The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment Using Improved Weighted Round Robin Algorithm for Nonpreemptive Dependent Tasks Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:08:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/3896065/ Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM’s multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods. D. Chitra Devi and V. Rhymend Uthariaraj Copyright © 2016 D. Chitra Devi and V. Rhymend Uthariaraj. All rights reserved. Blowup Phenomenon of Solutions for the IBVP of the Compressible Euler Equations in Spherical Symmetry Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:41:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/3781760/ The blowup phenomenon of solutions is investigated for the initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) of the -dimensional Euler equations with spherical symmetry. We first show that there are only trivial solutions when the velocity is of the form for any value of or any positive integer . Then, we show that blowup phenomenon occurs when and . As a corollary, the blowup properties of solutions with velocity of the form are obtained. Our analysis includes both the isentropic case and the isothermal case . Ka Luen Cheung and Sen Wong Copyright © 2016 Ka Luen Cheung and Sen Wong. All rights reserved. Compressed Sensing/Sparse-Recovery Approach for Improved Range Resolution in Narrow-Band Radar Sun, 31 Jan 2016 09:33:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/3137146/ A compressed sensing/sparse-recovery procedure is adopted to obtain enhanced range resolution capability from the processing of data acquired with narrow-band SFCW radars. A mathematical formulation for the proposed approach is reported and validity limitations are fully discussed, by demonstrating the ability to identify a great number of targets, up to 20, in the range direction. Both numerical and experimental validations are presented, by assuming also noise conditions. The proposed method can be usefully applied for the accurate detection of parameters with very small variations, such as those involved in the monitoring of soil deformations or biological objects. Sandra Costanzo Copyright © 2016 Sandra Costanzo. All rights reserved. Predictors of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations among a Sample of Egyptian Schoolchildren Thu, 28 Jan 2016 09:59:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8175768/ Objective. To assess the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status among a sample of Egyptian schoolchildren and to evaluate predictors of deficiency and insufficiency. Subjects and Methods. A cross-sectional study comprising 200 prepubescent schoolchildren aged from 9 to 11 years was performed. A questionnaire including frequency of midday sun exposure, milk intake, physical activity, and level of maternal education was taken. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated; serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], serum calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone were measured. Results. Vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D < 20‚ÄČng/mL] was detected in 11.5% of subjects while its insufficiency (serum 25(OH)D is between 20 and 29.9‚ÄČng/mL) was detected in 15%. Results revealed that obesity, low physical activity, low sun exposure, and low maternal education level are significant predictors of insufficiency, though female gender, low maternal education level, and low milk intake are significant predictors of deficiency. Lower serum phosphorus and higher serum parathyroid hormone were significantly associated with both deficiency and insufficiency (). Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency are common among schoolchildren in Egypt. Food fortification, vitamin D supplementation, and increasing maternal awareness about the importance of physical activity and exposure of their children to ultraviolet light may help to overcome this problem. Mones M. Abu Shady, Mai M. Youssef, Ebtissam M. Salah El-Din, Ola M. Abdel Samie, Hala S. Megahed, Samar M. E. Salem, Manal A. Mohsen, Ali Abdel Aziz, and Safinaz El-Toukhy Copyright © 2016 Mones M. Abu Shady et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Attitudes and Health Behavior of Lawyers in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu” Tue, 26 Jan 2016 11:11:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/7836020/ Siddharudha Shivalli Copyright © 2016 Siddharudha Shivalli. All rights reserved. Facilitation as Attenuating of Environmental Stress among Structured Microbial Populations Thu, 21 Jan 2016 12:16:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/5713939/ There is currently an intense debate in microbial societies on whether evolution in complex communities is driven by competition or cooperation. Since Darwin, competition for scarce food resources has been considered the main ecological interaction shaping population dynamics and community structure both in vivo and in vitro. However, facilitation may be widespread across several animal and plant species. This could also be true in microbial strains growing under environmental stress. Pure and mixed strains of Serratia marcescens and Candida rugosa were grown in mineral culture media containing phenol. Growth rates were estimated as the angular coefficients computed from linearized growth curves. Fitness index was estimated as the quotient between growth rates computed for lineages grown in isolation and in mixed cultures. The growth rates were significantly higher in associated cultures than in pure cultures and fitness index was greater than 1 for both microbial species showing that the interaction between Serratia marcescens and Candida rugosa yielded more efficient phenol utilization by both lineages. This result corroborates the hypothesis that facilitation between microbial strains can increase their fitness and performance in environmental bioremediation. Suzana Cláudia Silveira Martins, Sandra Tédde Santaella, Claudia Miranda Martins, and Rogério Parentoni Martins Copyright © 2016 Suzana Cláudia Silveira Martins et al. All rights reserved. Fast and Sensitive Method for Determination of Domoic Acid in Mussel Tissue Thu, 21 Jan 2016 06:52:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8404092/ Domoic acid (DA), a neurotoxic amino acid produced by diatoms, is the main cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). In this work, we propose a very simple and fast analytical method to determine DA in mussel tissue. The method consists of two consecutive extractions and requires no purification steps, due to a reduction of the extraction of the interfering species and the application of very sensitive and selective HILIC-MS/MS method. The procedural method was validated through the estimation of trueness, extract yield, precision, detection, and quantification limits of analytical method. The sample preparation was also evaluated through qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the matrix effect. These evaluations were conducted both on the DA-free matrix spiked with known DA concentration and on the reference certified material (RCM). We developed a very selective LC-MS/MS method with a very low value of method detection limit (9 ng g−1) without cleanup steps. Elena Barbaro, Roberta Zangrando, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Gambaro Copyright © 2016 Elena Barbaro et al. All rights reserved. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats Tue, 19 Jan 2016 10:30:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/2194120/ This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. Guilherme L. da Rocha, Alex H. Crisp, Maria R. M. de Oliveira, Carlos A. da Silva, Jadson O. Silva, Ana C. G. O. Duarte, Marcela Sene-Fiorese, and Rozangela Verlengia Copyright © 2016 Guilherme L. da Rocha et al. All rights reserved. On the Exploration of Adaptive Mechanisms Providing Reliability in Clustered WSNs for Power Plant Monitoring Sun, 17 Jan 2016 16:17:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/4158735/ Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are used in almost every sensing and detection environment instead of wired devices in the current world, all the more in power plant monitoring applications. In such a kind of environment, providing reliability is a challenging task, since WSN makes use of low powered sensors. There are many existing works that provide reliable transmission in WSN (predominantly via multipath routing). However, most of the existing works take additional delay, excessive packet loss, and energy consumption, and hence they provide less packet delivery and throughput. Adaptive Priority Routing (APR) is first proposed during the initial design to provide efficiency in next hop selection. APR computes the priority value for selecting the intermediate nodes during the data transmission in order to improve the packet delivery, throughput, and energy efficiency. In addition to this, APR is developed into QAPR protocol to provide reliability which can operate in two modes, representing distance mode and representing quality of service (QoS) mode. The proposed work is simulated in both flat topology and hierarchical topologies and the simulation analysis shows that the reliability is increased significantly in comparison with existing works. Sathiyaseelan Rathinavel, Vijayakumar Pandi, and Audithan Sivaraman Copyright © 2016 Sathiyaseelan Rathinavel et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study on Various Authentication Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks Wed, 13 Jan 2016 07:13:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/6854303/ Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices with low cost, low power, and short-ranged wireless communication. The sensors can communicate with each other to form a network. In WSNs, broadcast transmission is widely used along with the maximum usage of wireless networks and their applications. Hence, it has become crucial to authenticate broadcast messages. Key management is also an active research topic in WSNs. Several key management schemes have been introduced, and their benefits are not recognized in a specific WSN application. Security services are vital for ensuring the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the critical information. Therefore, the authentication mechanisms are required to support these security services and to be resilient to distinct attacks. Various authentication protocols such as key management protocols, lightweight authentication protocols, and broadcast authentication protocols are compared and analyzed for all secure transmission applications. The major goal of this survey is to compare and find out the appropriate protocol for further research. Moreover, the comparisons between various authentication techniques are also illustrated. S. Raja Rajeswari and V. Seenivasagam Copyright © 2016 S. Raja Rajeswari and V. Seenivasagam. All rights reserved. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care Wed, 06 Jan 2016 14:13:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/5986835/ Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer’s level of concern about a child and the severity of a child’s problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child’s engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child’s attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP). Rachel Pritchett, Harriet Hockaday, Beatrice Anderson, Claire Davidson, Christopher Gillberg, and Helen Minnis Copyright © 2016 Rachel Pritchett et al. All rights reserved. An Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network Wed, 06 Jan 2016 11:30:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8658760/ Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network which formed with a maximum number of sensor nodes which are positioned in an application environment to monitor the physical entities in a target area, for example, temperature monitoring environment, water level, monitoring pressure, and health care, and various military applications. Mostly sensor nodes are equipped with self-supported battery power through which they can perform adequate operations and communication among neighboring nodes. Maximizing the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor networks, energy conservation measures are essential for improving the performance of WSNs. This paper proposes an Enhanced PSO-Based Clustering Energy Optimization (EPSO-CEO) algorithm for Wireless Sensor Network in which clustering and clustering head selection are done by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm with respect to minimizing the power consumption in WSN. The performance metrics are evaluated and results are compared with competitive clustering algorithm to validate the reduction in energy consumption. C. Vimalarani, R. Subramanian, and S. N. Sivanandam Copyright © 2016 C. Vimalarani et al. All rights reserved. Angle and Context Free Grammar Based Precarious Node Detection and Secure Data Transmission in MANETs Mon, 04 Jan 2016 06:55:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/3596345/ Growing attractiveness of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), its features, and usage has led to the launching of threats and attacks to bring negative consequences in the society. The typical features of MANETs, especially with dynamic topology and open wireless medium, may leave MANETs vulnerable. Trust management using uncertain reasoning scheme has previously attempted to solve this problem. However, it produces additional overhead while securing the network. Hence, a Location and Trust-based secure communication scheme (L&TS) is proposed to overcome this limitation. Since the design securing requires more than two data algorithms, the cost of the system goes up. Another mechanism proposed in this paper, Angle and Context Free Grammar (ACFG) based precarious node elimination and secure communication in MANETs, intends to secure data transmission and detect precarious nodes in a MANET at a comparatively lower cost. The Elliptic Curve function is used to isolate a malicious node, thereby incorporating secure data transfer. Simulation results show that the dynamic estimation of the metrics improves throughput by 26% in L&TS when compared to the TMUR. ACFG achieves 33% and 51% throughput increase when compared to L&TS and TMUR mechanisms, respectively. Anitha Veerasamy, Srinivasa Rao Madane, K. Sivakumar, and Audithan Sivaraman Copyright © 2016 Anitha Veerasamy et al. All rights reserved. Development of Energy Efficient Clustering Protocol in Wireless Sensor Network Using Neuro-Fuzzy Approach Mon, 04 Jan 2016 05:40:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/5063261/ Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes with limited processing capability and limited nonrechargeable battery power. Energy consumption in WSN is a significant issue in networks for improving network lifetime. It is essential to develop an energy aware clustering protocol in WSN to reduce energy consumption for increasing network lifetime. In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy energy aware clustering scheme (NFEACS) is proposed to form optimum and energy aware clusters. NFEACS consists of two parts: fuzzy subsystem and neural network system that achieved energy efficiency in forming clusters and cluster heads in WSN. NFEACS used neural network that provides effective training set related to energy and received signal strength of all nodes to estimate the expected energy for tentative cluster heads. Sensor nodes with higher energy are trained with center location of base station to select energy aware cluster heads. Fuzzy rule is used in fuzzy logic part that inputs to form clusters. NFEACS is designed for WSN handling mobility of node. The proposed scheme NFEACS is compared with related clustering schemes, cluster-head election mechanism using fuzzy logic, and energy aware fuzzy unequal clustering. The experiment results show that NFEACS performs better than the other related schemes. E. Golden Julie and S. Tamil Selvi Copyright © 2016 E. Golden Julie and S. Tamil Selvi. All rights reserved. Software Design Challenges in Time Series Prediction Systems Using Parallel Implementation of Artificial Neural Networks Sun, 03 Jan 2016 11:18:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/6709352/ Software development life cycle has been characterized by destructive disconnects between activities like planning, analysis, design, and programming. Particularly software developed with prediction based results is always a big challenge for designers. Time series data forecasting like currency exchange, stock prices, and weather report are some of the areas where an extensive research is going on for the last three decades. In the initial days, the problems with financial analysis and prediction were solved by statistical models and methods. For the last two decades, a large number of Artificial Neural Networks based learning models have been proposed to solve the problems of financial data and get accurate results in prediction of the future trends and prices. This paper addressed some architectural design related issues for performance improvement through vectorising the strengths of multivariate econometric time series models and Artificial Neural Networks. It provides an adaptive approach for predicting exchange rates and it can be called hybrid methodology for predicting exchange rates. This framework is tested for finding the accuracy and performance of parallel algorithms used. Narayanan Manikandan and Srinivasan Subha Copyright © 2016 Narayanan Manikandan and Srinivasan Subha. All rights reserved. Semantic Clustering of Search Engine Results Thu, 31 Dec 2015 07:52:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/931258/ This paper presents a novel approach for search engine results clustering that relies on the semantics of the retrieved documents rather than the terms in those documents. The proposed approach takes into consideration both lexical and semantics similarities among documents and applies activation spreading technique in order to generate semantically meaningful clusters. This approach allows documents that are semantically similar to be clustered together rather than clustering documents based on similar terms. A prototype is implemented and several experiments are conducted to test the prospered solution. The result of the experiment confirmed that the proposed solution achieves remarkable results in terms of precision. Sara Saad Soliman, Maged F. El-Sayed, and Yasser F. Hassan Copyright © 2015 Sara Saad Soliman et al. All rights reserved. Investigation on Effect of Material Hardness in High Speed CNC End Milling Process Thu, 31 Dec 2015 07:21:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/762604/ This research paper analyzes the effects of material properties on surface roughness, material removal rate, and tool wear on high speed CNC end milling process with various ferrous and nonferrous materials. The challenge of material specific decision on the process parameters of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut, coolant flow rate, cutting tool material, and type of coating for the cutting tool for required quality and quantity of production is addressed. Generally, decision made by the operator on floor is based on suggested values of the tool manufacturer or by trial and error method. This paper describes effect of various parameters on the surface roughness characteristics of the precision machining part. The prediction method suggested is based on various experimental analysis of parameters in different compositions of input conditions which would benefit the industry on standardization of high speed CNC end milling processes. The results show a basis for selection of parameters to get better results of surface roughness values as predicted by the case study results. N. V. Dhandapani, V. S. Thangarasu, and G. Sureshkannan Copyright © 2015 N. V. Dhandapani et al. All rights reserved. Associations between Inadequate Parenting Practices and Behavioral Problems in Children and Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Wed, 30 Dec 2015 06:29:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/683062/ Children and adolescents with ADHD present behaviors such as impulsiveness, inattention, and difficulties with personal organization that represent an overload for parents. Moreover, it also increases their level of stress and leads them to resort to inadequate educational strategies. The present study verifies associations between inadequate parenting practices and behavioral profiles of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample was composed of 22 children with ADHD (age range 6–16 years) and their mothers. Spearman correlation analyses were made with the scores of Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Child Behavior Checklist for ages 6–18 (CBCL/6–18). Results indicate statistically significant associations between behavioral problems and the use of punishment practices and negligence. When assessing a child with ADHD, it is important to verify the predominant types of parenting practices that can influence both immediate interventions and the prognosis of the disorder. Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira, Regina Luisa de Freitas Marino, and Luiz Renato Rodrigues Carreiro Copyright © 2015 Maria Cristina Triguero Veloz Teixeira et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites Tue, 29 Dec 2015 11:42:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/590810/ Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. S. Kanchana, P. Sivaprakash, and Sebastian Joseph Copyright © 2015 S. Kanchana et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Decomposition of Service Level Objectives into Policy Assertions Tue, 29 Dec 2015 11:38:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/465074/ WS-agreement specifies quality objectives that each partner is obligated to provide. To meet quality objectives, the corresponding partner should apply appropriate policy assertions to its web services and adjust their parameters accordingly. Transformation of WS-CDL to WSBPEL is addressed in some related works, but neither of them considers quality aspects of transformation nor run-time adaptation. Here, in conformance with web services standards, we propose an optimal decomposition method to make a set of WS-policy assertions. Assertions can be applied to WSBPEL elements and affect their run-time behaviors. The decomposition method achieves the best outcome for a performance indicator. It also guarantees the lowest adaptation overhead by reducing the number of service reselections. We considered securities settlement case study to prototype and evaluate the decomposition method. The results show an acceptable threshold between customer satisfaction—the targeted performance indicator in our case study—and adaptation overhead. Yousef Rastegari and Fereidoon Shams Copyright © 2015 Yousef Rastegari and Fereidoon Shams. All rights reserved. Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Scheme Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Thu, 24 Dec 2015 15:11:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/284276/ Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous mobile nodes forming an ad hoc network without fixed infrastructure. Dynamic topology property of MANET may degrade the performance of the network. However, multipath selection is a great challenging task to improve the network lifetime. We proposed an energy-aware multipath routing scheme based on particle swarm optimization (EMPSO) that uses continuous time recurrent neural network (CTRNN) to solve optimization problems. CTRNN finds the optimal loop-free paths to solve link disjoint paths in a MANET. The CTRNN is used as an optimum path selection technique that produces a set of optimal paths between source and destination. In CTRNN, particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is primly used for training the RNN. The proposed scheme uses the reliability measures such as transmission cost, energy factor, and the optimal traffic ratio between source and destination to increase routing performance. In this scheme, optimal loop-free paths can be found using PSO to seek better link quality nodes in route discovery phase. PSO optimizes a problem by iteratively trying to get a better solution with regard to a measure of quality. The proposed scheme discovers multiple loop-free paths by using PSO technique. Y. Harold Robinson and M. Rajaram Copyright © 2015 Y. Harold Robinson and M. Rajaram. All rights reserved. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity Thu, 24 Dec 2015 07:54:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/940243/ This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. Hélène Sénéchal, Nicolas Visez, Denis Charpin, Youcef Shahali, Gabriel Peltre, Jean-Philippe Biolley, Franck Lhuissier, Rémy Couderc, Ohri Yamada, Audrey Malrat-Domenge, Nhân Pham-Thi, Pascal Poncet, and Jean-Pierre Sutra Copyright © 2015 Hélène Sénéchal et al. All rights reserved. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt Sun, 20 Dec 2015 12:41:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/389213/ Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. Ayman Mohamed Megahed, Hesham Dahshan, Mahdy A. Abd-El-Kader, Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall, Mariam Hassan Elbana, Ehab Nabawy, and Hend A. Mahmoud Copyright © 2015 Ayman Mohamed Megahed et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication in Highway Using VANET Thu, 17 Dec 2015 09:21:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/329682/ The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2015 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Downregulation of S100 Calcium Binding Protein A9 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mon, 14 Dec 2015 12:19:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/325721/ The development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is poorly understood and the major regulatory molecules involved in the process of tumorigenesis have not yet been identified. We had previously employed a quantitative proteomic approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in ESCC tumors. A total of 238 differentially expressed proteins were identified in that study including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) as one of the major downregulated proteins. In the present study, we carried out immunohistochemical validation of S100A9 in a large cohort of ESCC patients to determine the expression and subcellular localization of S100A9 in tumors and adjacent normal esophageal epithelia. Downregulation of S100A9 was observed in 67% () of 288 different ESCC tumors, with the most dramatic downregulation observed in the poorly differentiated tumors (99/111). Expression of S100A9 was restricted to the prickle and functional layers of normal esophageal mucosa and localized predominantly in the cytoplasm and nucleus whereas virtually no expression was observed in the tumor and stromal cells. This suggests the important role that S100A9 plays in maintaining the differentiated state of epithelium and suggests that its downregulation may be associated with increased susceptibility to tumor formation. Harsh Pawar, Srinivas M. Srikanth, Manoj Kumar Kashyap, Gajanan Sathe, Sandip Chavan, Mukul Singal, H. C. Manju, Kariyanakatte Veeraiah Veerendra Kumar, M. Vijayakumar, Ravi Sirdeshmukh, Akhilesh Pandey, T. S. Keshava Prasad, Harsha Gowda, and Rekha V. Kumar Copyright © 2015 Harsh Pawar et al. All rights reserved. Design and Implementation of Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator for Rural Electrification Sun, 13 Dec 2015 08:51:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/340619/ This paper offers an alternative technique, namely, Improved Electronic Load Controller (IELC), which is proposal to improve power quality, maintaining voltage at frequency desired level for rural electrification. The design and development of IELC are considered as microhydroenergy system. The proposed work aims to concentrate on the new schemes for rural electrification with the help of different kinds of hybrid energy systems. The objective of the proposed scheme is to maintain the speed of generation against fluctuating rural demand. The Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is used to connect and disconnect the dump load during the operation of the system, and which absorbs the load when consumer are not in active will enhance the lifestyle of the rural population and improve the living standards. Hydroelectricity is a promising option for electrification of remote villages in India. The conventional methods are not suitable to act as standalone system. Hence, the designing of a proper ELC is essential. The improved electronic load control performance tested with simulation at validated through hardware setup. C. Kathirvel, K. Porkumaran, and S. Jaganathan Copyright © 2015 C. Kathirvel et al. All rights reserved. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study Thu, 10 Dec 2015 07:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/602710/ Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville) between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire) over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99%) raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75%) agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9). Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6). No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies. Pedro J. Serrano-Castro, Jose Angel Mauri-Llerda, Francisco José Hernández-Ramos, Juan Carlos Sánchez-Alvarez, Beatriz Parejo-Carbonell, Pablo Quiroga-Subirana, Fernando Vázquez-Gutierrez, Sonia Santos-Lasaosa, Carolina Mendez-Lucena, Luis Redondo-Verge, Carlos Tejero-Juste, Clara Morandeira-Rivas, Jerónimo Sancho-Rieger, and Jorge Matías-Guiu Copyright © 2015 Pedro J. Serrano-Castro et al. All rights reserved. Public Health Risks from Mismanagement of Healthcare Wastes in Shinyanga Municipality Health Facilities, Tanzania Tue, 08 Dec 2015 14:02:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/981756/ The increase of healthcare facilities in Shinyanga municipality has resulted in an increase of healthcare wastes, which poses serious threats to the environment, health workers, and the general public. This research was conducted to investigate management practices of healthcare wastes in Shinyanga municipality with a view of assessing health risks to health workers and the general public. The study, which was carried out in three hospitals, involved the use of questionnaires, in-depth interview, and observation checklist. The results revealed that healthcare wastes are not quantified or segregated in all the three hospitals. Healthcare wastes at the Shinyanga Regional Referral Hospital are disposed of by on-site incineration and burning and some wastes are disposed off-site. At Kolandoto DDH only on-site burning and land disposal are practiced, while at Kambarage UHC healthcare solid wastes are incinerated, disposed of on land disposal, and burned. Waste management workers do not have formal training in waste management techniques and the hospital administrations pay very little attention to appropriate management of healthcare wastes. In light of this, it is evident that management of healthcare solid wastes is not practiced in accordance with the national and WHO’s recommended standards. Kizito Kuchibanda and Aloyce W. Mayo Copyright © 2015 Kizito Kuchibanda and Aloyce W. Mayo. All rights reserved. Projected and Observed Aridity and Climate Change in the East Coast of South India under RCP 4.5 Thu, 03 Dec 2015 09:09:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/169761/ In the purview of global warming, the present study attempts to project changes in climate and quantify the changes in aridity of two coastal districts in south India under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. Projected climate change output generated by RegCM 4.4 model, pertaining to 14 grid points located within the study area, was analyzed and processed for this purpose. The meteorological parameters temperature and precipitations were used to create De Martonne Aridity Index, to assess the spatial distribution of aridity. The original index values ranged from 13.7 to 16.4 mm/°C, characterizing this area as a semidry climate. The outcome from the changed scenario analysis under RCP 4.5 showed that, during the end of the 21st century, the aridity may be increased more as the index values tend to reduce. The increasing trend in the drying phenomenon may be attributed to the rising of mean annual temperatures. A. Ramachandran, Dhanya Praveen, R. Jaganathan, and K. Palanivelu Copyright © 2015 A. Ramachandran et al. All rights reserved. Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium Wed, 02 Dec 2015 08:03:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/174512/ Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient’s life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body function records. Most of the systems on the Wireless Body Area Network are not effective in facing the security deployment issues. To access the patient’s information with higher security on WBAN, Game Theory with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium (GTSSE) is proposed in this paper. GTSSE mechanism takes all the players into account. The patients are monitored by placing the power position authority initially. The position authority in GTSSE is the organizer and all the other players react to the organizer decision. Based on our proposed approach, experiment has been conducted on factors such as security ratio based on patient’s health information, system flexibility level, energy consumption rate, and information loss rate. Stackelberg Security considerably improves the strength of solution with higher security. M. Somasundaram and R. Sivakumar Copyright © 2015 M. Somasundaram and R. Sivakumar. All rights reserved.