The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Retracted: Electroadsorption Desalination with Carbon Nanotube/PAN-Based Carbon Fiber Felt Composites as Electrodes Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:12:55 +0000 The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. An Adaptive Fuzzy-Logic Traffic Control System in Conditions of Saturated Transport Stream Tue, 19 Jul 2016 14:22:07 +0000 This paper considers the problem of building adaptive fuzzy-logic traffic control systems (AFLTCS) to deal with information fuzziness and uncertainty in case of heavy traffic streams. Methods of formal description of traffic control on the crossroads based on fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic are proposed. This paper also provides efficient algorithms for implementing AFLTCS and develops the appropriate simulation models to test the efficiency of suggested approach. N. R. Yusupbekov, A. R. Marakhimov, H. Z. Igamberdiev, and Sh. X. Umarov Copyright © 2016 N. R. Yusupbekov et al. All rights reserved. A Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) Criterion for the Chemostat Mon, 18 Jul 2016 16:46:33 +0000 The Rosenzweig-MacArthur (1963) criterion is a graphical criterion that has been widely used for elucidating the local stability properties of the Gause (1934) type predator-prey systems. It has not been stated whether a similar criterion holds for models with explicit resource dynamics (Kooi et al. (1998)), like the chemostat model. In this paper we use the implicit function theorem and implicit derivatives for proving that a similar graphical criterion holds under chemostat conditions, too. Torsten Lindström and Yuanji Cheng Copyright © 2016 Torsten Lindström and Yuanji Cheng. All rights reserved. Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters as Predictors of Lower-Limb Overuse Injuries in Military Training Wed, 13 Jul 2016 12:05:55 +0000 The study objective was to determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict lower-limb overuse injuries in cohort of combat soldiers during first year of military service. Newly recruited infantry soldiers walked on a treadmill at a 15° incline with a fixed speed of 1.67 m/sec while wearing a standard military vest with a 10 kg load. Stride time variability, stride length variability, step length asymmetry, and the duration of the loading response phase of the gait cycle were measured. Injury data on 76 soldiers who did not report musculoskeletal complaints at initial screening were collected one year after recruitment. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the predictive effect of the gait parameters on lower-limb injuries. Twenty-four soldiers (31.6%) had overuse injuries during the first year after recruitment. Duration of the loading response was a significant predictor of general lower-limb injury (), as well as of foot/ankle and knee injuries (, , resp.). A cutoff value of less than 12.15% for loading response duration predicted knee injuries with 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity. This study demonstrates the utility of spatiotemporal gait evaluation, a simple screening tool before military training, which may help to identify individuals at risk of lower-limb overuse injuries. Shmuel Springer, Uri Gottlieb, and Mariya Lozin Copyright © 2016 Shmuel Springer et al. All rights reserved. An Economic Analysis of Pigeonpea Seed Production Technology and Its Adoption Behavior: Indian Context Wed, 13 Jul 2016 11:31:40 +0000 The present study was based on primary data collected from 100 farmers in Gulbarga district of Karnataka, India, during the agricultural year 2013-2014. Study shows that average land holding size of pigeonpea seed farmers was higher in comparison to grain farmers and district average. The study illustrates a ratio of 32 : 68 towards fixed and variable costs in pigeonpea certified seed production with a total cost of 39436 and the gross and net returns were 73300 and 33864 per hectare, respectively. The total cost of cultivation, gross return, and net return in pigeonpea seed production were higher by around 23, 32, and 44 percent than grain production, respectively. Hence, production of certified seed has resulted in a win-win situation for the farmers with higher yield and increased returns. The decision of the farmer on adoption of seed production technology was positively influenced by his education, age, land holding, irrigated land, number of crops grown, and extension contacts while family size was influencing negatively. Higher yield and profitability associated with seed production can be effectively popularized among farmers, resulting in increased certified seed production. Govind Pal, Radhika Channanamchery, R. K. Singh, Udaya Bhaskar Kethineni, H. Ram, and S. Rajendra Prasad Copyright © 2016 Govind Pal et al. All rights reserved. Strategies to Improve Meat Quality and Safety Sun, 03 Jul 2016 06:30:06 +0000 Agostino Sevi, Rosaria Marino, José M. Lorenzo, Brigitte Picard, and Angelica Simone Cravo Pereira Copyright © 2016 Agostino Sevi et al. All rights reserved. Technological Potential of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fermented Green Olives: In Vitro Studies with Emphasis on Oleuropein-Degrading Capability Thu, 30 Jun 2016 16:47:23 +0000 Technological properties of two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (B3 and B11) and one of Lactobacillus pentosus (B4), previously isolated from natural fermented green olives, have been studied in vitro. Acidifying ability, salt, temperature, and pH tolerances of all strains were found in the range reported for similar strains produced in Italy and optimal growth conditions were found to be 6.0–8.0 pH, 15–30°C temperature, and less than 6% NaCl. Moreover, all strains showed very good tolerance to common olive phenol content (0.3% total phenol) and high oleuropein-degrading capability. It was found that medium composition affected the bacterial oleuropein degradation. B11 strain grown in a nutrient-rich medium showed a lower oleuropein-degrading action than when it was cultivated in nutrient-poor medium. Furthermore, enzymatic activity assays revealed that oleuropein depletion did not correspond to an increase of hydroxytyrosol, evidencing that bacterial strains could efficiently degrade oleuropein via a mechanism different from hydrolysis. Massimo Iorizzo, Silvia Jane Lombardi, Vincenzo Macciola, Bruno Testa, Giuseppe Lustrato, Francesco Lopez, and Antonella De Leonardis Copyright © 2016 Massimo Iorizzo et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Diversity of Namibian Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR. (Pearl Millet) Landraces Analyzed by SSR and Morphological Markers Tue, 28 Jun 2016 10:48:07 +0000 Current Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR. cultivars in Namibia have overall poor performance posing a threat to the nation’s food security because this crop is staple for over 70% of the Namibian population. The crop suffers from undesirable production traits such as susceptibility to diseases, low yield, and prolonged reproductive cycle. This study aimed to understand the genetic diversity of the crop in Namibia by simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and morphology analysis. A total of 1441 genotypes were collected from the National Gene Bank representing all the Namibian landraces. A sample of 96 genotypes was further analyzed by SSR using Shannon-Wiener diversity index and revealed a value of 0.45 indicating low genetic diversity. Ordination using Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) on SSR data confirmed clusters generated by UPGMA for the 96 P. glaucum accessions. UPGMA phenograms of 29 morphological characterized genotypes were generated for SSR and morphology data and the two trees revealed 78% resemblance. Lodging susceptibility, tillering attitude, spike density, fodder yield potential, early vigour, and spike shape were the phenotypic characters upon which some clusters were based in both datasets. It is recommended that efforts should be made to widen the current gene pool in Namibia. Billy McBenedict, Percy Chimwamurombe, Ezekeil Kwembeya, and Gillian Maggs-Kölling Copyright © 2016 Billy McBenedict et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Calcium Phosphate and Apatite Containing Products on Enamel Erosion Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:47:12 +0000 For the purpose of erosion prevention the present study aimed to compare the efficacy of two biomimetic products and a fluoride solution to optimize the protective properties of the pellicle. After 1 min of in situ pellicle formation on bovine enamel slabs, 8 subjects adopted CPP-ACP (GC Tooth Mousse), a mouthwash with hydroxyapatite microclusters (Biorepair), or a fluoride based mouthwash (elmex Kariesschutz) for 1 min each. Afterwards, samples were exposed in the oral cavity for 28 min. Native enamel slabs and slabs exposed to the oral cavity for 30 min without any rinse served as controls. After oral exposure, slabs were incubated in HCl (pH values 2, 2.3, and 3) for 120 s and kinetics of calcium and phosphate release were measured photometrically; representative samples were evaluated by SEM and TEM. The physiological pellicle reduced demineralization at all pH values; the protective effect was enhanced by fluoride. The biomimetic materials also reduced ion release but their effect was less pronounced. SEM indicated no layer formation after use of the different products. However, TEM confirmed the potential accumulation of mineral components at the pellicle surface. The tested products improve the protective properties of the in situ pellicle but not as effectively as fluorides. A. Kensche, S. Pötschke, C. Hannig, G. Richter, W. Hoth-Hannig, and M. Hannig Copyright © 2016 A. Kensche et al. All rights reserved. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:42:48 +0000 This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. Steve J. Merrill, Alexander Paz, Victor Molano, Pramen P. Shrestha, Pankaj Maheshwari, Haroon Stephen, and Hanns de la Fuente-Mella Copyright © 2016 Steve J. Merrill et al. All rights reserved. Production and Catalytic Properties of Amylases from Lichtheimia ramosa and Thermoascus aurantiacus by Solid-State Fermentation Mon, 20 Jun 2016 10:44:03 +0000 The present study compared the production and the catalytic properties of amylolytic enzymes obtained from the fungi Lichtheimia ramosa (mesophilic) and Thermoascus aurantiacus (thermophilic). The highest amylase production in both fungi was observed in wheat bran supplemented with nutrient solution (pH 4.0) after 96 hours of cultivation, reaching 417.2 U/g of dry substrate (or 41.72 U/mL) and 144.5 U/g of dry substrate (or 14.45 U/mL) for L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus, respectively. The enzymes showed higher catalytic activity at pH 6.0 at 60°C. The amylases produced by L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus were stable between pH 3.5–10.5 and pH 4.5–9.5, respectively. The amylase of L. ramosa was stable at 55°C after 1 hour of incubation, whereas that of T. aurantiacus maintained 60% of its original activity under the same conditions. Both enzymes were active in the presence of ethanol. The enzymes hydrolyzed starch from different sources, with the best results obtained with corn starch. The enzymatic complex produced by L. ramosa showed dextrinizing and saccharifying potential. The enzymatic extract produced by the fungus T. aurantiacus presented only saccharifying potential, releasing glucose monomers as the main hydrolysis product. Ana Paula Aguero de Oliveira, Maria Alice Silvestre, Nayara Fernanda Lisboa Garcia, Heloíza Ferreira Alves-Prado, André Rodrigues, Marcelo Fossa da Paz, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca, and Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro Leite Copyright © 2016 Ana Paula Aguero de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Genes Coding Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes in E. coli of UTI Patients in India Wed, 15 Jun 2016 11:37:56 +0000 This study is to probe the pattern of antibiotic resistance against aminoglycosides and its mechanism in E. coli obtained from patients from Chennai, India. Isolation and identification of pathogens were done on MacConkey agar. Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done by disc diffusion test. The identification of genes encoding aminoglycoside modifying enzymes was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Out of 98 isolates, 71 (72.45%) isolates were identified as E. coli and the remaining 27 (27.55%) as other bacteria. Disc diffusion method results showed a resistance level of 72.15% for streptomycin, 73.4% for gentamicin, 63.26% for neomycin, 57.14% for tobramycin, 47.9% for netilmicin, and 8.16% for amikacin in E. coli. PCR screening showed the presence of four genes, namely, rrs, aacC2, aacA-aphD, and aphA3, in their plasmid DNA. The results point towards the novel mechanism of drug resistance in E. coli from UTI patients in India as they confirm the presence of genes encoding enzymes that cause resistance to aminoglycoside drugs. This could be an alarm for drug prescription to UTI patients. Abdul Rouf Mir, Yasir Bashir, Firdous Ahmad Dar, and M. Sekhar Copyright © 2016 Abdul Rouf Mir et al. All rights reserved. Nod2-Nodosome in a Cell-Free System: Implications in Pathogenesis and Drug Discovery for Blau Syndrome and Early-Onset Sarcoidosis Wed, 15 Jun 2016 09:20:28 +0000 Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (Nod) 2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which recognizes muramyl dipeptide (N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine: MDP), a bacterial peptidoglycan component, and makes a NF-κB-activating complex called nodosome with adaptor protein RICK (RIP2/RIPK2). Nod2 mutants are associated with the autoinflammatory diseases, Blau syndrome (BS)/early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). For drug discovery of BS/EOS, we tried to develop Nod2-nodosome in a cell-free system. FLAG-tagged RICK, biotinylated-Nod2, and BS/EOS-associated Nod2 mutants were synthesized, and proximity signals between FLAG-tagged and biotinylated proteins were detected by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (ALPHA). Upon incubation with MDP, the ALPHA signal of interaction between Nod2-WT and RICK was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The ALPHA signal of interaction between RICK and the BS/EOS-associated Nod2 mutants was more significantly increased than Nod2-WT. Notably, the ALPHA signal between Nod2-WT and RICK was increased upon incubation with MDP, but not when incubated with the same concentrations, L-alanine, D-isoglutamic acid, or the MDP-D-isoform. Thus, we successfully developed Nod2-nodosome in a cell-free system reflecting its function in vivo, and it can be useful for screening Nod2-nodosome-targeted therapeutic molecules for BS/EOS and granulomatous inflammatory diseases. Tomoyuki Iwasaki, Naoe Kaneko, Yuki Ito, Hiroyuki Takeda, Tatsuya Sawasaki, Toshio Heike, Kiyoshi Migita, Kazunaga Agematsu, Atsushi Kawakami, Shinnosuke Morikawa, Sho Mokuda, Mie Kurata, and Junya Masumoto Copyright © 2016 Tomoyuki Iwasaki et al. All rights reserved. Study of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors in Patients with HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study Mon, 13 Jun 2016 06:25:25 +0000 The NCR receptors play a fundamental role in the cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells against tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated possible HIV/AIDS-related changes in the expression of the NCR receptors comparing healthy donors, HIV/AIDS patients, and HIV/AIDS patients with cancer (HIV/AIDSWC). The NCRs were quantified in NK cells ( and ) and T lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples by flow cytometry. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in HIV/AIDS group (). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in the HIV/AIDSWC group; however, this was not statistically significant. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 in the HIV/AIDS group (). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 and in the HIV/AIDSWC group, but this was not statistically significant. There were no changes in the distribution of NK cells and their subtypes in both groups. Orlando Nascimento Terra Junior, Gabriel de Carvalho Maldonado, Guilherme Rohem Alfradique, Vinicius da Cunha Lisboa, Adriano Arnóbio, Dirce Bonfim de Lima, Hilda Rachel Diamond, and Maria Helena Faria Ornellas de Souza Copyright © 2016 Orlando Nascimento Terra Junior et al. All rights reserved. The Process of Separating Bovine Serum Albumin Using Hydroxyapatite and Active Babassu Coal (Orbignya martiana) Tue, 07 Jun 2016 10:03:27 +0000 Bovine serum albumin is one of the major serum proteins; it plays an important role as a result of its functional and nutritional properties which have bioactive peptides. Adsorption method was used to separate protein, which involves hydroxyapatite, synthetic hydroxyapatite, and active babassu coal. Initially, characterization was carried out using the zeta potential of the adsorbents. Kinetic pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models were applied. For isotherms, equilibrium data studies were carried out using the Langmuir and Freundlich models, in addition to determining the efficiency of adsorptive process. The results of the zeta potential showed loads ranging from +6.9 to −42.8 mV. The kinetic data were better represented in the pseudo-second-order model with chemisorption characteristics. The adsorption capacity of the adsorbents decreased as pH increased, indicating that the electrostatic bonds and some functional groups of active babassu coal contributed to the reduction of adsorption, especially oxygen linked to carbon atoms. The value of pH 4.0 showed the best results of adsorption, being obtained as the maximum adsorption capacity () and yield (%) (where  mg g−1 and 74.2%; 68.26 mg g−1 and 68.6%; and 36.18 mg g−1, 37.4%) of hydroxyapatite, synthetic hydroxyapatite, and active babassu coal, respectively. Márcia Regina Ribeiro Alves, Abraham Damian Giraldo Zuñiga, Rita de Cássia Superbi Sousa, and Carmelita Zacchi Scolforo Copyright © 2016 Márcia Regina Ribeiro Alves et al. All rights reserved. Association between Reactive Attachment Disorder/Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder and Emerging Personality Disorder: A Feasibility Study Mon, 06 Jun 2016 09:15:02 +0000 A systematic review of reactive attachment disorder (RAD)/disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) in adolescence highlighted that young people with the disorder had indiscriminate friendliness with difficulties in establishing and maintaining stable relationships. Most reported experiences of rejection. We were struck by similarities between the above and features of emergence of personality disorders (EPD). This feasibility study aimed to determine best ways of recruiting and retaining vulnerable young people and the proportion of participants with RAD/DSED who might have emerging borderline personality disorder (EBPD). Participants were referred to the study by their treating clinicians from local mental health teams. Results showed strong association between RAD/DSED and EBPD. Participant characteristics showed high levels of out of home placements, early termination of school careers, suicide attempts, quasipsychotic symptoms, and multiagency involvements. They experienced the project as an opportunity to talk about relationships and reported that they would like more of this in usual clinical contacts. They all agreed to be contacted for future studies. Previous studies have shown that early detection and treatment of emergent personality traits can alter trajectory. Future research will continue to explore these trajectories, explore detection of vulnerability factors, and evaluate interventions. Khadija Mirza, Gracia Mwimba, Rachel Pritchett, and Claire Davidson Copyright © 2016 Khadija Mirza et al. All rights reserved. The Challenges of Nursing Students in the Clinical Learning Environment: A Qualitative Study Sun, 05 Jun 2016 09:57:49 +0000 Background/Aim. Clinical learning is a main part of nursing education. Students’ exposure to clinical learning environment is one of the most important factors affecting the teaching-learning process in clinical settings. Identifying challenges of nursing students in the clinical learning environment could improve training and enhance the quality of its planning and promotion of the students. We aimed to explore Iranian nursing students’ challenges in the clinical learning environment. Materials and Methods. This is a qualitative study using the content analysis approach. The participants consisted of seventeen nursing students and three nursing instructors. The participants were selected through purposive sampling method and attended semistructured interviews and focus groups. Results. Three themes emerged after data analysis, including ineffective communications, inadequate readiness, and emotional reactions. Conclusion. Nursing students in Iran are faced with many challenges in the clinical learning environment. All challenges identified in this study affected the students’ learning in clinical setting. Therefore, we recommend that the instructors prepare students with a specific focus on their communication and psychological needs. Nahid Jamshidi, Zahra Molazem, Farkhondeh Sharif, Camellia Torabizadeh, and Majid Najafi Kalyani Copyright © 2016 Nahid Jamshidi et al. All rights reserved. Recent Trends and Techniques in Computing Information Intelligence Sun, 05 Jun 2016 09:30:49 +0000 Venkatesh Jaganathan, Balasubramanie Palanisamy, and Mariofanna Milanova Copyright © 2016 Venkatesh Jaganathan et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment in Stroke Survivors Tue, 31 May 2016 07:54:19 +0000 In this review, we aimed to identify the risk factors that may influence cognitive impairment among stroke survivors, namely, demographic, clinical, psychological, and physical determinants. A search from Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases was conducted for papers published from year 2004 to 2015 related to risk factors of cognitive impairment among adult stroke survivors. A total of 1931 articles were retrieved, but only 27 articles met the criteria and were reviewed. In more than half of the articles it was found that demographical variables that include age, education level, and history of stroke were significant risk factors of cognitive impairment among stroke survivors. The review also indicated that diabetes mellitus, hypertension, types of stroke and affected region of brain, and stroke characteristics (e.g., size and location of infarctions) were clinical determinants that affected cognitive status. In addition, the presence of emotional disturbances mainly depressive symptoms showed significant effects on cognition. Independent relationships between cognition and functional impairment were also identified as determinants in a few studies. This review provided information on the possible risk factors of cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. This information may be beneficial in the prevention and management strategy of cognitive impairments among stroke survivors. Mohd Faizal Mohd Zulkifly, Shazli Ezzat Ghazali, Normah Che Din, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, and Ponnusamy Subramaniam Copyright © 2016 Mohd Faizal Mohd Zulkifly et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells Wed, 25 May 2016 11:28:29 +0000 Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4) D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA) proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family. Samaneh Sadat Maleki, Kourosh Mohammadi, and Kong-shu Ji Copyright © 2016 Samaneh Sadat Maleki et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Phenotypic Detection of Metallo-β-Lactamase in Imipenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa” Tue, 24 May 2016 11:36:40 +0000 Yalda Khosravi, Mun Fai Loke, Eng Guan Chua, Sun Tee Tay, and Jamuna Vadivelu Copyright © 2016 Yalda Khosravi et al. All rights reserved. Effects of R-Phase on Mechanical Responses of a Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instrument: Structural Characterization and Finite Element Analysis Sun, 22 May 2016 12:07:13 +0000 The effects of the presence of the R-phase in a near-equiatomic NiTi alloy on the mechanical responses of an endodontic instrument were studied by using finite element analysis. The input data for the constitutive model in the simulation were obtained by tensile testing of three NiTi wires: superelastic austenite NiTi, austenite + R-phase NiTi, and fully R-phased NiTi. The wires were also characterized by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. A commercially available endodontic instrument was scanned using microcomputed tomography, and the resulting images were used to build the geometrical model. The numerical analyses were performed in ABAQUS using load and boundary conditions based on the ISO 3630-1 specification for the bending and torsion of endodontic instruments. The modeled instrument containing only R-phase demanded the lowest moment to be bent, followed by the one with mixed austenite + R-phase. The superelastic instrument, containing essentially austenite, required the highest bending moment. During bending, the fully R-phased instrument reached the lowest stress values; however, it also experienced the highest angular deflection when subjected to torsion. In summary, this simulation showed that NiTi endodontic instruments containing only R-phase in their microstructure would show higher flexibility without compromising their performance under torsion. Leandro de Arruda Santos, Pedro Damas Resende, Maria Guiomar de Azevedo Bahia, and Vicente Tadeu Lopes Buono Copyright © 2016 Leandro de Arruda Santos et al. All rights reserved. Impacts of Fog Characteristics, Forward Illumination, and Warning Beacon Intensity Distribution on Roadway Hazard Visibility Sun, 22 May 2016 08:46:20 +0000 Warning beacons are critical for the safety of transportation, construction, and utility workers. These devices need to produce sufficient luminous intensity to be visible without creating glare to drivers. Published standards for the photometric performance of warning beacons do not address their performance in conditions of reduced visibility such as fog. Under such conditions light emitted in directions other than toward approaching drivers can create scattered light that makes workers and other hazards less visible. Simulations of visibility of hazards under varying conditions of fog density, forward vehicle lighting, warning beacon luminous intensity, and intensity distribution were performed to assess their impacts on visual performance by drivers. Each of these factors can influence the ability of drivers to detect and identify workers and hazards along the roadway in work zones. Based on the results, it would be reasonable to specify maximum limits on the luminous intensity of warning beacons in directions that are unlikely to be seen by drivers along the roadway, limits which are not included in published performance specifications. John D. Bullough and Mark S. Rea Copyright © 2016 John D. Bullough and Mark S. Rea. All rights reserved. Local Integral Estimates for Quasilinear Equations with Measure Data Tue, 17 May 2016 12:00:24 +0000 Local integral estimates as well as local nonexistence results for a class of quasilinear equations for and Hessian equations were established, where is a nonnegative locally integrable function or, more generally, a locally finite measure, is a positive Radon measure, and with and or . Qiaoyu Tian, Shengzhi Zhang, Yonglin Xu, and Jia Mu Copyright © 2016 Qiaoyu Tian et al. All rights reserved. System Review about Function Role of ESCC Driver Gene KDM6A by Network Biology Approach Tue, 17 May 2016 06:07:52 +0000 Background. KDM6A (Lysine (K)-Specific Demethylase 6A) is the driver gene related to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In order to provide more biological insights into KDM6A, in this paper, we treat PPI (protein-protein interaction) network derived from KDM6A as a conceptual framework and follow it to review its biological function. Method. We constructed a PPI network with Cytoscape software and performed clustering of network with Clust&See. Then, we evaluate the pathways, which are statistically involved in the network derived from KDM6A. Lastly, gene ontology analysis of clusters of genes in the network was conducted. Result. The network includes three clusters that consist of 74 nodes connected via 453 edges. Fifty-five pathways are statistically involved in the network and most of them are functionally related to the processes of cell cycle, gene expression, and carcinogenesis. The biology themes of clusters 1, 2, and 3 are chromatin modification, regulation of gene expression by transcription factor complex, and control of cell cycle, respectively. Conclusion. The PPI network presents a panoramic view which can facilitate for us to understand the function role of KDM6A. It is a helpful way by network approach to perform system review on a certain gene. Jihua Ran, Hui Li, and Huiwu Li Copyright © 2016 Jihua Ran et al. All rights reserved. PLL Based Energy Efficient PV System with Fuzzy Logic Based Power Tracker for Smart Grid Applications Sun, 15 May 2016 12:16:39 +0000 This work aims at improving the dynamic performance of the available photovoltaic (PV) system and maximizing the power obtained from it by the use of cascaded converters with intelligent control techniques. Fuzzy logic based maximum power point technique is embedded on the first conversion stage to obtain the maximum power from the available PV array. The cascading of second converter is needed to maintain the terminal voltage at grid potential. The soft-switching region of three-stage converter is increased with the proposed phase-locked loop based control strategy. The proposed strategy leads to reduction in the ripple content, rating of components, and switching losses. The PV array is mathematically modeled and the system is simulated and the results are analyzed. The performance of the system is compared with the existing maximum power point tracking algorithms. The authors have endeavored to accomplish maximum power and improved reliability for the same insolation of the PV system. Hardware results of the system are also discussed to prove the validity of the simulation results. G. Rohini and V. Jamuna Copyright © 2016 G. Rohini and V. Jamuna. All rights reserved. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study Tue, 10 May 2016 16:21:12 +0000 The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors’ involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. Margaret Grant, Alan Rushton, and John Simmonds Copyright © 2016 Margaret Grant et al. All rights reserved. Development and Evaluation of Stability of a Gel Formulation Containing the Monoterpene Borneol Mon, 09 May 2016 11:33:36 +0000 Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alcohol commonly used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. It is extracted from the essential oil of various medicinal plants. It has antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory action proven in studies that used oral and intraperitoneal applications of this monoterpene in mice. The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation containing the monoterpene borneol using carbopol as gel base and to evaluate its stability. The prepared formulation was subjected to physical characterization and physical-chemistry assessment. The gel was prepared from carbopol and 5% of borneol. The prepared gel was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as its pH, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, centrifugation, and accelerated stability with freezing-thaw cycle. The borneol was successfully incorporated into the carbopol formulation. Borneol gel (BG5) showed good stability after eight months of its development and after 12 days in the freeze-thaw cycle, not showing statistical difference in pH value, conductivity, and viscosity before and after test. Furthermore, the formulation showed a good spreadability. Therefore, it was concluded that the formulation could be very promising alternative for the topical or transdermal treatment of skin diseases. Milla Gabriela Belarmino Dantas, Silvio Alan Gonçalves Bomfim Reis, Camila Mahara Dias Damasceno, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Pedro José Rolim-Neto, Ferdinando Oliveira Carvalho, Lucindo José Quintans-Junior, and Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida Copyright © 2016 Milla Gabriela Belarmino Dantas et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Analysis of Reduced γ-Tocopherol Content in Ethiopian Mustard Seeds Thu, 05 May 2016 07:08:06 +0000 Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) line BCT-6, with reduced γ-tocopherol content in the seeds, has been previously developed. The objective of this research was to conduct a genetic analysis of seed tocopherols in this line. BCT-6 was crossed with the conventional line C-101 and the , , and BC plant generations were analyzed. Generation mean analysis using individual scaling tests indicated that reduced γ-tocopherol content fitted an additive-dominant genetic model with predominance of additive effects and absence of epistatic interactions. This was confirmed through a joint scaling test and additional testing of the goodness of fit of the model. Conversely, epistatic interactions were identified for total tocopherol content. Estimation of the minimum number of genes suggested that both γ- and total tocopherol content may be controlled by two genes. A positive correlation between total tocopherol content and the proportion of γ-tocopherol was identified in the generation. Additional research on the feasibility of developing germplasm with high tocopherol content and reduced concentration of γ-tocopherol is required. Elena García-Navarro, José M. Fernández-Martínez, Begoña Pérez-Vich, and Leonardo Velasco Copyright © 2016 Elena García-Navarro et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness Tue, 03 May 2016 08:52:39 +0000 This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira, Ricardo Kureski, and Claudimar Pereira da Veiga Copyright © 2016 Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira et al. All rights reserved.