The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Evaluation of Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle PCL Reconstructions with More Than 10-Year Follow-Up Sun, 01 Feb 2015 12:33:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/751465/ Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases) or double-bundle (13 cases) method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was points for the single-bundle group and points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up. Masataka Deie, Nobuo Adachi, Atsuo Nakamae, Kobun Takazawa, and Mitsuo Ochi Copyright © 2015 Masataka Deie et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Divergence in Northern Benin Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Landraces as Revealed by Agromorphological Traits and Selection of Candidate Genotypes Sun, 01 Feb 2015 12:09:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/916476/ Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important staple food crop in northern Benin. In order to assess its diversity in Benin, 142 accessions of landraces collected from Northern Benin were grown in Central Benin and characterised using 10 qualitative and 14 quantitative agromorphological traits. High variability among both qualitative and quantitative traits was observed. Grain yield (0.72–10.57 tons/ha), panicle weight (15–215.95 g), days to 50% flowering (57–200 days), and plant height (153.27–636.5 cm) were among traits that exhibited broader variability. Correlations between quantitative traits were determined. Grain yield for instance exhibited highly positive association with panicle weight and 100 seed weight . UPGMA cluster analysis classified the 142 accessions into 89 morphotypes. Based on multivariate analysis, twenty promising sorghum genotypes were selected. Among them, AT41, AT14, and AT29 showed early maturity (57 to 66 days to 50% flowering), high grain yields (4.85 to 7.85 tons/ha), and shorter plant height (153.27 to 180.37 cm). The results obtained will help enhancing sorghum production and diversity and developing new varieties that will be better adapted to the current soil and climate conditions in Benin. Innocent Dossou-Aminon, Laura Yêyinou Loko, Arlette Adjatin, Eben-Ezer B. K. Ewédjè, Alexandre Dansi, Sujay Rakshit, Ndiaga Cissé, Jagannath Vishnu Patil, Clément Agbangla, Ambaliou Sanni, Akpovi Akoègninou, and Koffi Akpagana Copyright © 2015 Innocent Dossou-Aminon et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:43:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/326802/ Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2) and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45) rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (%) declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties. Md Moinul Haque, Habibur Rahman Pramanik, Jiban Krishna Biswas, K. M. Iftekharuddaula, and Mirza Hasanuzzaman Copyright © 2015 Md Moinul Haque et al. All rights reserved. A Method of Calculating Motion Error in a Linear Motion Bearing Stage Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:32:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/696417/ We report a method of calculating the motion error of a linear motion bearing stage. The transfer function method, which exploits reaction forces of individual bearings, is effective for estimating motion errors; however, it requires the rail-form errors. This is not suitable for a linear motion bearing stage because obtaining the rail-form errors is not straightforward. In the method described here, we use the straightness errors of a bearing block to calculate the reaction forces on the bearing block. The reaction forces were compared with those of the transfer function method. Parallelism errors between two rails were considered, and the motion errors of the linear motion bearing stage were measured and compared with the results of the calculations, revealing good agreement. Gyungho Khim, Chun Hong Park, and Jeong Seok Oh Copyright © 2015 Gyungho Khim et al. All rights reserved. Int-Soft (Generalized) Bi-Ideals of Semigroups Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:27:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/198672/ The notions of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals in semigroups are studied in the paper by Song et al. (2014). In this paper, further properties and characterizations of int-soft left (right) ideals are studied, and the notion of int-soft (generalized) bi-ideals is introduced. Relations between int-soft generalized bi-ideals and int-soft semigroups are discussed, and characterizations of (int-soft) generalized bi-ideals and int-soft bi-ideals are considered. Given a soft set over U, int-soft (generalized) bi-ideals generated by are established. Young Bae Jun and Seok-Zun Song Copyright © 2015 Young Bae Jun and Seok-Zun Song. All rights reserved. Modeling of Memristive and Memcapacitive Behaviors in Metal-Oxide Junctions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:16:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/910126/ Memristive behavior has been clearly addressed through growth and shrinkage of thin filaments in metal-oxide junctions. Capacitance change has also been observed, raising the possibility of using them as memcapacitors. Therefore, this paper proves that metal-oxide junctions can behave as a memcapacitor element by analyzing its characteristics and modeling its memristive and memcapacitive behaviors. We develop two behavioral modeling techniques: charge-dependent memcapacitor model and voltage-dependent memcapacitor model. A new physical model for metal-oxide junctions is presented based on conducting filaments variations, and its effect on device capacitance and resistance. In this model, we apply the exponential nature of growth and shrinkage of thin filaments and use Simmons’ tunneling equation to calculate the tunneling current. Simulation results show how the variations of practical device parameters can change the device behavior. They clarify the basic conditions for building a memcapacitor device with negligible change in resistance. M. G. A. Mohamed, HyungWon Kim, and Tae-Won Cho Copyright © 2015 M. G. A. Mohamed et al. All rights reserved. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Women Who Have Aborted in Comparison with the Women with Normal Delivery in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:39:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/764369/ Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causing toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Primary maternal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is frequently associated with transplacental transmission to the fetus. However it is not certain whether Toxoplasma infection can cause recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion via detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of women with obstetrical problems and compare the results with control group consisting of women with history of normal delivery. Sera from 130 women with abortion and sera of 130 women with normal delivery were tested for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by ELISA method. The present study revealed 24.6% of the samples with abortion and 21.5% of the samples with normal delivery were positive for IgG antibodies. However, statistical analysis indicated no significant differences . In addition, IgM antibody was detected in one woman who had aborted but not in women with normal childbirth. This study showed no significant difference between the case and control groups in IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibody but detected one sample with IgM antibodies in woman with abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. In order to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion, anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity and PCR to discriminate between recent and prior infections are recommended. J. Saki, N. Mohammadpour, F. Moramezi, and S. Khademvatan Copyright © 2015 J. Saki et al. All rights reserved. Workflow Modelling and Analysis Based on the Construction of Task Models Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:47:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/481767/ We describe the structure of a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions in this paper. To each task an input/output logic operator is associated. Furthermore, we associate a Boolean term to each transition present in the workflow. We still identify the structure of workflows and describe their dynamism through the construction of new task models. This construction is very simple and intuitive since it is based on the analysis of all tasks present on the workflow that allows us to describe the dynamism of the workflow very easily. So, our approach has the advantage of being very intuitive, which is an important highlight of our work. We also introduce the concept of logical termination of workflows and provide conditions under which this property is valid. Finally, we provide a counter-example which shows that a conjecture presented in a previous article is false. Glória Cravo Copyright © 2015 Glória Cravo. All rights reserved. Recent Developments on Sequence Spaces and Compact Operators with Applications Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:26:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/410652/ S. A. Mohiuddine, M. Mursaleen, Józef Banaś, Suthep Suantai, and Abdullah Alotaibi Copyright © 2015 S. A. Mohiuddine et al. All rights reserved. Measurement Properties and Implementation of a Checklist to Assess Leadership Skills during Interdisciplinary Rounds in the Intensive Care Unit Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:40:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/951924/ The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. A daily recurrent situation in ICUs in which both leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork are integrated concerns the interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs). Although IDRs are recommended to provide optimal interdisciplinary and patient-centered care, there are no checklists available for leading physicians. We tested the measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess the quality of leadership skills in interdisciplinary rounds. The measurement properties of the checklist, which included 10 essential quality indicators, were tested for interrater reliability and internal consistency and by factor analysis. The interrater reliability among 3 raters was good (κ, 0.85) and the internal consistency was acceptable (α, 0.74). Factor analysis showed all factor loadings on 1 domain (>0.65). The checklist was further implemented during videotaped IDRs which were led by senior physicians and in which 99 patients were discussed. Implementation of the checklist showed a wide range of “no” and “yes” scores among the senior physicians. These results may underline the need for such a checklist to ensure tasks are synchronized within the team. Elsbeth C. M. Ten Have, Raoul E. Nap, and Jaap E. Tulleken Copyright © 2015 Elsbeth C. M. Ten Have et al. All rights reserved. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:27:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/343075/ We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual’s needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. Sanaz Aazami, Khadijah Shamsuddin, and Syaqirah Akmal Copyright © 2015 Sanaz Aazami et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Adipose-Derived Stem-Cells-Assisted Lipotransfer Combined with bFGF Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:58:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/968057/ Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) transplanted along with autologous adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival; however, the efficacy of ASCs has been diluted by low vascularization. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) may improve the effects of ASCs because it owns the property to boost angiogenesis. In the present study, human fat tissues were mixed with ASCs, ASCs plus 100 U bFGF, or medium as the control and then injected subcutaneously into immunologically compromised nude mice for 12 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that mixture with the ASCs significantly increased the weight and volume of the fat grafts compared to control grafts, and histological analysis revealed that both ASCs and ASCs plus bFGF grafts consisted predominantly of adipose tissue and had significantly less fibrosis but greater microvascular density compared with control and also grafts mixed with ASCs had a high expression of angiogenic factors. More importantly, the bFGF treated fat grafts shown elevate in survival, vascularization, and angiogenic factors expression when compared with the grafts that received ASCs alone. These results indicated that bFGF together with ASCs can enhance the efficacy of autologous fat transplantation and increase blood vessel generation involved in the benefits from bFGF. Aimei Jiang, Ming Li, Wenjing Duan, Yilong Dong, and Yanmei Wang Copyright © 2015 Aimei Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Study of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Vientiane, Lao PDR, in 1990s Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:25:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/235934/ Phylogenetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was conducted using core-premembrane and envelope gene sequence data of two strains from Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, in 1993 and five from Okinawa, Japan, in 2002 and 2003, and previously published strains. The two Vientiane strains designated as LaVS56 and LaVS145 belonged to genotype 1 (G1) and the same subcluster of G1 as Australian strain in 2000, Thai strains in 1982–1985 and 2004-2005, and Vietnamese strain in 2005, but were distinct from the subcluster of recently distributing G1 strains widely in Asia including Okinawan strains and recent Lao strain in 2009. These clusters with own distinct distributions indicated involvements of different mechanisms and routes of spreading viruses and clarified that Australian G1 strain is from Southeast Asia, not from East Asia. Both Vientiane strains were antigenically close to P19-Br (G1, isolate, Thailand), but distinct from Nakayama (G3, prototype strain, Japan), Beijing-1 (G3, laboratory strain, China), and JaGAr#01 (G3, laboratory strain, Japan), demonstrated by cross-neutralization tests using polyclonal antisera. These results together with seroepidemiologic study conducted in Vientiane strongly suggest that diversified JEV cocirculated there in early 1990s. Mika Saito, Douangdao Soukaloun, Khampe Phongsavath, Bounlay Phommasack, and Yoshihiro Makino Copyright © 2015 Mika Saito et al. All rights reserved. A General Class of Derivative Free Optimal Root Finding Methods Based on Rational Interpolation Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:31:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/934260/ We construct a new general class of derivative free -point iterative methods of optimal order of convergence using rational interpolant. The special cases of this class are obtained. These methods do not need Newton’s iterate in the …first step of their iterative schemes. Numerical computations are presented to show that the new methods are efficient and can be seen as better alternates. Fiza Zafar, Nusrat Yasmin, Saima Akram, and Moin-ud-Din Junjua Copyright © 2015 Fiza Zafar et al. All rights reserved. Some New Sets of Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers with Respect to the Partial Metric Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:18:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/735703/ In this paper, we essentially deal with Köthe-Toeplitz duals of fuzzy level sets defined using a partial metric. Since the utilization of Zadeh’s extension principle is quite difficult in practice, we prefer the idea of level sets in order to construct some classical notions. In this paper, we present the sets of bounded, convergent, and null series and the set of sequences of bounded variation of fuzzy level sets, based on the partial metric. We examine the relationships between these sets and their classical forms and give some properties including definitions, propositions, and various kinds of partial metric spaces of fuzzy level sets. Furthermore, we study some of their properties like completeness and duality. Finally, we obtain the Köthe-Toeplitz duals of fuzzy level sets with respect to the partial metric based on a partial ordering. Uğur Kadak and Muharrem Ozluk Copyright © 2015 Uğur Kadak and Muharrem Ozluk. All rights reserved. Change of Mandibular Position during Two-Phase Orthodontic Treatment of Skeletal Class II in the Chinese Population Wed, 28 Jan 2015 09:23:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/804831/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in mandibular position during a two-phase orthodontic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Thirty consecutively treated Chinese male adolescents who had undergone two-phase treatment with Herbst appliance and fixed appliance and fulfilled the specific selection criteria were sampled. Cephalograms taken at T0 (before treatment), T1 (at the end of functional appliance treatment), and T2 (at the end of fixed appliance treatment) were analyzed. The change in sagittal positioning of the mandible was  mm in phase I (T0-T1),  mm in phase II (T1-T2), and  mm in total. The mandible came forward in 100% of the patients at T1. In phase II, it came forward in one-third (positive group) remained unchanged in one-third (stable group) and went backward in one-third (negative group) of the patients. At T2, it came forward twice as much in the positive group compared to the negative group. Mandibular length was significantly increased in 100% of the patients in both phases. In conclusion, during the treatment with functional appliance, the mandibular prognathism increases in all patients, whereas during the treatment with fixed appliance there is no significant change in mandibular prognathism. Rhonda Nga Yi Cheung, Urban Hägg, Ricky Wing Kit Wong, Chongshan Liao, and Yanqi Yang Copyright © 2015 Rhonda Nga Yi Cheung et al. All rights reserved. Emerging Trends in Soft Set Theory and Related Topics Wed, 28 Jan 2015 08:47:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/689457/ Feng Feng, Naim Cagman, Violeta Leoreanu-Fotea, and Muhammad Akram Copyright © 2015 Feng Feng et al. All rights reserved. Family Centered Approach in Primary Health Care: Experience from an Urban Area of Mangalore, India Tue, 27 Jan 2015 12:13:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/419192/ Introduction. “Health for All” still eludes public health experts despite many approaches to prevent disease and promote health among urban poor. Several key illness factors lie beyond the conventional healthcare boundaries. Objective. To examine the effectiveness of family centered approach (FCA) in addressing health and related issues in an urban area of Mangalore, India. Method. A longitudinal study was conducted in Bengre, an outreach centre of Mangalore from June 2011 to November 2013. Family folders were created with pertinent details. Demand generation and health education activities were conducted through two female community health link workers. An FCA package was implemented by medical and nursing interns, under supervision, to address the priority issues. Effect was assessed by comparing their practices and service utilization before and after the study. Results. About 809 families participated in this study. Social, cultural, and religious factors were responsible for viciousness of malaria and maternal and child health issues. FCA improved their perceptions and practices towards health and related issues. Significant () and sustained hike in service utilization was evident. Conclusion. FCA exposes key illness factors beyond the conventional care, eases need based healthcare implementation, and provides feasible and enduring solutions. Community involvement makes it more practicable. Siddharudha Shivalli, J. P. Majra, K. M. Akshaya, and Ghulam Jeelani Qadiri Copyright © 2015 Siddharudha Shivalli et al. All rights reserved. Exosomes: Novel Biomarkers for Clinical Diagnosis Tue, 27 Jan 2015 11:57:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/657086/ Exosomes are 30–120 nm endocytic membrane-derived vesicles that participate in cell-to-cell communication and protein and RNA delivery. Exosomes harbor a variety of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids and are present in many and perhaps all bodily fluids. A significant body of literature has demonstrated that molecular constituents of exosomes, especially exosomal proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs), hold great promise as novel biomarkers for clinical diagnosis. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances in the research of exosomal biomarkers and their potential application in clinical diagnostics. We also provide a brief overview of the formation, function, and isolation of exosomes. Jin Lin, Jing Li, Bo Huang, Jing Liu, Xin Chen, Xi-Min Chen, Yan-Mei Xu, Lin-Feng Huang, and Xiao-Zhong Wang Copyright © 2015 Jin Lin et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Rheological Properties of Recycled Rubber-Modified Asphalt Mixtures Tue, 27 Jan 2015 11:56:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/258586/ Using waste rubber in asphalt mixes has become a common practice in road construction. This paper presents the results of a study on the rheological characteristics of rubber-modified asphalt (RMA) concrete under static and dynamic loading conditions. A number of static and dynamic creep tests were conducted on RMA mix specimens with different rubber sizes and contents, and a series of resonant column tests were conducted to evaluate the shear modulus and damping values. To simulate the stress-strain response of traffic-induced loading, the measurements were taken for different confining pressures and strain levels. The results of the study indicated that rubber modification increases stiffness and damping ratio, making it a very attractive material for use in road construction. However the grain size of the rubber is very important. Although RMA may cost up to 100% more than regular asphalt, the advantages it brings, such as an increased service life of the road and proper waste utilization contributing to a more sustainable infrastructure, may justify the added cost. Murat Karacasu, Volkan Okur, and Arzu Er Copyright © 2015 Murat Karacasu et al. All rights reserved. Constructing RBAC Based Security Model in u-Healthcare Service Platform Tue, 27 Jan 2015 08:57:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/937914/ In today’s era of aging society, people want to handle personal health care by themselves in everyday life. In particular, the evolution of medical and IT convergence technology and mobile smart devices has made it possible for people to gather information on their health status anytime and anywhere easily using biometric information acquisition devices. Healthcare information systems can contribute to the improvement of the nation’s healthcare quality and the reduction of related cost. However, there are no perfect security models or mechanisms for healthcare service applications, and privacy information can therefore be leaked. In this paper, we examine security requirements related to privacy protection in u-healthcare service and propose an extended RBAC based security model. We propose and design u-healthcare service integration platform (u-HCSIP) applying RBAC security model. The proposed u-HCSIP performs four main functions: storing and exchanging personal health records (PHR), recommending meals and exercise, buying/selling private health information or experience, and managing personal health data using smart devices. Moon Sun Shin, Heung Seok Jeon, Yong Wan Ju, Bum Ju Lee, and Seon-Phil Jeong Copyright © 2015 Moon Sun Shin et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Evaluation of Proximal Carious Lesions Using Digital Radiographic Systems Tue, 27 Jan 2015 08:10:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/631508/ The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas. Mayana Soares Vieira, Caroline Parente Ribeiro Nogueira, Marcos André dos Santos Silva, José Roberto de Oliveira Bauer, and Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho Copyright © 2015 Mayana Soares Vieira et al. All rights reserved. Twin-Schnorr: A Security Upgrade for the Schnorr Identity-Based Identification Scheme Tue, 27 Jan 2015 07:58:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/237514/ Most identity-based identification (IBI) schemes proposed in recent literature are built using pairing operations. This decreases efficiency due to the high operation costs of pairings. Furthermore, most of these IBI schemes are proven to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using interactive assumptions such as the one-more RSA inversion assumption or the one-more discrete logarithm assumption, translating to weaker security guarantees due to the interactive nature of these assumptions. The Schnorr-IBI scheme was first proposed through the Kurosawa-Heng transformation from the Schnorr signature. It remains one of the fastest yet most secure IBI schemes under impersonation against passive attacks due to its pairing-free design. However, when required to be secure against impersonators under active and concurrent attacks, it deteriorates greatly in terms of efficiency due to the protocol having to be repeated multiple times. In this paper, we upgrade the Schnorr-IBI scheme to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using only the classical discrete logarithm assumption. This translates to a higher degree of security guarantee with only some minor increments in operational costs. Furthermore, because the scheme operates without pairings, it still retains its efficiency and superiority when compared to other pairing-based IBI schemes. Ji-Jian Chin, Syh-Yuan Tan, Swee-Huay Heng, and Raphael Chung-Wei Phan Copyright © 2015 Ji-Jian Chin et al. All rights reserved. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces Tue, 27 Jan 2015 06:36:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/752634/ We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras’s sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. İzzettin Demir and Oya Bedre Özbakır Copyright © 2015 İzzettin Demir and Oya Bedre Özbakır. All rights reserved. Surgical Treatment of Primary Intracardiac Myxoma: 20-Year Experience in “Shahid Modarres Hospital”—A Tertiary University Hospital—Tehran, Iran Mon, 26 Jan 2015 10:10:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/303629/ Although cardiac tumors are not common they may vary in terms of race and surgical approach in different countries. Method. Patients data of 20 years was collected and evaluated in the “Shahid Modarres Hospital”—a tertiary university hospital—Tehran, Iran. Results. 42 patients with cardiac myxoma (all cases in 20 years) were included in study, 17 males and 25 females, age difference: 13 to 76 years (mean 50.6). Most of patients were in functional classes I, II. 35 patients complained of dyspnea and 3 patients had embolic events. 97.6% of tumors were primary (41 patients) and one tumor was recurrent (2.4%), 85.7% of tumors (36 cases) were located in LA, and 88.1% of tumors (37 cases) were pediculated. 40 patients (95%) had one tumor. In 22 patients (52.3%) after tumor resection septal defects were repaired primarily while in 18 patients (42.8%) the defects were repaired with pericardial patch and In one patient, tumor resected without any septal defect. Mean tumor size was about 5.22 cm (range of 2.2 to 8.2 cm). Postoperatively, 33 patients discharged from hospital without any complication. Discussion. The research reveals that patients’ age and gender were similar to that of other studies in other countries while tumor’s incidence seems to be higher. 3 patients were diagnosed after remote embolic event and one patient was diagnosed after MI reflecting relatively high tumor complications and late diagnosis. Conclusion. In our study mean time from diagnosis to operation was too long. The patients had more preoperative embolic events and complication. However, size of myxoma and location of that was as same as its rate in the other literature. As recommendation we suggested that in all patients with vague chest pain or remote embolic events cardiac myxomas should be ruled out. Zahra Ansari Aval, Hamid Ghaderi, Hassan Tatari, Mahnoosh Foroughi, Seyedeh Adeleh Mirjafari, Mohammad Forozeshfard, Kamal Fani, and Isa Khaheshi Copyright © 2015 Zahra Ansari Aval et al. All rights reserved. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response Mon, 26 Jan 2015 09:54:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/756120/ Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. Abolghassem Emamverdian, Yulong Ding, Farzad Mokhberdoran, and Yinfeng Xie Copyright © 2015 Abolghassem Emamverdian et al. All rights reserved. Machine Learning for Medical Applications Mon, 26 Jan 2015 07:10:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/825267/ Huiyu Zhou, Jinshan Tang, and Huiru Zheng Copyright © 2015 Huiyu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Colonization and Diversity of AM Fungi by Morphological Analysis on Medicinal Plants in Southeast China Mon, 26 Jan 2015 07:08:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/753842/ The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal distributions in the rhizosphere of 20 medicinal plants species in Zhangzhou, southeast China, were studied. The results showed 66 species of 8 genera of AM fungi were identified, of which 38 belonged to Glomus, 12 to Acaulospora, 9 to Scutellospora, 2 to Gigaspora, 2 to Funneliformis, 1 to Septoglomus, 1 to Rhizophagus, and 1 to Archaeospora. Glomus was the dominant genera and G. melanosporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, G. etunicatum, Funneliformis mosseae, and G. rubiforme were the prevalent species. The highest colonization (100%) was recorded in Desmodium pulchellum (L.) Benth. while the lowest (8.0%) was in Acorus tatarinowii Schott. The AM fungi spore density ranged from 270 to 2860 per 100 g soil (average 1005), and the species richness ranged from 3 to 14 (average 9.7) per soil sample. Shannon-Wiener index ranged from 0.52 to 2 (average 1.45). In the present study, the colonization had a highly negative correlation with available K and electrical conductivity. Species richness correlated positively with electrical conductivity and organic matter. Shannon-Wiener index had a highly significant negative correlation with pH. This study provides a valuable germplasm and theoretical basis for AM fungal biotechnology on medicinal standardization planting. Mingyuan Wang and Pan Jiang Copyright © 2015 Mingyuan Wang and Pan Jiang. All rights reserved. Relation of the Cyclotomic Equation with the Harmonic and Derived Series Thu, 22 Jan 2015 06:20:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/950521/ We associate some (old) convergent series related to definite integrals with the cyclotomic equation , for several natural numbers m; for example, for , leads to . In some cases, we express the results in terms of the Dirichlet characters. Generalizations for arbitrary m are well defined but do imply integrals and/or series summations rather involved. Luis J. Boya and Cristian Rivera Copyright © 2015 Luis J. Boya and Cristian Rivera. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Molecular Epidemiological Data on Dirofilaria immitis in Dogs from Northeastern States of India Wed, 21 Jan 2015 06:55:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/265385/ The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in stray, pet, and working dogs (, 266, and 103, resp.) from Guwahati (Assam) and Aizawl (Mizoram), areas located in two Northeastern States of India. Diagnostic methods applied were microscopy (wet film and Knott’s concentration technique), immunological test (Ag ELISA by SNAP 4Dx ELISA kit), and molecular tools (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing), which evidenced 11.38, 18.03, and 13.93% of positive animals, respectively. No significant differences were observed by area (18.23% versus 17.68%) nor by sex (18.1% versus 17.9%), whereas stray dogs proved more infected than other groups (). ELISA test evidenced an overall 22.69% of occult infections, mainly in working dogs (60%), and molecular techniques detected Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens in 4 stray dogs from Guwahati. Characterization of D. immitis isolates for ITS-2 region showed close identity with South Asian isolates. Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur, Dilip Kumar Deka, Saidul Islam, Dilip Kumar Sarma, and Prabhat Chandra Sarmah Copyright © 2015 Sonjoy Kumar Borthakur et al. All rights reserved.