The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Effect of Changes in Lower Incisor Inclination on Gingival Recession Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:45:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/193206/ Aim. Orthodontic treatment may promote development of recessions. The mechanism by which orthodontic treatment influences occurrence of recessions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a change of mandibular incisor inclination promotes development of labial gingival recessions. Materials and Methods. The study sample comprised dental casts and lateral cephalograms obtained from 109 subjects before orthodontic treatment (Tb) and after orthodontic treatment (Ta). Depending on the change of lower incisor inclination during treatment, the subjects were divided into three groups: Retroclination (R), Stable Position (S), and Proclination (P). The presence of gingival recessions of mandibular incisors and clinical crown heights were assessed on plaster models. Results and Conclusions. From Tb to Ta, Inc_Incl showed a statistically significant change in the R, P, and S groups (). Increase of clinical crown heights of the lower incisors (42, 4, and 31) was not statistically significant in any group. The only statistically significant intergroup difference was the greater increase of the clinical crown height of tooth number 32 in the P group in comparison with the R group (). The change of lower incisor inclination during treatment did not lead to development of labial gingival recessions in the study sample. Gulen Kamak, Hasan Kamak, Hakan Keklik, and Hakan Gurcan Gurel Copyright © 2015 Gulen Kamak et al. All rights reserved. Briefing in Application of Machine Learning Methods in Ion Channel Prediction Thu, 16 Apr 2015 14:21:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/945927/ In cells, ion channels are one of the most important classes of membrane proteins which allow inorganic ions to move across the membrane. A wide range of biological processes are involved and regulated by the opening and closing of ion channels. Ion channels can be classified into numerous classes and different types of ion channels exhibit different functions. Thus, the correct identification of ion channels and their types using computational methods will provide in-depth insights into their function in various biological processes. In this review, we will briefly introduce and discuss the recent progress in ion channel prediction using machine learning methods. Hao Lin and Wei Chen Copyright © 2015 Hao Lin and Wei Chen. All rights reserved. Sparse Matrix for ECG Identification with Two-Lead Features Thu, 16 Apr 2015 09:34:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/656807/ Electrocardiograph (ECG) human identification has the potential to improve biometric security. However, improvements in ECG identification and feature extraction are required. Previous work has focused on single lead ECG signals. Our work proposes a new algorithm for human identification by mapping two-lead ECG signals onto a two-dimensional matrix then employing a sparse matrix method to process the matrix. And that is the first application of sparse matrix techniques for ECG identification. Moreover, the results of our experiments demonstrate the benefits of our approach over existing methods. Kuo-Kun Tseng, Jiao Luo, Robert Hegarty, Wenmin Wang, and Dong Haiting Copyright © 2015 Kuo-Kun Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Recognizing Cursive Typewritten Text Using Segmentation-Free System Wed, 15 Apr 2015 12:26:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/818432/ Feature extraction plays an important role in text recognition as it aims to capture essential characteristics of the text image. Feature extraction algorithms widely range between robust and hard to extract features and noise sensitive and easy to extract features. Among those feature types are statistical features which are derived from the statistical distribution of the image pixels. This paper presents a novel method for feature extraction where simple statistical features are extracted from a one-pixel wide window that slides across the text line. The feature set is clustered in the feature space using vector quantization. The feature vector sequence is then injected to a classification engine for training and recognition purposes. The recognition system is applied to a data corpus which includes cursive Arabic text of more than 600 A4-size sheets typewritten in multiple computer-generated fonts. The system performance is compared to a previously published system from the literature with a similar engine but a different feature set. Mohammad S. Khorsheed Copyright © 2015 Mohammad S. Khorsheed. All rights reserved. Reflective Optics Design for an LED High Beam Headlamp of Motorbikes Wed, 15 Apr 2015 09:57:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/503171/ We propose a reflective optics design for an LED motorbike high beam lamp. We set the measuring screen as an elliptical zone and divide it into many small lattices and divide the spatial angle of the LED source into many parts and make relationships between them. According to the conservation law of energy and the Snell’s law, the reflector is generated by freeform optics design method. Then the optical system is simulated by Monte Carlo method using ASAP software. Light pattern of simulation could meet the standard. The high beam headlamp is finally fabricated and assembled into a physical object. Experiment results can fully comply with United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) vehicle regulations R113 revision 2 (Class C). Peng Ge, Xiang Wang, Yang Li, and Hong Wang Copyright © 2015 Peng Ge et al. All rights reserved. Rescue and Emergency Management of a Man-Made Disaster: Lesson Learnt from a Collapse Factory Building, Bangladesh Tue, 14 Apr 2015 11:10:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/136434/ A tragic disaster occurred on April 24, 2013, in Bangladesh, when a nine storied building in a suburban area collapsed and killed 1115 people and injured many more. The study describes the process of rescue operation and emergency management services provided in the event. Data were collected using qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and a focus group discussion with the involved medical students, doctors, volunteers, and local people. Immediately after the disaster, rescue teams came to the place from Bangladesh Armed Forces, Bangladesh Navy, Bangladesh Air Force, and Dhaka Metropolitan and local Police and doctors, medical students, and nurses from nearby medical college hospitals and private hospitals and students from colleges and universities including local civil people. Doctors and medical students provided 24-hour services at the disaster place and in hospitals. Minor injured patients were treated at health camps and major injured patients were immediately carried to nearby hospital. Despite the limitations of a low resource setting, Bangladesh faced a tremendous challenge to manage the man-made disaster and experienced enormous support from different sectors of society to manage the disaster carefully and saved thousands of lives. This effort could help to develop a standard emergency management system applicable to Bangladesh and other counties with similar settings. Animesh Biswas, Aminur Rahman, Saidur Rahman Mashreky, Tasnuva Humaira, and Koustuv Dalal Copyright © 2015 Animesh Biswas et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Potential of Multidetector Computed Tomography for Characterizing Small Renal Masses Thu, 09 Apr 2015 16:07:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/476750/ Objectives. To assess the potential of CT for characterizing small renal tumors. Methods. 76 patients with <4 cm renal tumors underwent CT examination. The following parameters were assessed: presence of calcifications, densitometry on unenhanced and enhanced scans, washout percentage, urinary tract infiltration, star-shaped scar, and paradoxical effect. Results. Calcifications were found in 7/56 (12.5%) carcinomas. Clear cell carcinomas were as follows: mean density 183.5 HU (arterial phase), 136 HU (portal phase), and 94 HU (delayed phase), washout 34.3%; chromophobe carcinomas were as follows: mean density 135 HU (arterial phase), 161 HU (portal phase), and 148 HU (delayed phase), washout 28%; papillary carcinomas were as follows: mean density 50.3 HU (arterial phase), 60 HU (portal phase), and 58.1 HU (delayed phase), washout 2.7%. In 2/56 (3.6%) cases urinary tract infiltration was found. Oncocytomas were as follows: mean density 126.5 HU (arterial phase), 147.5 HU (portal phase), and 115.5 HU (delayed phase), washout 28.6%. On unenhanced scans, angiomyolipomas were as follows: density values <30 HU in 12/12 (100%) of cases and on enhanced scans: mean density 78 HU (arterial phase), 128 HU (portal phase), and 80 HU (delayed phase), washout 50%. Conclusions. Intralesional calcifications and urinary tract infiltration are suggestive for malignancy, with the evidence of adipose tissue for angiomyolipomas and a modest increase in density with a reduced washout for papillary carcinomas. The intralesional density on enhanced scans, peak enhancement, and washout do not seem significant for differentiating clear cell, chromophobe carcinomas, angiomyolipomas, and oncocytomas. Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Annamaria Albergo, Marco Moschetta, Mariacristina Angelelli, Arnaldo Scardapane, and Giuseppe Angelelli Copyright © 2015 Maria Elisabetta Mancini et al. All rights reserved. Shaping Ability of Reciproc, UnicOne, and Protaper Universal in Simulated Root Canals Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:32:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/690854/ The study aimed to compare the shaping effects, preservation of the original curvature, and transportation of the apical foramen of Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), UnicOne (Medin, Nové Město na Moravě, Czech Republic), and Protaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) in simulated root canals. Thirty resin blocks with simulated curved root canals were distributed into three groups and prepared using Reciproc (RCp), UnicOne (UnO) and the Protaper Universal (PTu). Standardized photographs were taken before and after the instrumentation, after which they were superimposed. Measurements were taken of the quantity of resin removed from the inner and outer walls of the curvature at 6 levels, the curvature angles before and after instrumentation, and the transportation of the apical foramen. RCp obtained the highest values for amount of resin removed from the inner wall while UnO demonstrated similar shaping on both the inner and outer walls. PTu produced the greatest transportation of foramen when compared to the reciprocating instruments. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the change in angle . All the instruments were capable of maintaining the original curvature of the root canal; however, the UnO, which used reciprocating movement, produced more conservative shapes with lower foramen transportation. Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho, Cláudia de Castro Rizzi, Matheus Bandeca Coelho, Sara Freitas Santos, Luzia Mayanne Oliveira Costa, Ceci Nunes Carvalho, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez, and Janir Alves Soares Copyright © 2015 Etevaldo Matos Maia Filho et al. All rights reserved. Dental Students’ Knowledge of Oral Health for Persons with Special Needs: A Pilot Study Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/568464/ Objectives. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of dental students with respect to oral health care of the person with special health care needs (SHCN) and evaluate effectiveness of an education program on improving their knowledge. Method. An evaluation consisting of a questionnaire was answered before and immediately after a 30-minute educational presentation in the form of a DVD that includes a PowerPoint and a video of oral health care for individuals with SHCN. The questionnaire was based on the materials and information presented in the DVD and included 26 questions (true/false/I do not know). Results. The mean (±SD) score on the pretest was 10.85 (±5.20), which increased to 16.85 (±5.47) on the posttest. This difference was statistically significant (). Forty percent of the students surveyed reported that they were very satisfied with the educational part of the presentation, while 50% were somewhat satisfied. Thirty percent of students expressed that the educational intervention used is very effective. Conclusions. Viewing the educational intervention was effective in informing the sophomore students and providing them with instructive basic information on person with SHCN. Dental colleges should increase students’ knowledge, training, and exposure to individuals with SHCN. Fouad Salama, Bader Al-Balkhi, and Faika Abdelmegid Copyright © 2015 Fouad Salama et al. All rights reserved. Smart TV-Smartphone Multiscreen Interactive Middleware for Public Displays Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:18:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/534949/ A new generation of public displays demands high interactive and multiscreen features to enrich people’s experience in new pervasive environments. Traditionally, research on public display interaction has involved mobile devices as the main characters during the use of personal area network technologies such as Bluetooth or NFC. However, the emergent Smart TV model arises as an interesting alternative for the implementation of a new generation of public displays. This is due to its intrinsic connection capabilities with surrounding devices like smartphones or tablets. Nonetheless, the different approaches proposed by the most important vendors are still underdeveloped to support multiscreen and interaction capabilities for modern public displays, because most of them are intended for domestic environments. This research proposes multiscreen interactive middleware for public displays, which was developed from the principles of a loosely coupled interaction model, simplicity, stability, concurrency, low latency, and the usage of open standards and technologies. Moreover, a validation prototype is proposed in one of the most interesting public display scenarios: the advertising. Francisco Martinez-Pabon, Jaime Caicedo-Guerrero, Jhon Jairo Ibarra-Samboni, Gustavo Ramirez-Gonzalez, and Davinia Hernández-Leo Copyright © 2015 Francisco Martinez-Pabon et al. All rights reserved. Machine Learning in Intelligent Video and Automated Monitoring Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:58:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/570145/ Yu-Bo Yuan, Gao Yang David, and Shan Zhao Copyright © 2015 Yu-Bo Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Simulation and Study of Power Quality Issues in a Fixed Speed Wind Farm Substation Wed, 08 Apr 2015 11:45:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/367540/ Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation. T. Magesh and C. Chellamuthu Copyright © 2015 T. Magesh and C. Chellamuthu. All rights reserved. Recent Theories and Applications in Approximation Theory Wed, 08 Apr 2015 07:00:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/598279/ Fazlollah Soleymani, Predrag S. Stanimirović, Juan R. Torregrosa, Hassan Saberi Nik, and Emran Tohidi Copyright © 2015 Fazlollah Soleymani et al. All rights reserved. The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:09:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/460421/ The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. K. Muzhinji, S. Shateyi, and S. S. Motsa Copyright © 2015 K. Muzhinji et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “A Preliminary Investigation of User Perception and Behavioral Intention for Different Review Types: Customers and Designers Perspective” Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:04:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/258150/ Atika Qazi, Ram Gopal Raj, Muhammad Tahir, Mehwish Waheed, Saif Ur Rehman Khan, and Ajith Abraham Copyright © 2015 Atika Qazi et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosing and Ranking Retinopathy Disease Level Using Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation Approach Tue, 07 Apr 2015 11:37:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/534045/ Retinal fundus images are widely used in diagnosing different types of eye diseases. The existing methods such as Feature Based Macular Edema Detection (FMED) and Optimally Adjusted Morphological Operator (OAMO) effectively detected the presence of exudation in fundus images and identified the true positive ratio of exudates detection, respectively. These mechanically detected exudates did not include more detailed feature selection technique to the system for detection of diabetic retinopathy. To categorize the exudates, Diabetic Fundus Image Recuperation (DFIR) method based on sliding window approach is developed in this work to select the features of optic cup in digital retinal fundus images. The DFIR feature selection uses collection of sliding windows with varying range to obtain the features based on the histogram value using Group Sparsity Nonoverlapping Function. Using support vector model in the second phase, the DFIR method based on Spiral Basis Function effectively ranks the diabetic retinopathy disease level. The ranking of disease level on each candidate set provides a much promising result for developing practically automated and assisted diabetic retinopathy diagnosis system. Experimental work on digital fundus images using the DFIR method performs research on the factors such as sensitivity, ranking efficiency, and feature selection time. K. Somasundaram and P. Alli Rajendran Copyright © 2015 K. Somasundaram and P. Alli Rajendran. All rights reserved. A Novel Rules Based Approach for Estimating Software Birthmark Mon, 06 Apr 2015 11:22:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/579390/ Software birthmark is a unique quality of software to detect software theft. Comparing birthmarks of software can tell us whether a program or software is a copy of another. Software theft and piracy are rapidly increasing problems of copying, stealing, and misusing the software without proper permission, as mentioned in the desired license agreement. The estimation of birthmark can play a key role in understanding the effectiveness of a birthmark. In this paper, a new technique is presented to evaluate and estimate software birthmark based on the two most sought-after properties of birthmarks, that is, credibility and resilience. For this purpose, the concept of soft computing such as probabilistic and fuzzy computing has been taken into account and fuzzy logic is used to estimate properties of birthmark. The proposed fuzzy rule based technique is validated through a case study and the results show that the technique is successful in assessing the specified properties of the birthmark, its resilience and credibility. This, in turn, shows how much effort will be required to detect the originality of the software based on its birthmark. Shah Nazir, Sara Shahzad, Sher Afzal Khan, Norma Binti Alias, and Sajid Anwar Copyright © 2015 Shah Nazir et al. All rights reserved. Effects in Short and Long Term of Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) on Chronic Low Back Pain: A Controlled Study with One-Year Follow-Up Mon, 06 Apr 2015 09:52:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/271436/ Objective. Comparing global postural reeducation (GPR) to a standard physiotherapy treatment (PT) based on active exercises, stretching, and massaging for improving pain and function in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Design. Prospective controlled study. Setting. Outpatient rehabilitation facility. Participants. Adult patients with diagnosis of nonspecific, chronic (>6 months) low back pain. Interventions. Both treatments consisted of 15 sessions of one hour each, twice a week including patient education. Measures. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire to evaluate disability, and Numeric Analog Scale for pain. A score change >30% was considered clinically significant. Past treatments, use of medications, smoking habits, height, weight, profession, and physical activity were also recorded on baseline, on discharge, and 1 year after discharge (resp., T0, T1, and T2). Results. At T0 103 patients with cLBP (51 cases and 52 controls) were recruited. The treatment (T1) has been completed by 79 (T1) of which 60 then carried out the 1-year follow-up (T2). Both GPR and PT at T1 were associated with a significant statistical and clinical improvement in pain and function, compared to T0. At T2, only pain in GPR still registered a statistically significant improvement. Chiara Castagnoli, Francesca Cecchi, Antonio Del Canto, Anita Paperini, Roberta Boni, Guido Pasquini, Federica Vannetti, and Claudio Macchi Copyright © 2015 Chiara Castagnoli et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Prosthetic Knee Movement Phases via In-Socket Sensors: A Feasibility Study Sun, 05 Apr 2015 14:32:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/923286/ This paper presents an approach of identifying prosthetic knee movements through pattern recognition of mechanical responses at the internal socket’s wall. A quadrilateral double socket was custom made and instrumented with two force sensing resistors (FSR) attached to specific anterior and posterior sites of the socket’s wall. A second setup was established by attaching three piezoelectric sensors at the anterior distal, anterior proximal, and posterior sites. Gait cycle and locomotion movements such as stair ascent and sit to stand were adopted to characterize the validity of the technique. FSR and piezoelectric outputs were measured with reference to the knee angle during each phase. Piezoelectric sensors could identify the movement of midswing and terminal swing, pre-full standing, pull-up at gait, sit to stand, and stair ascent. In contrast, FSR could estimate the gait cycle stance and swing phases and identify the pre-full standing at sit to stand. FSR showed less variation during sit to stand and stair ascent to sensitively represent the different movement states. The study highlighted the capacity of using in-socket sensors for knee movement identification. In addition, it validated the efficacy of the system and warrants further investigation with more amputee subjects and different sockets types. Amr M. El-Sayed, Nur Azah Hamzaid, Kenneth Y. S. Tan, and Noor Azuan Abu Osman Copyright © 2015 Amr M. El-Sayed et al. All rights reserved. Manual Physical Therapists’ Use of Biopsychosocial History Taking in the Management of Patients with Back or Neck Pain in Clinical Practice Sun, 05 Apr 2015 14:28:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/170463/ Objective. To develop and evaluate process indicators relevant to biopsychosocial history taking in patients with chronic back and neck pain. Methods. The SCEBS method, covering the Somatic, Psychological (Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior), and Social dimensions of chronic pain, was used to evaluate biopsychosocial history taking by manual physical therapists (MPTs). In Phase I, process indicators were developed while in Phase II indicators were tested in practice. Results. Literature-based recommendations were transformed into 51 process indicators. Twenty MTPs contributed 108 patient audio recordings. History taking was excellent (98.3%) for the Somatic dimension, very inadequate for Cognition (43.1%) and Behavior (38.3%), weak (27.8%) for Emotion, and low (18.2%) for the Social dimension. MTPs estimated their coverage of the Somatic dimension as excellent (100%), as adequate for Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior (60.1%), and as very inadequate for the Social dimension (39.8%). Conclusion. MTPs perform screening for musculoskeletal pain mainly through the use of somatic dimension of (chronic) pain. Psychological and social dimensions of chronic pain were inadequately covered by MPTs. Furthermore, a substantial discrepancy between actual and self-estimated use of biopsychosocial history taking was noted. We strongly recommend full implementation of the SCEBS method in educational programs in manual physical therapy. Rob A. B. Oostendorp, Hans Elvers, Emilia Mikołajewska, Marjan Laekeman, Emiel van Trijffel, Han Samwel, and William Duquet Copyright © 2015 Rob A. B. Oostendorp et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Portable Gait Rehabilitation System for Home-Visit Rehabilitation Sun, 05 Apr 2015 12:57:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/849831/ This paper describes the development of a gait rehabilitation system with a locomotion interface (LI) for home-visit rehabilitation. For this purpose, the LI should be compact, small, and easy to move. The LI has two 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulators with footpads to move each foot along a trajectory. When the user stands on the footpads, the system can move his or her feet while the body remains stationary. The footpads can have various trajectories, which are prerecordings of the movements of healthy individuals walking on plane surfaces or slopes. The homes of stroke patients may have not only flat surfaces but also some slopes and staircases. The quadriceps femoris muscle is important for walking up and down slopes and staircases, and the eccentric and concentric contractions of this muscle are, in particular, difficult to train under normal circumstances. Therefore, we developed a graded-walking program for the system used in this study. Using this system, the user can undergo gait rehabilitation in their home, during visits by a physical therapist. An evaluation of the results of tests showed that the vastus medialis muscles of all the subjects were stimulated more than by walking on real slopes. Hiroaki Yano, Naoki Tanaka, Kiyotaka Kamibayashi, Hideyuki Saitou, and Hiroo Iwata Copyright © 2015 Hiroaki Yano et al. All rights reserved. Lack of Association between rs2067474 Polymorphism in Histamine Receptor H2 Gene and Breast Cancer in Chinese Han Population Thu, 02 Apr 2015 16:21:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/545292/ Histamine H2 receptor (HRH2) was previously suggested to affect the proliferation of breast cancer cells and disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. Furthermore, a common polymorphism, rs2067474, was identified in an enhancer element of the HRH2 gene promoter and was reported to be associated with various diseases including cancer. However, the relationship between this polymorphism and breast cancer risk and malignant degree remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical association of rs2067474 polymorphism with breast cancer. A total of 201 unrelated Chinese Han breast cancer patients and 238 ethnicity-matched health controls were recruited and rs2067474 polymorphism was genotyped. Logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) as a measure of association of genotype with breast cancer according to 3 genetic models (dominant, recessive, and additive). Although the percentage of hormone receptor negative cases tended to be higher in AA genotypes, we did not find any significant associations of rs2067474 polymorphism with breast cancer risk or with related clinicopathological parameters in the present study, which indicates that rs2067474 polymorphism of HRH2 gene might not be a risk factor in the development of breast cancer in Chinese Han population. Wen-Ke Cai, Jia-Bin Zhang, Niu-Min Wang, Ying-Lin Wang, Can-Hu Zhao, Jun Lu, and Gong-Hao He Copyright © 2015 Wen-Ke Cai et al. All rights reserved. Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications Thu, 02 Apr 2015 09:32:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/592537/ Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP) based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures. S. Karthick, S. Valarmathy, and E. Prabhu Copyright © 2015 S. Karthick et al. All rights reserved. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness Thu, 02 Apr 2015 09:06:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/253568/ This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer. Peter Michal, Alena Vagaská, Miroslav Gombár, Ján Kmec, Emil Spišák, and Daniel Kučerka Copyright © 2015 Peter Michal et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Ontology for Semantic Information Retrieval Model Using Keyword Matching Indexing System Wed, 01 Apr 2015 08:36:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/414910/ Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology. K. R. Uthayan and G. S. Anandha Mala Copyright © 2015 K. R. Uthayan and G. S. Anandha Mala. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Combinatorial Optimization Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:17:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/628265/ Dehua Xu, Dar-Li Yang, Ming Liu, Feng Chu, and Imed Kacem Copyright © 2015 Dehua Xu et al. All rights reserved. L-Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 10863 Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:45:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/501029/ Lactic acid has been shown to have the most promising application in biomaterials as poly(lactic acid). L. rhamnosus ATCC 10863 that produces L-lactic acid was used to perform the fermentation and molasses was used as substrate. A solution containing 27.6 g/L of sucrose (main composition of molasses) and 3.0 g/L of yeast extract was prepared, considering the final volume of 3,571 mL (14.0% (v/v) inoculum). Batch and fed batch fermentations were performed with temperature of 43.4°C and pH of 5.0. At the fed batch, three molasses feed were applied at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Samples were taken every two hours and the amounts of lactic acid, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were determined by HPLC. The sucrose was barely consumed at both processes; otherwise the glucose and fructose were almost entirely consumed. 16.5 g/L of lactic acid was produced at batch and 22.0 g/L at fed batch. Considering that lactic acid was produced due to the low concentration of the well consumed sugars, the final amount was considerable. The cell growth was checked and no substrate inhibition was observed. A sucrose molasses hydrolysis is suggested to better avail the molasses fermentation with this strain, surely increasing the L-lactic acid. Ana Lívia Chemeli Senedese, Rubens Maciel Filho, and Maria Regina Wolf Maciel Copyright © 2015 Ana Lívia Chemeli Senedese et al. All rights reserved. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Determination of Gingival Thickness and Distance between Gingival Margin and Bone Crest Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:29:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/142108/ The objective of the present study was to assess cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic method for determination of gingival thickness (GT) and distance between gingival margin and vestibular (GMBC-V) and interproximal bone crests (GMBC-I). GT and GMBC-V were measured in 348 teeth and GMBC-I was measured in 377 tooth regions of 29 patients with gummy smile. GT was assessed using transgingival probing (TP), ultrasound (US), and CBCT, whereas GMBC-V and GMBC-I were assessed by transsurgical clinical evaluation (TCE) and CBCT. Statistical analyses used independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and simple linear regression. Difference was observed for GT: between TP, CBCT, and US considering all teeth; between TP and CBCT and between TP and US in incisors and canines; between TP and US in premolars and first molars. TP presented the highest means for GT. Positive correlation and linear regression were observed between TP and CBCT, TP and US, and CBCT and US. Difference was observed for GMBC-V and GMBC-I using TCE and CBCT, considering all teeth. Correlation and linear regression results were significant for GMBC-V and GMBC-I in incisors, canines, and premolars. CBCT is an effective diagnostic method to visualize and measure GT, GMBC-V, and GMBC-I. Germana Jayme Borges, Luis Fernando Naldi Ruiz, Ana Helena Gonçalves de Alencar, Olavo César Lyra Porto, and Carlos Estrela Copyright © 2015 Germana Jayme Borges et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Damping Capacity and Mechanical Properties of Mg-6Al-1Zn Alloy Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:03:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/170458/ The damping capacity and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy after heat treatment were investigated. The damping characteristics of un-heat-treated, solution treated, and aged Mg-6Al-1Zn specimens were determined by measuring the damping ratio and the logarithmic decrement of free vibrations of a bending beam clamped at one side. The microstructural evaluations confirmed that the β-Mg17Al12 phase was reprecipitated after aging and increased with an increase in aging time. The peak level of damping ratio and logarithmic decrement was obtained after 34 hr of aging time, over which the damping capacity declined according to increasing amount of strong pining points. Abdel-Wahab El-Morsy and Ahmed I. Z. Farahat Copyright © 2015 Abdel-Wahab El-Morsy and Ahmed I. Z. Farahat. All rights reserved. Strategic Management Advanced Service for Sustainable Computing Environment Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:34:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/715967/ Sang-Soo Yeo, Qun Jin, Vincenzo Loia, and Hangbae Chang Copyright © 2015 Sang-Soo Yeo et al. All rights reserved.