The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Formulation and Evaluation of Galantamine Gel as Drug Reservoir in Transdermal Patch Delivery System Thu, 26 Feb 2015 06:51:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/495271/ Galantamine hydrobromide is formulated in tablets and capsules prescribed through oral delivery for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. However, oral delivery of drugs can cause severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and gastrointestinal disturbance. Transdermal delivery of galantamine hydrobromide could avoid these unwanted side effects. In this work, galantamine hydrobromide was formulated in gel drug reservoir which was then fabricated in the transdermal patch. The in vitro drug release studies revealed that the drug release from the donor chamber to receptor chamber of Franz diffusion cell was affected by the amount of polymer, amount of neutralizer, amount of drug, types of permeation enhancer, and amount of permeation enhancer. Visual observations of the gels showed that all formulated gels are translucent, homogeneous, smooth, and stable. These gels have pH in the suitable range for skin. The gel also showed high drug content uniformity. Hence, this formulation can be further used in the preparation of transdermal patch drug delivery system. Woo Fong Yen, Mahiran Basri, Mansor Ahmad, and Maznah Ismail Copyright © 2015 Woo Fong Yen et al. All rights reserved. PCR and ELISA vis-à-vis Microscopy for Detection of Bovine Anaplasmosis: A Study on Associated Risk of an Upcoming Problem in North India Wed, 25 Feb 2015 14:23:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/352519/ This investigation demonstrates the status of bovine anaplasmosis caused by A. marginale in bovines from Submountain and Undulating Zone of Punjab. Out of 184 suspected animals, 25 (19.51%), 47 (31.71%), and 78 (68.75%) were positive by microscopy, indirect ELISA, and PCR assay, respectively. The microscopy showed 29% sensitivity and 99% specificity, while ELISA showed 32% sensitivity and 79% specificity in concordance with PCR assay. Five false negative samples by msp1β PCR were reconfirmed for Anaplasma spp. targeting 16S rRNA gene. The sequence analysis showed the presence for A. marginale specific restriction site, indicating variation in the local strains of the organism resulting in no amplification with msp1β gene primers. Of 82 samples positive by PCR, 57 were negative by ELISA indicating lower efficacy of ELISA to detect early anaplasmosis. The assessment of risk factor with results of PCR technique indicated that cattle (Odds ratio = 2.884), particularly those of age > 1 years (Odds ratio = 2.204) of district Pathankot (Odds ratio = 3.182) of Submountain Zone (Odds ratio = 2.086), were at high risk of anaplasmosis. All three districts of Submountain Zone are at higher risk indicating the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on the incidence of disease. Amrita Sharma, L. D. Singla, Paramjit Kaur, and M. S. Bal Copyright © 2015 Amrita Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Bone Morphology in 46 BXD Recombinant Inbred Strains and Femur-Tibia Correlation Wed, 25 Feb 2015 12:29:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/728278/ We examined the bone properties of BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mice by analyzing femur and tibia and compared their phenotypes of different compartments. 46 BXD RI mouse strains were analyzed including progenitor C57BL/6J () and DBA/2J () and two first filial generations (D2B6F1 and B6D2F1). Strain differences were observed in bone quality and structural properties () in each bone profile (whole bone, cortical bone, or trabecular bone). It is well known that skeletal phenotypes are largely affected by genetic determinants and genders, such as bone mineral density (BMD). While genetics and gender appear expectedly as the major determinants of bone mass and structure, significant correlations were also observed between femur and tibia. More importantly, positive and negative femur-tibia associations indicated that genetic makeup had an influence on skeletal integrity. We conclude that (a) femur-tibia association in bone morphological properties significantly varies from strain to strain, which may be caused by genetic differences among strains, and (b) strainwise variations were seen in bone mass, bone morphology, and bone microarchitecture along with bone structural property. Yueying Zhang, Jinsong Huang, Yan Jiao, Valentin David, Mehmet Kocak, Esra Roan, Denis Di’Angelo, Lu Lu, Karen A. Hasty, and Weikuan Gu Copyright © 2015 Yueying Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Phylogroups Are Associated with Antibiotic Resistance and Duration of Diarrheal Episode Wed, 25 Feb 2015 09:08:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/610403/ Conventionally, in Escherichia coli, phylogenetic groups A and B1 are associated with commensal strains while B2 and D are associated with extraintestinal strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate diarrheagenic (DEC) and commensal E. coli phylogeny and its association with antibiotic resistance and clinical characteristics of the diarrheal episode. Phylogenetic groups and antibiotic resistance of 369 E. coli strains (commensal strains and DEC from children with or without diarrhea) isolated from Peruvian children <1 year of age were determined by a Clermont triplex PCR and Kirby-Bauer method, respectively. The distribution of the 369 E. coli strains among the 4 phylogenetic groups was A (40%), D (31%), B1 (21%), and B2 (8%). DEC-control strains were more associated with group A while DEC-diarrhea strains were more associated with group D . There was a tendency for higher proportion of persistent diarrhea (≥14 days) among severe groups (B2 and D) in comparison with nonsevere groups (A and B1). Strains belonging to group D presented significantly higher percentages of multidrug resistance than the rest of the groups . In summary, DEC-diarrhea strains were more associated with group D than strains from healthy controls. Susan Mosquito, Maria J. Pons, Maribel Riveros, Joaquim Ruiz, and Theresa J. Ochoa Copyright © 2015 Susan Mosquito et al. All rights reserved. An Incremental High-Utility Mining Algorithm with Transaction Insertion Wed, 25 Feb 2015 09:07:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/161564/ Association-rule mining is commonly used to discover useful and meaningful patterns from a very large database. It only considers the occurrence frequencies of items to reveal the relationships among itemsets. Traditional association-rule mining is, however, not suitable in real-world applications since the purchased items from a customer may have various factors, such as profit or quantity. High-utility mining was designed to solve the limitations of association-rule mining by considering both the quantity and profit measures. Most algorithms of high-utility mining are designed to handle the static database. Fewer researches handle the dynamic high-utility mining with transaction insertion, thus requiring the computations of database rescan and combination explosion of pattern-growth mechanism. In this paper, an efficient incremental algorithm with transaction insertion is designed to reduce computations without candidate generation based on the utility-list structures. The enumeration tree and the relationships between 2-itemsets are also adopted in the proposed algorithm to speed up the computations. Several experiments are conducted to show the performance of the proposed algorithm in terms of runtime, memory consumption, and number of generated patterns. Jerry Chun-Wei Lin, Wensheng Gan, Tzung-Pei Hong, and Binbin Zhang Copyright © 2015 Jerry Chun-Wei Lin et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Construction Workers in Saudi Arabia Wed, 25 Feb 2015 07:12:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/529873/ The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at . Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. Ahmad Alghadir and Shahnawaz Anwer Copyright © 2015 Ahmad Alghadir and Shahnawaz Anwer. All rights reserved. Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Cattle and Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Vhembe District, South Africa Tue, 24 Feb 2015 13:54:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/195972/ Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance. Nicoline F. Tanih, Eunice Sekwadi, Roland N. Ndip, and Pascal O. Bessong Copyright © 2015 Nicoline F. Tanih et al. All rights reserved. Calibration and Algorithm Development for Estimation of Nitrogen in Wheat Crop Using Tractor Mounted N-Sensor Tue, 24 Feb 2015 13:42:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/163968/ The experiment was planned to investigate the tractor mounted N-sensor (Make Yara International) to predict nitrogen (N) for wheat crop under different nitrogen levels. It was observed that, for tractor mounted N-sensor, spectrometers can scan about 32% of total area of crop under consideration. An algorithm was developed using a linear relationship between sensor sufficiency index () and to calculate the as a function of . There was a strong correlation among sensor attributes (sensor value, sensor biomass, and sensor NDVI) and different N-levels. It was concluded that tillering stage is most prominent stage to predict crop yield as compared to the other stages by using sensor attributes. The algorithms developed for tillering and booting stages are useful for the prediction of N-application rates for wheat crop. N-application rates predicted by algorithm developed and sensor value were almost the same for plots with different levels of N applied. Manjeet Singh, Rajneesh Kumar, Ankit Sharma, Bhupinder Singh, and S. K. Thind Copyright © 2015 Manjeet Singh et al. All rights reserved. Induced Resistance in Solanum lycopersicum by Algal Elicitor Extracted from Sargassum fusiforme Tue, 24 Feb 2015 08:43:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/870520/ Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production relies heavily on the use of chemical pesticides, which is undesired by health- and environment-concerned consumers. Environment-friendly methods of controlling tomato diseases include agroecological practices, organic fungicides, and biological control. Plants’ resistance against pathogens is induced by applying agents called elicitors to the plants and would lead to disease prevention or reduced severity. We investigated the ability of a novel elicitor extracted from the brown sea algae (Sargassum fusiforme) to elicit induced resistance in tomato. The studied elicitor induced hypersensitive cell death and production in tomato tissues. It significantly reduced severities of late blight, grey mold, and powdery mildew of tomato. Taken together, our novel elicitor has not shown any direct antifungal activity against the studied pathogens, concluding that it is an elicitor of induced resistance. Layth Sbaihat, Keiko Takeyama, Takeharu Koga, Daigo Takemoto, and Kazuhito Kawakita Copyright © 2015 Layth Sbaihat et al. All rights reserved. Hypotensive Anesthesia versus Normotensive Anesthesia during Major Maxillofacial Surgery: A Review of the Literature Tue, 24 Feb 2015 06:28:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/480728/ Steady blood pressure within normal limits during surgery is one of the markers of the ideal and skillful anesthesia. Yet, reduced blood pressure is advantageous in some settings because it can contribute to a reduction in overall blood loss and improve the surgical field conditions. Controlled hypotension during anesthesia or hypotensive anesthesia is often used in major maxillofacial operations. Since hypotensive anesthesia carries the risk of hypoperfusion to important organs and tissues, mainly the brain, heart, and kidneys, it cannot be applied safely in all patients. In this paper we review the medical literature regarding hypotensive anesthesia during major maxillofacial surgery, the means to achieve it, and the risks and benefits of this technique, in comparison to normotensive anesthesia. Michal Barak, Leiser Yoav, and Imad Abu el-Naaj Copyright © 2015 Michal Barak et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Two School-Based Programs to Prevent Universal Eating Disorders: Media Literacy and Theatre-Based Methodology in Spanish Adolescent Boys and Girls Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:47:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/328753/ Aims. To evaluate the long-term effects of two school-based prevention programs administered to a universal mixed-sex sample of school-going adolescents on disturbed eating attitudes, aesthetic ideal internalization, and other eating disorder risk factors, when compared to a control group. Methods. Participants were 200 adolescents aged 12–15 selected by means of incidental sampling from second-year compulsory secondary education at schools. An interactive multimedia media literacy program (ML + NUT, Media Literacy and Nutrition) and a program focused on the same topics using dramatic arts (Theatre Alive) were applied and compared with a control group. Pretest, posttest (1 month later), and 5- and 13-month follow-up measurements were taken. Analyses were conducted with two-way mixed ANCOVA (group × phase) adjusted by baseline levels, body mass index, and sex. Results. Participants in both experimental groups showed significantly higher self-esteem scores than the control group over time. The ML + NUT group also presented lower aesthetic ideal internalization scores than the control group. Discussion. Both programs can benefit students’ self-esteem. Moreover, ML + NUT program was useful in reducing thin-ideal internalization. However, differences in body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were not found. The programs may be protective on the core psychological variables, which are essential to adaptive adolescent development. Marisol Mora, Eva Penelo, Teresa Gutiérrez, Paola Espinoza, Marcela L. González, and Rosa M. Raich Copyright © 2015 Marisol Mora et al. All rights reserved. Lung Cancer Prediction Using Neural Network Ensemble with Histogram of Oriented Gradient Genomic Features Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:23:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/786013/ This paper reports an experimental comparison of artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) ensembles and their “nonensemble” variants for lung cancer prediction. These machine learning classifiers were trained to predict lung cancer using samples of patient nucleotides with mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene, and tumor suppressor p53 genomes collected as biomarkers from the IGDB.NSCLC corpus. The Voss DNA encoding was used to map the nucleotide sequences of mutated and normal genomes to obtain the equivalent numerical genomic sequences for training the selected classifiers. The histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) and local binary pattern (LBP) state-of-the-art feature extraction schemes were applied to extract representative genomic features from the encoded sequences of nucleotides. The ANN ensemble and HOG best fit the training dataset of this study with an accuracy of 95.90% and mean square error of 0.0159. The result of the ANN ensemble and HOG genomic features is promising for automated screening and early detection of lung cancer. This will hopefully assist pathologists in administering targeted molecular therapy and offering counsel to early stage lung cancer patients and persons in at risk populations. Emmanuel Adetiba and Oludayo O. Olugbara Copyright © 2015 Emmanuel Adetiba and Oludayo O. Olugbara. All rights reserved. Pick’s Theorem in Two-Dimensional Subspace of Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:11:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/535469/ In the Euclidean space , denote the set of all points with integer coordinate by . For any two-dimensional simple lattice polygon , we establish the following analogy version of Pick’s Theorem, , where is the number of lattice points on the boundary of in , is the number of lattice points in the interior of in , and is a constant only related to the two-dimensional subspace including . Lin Si Copyright © 2015 Lin Si. All rights reserved. A Study of Depression and Quality of Life in Patients of Lichen Planus Mon, 23 Feb 2015 08:54:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/817481/ The precise cause of lichen planus is unknown, but the disease seems to be immunologically mediated. It is a psychocutaneous disorder. Due to scarcity of Indian studies in this field, we decided to study in patients of lichen planus the prevalence of depression and quality of life with comparison of the same in both the genders. Patients diagnosed as having lichen planus by consultant dermatologist were enrolled after informed consent and ethics approval. 45 patients were screened, of which 35 who satisfied the criteria were taken up for the study. A semistructured proforma was designed to collect the necessary information with administration of dermatology life quality index and Beck’s depression inventory. While 25% were depressed with females being more affected than males, quality of life was impaired in more than 90% patients. Impairment was maximum due to symptoms and illness feelings, disturbed daily activities, or work and time consumption in treatment. There was a strong association between depression and impairment in quality of life in both the genders. This study helps in early identification of psychological problems in lichen planus patients and in planning their future course of management, hence reducing the lack of productivity and improving the prognosis and quality of life. Neena S. Sawant, Nakul A. Vanjari, Uday Khopkar, and Satish Adulkar Copyright © 2015 Neena S. Sawant et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Proseal, Supreme, and I-Gel SAD in Gynecological Laparoscopic Surgeries Mon, 23 Feb 2015 07:30:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/634320/ We compared proseal, supreme, and i-gel supraglottic airway devices in terms of oropharyngeal leak pressures and airway morbidities in gynecological laparoscopic surgeries. One hundred and five patients undergoing elective surgery were subjected to general anesthesia after which they were randomly distributed into three groups. Although the oropharyngeal leak pressure was lower in the i-gel group initially (mean ± standard deviation; 23.9 ± 2.4, 24.9 ± 2.9, and 20.9 ± 3.5, resp.), it was higher than the proseal group and supreme group at 30 min of surgery after the trendelenburg position (25.0 ± 2.3, 25.0 ± 1.9, and 28.3 ± 2.3, resp.) and at the 60 min of surgery (24.2 ± 2.1, 24.8 ± 2.2, and 29.5 ± 1.1, resp.). The time to apply the supraglottic airway devices was shorter in the i-gel group (12.2 (1.2), 12.9 (1.0), and 6.7 (1.2), resp., ). There was no difference between the groups in terms of their fiber optic imaging levels. pH was measured at the anterior and posterior surfaces of the pharyngeal region after the supraglottic airway devices were removed; the lowest pH values were 5 in all groups. We concluded that initial oropharyngeal leak pressures obtained by i-gel were lower than proseal and supreme, but increased oropharyngeal leak pressures over time, ease of placement, and lower airway morbidity are favorable for i-gel. Sanli Mukadder, Begec Zekine, Kayhan Gulay Erdogan, Ozgul Ulku, Ucar Muharrem, Yologlu Saim, and Durmus Mahmut Copyright © 2015 Sanli Mukadder et al. All rights reserved. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies Mon, 23 Feb 2015 07:10:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/939045/ Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption) that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm). The apparent tooth length (APTL) was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0), whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL) was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson’s correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length. Maria D. Basso, Fabiano Jeremias, Rita C. L. Cordeiro, and Lourdes Santos-Pinto Copyright © 2015 Maria D. Basso et al. All rights reserved. Structural, Optical, and Magnetic Properties of NiMoO4 Nanorods Prepared by Microwave Sintering Mon, 23 Feb 2015 07:07:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/315084/ We report on the structural, optical, and magnetic properties of α,β-NiMoO4 nanorods synthesized by annealing the NiMoO4:nH2O precursor at 600°C for 10 minutes in a domestic microwave. The crystalline structure properties of α,β-NiMoO4 were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopies. The particle morphologies and size distributions were identified by field emission microscopy (FE-SEM). Experimental data were obtained by magnetization measurements for different applied magnetic fields. Optical properties were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. Our results revealed that the oxygen atoms occupy different positions and are very disturbed in the lattice and exhibit a particular characteristic related to differences in the length of the chemical bonds (Ni-O and Mo-O) of the cluster structure or defect densities in the crystalline α,β-NiMoO4 nanorods, which are the key to a deeper understanding of the exploitable physical and chemical properties in this study. Ana P. de Moura, Larissa H. de Oliveira, Ieda L. V. Rosa, Camila S. Xavier, Paulo N. Lisboa-Filho, Máximo S. Li, Felipe A. La Porta, Elson Longo, and José A. Varela Copyright © 2015 Ana P. de Moura et al. All rights reserved. Improving Ammonium and Nitrate Release from Urea Using Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Compost Produced from Agricultural Wastes Sun, 22 Feb 2015 14:04:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/574201/ Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through volatilization and leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling and release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling and losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced and release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve and release from urea. Latifah Omar, Osumanu Haruna Ahmed, and Nik Muhamad Ab. Majid Copyright © 2015 Latifah Omar et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Analysis of Structural Protein Gene VP1 of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia 1 Sun, 22 Feb 2015 12:15:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/734253/ Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia 1 was mostly endemic in Asia and then was responsible for economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, but the study on its selection and evolutionary process is comparatively rare. In this study, we characterized 377 isolates from Asia collected up until 2012, including four vaccine strains. Maximum likelihood analysis suggested that the strains circulating in Asia were classified into 8 different groups (groups I–VIII) or were unclassified (viruses collected before 2000). On the basis of divergence time analyses, we infer that the TMRCA of Asia 1 virus existed approximately 86.29 years ago. The result suggested that the virus had a high mutation rate (5.745 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year) in comparison to the other serotypes of FMDV VP1 gene. Furthermore, the structural protein VP1 was under lower selection pressure and the positive selection occurred at many sites, and four codons (positions 141, 146, 151, and 169) were located in known critical antigenic residues. The remaining sites were not located in known functional regions and were moderately conserved, and the reason for supporting all sites under positive selection remains to be elucidated because the power of these analyses was largely unknown. Qingxun Zhang, Xinsheng Liu, Yuzhen Fang, Li Pan, Jianliang Lv, Zhongwang Zhang, Peng Zhou, Yaozhong Ding, Haotai Chen, Junjun Shao, Furong Zhao, Tong Lin, Huiyun Chang, Jie Zhang, Yonglu Wang, and Yongguang Zhang Copyright © 2015 Qingxun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Intraoperative Sounds of Saw and Hammer on Psychological Condition in Patients with Total Knee Arthroplasty: Prospective Randomized Study Sun, 22 Feb 2015 09:11:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/690569/ Purpose. Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. Methods. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments, respectively. Results. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient’s mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed. Erkam Kömürcü, Hasan Ali Kiraz, Burak Kaymaz, Umut Hatay Gölge, Gürdal Nusran, Ferdi Göksel, Hasan Şahin, Dilek Ömür, and Volkan Hancı Copyright © 2015 Erkam Kömürcü et al. All rights reserved. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in Eastern Amazon during the Rainy Season Sun, 22 Feb 2015 08:45:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/209783/ Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) and composites analysis were employed on pentad data in order to investigate the tropical atmospheric-ocean patterns over the Atlantic Ocean and the spatial-temporal characteristics of the rainfall in eastern Amazon during the peak of the rainy season (February to April). The EOF results evidenced that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the main rainfall-producing system in eastern Amazon during the rainy season. Conditions associated with the southward SST gradient in the intertropical Atlantic formed the dynamic patterns that favored the position of the ITCZ to south of the equator, thus explaining the predominance of positive precipitation anomalies in eastern Amazon, especially in the state of Maranhão and northeastern Pará during the February and April months. Douglas Batista da Silva Ferreira, Everaldo Barreiros de Souza, Bergson Cavalcanti de Moraes, and Luiz Gylvan Meira Filho Copyright © 2015 Douglas Batista da Silva Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Size 1 I-Gel Compared with Size 1 ProSeal Laryngeal Mask in Anesthetized Infants and Neonates Sun, 22 Feb 2015 07:30:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/426186/ Purpose. The size 1 I-gel, recommended for small infants and neonates weighing 2–5 kg, has recently been released. There are no prospective studies available that assess the insertion conditions, sealing pressures, or ventilation quality of it. This study was designed to compare the performance of recently released size 1 I-gel with size 1 ProSeal LMA. Methods. Fifty infants and neonates, ASA I-II were included in this prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Patients were divided into two groups for placing I-gel or ProSeal LMA. The primary outcome was airway leak pressure, and secondary outcomes included insertion time, insertion success and conditions, initial airway quality, fiberoptic view of the larynx, and complications. Results. There were no significant differences in terms of airway leak pressure between the I-gel () and ProSeal LMA () (). The insertion time for the I-gel was shorter ( s) than for the ProSeal LMA ( s) (). Insertion success and conditions were similar in groups. We encountered few complications. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that the size 1 I-gel provided an effective and satisfactory airway as the size 1 ProSeal LMA. It may be a good alternative supraglottic airway device for use in small infants and neonates. This trial is registered with: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01704118. Gulay Erdogan Kayhan, Zekine Begec, Mukadder Sanli, Ender Gedik, and Mahmut Durmus Copyright © 2015 Gulay Erdogan Kayhan et al. All rights reserved. An Energy-Efficient Cluster-Based Vehicle Detection on Road Network Using Intention Numeration Method Sun, 22 Feb 2015 06:51:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/613923/ The traffic in the road network is progressively increasing at a greater extent. Good knowledge of network traffic can minimize congestions using information pertaining to road network obtained with the aid of communal callers, pavement detectors, and so on. Using these methods, low featured information is generated with respect to the user in the road network. Although the existing schemes obtain urban traffic information, they fail to calculate the energy drain rate of nodes and to locate equilibrium between the overhead and quality of the routing protocol that renders a great challenge. Thus, an energy-efficient cluster-based vehicle detection in road network using the intention numeration method (CVDRN-IN) is developed. Initially, sensor nodes that detect a vehicle are grouped into separate clusters. Further, we approximate the strength of the node drain rate for a cluster using polynomial regression function. In addition, the total node energy is estimated by taking the integral over the area. Finally, enhanced data aggregation is performed to reduce the amount of data transmission using digital signature tree. The experimental performance is evaluated with Dodgers loop sensor data set from UCI repository and the performance evaluation outperforms existing work on energy consumption, clustering efficiency, and node drain rate. Deepa Devasenapathy and Kathiravan Kannan Copyright © 2015 Deepa Devasenapathy and Kathiravan Kannan. All rights reserved. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi Thu, 19 Feb 2015 11:55:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/647184/ Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children. Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect. Lizet Jarquín-Yañez, José de Jesús Mejía-Saavedra, Nelly Molina-Frechero, Enrique Gaona, Diana Olivia Rocha-Amador, Olga Dania López-Guzmán, and Ronell Bologna-Molina Copyright © 2015 Lizet Jarquín-Yañez et al. All rights reserved. Linear Dispersion Relation and Depth Sensitivity to Swell Parameters: Application to Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging and Bathymetry Thu, 19 Feb 2015 10:12:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/374579/ Long gravity waves or swell dominating the sea surface is known to be very useful to estimate seabed morphology in coastal areas. The paper reviews the main phenomena related to swell waves propagation that allow seabed morphology to be sensed. The linear dispersion is analysed and an error budget model is developed to assess the achievable depth accuracy when Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are used. The relevant issues and potentials of swell-based bathymetry by SAR are identified and discussed. This technique is of particular interest for characteristic regions of the Mediterranean Sea, such as in gulfs and relatively close areas, where traditional SAR-based bathymetric techniques, relying on strong tidal currents, are of limited practical utility. Valentina Boccia, Alfredo Renga, Giancarlo Rufino, Marco D’Errico, Antonio Moccia, Cesare Aragno, and Simona Zoffoli Copyright © 2015 Valentina Boccia et al. All rights reserved. Testing of Action of Direct Flame on Concrete Thu, 19 Feb 2015 09:43:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/371913/ The paper states results of experimental exposition of concrete test specimens to direct flame. Concrete test specimens made from various mixtures differing in the type of aggregate, binder, dispersed reinforcement, and technological procedure were subjected to thermal load. Physicomechanical and other properties of all test specimens were tested before exposition to open flame: density, compressive strength, flexural strength, moisture content, and surface appearance. The specimens were visually observed during exposition to open flame and changes were recorded. Exposed surface was photographically documented before thermal load and at 10-minute intervals. Development of temperature of the specimens was documented with a thermocamera. After exposition to thermal load and cooling down, concrete specimens were visually observed, network of cracks was photographically documented, and maximal depth of spalled area was measured. Lenka Bodnarova, Jaroslav Valek, and Petr Novosad Copyright © 2015 Lenka Bodnarova et al. All rights reserved. Power, Control, and Optimization Thu, 19 Feb 2015 08:30:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/964581/ Pandian Vasant, Gerhard-Wilhelm Weber, Nader Barsoum, and Vo Ngoc Dieu Copyright © 2015 Pandian Vasant et al. All rights reserved. A Mathematical Model for the Flow of a Casson Fluid due to Metachronal Beating of Cilia in a Tube Thu, 19 Feb 2015 08:15:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/487819/ A mathematical model is developed to study the transport mechanism of a Casson fluid flow inspired by the metachronal coordination between the beating cilia in a cylindrical tube. A two-dimensional system of nonlinear equations governing the flow problem is formulated by using axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates and then simplified by employing the long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact solutions are derived for the velocity components, the axial pressure gradient, and the stream function. However, the expressions for the pressure rise and the volume flow rate are evaluated numerically. The features of the flow characteristics such as pumping and trapping are illustrated and discussed with the help of graphs. It is observed that the volume flow rate is influenced significantly by the width of plug flow region as well as the cilia length parameter . The analysis is also applied and compared with the estimated value of the volume flow rate of epididymal fluid in the ductus efferentes of the human male reproductive tract. A. M. Siddiqui, A. A. Farooq, and M. A. Rana Copyright © 2015 A. M. Siddiqui et al. All rights reserved. Antimycobacterial and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian Restinga Thu, 19 Feb 2015 08:04:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/947248/ The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented % of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively. Isabela Francisca Borges Costa, Sanderson Dias Calixto, Marlon Heggdorne de Araujo, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo Konno, Luzineide Wanderley Tinoco, Denise Oliveira Guimarães, Elena B. Lasunskaia, Ivana Ramos Correa Leal, and Michelle Frazão Muzitano Copyright © 2015 Isabela Francisca Borges Costa et al. All rights reserved. Radiofrequency Transoral Microsurgical Procedures in Benign and Malignant Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Lesions (Institutional Experiences) Wed, 18 Feb 2015 17:00:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/926319/ Besides cold-steel and laser instruments, the use of radiofrequency (RF) devices in transoral microsurgery is getting increasing popularity mainly due to its minimal thermal effect on the collateral soft tissue. Authors summarize their surgical technique, results, and experience gained with RF applied during laryngeal interventions at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery at Medical School, University of Pécs. Transoral microsurgery using radiofrequency was carried out in 23 cases in total between 1 January 2011 and 1 March 2013. Fourteen histopathologically different benign lesions and 9 malignant planocellular carcinomas of the larynx were removed using different Micro-Larynx RF Probes powered by Surgitron Dual 4.0 MHz Frequency RF (Ellman International, Oceanside, NY, USA) device. No major bleeding event occurred during or after the procedures and neither laryngeal oedema nor significant postoperative pain was recorded. Authors also reviewed the international literature in this topic while detailing some of their most interesting cases. Krisztina Somogyvári, Imre Gerlinger, László Lujber, András Burián, and Péter Móricz Copyright © 2015 Krisztina Somogyvári et al. All rights reserved.