski. All rights reserved. Social Anxiety among Chinese People Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:04:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/743147/ The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. Qianqian Fan and Weining C. Chang Copyright © 2015 Qianqian Fan and Weining C. Chang. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Psychoeducational Intervention in Treatment-Naïve Patients with Antidepressant Medication in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial Tue, 25 Aug 2015 08:00:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/718607/ Background. There is evidence supporting the effectiveness of psychoeducation (PE) in patients with symptoms of depression in primary care (PC), but very few studies have assessed this intervention in antidepressant-naïve patients. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a PE program in these patients, since the use of antidepressant (AD) medication may interfere with the effects of the intervention. Methods. 106 participants were included, 50 from the PE program (12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions) and 56 from the control group (CG) that received the usual care. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6, and 9 months. The main outcome measures were the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and remission based on the BDI. The analysis was carried out on an intention-to-treat basis. Results. The PE program group showed remission of symptoms of 40% () posttreatment and 42% () at 6 months. The analysis only showed significant differences in the BDI score posttreatment (; effect size Cohen’s ). Conclusions. The PE intervention is an effective treatment in the depressive population not treated with AD medication. Before taking an AD, psychoeducational intervention should be considered. R. Casañas, R. Catalán, R. Penadés, J. Real, S. Valero, MA. Muñoz, LL. Lalucat-Jo, and M. Casas Copyright © 2015 R. Casañas et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders Tue, 25 Aug 2015 07:50:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/127853/ The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. Myriam De-la-Iglesia and José-Sixto Olivar Copyright © 2015 Myriam De-la-Iglesia and José-Sixto Olivar. All rights reserved. The State of the Art of the DSM-5 “with Mixed Features” Specifier Tue, 25 Aug 2015 07:10:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/757258/ The new DSM-5 “with mixed features” specifier (MFS) has renewed the interest of the scientific community in mixed states, leading not only to new clinical studies but also to new criticisms of the current nosology. Consequently, in our paper we have reviewed the latest literature, trying to understand the reactions of psychiatrists to the new nosology and its epidemiological, prognostic, and clinical consequences. It seems that the most widespread major criticism is the exclusion from the DSM-5 MFS of overlapping symptoms (such as psychomotor agitation, irritability, and distractibility), with a consequent reduction in diagnostic power. On the other hand, undoubtedly the new DSM-5 classification has helped to identify more patients suffering from a mixed state by broadening the narrow DSM-IV-TR criteria. As for the clinical presentation, the epidemiological data, and the therapeutic outcomes, the latest literature does not point out a univocal point of view and further research is needed to fully assess the implications of the new DSM-5 MFS. It is our view that a diagnostic category should be preferred to a specifier and mixed states should be better considered as a spectrum of states, according to what was stated many years ago by Kraepelin. Norma Verdolini, Mark Agius, Laura Ferranti, Patrizia Moretti, Massimiliano Piselli, and Roberto Quartesan Copyright © 2015 Norma Verdolini et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in General Game Playing Mon, 24 Aug 2015 11:47:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/986262/ The goal of General Game Playing (GGP) has been to develop computer programs that can perform well across various game types. It is natural for human game players to transfer knowledge from games they already know how to play to other similar games. GGP research attempts to design systems that work well across different game types, including unknown new games. In this review, we present a survey of recent advances (2011 to 2014) in GGP for both traditional games and video games. It is notable that research on GGP has been expanding into modern video games. Monte-Carlo Tree Search and its enhancements have been the most influential techniques in GGP for both research domains. Additionally, international competitions have become important events that promote and increase GGP research. Recently, a video GGP competition was launched. In this survey, we review recent progress in the most challenging research areas of Artificial Intelligence (AI) related to universal game playing. Maciej Świechowski, HyunSoo Park, Jacek Mańdziuk, and Kyung-Joong Kim Copyright © 2015 Maciej Świechowski et al. All rights reserved. A Modern Syllogistic Method in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic with Realistic Tautology Mon, 24 Aug 2015 06:40:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/327390/ The Modern Syllogistic Method (MSM) of propositional logic ferrets out from a set of premises all that can be concluded from it in the most compact form. The MSM combines the premises into a single function equated to 1 and then produces the complete product of this function. Two fuzzy versions of MSM are developed in Ordinary Fuzzy Logic (OFL) and in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Logic (IFL) with these logics augmented by the concept of Realistic Fuzzy Tautology (RFT) which is a variable whose truth exceeds 0.5. The paper formally proves each of the steps needed in the conversion of the ordinary MSM into a fuzzy one. The proofs rely mainly on the successful replacement of logic 1 (or ordinary tautology) by an RFT. An improved version of Blake-Tison algorithm for generating the complete product of a logical function is also presented and shown to be applicable to both crisp and fuzzy versions of the MSM. The fuzzy MSM methodology is illustrated by three specific examples, which delineate differences with the crisp MSM, address the question of validity values of consequences, tackle the problem of inconsistency when it arises, and demonstrate the utility of the concept of Realistic Fuzzy Tautology. Ali Muhammad Rushdi, Mohamed Zarouan, Taleb Mansour Alshehri, and Muhammad Ali Rushdi Copyright © 2015 Ali Muhammad Rushdi et al. All rights reserved. Mental Health of Elementary Schoolteachers in Southern Brazil: Working Conditions and Health Consequences Sun, 23 Aug 2015 12:06:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/825925/ The mental health of educators is a growing problem in many countries. This study sought to identify self-reported stressful working conditions of elementary schoolteachers and the biopsychosocial consequences of those working conditions and then identify working conditions that promote well-being for teachers in the workplace. Exploratory study was done with 37 teachers. Data collection was performed using a structured interview with a questionnaire. Results show that stressful working conditions are related to inadequate salary, an excessive number of activities, and having to take work home. Biopsychosocial consequences include anxiety, stress, and sleep disorders. There was a statistically significant association between inadequate salary and anxiety (p = 0.01) and between an excessive number of activities and stress (p = 0.01). Teachers reported that a good relationship among colleagues is a working condition that promotes well-being in the workplace. The identification of stressful working conditions for teachers, the biopsychosocial consequences, and working conditions that promote well-being in the workplace are relevant to determining actions that improve the work environment and, consequently, the health of teachers. Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz, Clarice Alves Bonow, Marlise Capa Verde de Almeida, Laurelize Pereira Rocha, and Anelise Miritz Borges Copyright © 2015 Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz et al. All rights reserved. A Dynamic Intrusion Detection System Based on Multivariate Hotelling’s T2 Statistics Approach for Network Environments Tue, 18 Aug 2015 10:05:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/850153/ The ever expanding communication requirements in today’s world demand extensive and efficient network systems with equally efficient and reliable security features integrated for safe, confident, and secured communication and data transfer. Providing effective security protocols for any network environment, therefore, assumes paramount importance. Attempts are made continuously for designing more efficient and dynamic network intrusion detection models. In this work, an approach based on Hotelling’s T2 method, a multivariate statistical analysis technique, has been employed for intrusion detection, especially in network environments. Components such as preprocessing, multivariate statistical analysis, and attack detection have been incorporated in developing the multivariate Hotelling’s T2 statistical model and necessary profiles have been generated based on the T-square distance metrics. With a threshold range obtained using the central limit theorem, observed traffic profiles have been classified either as normal or attack types. Performance of the model, as evaluated through validation and testing using KDD Cup’99 dataset, has shown very high detection rates for all classes with low false alarm rates. Accuracy of the model presented in this work, in comparison with the existing models, has been found to be much better. Aneetha Avalappampatty Sivasamy and Bose Sundan Copyright © 2015 Aneetha Avalappampatty Sivasamy and Bose Sundan. All rights reserved. Analysis of Hybrid Buffering and Retransmission in OBS Networks Tue, 18 Aug 2015 06:06:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/159245/ Burst contention is a major problem in the Optical Burst Switching (OBS) networks. Due to inadequate contention resolution techniques, the burst loss is prominent in OBS. In order to resolve contention fiber delay lines, wavelength converters, deflection routing, burst segmentation, and retransmission are used. Each one has its own limitations. In this paper, a new hybrid scheme is proposed which combines buffering and retransmission, which increases the mean number of bursts processed in the system. In this hybrid method, retransmission with controllable arrival and uncontrollable arrival is analyzed. Normally all the bursts reach the first hop and few of them go for second hop to reach destination. After all the bursts reach the destination the server may go for maintenance activity or wait for the arrival of next burst. We model it as a batch arrival single server retrial queue with buffer. Numerical results are analyzed to show the mean number of bursts processed in the system with uncontrollable arrival and controllable arrivals. D. Veera Vanitha and M. Sabrigiriraj Copyright © 2015 D. Veera Vanitha and M. Sabrigiriraj. All rights reserved.