The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Prescribing Multiple Neurostimulants during Rehabilitation for Severe Brain Injury Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:10:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/964578/ Background. Despite a lack of clear evidence, multiple neurostimulants are commonly provided after severe brain injury (BI). The purpose of this study is to determine if the number of neurostimulants received during rehabilitation was associated with recovery of full consciousness or improved neurobehavioral function after severe BI. Method. Data from 115 participants were extracted from a neurobehavioral observational study database for this exploratory, retrospective analysis. Univariate optimal data analysis was conducted to determine if the number of neurostimulants influenced classification of four outcomes: recovery of full consciousness during rehabilitation, recovery of full consciousness within one year of injury, and meaningful neurobehavioral improvement during rehabilitation defined as either at least a 4.7 unit (minimal detectable change) or 2.58 unit (minimal clinically important difference) gain on the Disorders of Consciousness Scale-25 (DOCS-25). Results. Number of neurostimulants was not significantly () associated with recovery of full consciousness during rehabilitation, within one year of injury, or meaningful neurobehavioral improvement using the DOCS-25. Conclusions. Receiving multiple neurostimulants during rehabilitation may not influence recovery of full consciousness or meaningful neurobehavioral improvement. Given costs associated with additional medication, future research is needed to guide physicians about the merits of prescribing multiple neurostimulants during rehabilitation after severe BI. Amy A. Herrold, Theresa Louise-Bender Pape, Ann Guernon, Trudy Mallinson, Eileen Collins, and Neil Jordan Copyright © 2014 Amy A. Herrold et al. All rights reserved. Seropositivity of Dengue Antibodies during Pregnancy Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:10:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/436975/ Purpose. Malaysia a dengue endemic country with dengue infections in pregnancy on the rise. The present study was aimed at determining dengue seroprevalence (IgG or IgM) during pregnancy and its neonatal transmission in dengue seropositive women. Methods. Maternal with paired cord blood samples were tested for dengue antibodies (IgG and IgM) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Maternal age, parity, occupation, ethnic group, and gestational age were recorded. Data on neonatal Apgar score and admissions to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) were analyzed. Results. Out of 358 women recruited, about 128 (35.8%) patients were seropositive. Twelve patients (3.4%) had recent infections (IgM positive) and another 116 women (32.4%) were with past infections (IgG positive). All babies born to seropositive mothers had positive IgG paired cord blood; however, no IgM seropositivity was observed. All neonates had good Apgar scores and did not require NICU admission. Conclusion. In this study, 35.8% pregnant women were found to be dengue seropositive. However, transplacental transfer of IgG antibodies had no detrimental effect on the neonatal outcomes. Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail, Wan Elly Rushima Wan Abd Rahim, Sharifah Azura Salleh, Hui-Min Neoh, Rahman Jamal, and Muhammad Abdul Jamil Copyright © 2014 Nor Azlin Mohamed Ismail et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract Sun, 21 Dec 2014 12:31:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/121760/ Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eduardo Padilla-Camberos, Estefania Lazcano-Díaz, José Miguel Flores-Fernandez, Moses S. Owolabi, Kirk Allen, and Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez Copyright © 2014 Eduardo Padilla-Camberos et al. All rights reserved. Biomechanics of Gait during Pregnancy Sun, 21 Dec 2014 11:28:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/527940/ Introduction. During pregnancy women experience several changes in the body’s physiology, morphology, and hormonal system. These changes may affect the balance and body stability and can cause discomfort and pain. The adaptations of the musculoskeletal system due to morphological changes during pregnancy are not fully understood. Few studies clarify the biomechanical changes of gait that occur during pregnancy and in postpartum period. Purposes. The purpose of this review was to analyze the available evidence on the biomechanical adaptations of gait that occur throughout pregnancy and in postpartum period, specifically with regard to the temporal, spatial, kinematic, and kinetic parameters of gait. Methods. Three databases were searched and 9 studies with a follow-up design were retrieved for analysis. Results. Most studies performed temporal, spatial, and kinematic analysis. Only three studies performed kinetic analysis. Conclusion. The adaptation strategies to the anatomical and physiological changes throughout pregnancy are still unclear, particularly in a longitudinal perspective and regarding kinetic parameters. Marco Branco, Rita Santos-Rocha, and Filomena Vieira Copyright © 2014 Marco Branco et al. All rights reserved. Role of Melatonin in Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury Sun, 21 Dec 2014 10:13:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/586270/ Brain and spinal cord are implicated in incidences of two of the most severe injuries of central nervous system (CNS). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating neurological deficit involving primary and secondary injury cascades. The primary and secondary mechanisms include complex consequences of activation of proinflammatory cytokines, cerebral edema, upregulation of NF-κβ, disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB), and oxidative stress. Spinal cord injury (SCI) includes primary and secondary injury cascades. Primary injury leads to secondary injury in which generation of free radicals and oxidative or nitrative damage play an important pathophysiological role. The indoleamine melatonin is a hormone secreted or synthesized by pineal gland in the brain which helps to regulate sleep and wake cycle. Melatonin has been shown to be a versatile hormone having antioxidative, antiapoptotic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties. It has a special characteristic of crossing BBB. Melatonin has neuroprotective role in the injured part of the CNS after TBI and SCI. A number of studies have successfully shown its therapeutic value as a neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Here in this review we have compiled the literature supporting consequences of CNS injuries, TBI and SCI, and the protective role of melatonin in it. Mehar Naseem and Suhel Parvez Copyright © 2014 Mehar Naseem and Suhel Parvez. All rights reserved. Development of Robust Behaviour Recognition for an at-Home Biomonitoring Robot with Assistance of Subject Localization and Enhanced Visual Tracking Sun, 21 Dec 2014 09:48:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/280207/ Our research is focused on the development of an at-home health care biomonitoring mobile robot for the people in demand. Main task of the robot is to detect and track a designated subject while recognizing his/her activity for analysis and to provide warning in an emergency. In order to push forward the system towards its real application, in this study, we tested the robustness of the robot system with several major environment changes, control parameter changes, and subject variation. First, an improved color tracker was analyzed to find out the limitations and constraints of the robot visual tracking considering the suitable illumination values and tracking distance intervals. Then, regarding subject safety and continuous robot based subject tracking, various control parameters were tested on different layouts in a room. Finally, the main objective of the system is to find out walking activities for different patterns for further analysis. Therefore, we proposed a fast, simple, and person specific new activity recognition model by making full use of localization information, which is robust to partial occlusion. The proposed activity recognition algorithm was tested on different walking patterns with different subjects, and the results showed high recognition accuracy. Nevrez Imamoglu, Enrique Dorronzoro, Zhixuan Wei, Huangjun Shi, Masashi Sekine, José González, Dongyun Gu, Weidong Chen, and Wenwei Yu Copyright © 2014 Nevrez Imamoglu et al. All rights reserved. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT Sun, 21 Dec 2014 08:17:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/634828/ Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth. Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Neamat S. Abdel Kader, and M. Zorkany Copyright © 2014 Mohamed M. Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. Inheritance of Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Inbred Progenies of Tropical Maize Based on Multivariate Diallel Analysis Sun, 21 Dec 2014 06:13:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/894710/ The objective of our study was to characterize and determine the patterns of genetic control in relation to tolerance and efficiency of nitrogen use by means of a complete diallel cross involving contrasting inbred progenies of tropical maize based on a univariate approach within the perspective of a multivariate mixed model. Eleven progenies, previously classified regarding the tolerance and responsiveness to nitrogen, were crossed in a complete diallel cross. Fifty-five hybrids were obtained. The hybrids and the progenies were evaluated at two different nitrogen levels, in two locations. The grain yield was measured as well as its yield components. The heritability values between the higher and lower nitrogen input environment did not differ among themselves. It was observed that the general combining ability values were similar for both approaches univariate and multivariate, when it was analyzed within each location and nitrogen level. The estimate of variance of the specific combining ability was higher than general combining ability estimate and the ratio between them was 0.54. The univariate and multivariate approaches are equivalent in experiments with good precision and high heritability. The nonadditive genetic effects exhibit greater quantities than the additive genetic effects for the genetic control of nitrogen use efficiency. Fernando Lisboa Guedes, Rafael Parreira Diniz, Marcio Balestre, Camila Bastos Ribeiro, Renato Barbosa Camargos, and João Cândido Souza Copyright © 2014 Fernando Lisboa Guedes et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Bounding Schemes for the Two-Center Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Removal Times Sun, 21 Dec 2014 00:10:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/605198/ We focus on the two-center hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with identical parallel machines and removal times. The job removal time is the required duration to remove it from a machine after its processing. The objective is to minimize the maximum completion time (makespan). A heuristic and a lower bound are proposed for this NP-Hard problem. These procedures are based on the optimal solution of the parallel machine scheduling problem with release dates and delivery times. The heuristic is composed of two phases. The first one is a constructive phase in which an initial feasible solution is provided, while the second phase is an improvement one. Intensive computational experiments have been conducted to confirm the good performance of the proposed procedures. Lotfi Hidri, Anis Gharbi, and Mohamed Aly Louly Copyright © 2014 Lotfi Hidri et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:56:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/376260/ Zhongmei Zhou, Yuxin Mao, Jaime Lloret, Xiaoxuan Meng, and Jingjing Zhou Copyright © 2014 Zhongmei Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Antibiotic Producing Rare Actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. JAJ18 Derived from an Indian Coastal Solar Saltern Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:42:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/456070/ Rare actinomycete genera are accepted as a promising source of novel metabolites having pharmaceutical importance. One such genus of rare actinomycete is Nonomuraea. The present study was aimed at characterizing the antibiotic producing Nonomuraea strain JAJ18 which was previously isolated from coastal solar saltern. Strain JAJ18 was recognized as a member of genus Nonomuraea based on its almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characteristics. The strain JAJ18 was found to be closely related to Nonomuraea maheshkhaliensis 16-5-14T (98.90%), Nonomuraea candida HMC10T (98.58%), and Nonomuraea jabiensis A4036T (98.43%). From cell-free culture broth of strain JAJ18, an antibiotic was extracted and purified by silica column chromatography. The obtained antibiotic was found to be active against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including drug-resistant Staphylococcus, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.5 to 16.0 µg mL−1. The structural characteristics of antibiotic were determined by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The antibiotic was identified to be an aliphatic rich compound with significant dissimilarity to known antibiotics reported from members of the genus, Nonomuraea. As the trends to discover novel metabolites from Nonomuraea are vibrant, further studies are needed to understand the structural and biotechnological significance of antibiotic compound produced by Nonomuraea sp. JAJ18. Polpass Arul Jose, Kunjukrishnan Kamalakshi Sivakala, Pandiyan Rajeswari, and Solomon Robinson David Jebakumar Copyright © 2014 Polpass Arul Jose et al. All rights reserved. Cell Hydration as a Biomarker for Estimation of Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation on Cells and Organisms Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/890518/ “Changes in cell hydration” have been hypothesized as an input signal for intracellular metabolic cascade responsible for biological effects of nonionizing radiation (NIR). To test this hypothesis a comparative study on the impacts of different temperature and NIR (infrasound frequency mechanical vibration (MV), static magnetic field (SMF), extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF), and microwave (MW)) pretreated water on the hydration of barley seeds in its dormant and germination periods was performed. In dormant state temperature sensitivity () of seed hydration in distilled water (DW) was less than 2, and it was nonsensitive to NIR treated DW, whereas during the germination period (48–72 hours) seeds hydration exhibited temperature sensitivity and higher sensitivity to NIR treated DW. Obtained data allow us to suggest that the metabolic driving of intracellular water dynamics accompanied by hydrogen bonding and breaking is more sensitive to NIR-induced water structure changes in seed bathing aqua medium than the simple thermodynamic processes such as osmotic gradient driven water absorption by seeds in dormant state. Therefore, cell hydration is suggested to be a universal and extrasensitive biomarker for detection of biological effects of NIR on cells and organisms. Sinerik Ayrapetyan and Jaysankar De Copyright © 2014 Sinerik Ayrapetyan and Jaysankar De. All rights reserved. The Meaning of Collaboration, from the Perspective of Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Study Wed, 17 Dec 2014 08:48:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/785942/ Background. Interdisciplinary collaboration among nurses is a complex and multifaceted process, an essential element in nursing, which is crucial to maintain an efficient, safe, and viable medical setting. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of concept of collaboration through conducting a qualitative research approach. Method. The present study is qualitatively conducted in a content analysis approach. The data collection process included 18 unstructured and in-depth interviews with nurses during 2012-2013 in educational medical centers of west and northwest of Iran. A purposive sampling method was used. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and finally analyzed using a qualitative content analysis with a conventional method. Result. Categories obtained from analysis of the data to explain the meaning of collaboration consist of (i) prerequisites of collaboration, (ii) actualization of collaboration, and (iii) achievement of a common goal. Conclusion. The results of the present study ended in the discovery of meaning of collaboration that confirm results of other related studies, hence clarifying and disambiguating the concept under study. These results also contribute to the development of collaboration theories and the relevant measurement tools. V. Zamanzadeh, A. Irajpour, L. Valizadeh, and M. Shohani Copyright © 2014 V. Zamanzadeh et al. All rights reserved. The Filtering of the Posturographic Signals Shows the Age Related Features Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:36:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/403893/ Objective. Lower frequencies of slow oscillations of the posturographic signals can be removed using high-pass filtering. This procedure releases postural reflexes possessing higher frequencies and lower amplitude range. Mutual dependence between the and components of posturographic signals was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The posturographic signals of old patients with idiopathic gait disturbance were compared with the control group of similar age and with younger patients. There was also the analysis of the influence of the eyes state (open versus closed) and the head position (normal or bent back). The statistically significant differences in the mutual dependence between and components between the groups of patients were analyzed using MANOVA. The significant differences were observed mainly in the range of filter frequencies  Hz and  Hz with a maximum effect at approximately  Hz. A detailed post-hoc analysis is also presented. The differences in the higher frequency range suggest the main disturbance to be connected with the spinal reflexes. Visual and vestibular support appear insufficient for postural stability control in the idiopathic gait disturbance group. The results suggest that idiopathic gait disturbance is the final stage of the aging process of postural system. Krzysztof Piotr Michalak, Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Paweł Nawrot, Piotr Woźniak, and Peter Vieregge Copyright © 2014 Krzysztof Piotr Michalak et al. All rights reserved. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:36:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/248049/ Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof. N. Chowdhury, A. Saleque, N. K. Sood, and L. D. Singla Copyright © 2014 N. Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Undernutrition and Its Correlates among Children of 3–9 Years of Age Residing in Slum Areas of Bhubaneswar, India Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:11:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/719673/ Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3–9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother’s education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. Ansuman Panigrahi and Sai Chandan Das Copyright © 2014 Ansuman Panigrahi and Sai Chandan Das. All rights reserved. Methods, Diagnostic Criteria, Cutoff Points, and Prevalence of Sarcopenia among Older People Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:11:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/231312/ Aim. To identify methods, index, diagnostic criteria, and corresponding cutoff points used to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in older people in different countries. Methods. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA Statement. The search encompassed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases and was executed during March 2012 using the keyword sarcopenia. Results. A total of 671 studies were identified by the search strategy, and 30 meet all inclusion criteria. Specifically for dual-X-ray absorptiometry, prevalence ranged from 2.2% to 95% in men and from 0.1% to 33.9% in women. For bioelectrical impedance analysis, the range was from 6.2% to 85.4% in men and 2.8% to 23.6% in women. Regarding anthropometric and computed tomography, prevalence rates were, respectively, 14.1% and 55.9%. Conclusions. Heterogeneity in prevalence of sarcopenia was identified, due to diagnostic method choice, cutoff points, and, characteristics of the population as well as reference population. These factors should be considered in research designs to enable comparison and validation of results. Despite the limitations of most studies that indicated high prevalence rates, the results indicate the need for early detection of this syndrome. Valéria Pagotto and Erika Aparecida Silveira Copyright © 2014 Valéria Pagotto and Erika Aparecida Silveira. All rights reserved. Development, Characterization, and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Hydrochlorothiazide Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:52:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/274823/ The objective of the current work was to develop optimized self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performance. The research comprised various studies which includes solubility studies in various vehicles, pseudoternary phase diagram construction, and preparation and characterization of SNEDDS along with in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacodynamic profiling. Based on dissolution profile, a remarkable increase in rate of dissolution was observed in comparison with plain drug and marketed formulation. Optimized SNEDDS formulation was composed of Capmul MCM (19.17% w/w), Tween 80 (57.5% w/w), Transcutol P (12.7% w/w), and HCT (4.17% w/w). In vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation in Wistar rats showed considerable increase in pharmacological effect of HCT by SNEDDS formulation as compared with plain HCT. Pankajkumar S. Yadav, Ekta Yadav, Amita Verma, and Saima Amin Copyright © 2014 Pankajkumar S. Yadav et al. All rights reserved. Nanospray Drying as a Novel Technique for the Manufacturing of Inhalable NSAID Powders Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/838410/ The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of the nanospray drier as a novel apparatus for the manufacturing of a dry powder for inhalation containing ketoprofen lysinate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to control the inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. We produced several ketoprofen lysinate and leucine powder batches by means of nanospray dryer, studying the influence of process parameters on yield, particle properties (size distribution and morphology), and, mainly, aerodynamic properties of powders. Micronized particles were prepared from different hydroalcoholic solutions (alcohol content from 0 to 30% v/v) using ketoprofen in its lysine salt form and leucine as dispersibility enhancer in different ratios (from 5 to 15% w/w) with a total solid concentration ranging from 1 to 7% w/v. Results indicated that the spray head equipped with a 7 µm nozzle produced powders too big to be inhaled. The reduction of nozzle size from 7 to 4 µm led to smaller particles suitable for inhalation but, at the same time, caused a dramatic increase in process time. The selection of process variables, together with the nozzle pretreatment with a surfactant solution, allowed us to obtain a free flowing powder with satisfying aerosol performance, confirming the usefulness of the nanospray drier in the production of powder for inhalation. Aquino Rita Patrizia, Stigliani Mariateresa, Del Gaudio Pasquale, Mencherini Teresa, Sansone Francesca, and Russo Paola Copyright © 2014 Aquino Rita Patrizia et al. All rights reserved. HIV Treatment as Prevention: Contradictory Perspectives from Dynamic Mathematical Models Mon, 15 Dec 2014 11:21:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/760734/ The preventative effects of antiretroviral therapy for people with HIV have been debated since they were first raised. Models commenced studying the preventive effects of treatment in the 1990s, prior to initial public reports. However, the outcomes of the preventive effects of antiretroviral use were not consistent. Some outcomes of dynamic models were based on unfeasible assumptions, such as no consideration of drug resistance, behavior disinhibition, or economic inputs in poor countries, and unrealistic input variables, for example, overstated initiation time, adherence, coverage, and efficacy of treatment. This paper reviewed dynamic mathematical models to ascertain the complex effects of ART on HIV transmission. This review discusses more conservative inputs and outcomes relative to antiretroviral use in HIV infections in dynamic mathematical models. ART alone cannot eliminate HIV transmission. Jing Wu, Jessie L. Norris, Yujiang Jia, and Ning Wang Copyright © 2014 Jing Wu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Carbon Concentration, Blend Concentration, and Renewal Rate in the Growth Kinetic of Chlorella sp. Mon, 15 Dec 2014 09:47:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/205184/ The microalgae cultivation can be used as alternative sources of food, in agriculture, residual water treatment, and biofuels production. Semicontinuous cultivation is little studied but is more cost-effective than the discontinuous (batch) cultivation. In the semicontinuous cultivation, the microalga is maintained in better concentration of nutrients and the photoinhibition by excessive cell is reduced. Thus, biomass productivity and biocompounds of interest, such as lipid productivity, may be higher than in batch cultivation. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of blend concentration, medium renewal rate, and concentration of sodium bicarbonate on the growth of Chlorella sp. during semicontinuous cultivation. The cultivation was carried out in Raceway type bioreactors of 6 L, for 40 d at 30°C, 41.6 µmol m−2 s−1, and a 12 h light/dark photoperiod. Maximum specific growth rate (0.149 d−1) and generating biomass (2.89 g L−1) were obtained when the blend concentration was 0.80 g L−1, the medium renewal rate was 40%, and NaHCO3 was 1.60 g L−1. The average productivity (0.091 g L−1 d−1) was achieved with 0.8 g L−1 of blend concentration and NaHCO3 concentration of 1.6 g L−1, independent of the medium renewal rate. Adriano Arruda Henrard, Gabriel Martins da Rosa, Luiza Moraes, Michele Greque de Morais, and Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa Copyright © 2014 Adriano Arruda Henrard et al. All rights reserved. Screening of Trace Elements in Hair of the Female Population with Different Types of Cancers in Wielkopolska Region of Poland Mon, 15 Dec 2014 07:53:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/953181/ Background. Cancer constitutes a major health problem worldwide. Thus, search for reliable and practical markers of the disease process remains the key issue of the diagnostic process. Objectives. The study aims at linking the trace element status of an organism, assessed by hair analysis, with the occurrence of cancer diseases. Material and Methods. Hair samples were collected from 299 patients with cancer diseases confirmed by a histopathological test and from 100 controls. Cancer patients were divided into three groups, depending on cancer type: hormone-dependent cancer, cancer of the alimentary tract, and cancer with high glycolytic activity. Mineral element analysis of hair was performed using an atomic emission spectrophotometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results. Statistically significantly lower concentrations of selenium, zinc, copper, germanium and boron, iron, and magnesium were observed in the three groups of cancer patients. Disturbance in the axis glucose-insulin and changes in concentrations of heavy metals and toxic elements were also noted. Conclusions. It seems safe to conclude that our results confirmed usefulness of hair element analysis in screening tests for the assessment of the biomarker of various cancer diseases in a female population. Bogusław Czerny, Krzysztof Krupka, Marcin Ożarowski, and Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz Copyright © 2014 Bogusław Czerny et al. All rights reserved. Pyruvic Oxime Nitrification and Copper and Nickel Resistance by a Cupriavidus pauculus, an Active Heterotrophic Nitrifier-Denitrifier Mon, 15 Dec 2014 00:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/901702/ Heterotrophic nitrifiers synthesize nitrogenous gasses when nitrifying ammonium ion. A Cupriavidus pauculus, previously thought an Alcaligenes sp. and noted as an active heterotrophic nitrifier-denitrifier, was examined for its ability to produce nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) while heterotrophically nitrifying the organic substrate pyruvic oxime [CH3–C(NOH)–COOH]. Neither N2 nor N2O were produced. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the organism is a member of a genus (Cupriavidus) known for its resistance to metals and its metabolism of xenobiotics. The microbe (a Cupriavidus pauculus designated as C. pauculus strain UM1) was examined for its ability to perform heterotrophic nitrification in the presence of Cu2+ and Ni2+ and to metabolize the xenobiotic phenol. The bacterium heterotrophically nitrified well when either 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+ was present in either enriched or minimal medium. The organism also used phenol as a sole carbon source in either the presence or absence of 1 mM Cu2+ or 0.5 mM Ni2+. The ability of this isolate to perform a number of different metabolisms, its noteworthy resistance to copper and nickel, and its potential use as a bioremediation agent are discussed. Miguel Ramirez, Jennifer Obrzydowski, Mary Ayers, Sonia Virparia, Meijing Wang, Kurtis Stefan, Richard Linchangco, and Domenic Castignetti Copyright © 2014 Miguel Ramirez et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy-Energy Configurable Sensor Processor and IoT Device for Long-Term Activity Monitoring in Rare-Event Sensing Applications Sun, 14 Dec 2014 09:37:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/546563/ A specially designed sensor processor used as a main processor in IoT (internet-of-thing) device for the rare-event sensing applications is proposed. The IoT device including the proposed sensor processor performs the event-driven sensor data processing based on an accuracy-energy configurable event-quantization in architectural level. The received sensor signal is converted into a sequence of atomic events, which is extracted by the signal-to-atomic-event generator (AEG). Using an event signal processing unit (EPU) as an accelerator, the extracted atomic events are analyzed to build the final event. Instead of the sampled raw data transmission via internet, the proposed method delays the communication with a host system until a semantic pattern of the signal is identified as a final event. The proposed processor is implemented on a single chip, which is tightly coupled in bus connection level with a microcontroller using a 0.18 μm CMOS embedded-flash process. For experimental results, we evaluated the proposed sensor processor by using an IR- (infrared radio-) based signal reflection and sensor signal acquisition system. We successfully demonstrated that the expected power consumption is in the range of 20% to 50% compared to the result of the basement in case of allowing 10% accuracy error. Daejin Park and Jeonghun Cho Copyright © 2014 Daejin Park and Jeonghun Cho. All rights reserved. How Do Metal Ion Levels Change over Time in Hip Resurfacing Patients? A Cohort Study Sun, 14 Dec 2014 07:44:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/291925/ Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MOM-HR) is offered as an alternative to traditional hip arthroplasty for young, active adults with advanced osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, concerns remain regarding wear and corrosion of the bearing surfaces and the resulting increase in metal ion levels. We evaluated three cohorts of patients with Birmingham hip resurfacing (BHR) at an average follow-up of 2, 5, and 9 years. We asked whether there would be differences in ion levels between the cohorts and inside the gender. Nineteen patients were prospectively analyzed. The correlation with clinical-radiographic data was also performed. Chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Chromium and cobalt levels demonstrated a tendency to decrease over time. Such tendency was present only in females. An inverse correlation between chromium, implant size, and Harris hip score was present at short term; it disappeared over time together with the decreased ion levels. The prospective analysis showed that, although metal ion levels remained fairly constant within each patient, there was a relatively large variation between subjects, so mean data in this scenario must be interpreted with caution. The chronic high exposure should be carefully considered during implant selection, particularly in young subjects, and a stricter monitoring is mandatory. Lucia Savarino, Matteo Cadossi, Eugenio Chiarello, Caterina Fotia, Michelina Greco, Nicola Baldini, and Sandro Giannini Copyright © 2014 Lucia Savarino et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Anticonvulsant and Toxicity Screening of Substituted Benzylidenehydrazinyl-N-(6-substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)propanamides Thu, 11 Dec 2014 11:30:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/194652/ Keeping in view the structural requirements suggested in the pharmacophore model for anticonvulsant activity, a new series of 3-(2-(substitutedbenzylidene)hydrazinyl)-N-(substituted benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-propanamides were synthesized with aromatic hydrophobic aryl ring (A), NH–C=O as hydrogen bonding domain (HBD), nitrogen atom as electron donor (D), and phenyl as distal aryl ring (C). Synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Preliminary in vivo anticonvulsant screening (phase I) was performed by two most adopted seizure models, maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ). Based on anticonvulsant screening results, two compounds, 5h and 5p, were found to be most active; they exhibited activity comparable to standard drugs phenytoin (PHY) and carbamazepine (CBZ). These active compounds were subjected to phase II and phase III screening, where they displayed much higher protective index (PI) in comparison to the standard drugs. In phase IV screening, the bioavailability of active compounds was assessed on oral administration. Further, preliminary safety profiles of 5h and 5p were evaluated by the neurotoxicity testing and liver enzyme estimation. Ruhi Ali and Nadeem Siddiqui Copyright © 2014 Ruhi Ali and Nadeem Siddiqui. All rights reserved. Selection of Superior Lentil (Lens esculenta M.) Genotypes by Assessing Character Association and Genetic Diversity Thu, 11 Dec 2014 08:05:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/372405/ Lentil is one of the most important pulse crops in the world as well as in Bangladesh. It is now considered a main component for training and body building practising in first world countries. Yield varies tremendously from year to year and location to location. Therefore, it is very important to find genotypes that perform consistently well even in ecological farming systems without any intercultural operations. Twenty lentil genotypes were tested during the period from November 2010 to March 2011 and from December 2011 to March 2012 with three replicates in each season to determine genetic variability, diversity, characters association, and selection indices for better grain yield. The experiment was conducted at the breeding field of the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study revealed that all the genotypes possess a high amount of genetic diversity. Plant height and 100-grain weight showed significant positive correlation with grain yield plant−1 that was also confirmed by path analysis as the highest direct effect on grain yield. The genotypes BM-513 and BM-941 were found to be the best performer in both the seasons and were considered as consistent genotype. The genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on Euclidean distance following Ward’s method and RAPD analysis. However, discriminant function analysis revealed a progressive increase in the efficiency of selection and BM-70 ranked as the best followed by the genotypes BM-739, BM-680, BM-185, and BM-513. These genotypes might be recommended for farmers’ cultivation in ecological farming in Bangladesh. U. K. Nath, Santona Rani, M. R. Paul, M. N. Alam, and B. Horneburg Copyright © 2014 U. K. Nath et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Polysaccharide Elicitors on Secondary Metabolite Production and Antioxidant Response in Hypericum perforatum L. Shoot Cultures Thu, 11 Dec 2014 07:46:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/609649/ The effects of polysaccharide elicitors such as chitin, pectin, and dextran on the production of phenylpropanoids (phenolics and flavonoids) and naphtodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin) in Hypericum perforatum shoot cultures were studied. Nonenzymatic antioxidant properties (NEAOP) and peroxidase (POD) activity were also observed in shoot extracts. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHFI) were monitored to estimate channeling in phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways of elicited shoot cultures. A significant suppression of the production of total phenolics and flavonoids was observed in elicited shoots from day 14 to day 21 of postelicitation. This inhibition of phenylpropanoid production was probably due to the decrease in CHFI activity in elicited shoots. Pectin and dextran promoted accumulation of naphtodianthrones, particularly pseudohypericin, within 21 days of postelicitation. The enhanced accumulation of naphtodianthrones was positively correlated with an increase of PAL activity in elicited shoots. All tested elicitors induced NEAOP at day 7, while chitin and pectin showed increase in POD activity within the entire period of postelicitation. The POD activity was in significantly positive correlation with flavonoid and hypericin contents, suggesting a strong perturbation of the cell redox system and activation of defense responses in polysaccharide-elicited H. perforatum shoot cultures. Sonja Gadzovska Simic, Oliver Tusevski, Stéphane Maury, Alain Delaunay, Claude Joseph, and Daniel Hagège Copyright © 2014 Sonja Gadzovska Simic et al. All rights reserved. The Structure of EAP-Groups and Self-Autopermutable Subgroups Thu, 11 Dec 2014 06:26:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/850526/ A subgroup H of a given group G is said to be autopermutable, if for all . We also call H a self-autopermutable subgroup of G, when implies that . Moreover, G is said to be EAP-group, if every subgroup of G is autopermutable. One notes that if α runs over the inner automorphisms of the group, one obtains the notions of conjugate-permutability, self-conjugate-permutability, and ECP-groups, which were studied by Foguel in 1997, Li and Meng in 2007, and Xu and Zhang in 2005, respectively. In the present paper, we determine the structure of a finite EAP-group when its centre is of index 4 in G. We also show that self-autopermutability and characteristic properties are equivalent for nilpotent groups. Shima Housieni and Mohammad Reza Rajabzadeh Moghaddam Copyright © 2014 Shima Housieni and Mohammad Reza Rajabzadeh Moghaddam. All rights reserved. Head and Maxillofacial Injuries in Child and Adolescent Victims of Automotive Accidents Wed, 10 Dec 2014 13:49:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/632720/ Background. Victims of motor vehicle accidents may suffer multiple lesions, including maxillofacial injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with head, facial, and maxillofacial injuries in child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out with analysis of forensic medical reports from the Legal Medical Institute of Campina Grande, Brazil, between January 2008 and December 2011. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was conducted using the chi-square test (α = 0.05). From 1613 medical reports analyzed, the sample is composed 232 (14.4%) reports referring to child and adolescent victims of automobile accidents aged 0–19 years of both sexes. Victims were mostly adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years (64.2%), males (73.7%), and motorcyclists (51.3%). More than half of the victims had single lesions (54.3%) located in the head (20.7%) and face (21.6%). Head injuries occurred more frequently in children aged 0–4 years (53.8%, PR = 5.065, 95% CI = 1.617–5.870) and pedestrians (30.4%, PR = 2.039, 95% CI = 1.024–4.061), while facial and maxillofacial injuries occurred in higher proportion among females (31.1%, PR = 0.489, 95% CI = 0.251–0.954). Our findings suggest that accidents involving motorcyclists are the most prevalent, affecting male adolescents aged from 15 to 19 years, resulting in a high frequency of injuries in the head and face regions. Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti, Thiago Henrique de Araujo Lino, Thaliny Batista Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaisy Sarmento Batista de Oliveira, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues Cardoso, Rodrigo Feliciano de Macedo, Wilton Wilney Nascimento Padilha, and Alidianne Fabia Cabral Xavier Copyright © 2014 Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti et al. All rights reserved.