The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Diversity, Physicochemical and Technological Characterization of Elite Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Cultivars of Bantè, a District of Central Benin Sun, 29 Nov 2015 13:32:34 +0000 Cassava is one of the staple food crops contributing significantly to food and nutrition security in Benin. This study aimed to assess the diversity of the elite cassava cultivars of Bantè district, determine the physicochemical properties of the most preferred ones as well as the sensory attributes of their major derived products (gari and tapioca), and compare them with the farmers’ and processors’ perception on their technological qualities. The ethnobotanical investigation revealed existence of 40 cultivars including 9 elites that were further classified into three groups based on agronomics and technological and culinary properties. Clustered together, cultivars Idilèrou, Monlèkangan, and Odohoungbo characterized by low fiber content, high yield of gari and tapioca, and good in-ground postmaturity storage were the most preferred ones. Their physicochemical analysis revealed good rate of dry matters (39.8% to 41.13%), starch (24.47% to 25.5%) and total sugars (39.46% to 41.13%), low fiber (0.80% to 1.02%), and cyanide (50 mg/kg) contents. The sensory analysis of their gari and tapioca revealed very well appreciated (taste, color, and texture) products by the consumers. The confirmation by scientific analysis of the farmers’ perception on qualities of the most preferred cultivars indicated that they have good knowledge of their materials. Abadjayé Faouziath Sanoussi, Laura Yéyinou Loko, Hyacinthe Ahissou, Adidjath Koubourath Adjahi, Azize Orobiyi, Angelot Paterne Agré, Paulin Azokpota, Alexandre Dansi, and Ambaliou Sanni Copyright © 2015 Abadjayé Faouziath Sanoussi et al. All rights reserved. The Performance of Four Different Mineral Liners on the Transportation of Chlorinated Phenolic Compounds to Groundwater in Landfills Sun, 29 Nov 2015 07:30:27 +0000 The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of four different mineral liners (clay, bentonite, kaoline, and zeolite) which could be utilized to prevent the transport of phenolic compounds to groundwater through alternative liner systems. Four laboratory-scale HDPE reactors with 80 cm height and 40 cm inner diameter were operated for a period of 180 days. Results indicated that the transport of mono- or dichlorophenols is significantly prevented by the liner systems used, while the transport of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds cannot be prevented by the landfill liner system effectively. Highly chlorinated phenolic compounds in groundwater can be found in higher concentrations than the leachate, as a result of the degradation and transformation of these compounds. Thus, the analysis of highly chlorinated phenolic compounds such as 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,6-TCP, 3,4,5-TCP, and PCP is of great significance for the studies to be conducted on the contamination of groundwater around landfills. Elanur Adar and Mehmet Sinan Bilgili Copyright © 2015 Elanur Adar and Mehmet Sinan Bilgili. All rights reserved. Characterization and Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Tamarind Seeds by KOH Activation for Fe(III) Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:03:55 +0000 This research studies the characterization of activated carbon from tamarind seed with KOH activation. The effects of 0.5 : 1–1.5 : 1 KOH : tamarind seed charcoal ratios and 500–700°C activation temperatures were studied. FTIR, SEM-EDS, XRD, and BET were used to characterize tamarind seed and the activated carbon prepared from them. Proximate analysis, percent yield, iodine number, methylene blue number, and preliminary test of Fe(III) adsorption were also studied. Fe(III) adsorption was carried out by 30 mL column with 5–20 ppm Fe(III) initial concentrations. The percent yield of activated carbon prepared from tamarind seed with KOH activation decreased with increasing activation temperature and impregnation ratios, which were in the range from 54.09 to 82.03 wt%. The surface functional groups of activated carbon are O–H, C=O, C–O, –CO3, C–H, and Si–H. The XRD result showed high crystallinity coming from a potassium compound in the activated carbon. The main elements found in the activated carbon by EDS are C, O, Si, and K. The results of iodine and methylene blue adsorption indicate that the pore size of the activated carbon is mostly in the range of mesopore and macropore. The average BET pore size and BET surface area of activated carbon are 67.9764 Å and 2.7167 m2/g, respectively. Finally, the tamarind seed based activated carbon produced with 500°C activation temperature and 1.0 : 1 KOH : tamarind seed charcoal ratio was used for Fe(III) adsorption test. It was shown that Fe(III) was adsorbed in alkaline conditions and adsorption increased with increasing Fe(III) initial concentration from 5 to 20 ppm with capacity adsorption of 0.0069–0.019 mg/g. Sumrit Mopoung, Phansiri Moonsri, Wanwimon Palas, and Sataporn Khumpai Copyright © 2015 Sumrit Mopoung et al. All rights reserved. Assigning Priorities for Fixed Priority Preemption Threshold Scheduling Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:44:49 +0000 Preemption threshold scheduling (PTS) enhances real-time schedulability by controlling preemptiveness of tasks. This benefit of PTS highly depends on a proper algorithm that assigns each task feasible scheduling attributes, which are priority and preemption threshold. Due to the existence of an efficient optimal preemption threshold assignment algorithm that works with fully assigned priority orderings, we need an optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. This paper analyzes the inefficiency or nonoptimality of the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithms for PTS. We develop theorems for exhaustively but safely pruning infeasible priority orderings while assigning priorities to tasks for PTS. Based on the developed theorems, we correct the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. We also propose a performance improved optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS proving its optimality. The empirical evaluation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Saehwa Kim Copyright © 2015 Saehwa Kim. All rights reserved. Swarm Intelligence Integrated Graph-Cut for Liver Segmentation from 3D-CT Volumes Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:21:27 +0000 The segmentation of organs in CT volumes is a prerequisite for diagnosis and treatment planning. In this paper, we focus on liver segmentation from contrast-enhanced abdominal CT volumes, a challenging task due to intensity overlapping, blurred edges, large variability in liver shape, and complex background with cluttered features. The algorithm integrates multidiscriminative cues (i.e., prior domain information, intensity model, and regional characteristics of liver in a graph-cut image segmentation framework). The paper proposes a swarm intelligence inspired edge-adaptive weight function for regulating the energy minimization of the traditional graph-cut model. The model is validated both qualitatively (by clinicians and radiologists) and quantitatively on publically available computed tomography (CT) datasets (MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge, 3D-IRCAD). Quantitative evaluation of segmentation results is performed using liver volume calculations and a mean score of 80.8% and 82.5% on MICCAI and IRCAD dataset, respectively, is obtained. The experimental result illustrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. Maya Eapen, Reeba Korah, and G. Geetha Copyright © 2015 Maya Eapen et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Groundwater Level Models Based on Artificial Neural Networks and ANFIS Mon, 23 Nov 2015 07:39:59 +0000 Water table forecasting plays an important role in the management of groundwater resources in agricultural regions where there are drainage systems in river valleys. The results presented in this paper pertain to an area along the left bank of the Danube River, in the Province of Vojvodina, which is the northern part of Serbia. Two soft computing techniques were used in this research: an adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and an artificial neural network (ANN) model for one-month water table forecasts at several wells located at different distances from the river. The results suggest that both these techniques represent useful tools for modeling hydrological processes in agriculture, with similar computing and memory capabilities, such that they constitute an exceptionally good numerical framework for generating high-quality models. Nevenka Djurovic, Milka Domazet, Ruzica Stricevic, Vesna Pocuca, Velibor Spalevic, Radmila Pivic, Enika Gregoric, and Uros Domazet Copyright © 2015 Nevenka Djurovic et al. All rights reserved. Live and Heat-Killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 May Induce Modulatory Cytokines Profiles on Macrophages RAW 264.7 Mon, 16 Nov 2015 16:41:34 +0000 This study aimed to evaluate the capacity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and/or its products to induce the synthesis of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12) by mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). Three microorganism preparations were used: live L. rhamnosus (LLR) suspension, heat-killed L. rhamnosus (HKLR) suspension, and the supernatant of a heat-killed L. rhamnosus (SHKLR) suspension, which were cultured with macrophages (37°C, 5% CO2) for 2 h and 30 min. After that, cells were cultured for 16 h. The supernatants were used for the quantitation of cytokines, by ELISA. The results were compared with the synthesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and analysed, using ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%. LLR and HKLR groups were able to significantly increase the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 (). SHKLR also significantly increased the production of TNF-α and IL-10 () but not IL-6 (). All the L. rhamnosus suspensions were not able to produce detectable levels of IL-1β or significant levels of IL-4 and IL-12 (). In conclusion, live and heat-killed L. rhamnosus suspensions were able to induce the synthesis of different cytokines with proinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-6) or regulatory (IL-10) functions, suggesting the role of strain L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469 in the modulation or in the stimulation of immune responses. Adeline Lacerda Jorjão, Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Mariella Vieira Pereira Leão, Cláudio Antonio Talge Carvalho, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, and Luciane Dias de Oliveira Copyright © 2015 Adeline Lacerda Jorjão et al. All rights reserved. Protection of Health Imagery by Region Based Lossless Reversible Watermarking Scheme Sun, 15 Nov 2015 13:34:50 +0000 Providing authentication and integrity in medical images is a problem and this work proposes a new blind fragile region based lossless reversible watermarking technique to improve trustworthiness of medical images. The proposed technique embeds the watermark using a reversible least significant bit embedding scheme. The scheme combines hashing, compression, and digital signature techniques to create a content dependent watermark making use of compressed region of interest (ROI) for recovery of ROI as reported in literature. The experiments were carried out to prove the performance of the scheme and its assessment reveals that ROI is extracted in an intact manner and PSNR values obtained lead to realization that the presented scheme offers greater protection for health imageries. R. Lakshmi Priya and V. Sadasivam Copyright © 2015 R. Lakshmi Priya and V. Sadasivam. All rights reserved. Performance Evaluation of Multimodal Multifeature Authentication System Using KNN Classification Tue, 10 Nov 2015 14:16:59 +0000 This research proposes a multimodal multifeature biometric system for human recognition using two traits, that is, palmprint and iris. The purpose of this research is to analyse integration of multimodal and multifeature biometric system using feature level fusion to achieve better performance. The main aim of the proposed system is to increase the recognition accuracy using feature level fusion. The features at the feature level fusion are raw biometric data which contains rich information when compared to decision and matching score level fusion. Hence information fused at the feature level is expected to obtain improved recognition accuracy. However, information fused at feature level has the problem of curse in dimensionality; here PCA (principal component analysis) is used to diminish the dimensionality of the feature sets as they are high dimensional. The proposed multimodal results were compared with other multimodal and monomodal approaches. Out of these comparisons, the multimodal multifeature palmprint iris fusion offers significant improvements in the accuracy of the suggested multimodal biometric system. The proposed algorithm is tested using created virtual multimodal database using UPOL iris database and PolyU palmprint database. Gayathri Rajagopal and Ramamoorthy Palaniswamy Copyright © 2015 Gayathri Rajagopal and Ramamoorthy Palaniswamy. All rights reserved. freeQuant: A Mass Spectrometry Label-Free Quantification Software Tool for Complex Proteome Analysis Sun, 08 Nov 2015 15:37:26 +0000 Study of complex proteome brings forward higher request for the quantification method using mass spectrometry technology. In this paper, we present a mass spectrometry label-free quantification tool for complex proteomes, called freeQuant, which integrated quantification with functional analysis effectively. freeQuant consists of two well-integrated modules: label-free quantification and functional analysis with biomedical knowledge. freeQuant supports label-free quantitative analysis which makes full use of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectral count, protein sequence length, shared peptides, and ion intensity. It adopts spectral count for quantitative analysis and builds a new method for shared peptides to accurately evaluate abundance of isoforms. For proteins with low abundance, MS/MS total ion count coupled with spectral count is included to ensure accurate protein quantification. Furthermore, freeQuant supports the large-scale functional annotations for complex proteomes. Mitochondrial proteomes from the mouse heart, the mouse liver, and the human heart were used to evaluate the usability and performance of freeQuant. The evaluation showed that the quantitative algorithms implemented in freeQuant can improve accuracy of quantification with better dynamic range. Ning Deng, Zhenye Li, Chao Pan, and Huilong Duan Copyright © 2015 Ning Deng et al. All rights reserved. A Model Chain Application to Estimate Mixing Layer Height Related to PM10 Dispersion Processes Thu, 05 Nov 2015 14:27:36 +0000 The mixing layer height (MLH) is a crucial parameter in order to investigate the near surface concentrations of air pollutants. The MLH can be estimated by measurements of some atmospheric variables, by indirect estimates based on trace gases concentration or aerosol, or by numerical models. Here, a modelling approach is proposed. The developed modelling system is based on the models WRF-ARW and CALMET. This system is applied on Firenze-Prato-Pistoia area (Central Italy), during 2010, and it is compared with in situ measurements. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of MLH model estimates to characterize the critical episodes for PM10 in a limited area. In order to find out the meteorological conditions predisposing accumulation of PM10 in the atmosphere’s lower level, some indicators are used: daily mean wind speed, cumulated rainfall, and mean MLH estimates from CALMET model. This indicator is linked to orography, which has important consequences on local weather dynamics. However, during critical events the local emission sources are crucial to the determination of threshold exceeding of PM10. Results show that the modelled MLH, together with cumulative rainfall and wind speed, can identify the meteorological conditions predisposing accumulation of air pollutant at ground level. F. Guarnieri, F. Calastrini, C. Busillo, G. Messeri, and B. Gozzini Copyright © 2015 F. Guarnieri et al. All rights reserved. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice Thu, 05 Nov 2015 06:32:31 +0000 Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. Chi H. L. Dinh, Alexander Szabo, Yinghua Yu, Danielle Camer, Hongqin Wang, and Xu-Feng Huang Copyright © 2015 Chi H. L. Dinh et al. All rights reserved. Bioinformatics/Medical Informatics in Traditional Medicine and Integrative Medicine Wed, 04 Nov 2015 11:17:30 +0000 Zhaohui Liang, Xiangji Huang, Byeongsang Oh, and Josiah Poon Copyright © 2015 Zhaohui Liang et al. All rights reserved. Source Contributions of PM2.5 in the Severe Haze Episode in Hebei Cities Wed, 04 Nov 2015 05:59:54 +0000 Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area is one of the most polluted areas in China. This paper used the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) and Model-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to quantify the source contribution to PM2.5 in Hebei cities in order to obtain an in-depth understanding haze process in January and February 2013, using the Multiresolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). The result showed that PM2.5 were mainly originated from the southern Hebei (SHB) with the fractions of 70.8% and 66.4% to Shijiazhuang, 70.6% and 63.9% to Xingtai, and 68.5% and 63.0% to Handan in January and February 2013, respectively. The northern Hebei (NHB) contributed 69.8% and 70.7% to Zhangjiakou, 68.7% and 66.2% to Chengde, and 57.7% and 59.6% to Qinhuangdao in January and February. In Cangzhou, Hengshui, and Langfang, regional joint policy making should be implemented due to the pollution of multiple sources. In Baoding and Tangshan, industrial emissions contributed 38.1% and 41.9% of PM2.5 to Baoding and 39.8% and 45.8% to Tangshan in January and February, respectively. Industrial and domestic emissions should be controlled in Tangshan and Baoding, especially for industrial emissions of NHB. Zhe Wei, Litao Wang, Simeng Ma, Fenfen Zhang, and Jing Yang Copyright © 2015 Zhe Wei et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced High Performance Power Compensation Methodology by IPFC Using PIGBT-IDVR Tue, 03 Nov 2015 09:13:06 +0000 Currently, power systems are involuntarily controlled without high speed control and are frequently initiated, therefore resulting in a slow process when compared with static electronic devices. Among various power interruptions in power supply systems, voltage dips play a central role in causing disruption. The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a process based on voltage control that compensates for line transients in the distributed system. To overcome these issues and to achieve a higher speed, a new methodology called the Parallel IGBT-Based Interline Dynamic Voltage Restorer (PIGBT-IDVR) method has been proposed, which mainly spotlights the dynamic processing of energy reloads in common dc-linked energy storage with less adaptive transition. The interline power flow controller (IPFC) scheme has been employed to manage the power transmission between the lines and the restorer method for controlling the reactive power in the individual lines. By employing the proposed methodology, the failure of a distributed system has been avoided and provides better performance than the existing methodologies. Subramanian Arumugom and Marimuthu Rajaram Copyright © 2015 Subramanian Arumugom and Marimuthu Rajaram. All rights reserved. Modeling and Simulation of Control Actuation System with Fuzzy-PID Logic Controlled Brushless Motor Drives for Missiles Glider Applications Tue, 03 Nov 2015 07:55:41 +0000 A control actuation system has been used extensively in automotive, aerospace, and defense applications. The major challenges in modeling control actuation system are rise time, maximum peak to peak overshoot, and response to nonlinear system with percentage error. This paper addresses the challenges in modeling and real time implementation of control actuation system for missiles glider applications. As an alternative fuzzy-PID controller is proposed in BLDC motor drive followed by linkage mechanism to actuate fins in missiles and gliders. The proposed system will realize better rise time and less overshoot while operating in extreme nonlinear dynamic system conditions. A mathematical model of BLDC motor is derived in state space form. The complete control actuation system is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment and verified by performing simulation studies. A real time prototype of the control actuation is developed with dSPACE-1104 hardware controller and a detailed analysis is carried out to confirm the viability of the proposed system. Murali Muniraj and Ramaswamy Arulmozhiyal Copyright © 2015 Murali Muniraj and Ramaswamy Arulmozhiyal. All rights reserved. A Novel Multiobjective Control of DVR to Enhance Power Quality of Sensitive Load Tue, 03 Nov 2015 07:45:41 +0000 The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the fast, flexible, and cost effective solutions available in compensating the voltage-related power quality problems in power distribution systems. In this paper is discussed how power quality enhancement of sensitive load is achieved by applying three versions of Autonomous Group Particle Swarm Optimization like AGPSO1, AGPSO2, and AGPSO3 for tuning the Proportional-Integral DVR controller under balanced and nonlinear load conditions. A novel multiobjective function is formulated to express the control performance of the system, which is quantified using three power quality indices such as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage sag index, and RMS voltage variation. The obtained results are compared with the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method and also by Simple Particle Swarm Optimization based PI controlled DVR. The proposed methodology has improved the performance in terms of the considered power quality indices and the simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. Sathish Babu Pandu and Kamaraj Nagappan Copyright © 2015 Sathish Babu Pandu and Kamaraj Nagappan. All rights reserved. Mood Disorders: From Psychopathogenesis to Treatment Sun, 01 Nov 2015 09:34:59 +0000 Ru-Band Lu Copyright © 2015 Ru-Band Lu. All rights reserved. Identifying User Interaction Patterns in E-Textbooks Thu, 29 Oct 2015 13:52:53 +0000 We introduce a new architecture for e-textbooks which contains two navigational aids: an index and a concept map. We report results from an evaluation in a university setting with 99 students. The interaction sequences of the users were captured during the user study. We found several clusters of user interaction types in our data. Three separate user types were identified based on the interaction sequences: passive user, term clicker, and concept map user. We also discovered that with the concept map interface users started to interact with the application significantly sooner than with the index interface. Overall, our findings suggest that analysis of interaction patterns allows deeper insights into the use of e-textbooks than is afforded by summative evaluation. Santeri Saarinen, Tomi Heimonen, Markku Turunen, Mirjamaija Mikkilä-Erdmann, Roope Raisamo, Norbert Erdmann, Sari Yrjänäinen, and Tuuli Keskinen Copyright © 2015 Santeri Saarinen et al. All rights reserved. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation Thu, 29 Oct 2015 12:41:24 +0000 This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control . After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and dilutions were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. After incubation (37°C/48 h), the values of colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were converted to log10 and analyzed (ANOVA and Tukey test, 5%). The cytotoxicity of the P. americana extract was evaluated on macrophages by MTT assay. The MIC of the extract was 6.25 mg/mL and with 12.5 mg/mL there was elimination of 100% of planktonic cultures. Regarding the biofilms, a significant reduction of the biofilm at concentrations of 50 ( log10), 100 ( log10), and 200 mg/mL ( log10) was observed. The concentrations of 200 and 100 mg/mL were cytotoxic for macrophages, while the concentrations of 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/mL showed viability higher than 55%. D. Jesus, J. R. Oliveira, F. E. Oliveira, K. C. Higa, J. C. Junqueira, A. O. C. Jorge, G. N. Back-Brito, and L. D. Oliveira Copyright © 2015 D. Jesus et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Framework for Large Scale Multimedia Content Distribution in P2P Network: I2NC Thu, 29 Oct 2015 11:33:19 +0000 Network coding (NC) makes content distribution more effective and easier in P2P content distribution network and reduces the burden of the original seeder. It generalizes traditional network routing by allowing the intermediate nodes to generate new coded packet by combining the received packets. The randomization introduced by network coding makes all packets equally important and resolves the problem of locating the rarest block. Further, it reduces traffic in the network. In this paper, we analyze the performance of traditional network coding in P2P content distribution network by using a mathematical model and it is proved that traffic reduction has not been fully achieved in P2P network using traditional network coding. It happens due to the redundant transmission of noninnovative information block among the peers in the network. Hence, we propose a new framework, called I2NC (intelligent-peer selection and incremental-network coding), to eliminate the unnecessary flooding of noninnovative coded packets and thereby to improve the performance of network coding in P2P content distribution further. A comparative study and analysis of the proposed system is made through various related implementations and the results show that 10–15% of traffic reduced and improved the average and maximum download time by reducing original seeder’s workload. M. Anandaraj, P. Ganeshkumar, K. P. Vijayakumar, and K. Selvaraj Copyright © 2015 M. Anandaraj et al. All rights reserved. FPGA Implementation of Optimal 3D-Integer DCT Structure for Video Compression Tue, 27 Oct 2015 13:08:37 +0000 A novel optimal structure for implementing 3D-integer discrete cosine transform (DCT) is presented by analyzing various integer approximation methods. The integer set with reduced mean squared error (MSE) and high coding efficiency are considered for implementation in FPGA. The proposed method proves that the least resources are utilized for the integer set that has shorter bit values. Optimal 3D-integer DCT structure is determined by analyzing the MSE, power dissipation, coding efficiency, and hardware complexity of different integer sets. The experimental results reveal that direct method of computing the 3D-integer DCT using the integer set [10, 9, 6, 2, 3, 1, 1] performs better when compared to other integer sets in terms of resource utilization and power dissipation. J. Augustin Jacob and N. Senthil Kumar Copyright © 2015 J. Augustin Jacob and N. Senthil Kumar. All rights reserved. Comment on “Dependence of Performance of Si Nanowire Solar Cells on Geometry of the Nanowires” Mon, 26 Oct 2015 07:13:21 +0000 Joondong Kim Copyright © 2015 Joondong Kim. All rights reserved. Biological Evidence Management for DNA Analysis in Cases of Sexual Assault Mon, 26 Oct 2015 06:57:48 +0000 Biological evidence with forensic interest may be found in several cases of assault, being particularly relevant if sexually related. Sexual assault cases are characterized by low rates of disclosure, reporting, prosecution, and conviction. Biological evidence is sometimes the only way to prove the occurrence of sexual contact and to identify the perpetrator. The major focus of this review is to propose practical approaches and guidelines to help health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to deal with biological evidence for DNA analysis. Attention should be devoted to avoiding contamination, degradation, and loss of biological evidence, as well as respecting specific measures to properly handle evidence (i.e., selection, collection, packing, sealing, labeling, storage, preservation, transport, and guarantee of the chain custody). Biological evidence must be carefully managed since the relevance of any finding in Forensic Genetics is determined, in the first instance, by the integrity and quantity of the samples submitted for analysis. Teresa Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Benedita Silva, Francisco Corte-Real, and Duarte Nuno Vieira Copyright © 2015 Teresa Magalhães et al. All rights reserved. Application of Artificial Intelligence for Bridge Deterioration Model Thu, 22 Oct 2015 13:27:19 +0000 The deterministic bridge deterioration model updating problem is well established in bridge management, while the traditional methods and approaches for this problem require manual intervention. An artificial-intelligence-based approach was presented to self-updated parameters of the bridge deterioration model in this paper. When new information and data are collected, a posterior distribution was constructed to describe the integrated result of historical information and the new gained information according to Bayesian theorem, which was used to update model parameters. This AI-based approach is applied to the case of updating parameters of bridge deterioration model, which is the data collected from bridges of 12 districts in Shanghai from 2004 to 2013, and the results showed that it is an accurate, effective, and satisfactory approach to deal with the problem of the parameter updating without manual intervention. Zhang Chen, Yangyang Wu, Li Li, and Lijun Sun Copyright © 2015 Zhang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition Wed, 21 Oct 2015 13:20:35 +0000 In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification. Rong Wang Copyright © 2015 Rong Wang. All rights reserved. A Study on Students Acquisition of IT Knowledge and Its Implication on M-Learning Wed, 21 Oct 2015 06:51:54 +0000 The boom in mobile technology has seen a dramatic rise in its usage. This has led to usage of mobiles even in the academic context for further learning. Although the advantages of m-learning (mobile learning) are visible, studies are required to address the aspects that shape its virtual expectations. The acceptance of mobile technology relies mostly on how the students feel about mobile technology fitting into their requirements. Yet, in spite of the significance in the potential of m-learning, research studies have only inadequate data to identify the factors that influence their decision to adapt the mobile technology for the purpose of learning. To deal with this space, the present study was undertaken to correlate the IT skills of students with their impact on their acceptance of m-learning. The research study found that the perceived usability along with the usefulness of m-learning impacts the association between IT expertise and the objective of learners’ acceptance of m-learning. A survey of 892 students from Engineering, Arts, and Science Colleges found that IT skills influence student’s acquisition of m-learning technology. Specialized and advanced skills in mobile technology along with basic skills play a significant role in influencing a student to accept m-learning. But no specific substantiation has been established to support the statement that highly developed IT skills have influenced the students to accept m-learning. A. Balavivekanandhan and S. Arulchelvan Copyright © 2015 A. Balavivekanandhan and S. Arulchelvan. All rights reserved. Estimation of Symmetric Channels for Discrete Cosine Transform Type-I Multicarrier Systems: A Compressed Sensing Approach Mon, 19 Oct 2015 06:12:05 +0000 The problem of channel estimation for multicarrier communications is addressed. We focus on systems employing the Discrete Cosine Transform Type-I (DCT1) even at both the transmitter and the receiver, presenting an algorithm which achieves an accurate estimation of symmetric channel filters using only a small number of training symbols. The solution is obtained by using either matrix inversion or compressed sensing algorithms. We provide the theoretical results which guarantee the validity of the proposed technique for the DCT1. Numerical simulations illustrate the good behaviour of the proposed algorithm. María Elena Domínguez-Jiménez, David Luengo, and Gabriela Sansigre-Vidal Copyright © 2015 María Elena Domínguez-Jiménez et al. All rights reserved. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Modeling of Postweld Heat Treatment Process in a Pressure Vessel Steel ASTM A516 Grade 70 Thu, 15 Oct 2015 13:52:23 +0000 This research studied the application of the response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) experiment in mathematical model and optimizes postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The material of study is a pressure vessel steel ASTM A516 grade 70 that is used for gas metal arc welding. PWHT parameters examined in this study included PWHT temperatures and time. The resulting materials were examined using CCD experiment and the RSM to determine the resulting material tensile strength test, observed with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that using a full quadratic model with the proposed mathematical model is . Tensile strength parameters of PWHT were optimized PWHT time of 5.00 hr and PWHT temperature of 645.75°C. The results show that the PWHT time is the dominant mechanism used to modify the tensile strength compared to the PWHT temperatures. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that pearlite can contribute to higher tensile strength. Pearlite has an intensity, which results in increased material tensile strength. The research described here can be used as material data on PWHT parameters for an ASTM A516 grade 70 weld. Prachya Peasura Copyright © 2015 Prachya Peasura. All rights reserved. Modeling and Simulation of Offshore Wind Power Platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL Turbine Tue, 13 Oct 2015 12:35:18 +0000 This paper presents the modeling and simulation of offshore wind power platform for oil and gas companies. Wind energy has become the fastest growing renewable energy in the world and major gains in terms of energy generation are achievable when turbines are moved offshore. The objective of this project is to propose new design of an offshore wind power platform. Offshore wind turbine (OWT) is composed of three main structures comprising the rotor/blades, the tower nacelle, and the supporting structure. The modeling analysis was focused on the nacelle and supporting structure. The completed final design was analyzed using finite element modeling tool ANSYS to obtain the structure’s response towards loading conditions and to ensure it complies with guidelines laid out by classification authority Det Norske Veritas. As a result, a new model of the offshore wind power platform for 5 MW Baseline NREL turbine was proposed. Taufik Roni Sahroni Copyright © 2015 Taufik Roni Sahroni. All rights reserved.