The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. ASM Based Synthesis of Handwritten Arabic Text Pages Thu, 30 Jul 2015 15:57:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/323575/ Document analysis tasks, as text recognition, word spotting, or segmentation, are highly dependent on comprehensive and suitable databases for training and validation. However their generation is expensive in sense of labor and time. As a matter of fact, there is a lack of such databases, which complicates research and development. This is especially true for the case of Arabic handwriting recognition, that involves different preprocessing, segmentation, and recognition methods, which have individual demands on samples and ground truth. To bypass this problem, we present an efficient system that automatically turns Arabic Unicode text into synthetic images of handwritten documents and detailed ground truth. Active Shape Models (ASMs) based on 28046 online samples were used for character synthesis and statistical properties were extracted from the IESK-arDB database to simulate baselines and word slant or skew. In the synthesis step ASM based representations are composed to words and text pages, smoothed by B-Spline interpolation and rendered considering writing speed and pen characteristics. Finally, we use the synthetic data to validate a segmentation method. An experimental comparison with the IESK-arDB database encourages to train and test document analysis related methods on synthetic samples, whenever no sufficient natural ground truthed data is available. Laslo Dinges, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Moftah Elzobi, Sherif El-etriby, and Ahmed Ghoneim Copyright © 2015 Laslo Dinges et al. All rights reserved. The Duration of Breastfeeding and Its Association with Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Children Thu, 30 Jul 2015 13:16:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/731319/ Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether duration of breastfeeding is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children. Methods. A retrospective analysis of obese children aged 3 to 18 years followed at a pediatric outpatient clinic at a single center between the years 2008 and 2012. The children were divided according to their breastfeeding duration: no breastfeeding, a short period of breastfeeding, and a long term breastfeeding. Also, they were divided into metabolic and nonmetabolic syndrome groups, based on physical examination and laboratory tests. Results. Out of 4642 children who visited the clinic, 123 were obese and were included in the study. About half of them matched the metabolic syndrome criteria. There was no correlation between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the duration of breastfeeding. Hypertension, abnormal low levels of HDL, high levels of HbA1c, and high fasting triglyceride levels were very common in our study population, yet no statistical significance was noted among the different breastfeeding groups. Conclusion. In this study, breastfeeding was not associated with a reduced risk for metabolic syndrome, compared with formula feeding, in children who are obese. Renata Yakubov, Erez Nadir, Roni Stein, and Adi Klein-Kremer Copyright © 2015 Renata Yakubov et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Mouthwashes Containing Hydrogen Peroxide on Tooth Whitening Thu, 30 Jul 2015 11:24:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/961403/ The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of mouthwashes containing hydrogen peroxide compared with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel. Fifty enamel-dentin samples were obtained from bovine incisors and then stained in a tea solution. The stained samples were randomly divided into five groups according to the whitening product applied (): AS: no whitening (negative control), with the samples stored in artificial saliva; CR: Crest 3D White mouthwash; LS: Listerine Whitening mouthwash; SC: Scope White mouthwash; and OP group: 10% CP Opalescence PF (positive control). Color measurements were carried out with a spectrophotometer before staining, after staining, and on the 7th, 28th, and 56th day of the whitening period. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance followed by a Tukey post hoc test. The color change (Δ) was significantly greater in all the groups compared to that of the AS group. After 56 days, no significant differences were found among the mouthwash products with respect to color change (). The whiteness of the teeth treated with the mouthwashes increased significantly over time. Nevertheless, the color change achieved with the mouthwashes was significantly lower than that achieved with the 10% CP at-home bleaching gel. Muhammet Karadas and Omer Hatipoglu Copyright © 2015 Muhammet Karadas and Omer Hatipoglu. All rights reserved. Fusion of Heterogeneous Intrusion Detection Systems for Network Attack Detection Wed, 29 Jul 2015 16:08:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/314601/ An intrusion detection system (IDS) helps to identify different types of attacks in general, and the detection rate will be higher for some specific category of attacks. This paper is designed on the idea that each IDS is efficient in detecting a specific type of attack. In proposed Multiple IDS Unit (MIU), there are five IDS units, and each IDS follows a unique algorithm to detect attacks. The feature selection is done with the help of genetic algorithm. The selected features of the input traffic are passed on to the MIU for processing. The decision from each IDS is termed as local decision. The fusion unit inside the MIU processes all the local decisions with the help of majority voting rule and makes the final decision. The proposed system shows a very good improvement in detection rate and reduces the false alarm rate. Jayakumar Kaliappan, Revathi Thiagarajan, and Karpagam Sundararajan Copyright © 2015 Jayakumar Kaliappan et al. All rights reserved. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine Wed, 29 Jul 2015 09:17:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/318595/ In clinical medicine, increasing attention is being directed towards the important areas of nutritional biochemistry and toxicant bioaccumulation as they relate to human health and chronic disease. Optimal nutritional status, including healthy levels of vitamin D and essential minerals, is requisite for proper physiological function; conversely, accrual of toxic elements has the potential to impair normal physiology. It is evident that vitamin D intake can facilitate the absorption and assimilation of essential inorganic elements (such as calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, iron, and selenium) but also the uptake of toxic elements (such as lead, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and strontium). Furthermore, sufficiency of essential minerals appears to resist the uptake of toxic metals. This paper explores the literature to determine a suitable clinical approach with regard to vitamin D and essential mineral intake to achieve optimal biological function and to avoid harm in order to prevent and overcome illness. It appears preferable to secure essential mineral status in conjunction with adequate vitamin D, as intake of vitamin D in the absence of mineral sufficiency may result in facilitation of toxic element absorption with potential adverse clinical outcomes. Gerry K. Schwalfenberg and Stephen J. Genuis Copyright © 2015 Gerry K. Schwalfenberg and Stephen J. Genuis. All rights reserved. Aspergilli Response to Benzalkonium Chloride and Novel-Synthesized Fullerenol/Benzalkonium Chloride Nanocomposite Wed, 29 Jul 2015 07:07:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/109262/ A comprehensive comparative analysis of antifungal potential of benzalkonium chloride and newly synthesized fullerenol/benzalkonium chloride nanocomposite was conducted to assess the possible impact of carbon-based nanocarrier on antimicrobial properties of the commonly used biocide. Physical characterization of synthesized nanocomposite showed zeta potential of +37.4 mV and inhomogeneous particles size distribution, with nanocomposite particles’ dimensions within 30–143 nm and maximum number of particles at 44 nm. The effect of pure and fullerenol nanocarrier-bound biocide was evaluated in eight Aspergillus species. In mycelial growth assay, nanocomposite was more potent, as fungicidal effect of 1.04/0.6 μg mL−1 was obtained in all but one of the isolates (A. niger), while proportional concentration of pure biocide (0.6 μg mL−1) completely inhibited mycelial growth of only three Aspergillus species. However, conidia appear to be less susceptible to nanocomposite treatment, as lower fungistatic (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were obtained with biocide alone (MIC in range from 0.03 to 0.15 μg mL−1 and MFC from 0.075 to 0.45 μg mL−1). To a different degree, both substances stimulated aflatoxin B1 production and inhibited ochratoxin A synthesis. Very low mycelium biomass yield, in range from 1.0 to 3.0 mg dry weight, was documented in both biocide and nanocomposite enriched medium. Nikola Unković, Milica Ljaljević Grbić, Miloš Stupar, Jelena Vukojević, Vesna Janković, Danica Jović, and Aleksandar Djordjević Copyright © 2015 Nikola Unković et al. All rights reserved. Space-to-Ground Communication for Columbus: A Quantitative Analysis Tue, 28 Jul 2015 14:03:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/308031/ The astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) are only the most visible part of a much larger team engaged around the clock in the performance of science and technical activities in space. The bulk of such team is scattered around the globe in five major Mission Control Centers (MCCs), as well as in a number of smaller payload operations centres. Communication between the crew in space and the flight controllers at those locations is an essential element and one of the key drivers to efficient space operations. Such communication can be carried out in different forms, depending on available technical assets and the selected operational approach for the activity at hand. This paper focuses on operational voice communication and provides a quantitative overview of the balance achieved in the Columbus program between collaborative space/ground operations and autonomous on-board activity execution. An interpretation of the current situation is provided, together with a description of potential future approaches for deep space exploration missions. Thomas Uhlig, Thurid Mannel, Antonio Fortunato, and Norbert Illmer Copyright © 2015 Thomas Uhlig et al. All rights reserved. Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Using the Random Forest Method Tue, 28 Jul 2015 12:20:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/581501/ Aims. This study proposes a computational method for determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and to predict its occurrence using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. The Random Forest (RF) method is also applied to identify significant health parameters. Materials and Methods. We used data from 5,646 adults aged between 18–78 years residing in Bangkok who had received an annual health check-up in 2008. MS was identified using the NCEP ATP III criteria. The RF method was applied to predict the occurrence of MS and to identify important health parameters surrounding this disorder. Results. The overall prevalence of MS was 23.70% (34.32% for males and 17.74% for females). RF accuracy for predicting MS in an adult Thai population was 98.11%. Further, based on RF, triglyceride levels were the most important health parameter associated with MS. Conclusion. RF was shown to predict MS in an adult Thai population with an accuracy >98% and triglyceride levels were identified as the most informative variable associated with MS. Therefore, using RF to predict MS may be potentially beneficial in identifying MS status for preventing the development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Apilak Worachartcheewan, Watshara Shoombuatong, Phannee Pidetcha, Wuttichai Nopnithipat, Virapong Prachayasittikul, and Chanin Nantasenamat Copyright © 2015 Apilak Worachartcheewan et al. All rights reserved. Coapplication of Chicken Litter Biochar and Urea Only to Improve Nutrients Use Efficiency and Yield of Oryza sativa L. Cultivation on a Tropical Acid Soil Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:31:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/943853/ The excessive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in sustaining high rice yields due to N dynamics in tropical acid soils not only is economically unsustainable but also causes environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to coapply biochar and urea to improve soil chemical properties and productivity of rice. Biochar (5 t ha−1) and different rates of urea (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of recommended N application) were evaluated in both pot and field trials. Selected soil chemical properties, rice plants growth variables, nutrient use efficiency, and yield were determined using standard procedures. Coapplication of biochar with 100% and 75% urea recommendation rates significantly increased nutrients availability (especially P and K) and their use efficiency in both pot and field trials. These treatments also significantly increased rice growth variables and grain yield. Coapplication of biochar and urea application at 75% of the recommended rate can be used to improve soil chemical properties and productivity and reduce urea use by 25%. Ali Maru, Osumanu Ahmed Haruna, and Walter Charles Primus Copyright © 2015 Ali Maru et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic and Structural Performances of a New Sailcraft Concept for Interplanetary Missions Mon, 27 Jul 2015 12:03:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/714371/ Typical square solar-sail design is characterised by a central hub with four-quadrant sails, conferring to the spacecraft the classical X-configuration. One of the critical aspects related to this architecture is due to the large deformations of both membrane and booms, which leads to a reduction of the performance of the sailcraft in terms of thrust efficiency. As a consequence, stiffer sail architecture would be desirable, taking into account that the rigidity of the system strongly affects the orbital dynamics. In this paper, we propose a new solar-sail architecture, which is more rigid than the classical X-configuration. Among the main pros and cons that the proposed configuration presents, this paper aims to show the general concept, investigating the performances from the perspectives of both structural response and attitude control. Membrane deformations, structural offset, and sail vibration frequencies are determined through finite element method, adopting a variable pretensioning scheme. In order to evaluate the manoeuvring performances of this new solar-sail concept, a 35-degree manoeuvre is studied using a feedforward and feedback controller. Alessandro Peloni, Daniele Barbera, Susanna Laurenzi, and Christian Circi Copyright © 2015 Alessandro Peloni et al. All rights reserved. Acute Toxicity and Dermal and Eye Irritation of the Aqueous and Hydroalcoholic Extracts of the Seeds of “Zapote” Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist Sun, 26 Jul 2015 13:12:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/642906/ The common use of Pouteria mammosa (L.) Cronquist, “Mamey or Zapote,” in food and ethnobotanic medicine shows its low or absent toxicity as fruit extracts prepared from seeds. However, it is essential to conduct security trials to scientifically support their use in drug therapy. This study evaluated the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (25%) Acute Oral Toxicity, obtained from the seeds of P. mammosa, in Sprague Dawley rats and dermal and eye irritability in New Zealand rabbits. The 404 and 405 acute dermal and eye irritation/corrosion guidelines were used, as well as the 423 Acute Oral Toxicity guideline, Acute Toxic Class Method of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The aqueous extract was located in the following category: not classified as toxic (CTA 5), while hydroalcoholic extract at 25% was classified as dangerous (CTA 4). Both extracts can be used without side reaction that irritates the skin which permitted classification as potentially not irritant. P. mammosa in the two extracts caused mild and reversible eye irritation, and it was classified as slightly irritating. Carlos M. S. Dutok, Clara Azalea Berenguer-Rivas, Elizabeth Rodríguez-Leblanch, Liliana Pérez-Jackson, Idelsy Chil-Nuñez, Julio César Escalona-Arranz, Bernardo Reyes-Tur, and Margareth M. C. Queiroz Copyright © 2015 Carlos M. S. Dutok et al. All rights reserved. An Adaptive Multilevel Security Framework for the Data Stored in Cloud Environment Thu, 16 Jul 2015 10:35:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/601017/ Cloud computing is renowned for delivering information technology services based on internet. Nowadays, organizations are interested in moving their massive data and computations into cloud to reap their significant benefits of on demand service, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity that helps to satisfy the dynamically changing infrastructure demand without the burden of owning, managing, and maintaining it. Since the data needs to be secured throughout its life cycle, security of the data in cloud is a major challenge to be concentrated on because the data is in third party’s premises. Any uniform simple or high level security method for all the data either compromises the sensitive data or proves to be too costly with increased overhead. Any common multiple method for all data becomes vulnerable when the common security pattern is identified at the event of successful attack on any information and also encourages more attacks on all other data. This paper suggests an adaptive multilevel security framework based on cryptography techniques that provide adequate security for the classified data stored in cloud. The proposed security system acclimates well for cloud environment and is also customizable and more reliant to meet the required level of security of data with different sensitivity that changes with business needs and commercial conditions. Sudha Devi Dorairaj and Thilagavathy Kaliannan Copyright © 2015 Sudha Devi Dorairaj and Thilagavathy Kaliannan. All rights reserved. Theory and Application on Rough Set, Fuzzy Logic, and Granular Computing Thu, 16 Jul 2015 07:49:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/967350/ Xibei Yang, Weihua Xu, and Yanhong She Copyright © 2015 Xibei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption Removal of Environmental Hormones of Dimethyl Phthalate Using Novel Magnetic Adsorbent Thu, 16 Jul 2015 06:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/903706/ Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol adsorbent M-PVAL was employed to remove and concentrate dimethyl phthalate DMP. The M-PVAL was prepared after sequential syntheses of magnetic Fe3O4 (M) and polyvinyl acetate (M-PVAC). The saturated magnetizations of M, M-PVAC, and M-PVAL are 57.2, 26.0, and 43.2 emu g−1 with superparamagnetism, respectively. The average size of M-PVAL by number is 0.75 μm in micro size. Adsorption experiments include three cases: (1) adjustment of initial pH (pH0) of solution to 5, (2) no adjustment of pH0 with value in 6.04–6.64, and (3) adjusted pH0 = 7. The corresponding saturated amounts of adsorption of unimolecular layer of Langmuir isotherm are 4.01, 5.21, and 4.22 mg g−1, respectively. Values of heterogeneity factor of Freundlich isotherm are 2.59, 2.19, and 2.59 which are greater than 1, revealing the favorable adsorption of DMP/M-PVAL system. Values of adsorption activation energy per mole of Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm are, respectively, of low values of 7.04, 6.48, and 7.19 kJ mol−1, indicating the natural occurring of the adsorption process studied. The tiny size of adsorbent makes the adsorption take place easily while its superparamagnetism is beneficial for the separation and recovery of micro adsorbent from liquid by applying magnetic field after completion of adsorption. Chia-Chi Chang, Jyi-Yeong Tseng, Dar-Ren Ji, Chun-Yu Chiu, De-Sheng Lu, Ching-Yuan Chang, Min-Hao Yuan, Chiung-Fen Chang, Chyow-San Chiou, Yi-Hung Chen, and Je-Lueng Shie Copyright © 2015 Chia-Chi Chang et al. All rights reserved. Attitudes and Health Behavior of Lawyers in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu Wed, 15 Jul 2015 08:16:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/616719/ The aim of the study is to evaluate the differences in the behavior and attitudes of male and female lawyers regarding their lifestyles and health habits. Lawyers were randomly chosen. Data was obtained through a structured questionnaire distributed among the lawyers of Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Lawyers are found to have unfavorable health practices related to use of tobacco and alcohol, exercise, diet, sleeping habits, and stress. This resulted in obesity, depression, and blood pressure. Many lawyers reported use of alcohol regularly, even as often as every day, and nearly half of them smoked. Many of the lawyers had poor feeding habit of skipping meals and eating snacks as breakfast. Most lawyers considered stressful situations to be unavoidable. Thus identifying individual lawyers with poor health behaviors and providing medical help are essential. G. Barani and Pavithra Sabapathy Copyright © 2015 G. Barani and Pavithra Sabapathy. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Carriage State among Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Beirut” Wed, 15 Jul 2015 06:16:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/750527/ M. A. Jallad, R. Naoufal, J. Irani, and E. Azar Copyright © 2015 M. A. Jallad et al. All rights reserved. Antigenotoxic Effect of Trametes spp. Extracts against DNA Damage on Human Peripheral White Blood Cells Tue, 14 Jul 2015 10:58:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/146378/ Trametes species have been used for thousands of years in traditional and conventional medicine for the treatment of various types of diseases. The goal was to evaluate possible antigenotoxic effects of mycelium and basidiocarp extracts of selected Trametes species and to assess dependence on their antioxidant potential. Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, and T. gibbosa were the species studied. Antigenotoxic potentials of extracts were assessed on human peripheral white blood cells with basidiocarp and mycelium extracts of the species. The alkaline comet test was used for detection of DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites, as well as the extent of DNA migration. DPPH assay was used to estimate antioxidative properties of extracts. Fruiting body extracts of T. versicolor and T. gibbosa as well as T. hirsuta extracts, except that at 20.0 mg/mL, were not genotoxic agents. T. versicolor extract had at 5.0 mg/mL the greatest antigenotoxic effect in both pre- and posttreatment of leukocytes. The mycelium extracts of the three species had no genotoxic activity and significant antigenotoxic effect against H2O2-induced DNA damage, both in pre- and posttreatment. The results suggest that extracts of these three species could be considered as strong antigenotoxic agents able to stimulate genoprotective response of cells. Aleksandar Knežević, Lada Živković, Mirjana Stajić, Jelena Vukojević, Ivan Milovanović, and Biljana Spremo-Potparević Copyright © 2015 Aleksandar Knežević et al. All rights reserved. Automation of Presentation Record Production Based on Rich-Media Technology Using SNT Petri Nets Theory Tue, 14 Jul 2015 06:57:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/303705/ Rich-media describes a broad range of digital interactive media that is increasingly used in the Internet and also in the support of education. Last year, a special pilot audiovisual lecture room was built as a part of the MERLINGO (MEdia-rich Repository of LearnING Objects) project solution. It contains all the elements of the modern lecture room determined for the implementation of presentation recordings based on the rich-media technologies and their publication online or on-demand featuring the access of all its elements in the automated mode including automatic editing. Property-preserving Petri net process algebras (PPPA) were designed for the specification and verification of the Petri net processes. PPPA does not need to verify the composition of the Petri net processes because all their algebraic operators preserve the specified set of the properties. These original PPPA are significantly generalized for the newly introduced class of the SNT Petri process and agent nets in this paper. The PLACE-SUBST and ASYNC-PROC algebraic operators are defined for this class of Petri nets and their chosen properties are proved. The SNT Petri process and agent nets theory were significantly applied at the design, verification, and implementation of the programming system ensuring the pilot audiovisual lecture room functionality. Ivo Martiník Copyright © 2015 Ivo Martiník. All rights reserved. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India Tue, 14 Jul 2015 06:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/643714/ Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution. Ramachandran Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran Andimuthu, Palanivelu Kandasamy, Geetha Rajadurai, Divya Subash Kumar, Parthasarathy Radhapriya, and Malini Ponnusamy Copyright © 2015 Ramachandran Prasannavenkatesh et al. All rights reserved. Soil Parameter Mapping and Ad Hoc Power Analysis to Increase Blocking Efficiency Prior to Establishing a Long-Term Field Experiment Mon, 13 Jul 2015 09:53:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/205392/ The spatial heterogeneity of soil and weed populations poses a challenge to researchers. Unlike aboveground variability, below-ground variability is more difficult to discern without a strategic soil sampling pattern. While blocking is commonly used to control environmental variation, this strategy is rarely informed by data about current soil conditions. Fifty georeferenced sites were located in a 0.65 ha area prior to establishing a long-term field experiment. Soil organic matter (OM) and weed seed bank populations were analyzed at each site and the spatial structure was modeled with semivariograms and interpolated with kriging to map the surface. These maps were used to formulate three strategic blocking patterns and the efficiency of each pattern was compared to a completely randomized design and a west to east model not informed by soil variability. Compared to OM, weeds were more variable across the landscape and had a shorter range of autocorrelation, and models to increase blocking efficiency resulted in less increase in power. Weeds and OM were not correlated, so no model examined improved power equally for both parameters. Compared to the west to east blocking pattern, the final blocking pattern chosen resulted in a 7-fold increase in power for OM and a 36% increase in power for weeds. Doug Collins, Chris Benedict, Andy Bary, and Craig Cogger Copyright © 2015 Doug Collins et al. All rights reserved. Algebraic Hyperstructures of Vague Soft Sets Associated with Hyperrings and Hyperideals Sun, 12 Jul 2015 09:21:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/780121/ We apply the classical theory of hyperrings to vague soft sets to derive the concepts of vague soft hyperrings, vague soft hyperideals, and vague soft hyperring homomorphism. The properties and structural characteristics of these concepts are also studied and discussed. Furthermore, the relationship between the concepts introduced here and the corresponding concepts in classical hyperring theory and soft hyperring theory is studied and investigated. Ganeshsree Selvachandran and Abdul Razak Salleh Copyright © 2015 Ganeshsree Selvachandran and Abdul Razak Salleh. All rights reserved. An Analysis of Transient Overvoltages during the Energization of Electric Ship Propulsion Systems Thu, 09 Jul 2015 11:36:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/458068/ This paper addresses the resonance phenomena that can occur in an isolated distribution system during transient events such as repeated energizations or power converter switching. In particular, the aim of this study is to analyze the energization of an onboard radial distribution system installed on an electric ship and to determine how the various leakage parameters that can cause resonance problems such as high peak overvoltages when the circuit breaker is closed are relevant. The paper presents a detailed model of whole distribution system, which is validated using infield measurements that refer to a real case in which these events damaged the ships transformers, causing it to be removed from duty. Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, and Dario Zaninelli Copyright © 2015 Morris Brenna et al. All rights reserved. Time Savings and Surgery Task Load Reduction in Open Intraperitoneal Onlay Mesh Fixation Procedure Thu, 09 Jul 2015 11:12:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/340246/ Background. This study assessed the reduction in surgeon stress associated with savings in procedure time for mechanical fixation of an intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) compared to a traditional suture fixation in open ventral hernia repair. Study Design. Nine general surgeons performed 36 open IPOM fixation procedures in porcine model. Each surgeon conducted two mechanical (using ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open) and two suture fixation procedures. Fixation time was measured using a stopwatch, and related surgeon stress was assessed using the validated SURG-TLX questionnaire. T-tests were used to compare between-group differences, and a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in stress levels was established using nonparametric methodology. Results. The mechanical fixation group demonstrated an 89.1% mean reduction in fixation time, as compared to the suture group (). Surgeon stress scores measured using SURG-TLX were 55.5% lower in the mechanical compared to the suture fixation group (). Scores in five of the six sources of stress were significantly lower for mechanical fixation. Conclusions. Mechanical fixation with ETHICON SECURESTRAPTM Open demonstrated a significant reduction in fixation time and surgeon stress, which may translate into improved operating efficiency, improved performance, improved surgeon quality of life, and reduced overall costs of the procedure. Sanjoy Roy, Jeffrey Hammond, Jessica Panish, Pullen Shnoda, Sandy Savidge, and Mark Wilson Copyright © 2015 Sanjoy Roy et al. All rights reserved. Pruritus in Systemic Diseases: A Review of Etiological Factors and New Treatment Modalities Thu, 09 Jul 2015 09:42:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/803752/ Pruritus is the most frequently described symptom in dermatology and can significantly impair the patient’s quality of life. In 10–50% of adults with persistent pruritus, it can be an important dermatologic clue for the presence of a significant underlying systemic disease such as renal insufficiency, cholestasis, hematologic disorder, or malignancy (Etter and Myers, 2002; Zirwas and Seraly, 2001). This review describes the presence of pruritus in different systemic diseases. It is quite important to discover the cause of pruritus for providing relief for the patients experiencing substantial morbidity caused by this condition. Nagihan Tarikci, Emek Kocatürk, Şule Güngör, Ilteriş Oğuz Topal, Pelin Ülkümen Can, and Ralfi Singer Copyright © 2015 Nagihan Tarikci et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Algorithm for Delta of Asian Option Thu, 09 Jul 2015 08:28:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/692847/ We study the numerical solution of the Greeks of Asian options. In particular, we derive a close form solution of of Asian geometric option and use this analytical form as a control to numerically calculate of Asian arithmetic option, which is known to have no explicit close form solution. We implement our proposed numerical method and compare the standard error with other classical variance reduction methods. Our method provides an efficient solution to the hedging strategy with Asian options. Boxiang Zhang, Yang Yu, and Weiguo Wang Copyright © 2015 Boxiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Modeling, Control, and Optimization Technologies in Electric Drive Vehicles Thu, 09 Jul 2015 06:49:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/730347/ Hongwen He, Suleiman M. Sharkh, Caiping Zhang, Xuan Zhou, and Rui Xiong Copyright © 2015 Hongwen He et al. All rights reserved. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy -Almost Compactness and -Nearly Compactness Tue, 07 Jul 2015 06:54:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/869740/ The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces is introduced and studied. Besides giving characterizations of these spaces, we study some of their properties. Also, we investigate the behavior of intuitionistic fuzzy β-compactness, intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness, and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness under several types of intuitionistic fuzzy continuous mappings. R. Renuka and V. Seenivasan Copyright © 2015 R. Renuka and V. Seenivasan. All rights reserved. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:52:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/979321/ Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery’s cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles. Simone Barcellona, Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, Michela Longo, and Luigi Piegari Copyright © 2015 Simone Barcellona et al. All rights reserved. Decomposition and Mineralization of Dimethyl Phthalate in an Aqueous Solution by Wet Oxidation Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:41:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/164594/ Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was treated via wet oxygen oxidation process (WOP). The decomposition efficiency of DMP and mineralization efficiency of total organic carbons were measured to evaluate the effects of operation parameters on the performance of WOP. The results revealed that reaction temperature is the most affecting factor, with a higher offering higher and as expected. The increases as rotating speed increases from 300 to 500 rpm with stirring enhancement of gas liquid mass transfer. However, it exhibits reduction effect at 700 rpm due to purging of dissolved oxygen by overstirring. Regarding the effects of pressure , a higher provides more oxygen for the forward reaction with DMP, while overhigh increases the absorption of gaseous products such as CO2 and decomposes short-chain hydrocarbon fragments back into the solution thus hindering the forward reaction. For the tested of 2.41 to 3.45 MPa, the results indicated that 2.41 MPa is appropriate. A longer reaction time of course gives better performance. At 500 rpm, 483 K, 2.41 MPa, and 180 min, the and are 93 and 36%, respectively. Dar-Ren Ji, Chia-Chi Chang, Shih-Yun Chen, Chun-Yu Chiu, Jyi-Yeong Tseng, Ching-Yuan Chang, Chiung-Fen Chang, Sheng-Wei Chiang, Zang-Sie Hung, Je-Lueng Shie, Yi-Hung Chen, and Min-Hao Yuan Copyright © 2015 Dar-Ren Ji et al. All rights reserved. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:26:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/841267/ Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting. Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan and Rajamani Vayanaperumal Copyright © 2015 Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan and Rajamani Vayanaperumal. All rights reserved.