The Scientific World Journal The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy -Almost Compactness and -Nearly Compactness Tue, 07 Jul 2015 06:54:45 +0000 The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces is introduced and studied. Besides giving characterizations of these spaces, we study some of their properties. Also, we investigate the behavior of intuitionistic fuzzy β-compactness, intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness, and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness under several types of intuitionistic fuzzy continuous mappings. R. Renuka and V. Seenivasan Copyright © 2015 R. Renuka and V. Seenivasan. All rights reserved. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:52:48 +0000 Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery’s cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles. Simone Barcellona, Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, Michela Longo, and Luigi Piegari Copyright © 2015 Simone Barcellona et al. All rights reserved. Decomposition and Mineralization of Dimethyl Phthalate in an Aqueous Solution by Wet Oxidation Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:41:06 +0000 Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was treated via wet oxygen oxidation process (WOP). The decomposition efficiency of DMP and mineralization efficiency of total organic carbons were measured to evaluate the effects of operation parameters on the performance of WOP. The results revealed that reaction temperature is the most affecting factor, with a higher offering higher and as expected. The increases as rotating speed increases from 300 to 500 rpm with stirring enhancement of gas liquid mass transfer. However, it exhibits reduction effect at 700 rpm due to purging of dissolved oxygen by overstirring. Regarding the effects of pressure , a higher provides more oxygen for the forward reaction with DMP, while overhigh increases the absorption of gaseous products such as CO2 and decomposes short-chain hydrocarbon fragments back into the solution thus hindering the forward reaction. For the tested of 2.41 to 3.45 MPa, the results indicated that 2.41 MPa is appropriate. A longer reaction time of course gives better performance. At 500 rpm, 483 K, 2.41 MPa, and 180 min, the and are 93 and 36%, respectively. Dar-Ren Ji, Chia-Chi Chang, Shih-Yun Chen, Chun-Yu Chiu, Jyi-Yeong Tseng, Ching-Yuan Chang, Chiung-Fen Chang, Sheng-Wei Chiang, Zang-Sie Hung, Je-Lueng Shie, Yi-Hung Chen, and Min-Hao Yuan Copyright © 2015 Dar-Ren Ji et al. All rights reserved. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:26:14 +0000 Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting. Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan and Rajamani Vayanaperumal Copyright © 2015 Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan and Rajamani Vayanaperumal. All rights reserved. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:55:17 +0000 This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. Jiankun Peng, Hongwen He, Wei Liu, and Hongqiang Guo Copyright © 2015 Jiankun Peng et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:32:17 +0000 The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery’s state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system’s SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility. Jenn-Jiang Hwang, Jia-Sheng Hu, and Chih-Hong Lin Copyright © 2015 Jenn-Jiang Hwang et al. All rights reserved. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:43:14 +0000 Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly. Liyong Niu and Di Zhang Copyright © 2015 Liyong Niu and Di Zhang. All rights reserved. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre? Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:38:29 +0000 Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. Philippe Lebeau, Cedric De Cauwer, Joeri Van Mierlo, Cathy Macharis, Wouter Verbeke, and Thierry Coosemans Copyright © 2015 Philippe Lebeau et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:56:44 +0000 Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. Jeremi Kołodziejek and Jacek Patykowski Copyright © 2015 Jeremi Kołodziejek and Jacek Patykowski. All rights reserved. Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Effects on Workpiece Quality in Sheet Metal Extrusion Process Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:30:11 +0000 Sheet metal extrusion is a metal forming process in which the movement of a punch penetrates a sheet metal surface and it flows through a die orifice; the extruded parts can be deflected to have an extrusion cavity and protrusion on the opposite side. Therefore, this process results in a narrow region of highly localized plastic deformation due to the formation and microstructure effect on the work piece. This research investigated the characteristics of the material-flow behavior during the formation and its effect on the microstructure of the extruded sheet metal using the finite element method (FEM). The actual parts and FEM simulation model were developed using a blank material made from AISI-1045 steel with a thickness of 5 mm; the material’s behavior was determined subject to the punch penetration depths of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the sheet thickness. The results indicated the formation and microstructure effects on the sheet metal extrusion parts and defects. Namely, when increasing penetration, narrowing the die orifice the material flows through, the material was formed by extruding, and defects were visibility, and the microstructure of the material’s grains’ size was flat and very fine. Extrusion defects were not found in the control material flow. The region of highly localized plastic deformation affected the material gain and mechanical properties. The FEM simulation results agreed with the experimental results. Moreover, FEM could be investigated as a tool to decrease the cost and time in trial and error procedures. Chatkaew Suriyapha, Bopit Bubphachot, and Sampan Rittidech Copyright © 2015 Chatkaew Suriyapha et al. All rights reserved. A Dynamic Recommender System for Improved Web Usage Mining and CRM Using Swarm Intelligence Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:30:42 +0000 In modern days, to enrich e-business, the websites are personalized for each user by understanding their interests and behavior. The main challenges of online usage data are information overload and their dynamic nature. In this paper, to address these issues, a WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender system that uses web usage mining techniques in tandem with software agents developed for providing dynamic recommendations to users that can be used for customizing a website is proposed. The proposed WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender uses swarm intelligence from the foraging behavior of a bluegill fish. It overcomes the information overload by handling dynamic behaviors of users. Our dynamic recommender system was compared against traditional collaborative filtering systems. The results show that the proposed system has higher precision, coverage, measure, and scalability than the traditional collaborative filtering systems. Moreover, the recommendations given by our system overcome the overspecialization problem by including variety in recommendations. Anna Alphy and S. Prabakaran Copyright © 2015 Anna Alphy and S. Prabakaran. All rights reserved. Reliable Adaptive Video Streaming Driven by Perceptual Semantics for Situational Awareness Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:22:08 +0000 A novel cross-layer optimized video adaptation driven by perceptual semantics is presented. The design target is streamed live video to enhance situational awareness in challenging communications conditions. Conventional solutions for recreational applications are inadequate and novel quality of experience (QoE) framework is proposed which allows fully controlled adaptation and enables perceptual semantic feedback. The framework relies on temporal/spatial abstraction for video applications serving beyond recreational purposes. An underlying cross-layer optimization technique takes into account feedback on network congestion (time) and erasures (space) to best distribute available (scarce) bandwidth. Systematic random linear network coding (SRNC) adds reliability while preserving perceptual semantics. Objective metrics of the perceptual features in QoE show homogeneous high performance when using the proposed scheme. Finally, the proposed scheme is in line with content-aware trends, by complying with information-centric-networking philosophy and architecture. M. A. Pimentel-Niño, Paresh Saxena, and M. A. Vazquez-Castro Copyright © 2015 M. A. Pimentel-Niño et al. All rights reserved. ECG Prediction Based on Classification via Neural Networks and Linguistic Fuzzy Logic Forecaster Mon, 29 Jun 2015 08:46:57 +0000 The paper deals with ECG prediction based on neural networks classification of different types of time courses of ECG signals. The main objective is to recognise normal cycles and arrhythmias and perform further diagnosis. We proposed two detection systems that have been created with usage of neural networks. The experimental part makes it possible to load ECG signals, preprocess them, and classify them into given classes. Outputs from the classifiers carry a predictive character. All experimental results from both of the proposed classifiers are mutually compared in the conclusion. We also experimented with the new method of time series transparent prediction based on fuzzy transform with linguistic IF-THEN rules. Preliminary results show interesting results based on the unique capability of this approach bringing natural language interpretation of particular prediction, that is, the properties of time series. Eva Volna, Martin Kotyrba, and Hashim Habiballa Copyright © 2015 Eva Volna et al. All rights reserved. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains Sun, 28 Jun 2015 09:45:36 +0000 Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva, Joenes Mucci Peluzio, Guilherme Prado, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz Madeira, Marize Oliveira Silva, Paula Benevides de Morais, Carlos Augusto Rosa, Raphael Sanzio Pimenta, and Jacques Robert Nicoli Copyright © 2015 Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva et al. All rights reserved. H.264 SVC Complexity Reduction Based on Likelihood Mode Decision Sun, 28 Jun 2015 07:11:03 +0000 H.264 Advanced Video Coding (AVC) was prolonged to Scalable Video Coding (SVC). SVC executes in different electronics gadgets such as personal computer, HDTV, SDTV, IPTV, and full-HDTV in which user demands various scaling of the same content. The various scaling is resolution, frame rate, quality, heterogeneous networks, bandwidth, and so forth. Scaling consumes more encoding time and computational complexity during mode selection. In this paper, to reduce encoding time and computational complexity, a fast mode decision algorithm based on likelihood mode decision (LMD) is proposed. LMD is evaluated in both temporal and spatial scaling. From the results, we conclude that LMD performs well, when compared to the previous fast mode decision algorithms. The comparison parameters are time, PSNR, and bit rate. LMD achieve time saving of 66.65% with 0.05% detriment in PSNR and 0.17% increment in bit rate compared with the full search method. L. Balaji and K. K. Thyagharajan Copyright © 2015 L. Balaji and K. K. Thyagharajan. All rights reserved. Hyaluronic Acid (800 kDa) Supplementation of University of Wisconsin Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts and Reduces Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression during Cold Preservation Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:59:26 +0000 Osteochondral allografting is a promising option for the treatment of large cartilage defects. However, because the cell viability of osteochondral tissues (OCTs) gradually reduces during storage at 4°C, methods for maintaining the cell viability of fresh OCTs are needed to improve transplantation outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether the supplementation of preservation solution with one of three different molecular weight forms of hyaluronic acid (HA) improved the viability of rat OCTs during long-term cold storage. The supplementation of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution with 800 kDa significantly improved the cell viability of OCT after 14 days at 4°C compared to nonsupplemented UW solution. In contrast, UW solution supplemented with either 1900 or 6000 kDa HA did not markedly improve the cell viability of the OCT. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9 were significantly decreased in OCT stored in UW solution supplemented with 800 kDa HA. Although further studies in human OCT are warranted, these findings demonstrate that the use of 800 kDa HA in place of serum may be a suitable approach for the long-term preservation of osteochondral allografts designated for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. Takuya Yamada, Kentaro Uchida, Kenji Onuma, Gen Inoue, Jun Aikawa, Shotaro Takano, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Hisako Fujimaki, Masayuki Miyagi, and Masashi Takaso Copyright © 2015 Takuya Yamada et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Problems for Complex Systems Wed, 24 Jun 2015 06:34:56 +0000 Haijun Jiang, Haibo He, Jianlong Qiu, Qiankun Song, and Jianquan Lu Copyright © 2015 Haijun Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Number Addition with the Application of Horizontal Membership Functions Tue, 23 Jun 2015 12:27:33 +0000 The paper presents addition of fuzzy numbers realised with the application of the multidimensional RDM arithmetic and horizontal membership functions (MFs). Fuzzy arithmetic (FA) is a very difficult task because operations should be performed here on multidimensional information granules. Instead, a lot of FA methods use α-cuts in connection with 1-dimensional classical interval arithmetic that operates not on multidimensional granules but on 1-dimensional intervals. Such approach causes difficulties in calculations and is a reason for arithmetical paradoxes. The multidimensional approach allows for removing drawbacks and weaknesses of FA. It is possible thanks to the application of horizontal membership functions which considerably facilitate calculations because now uncertain values can be inserted directly into equations without using the extension principle. The paper shows how the addition operation can be realised on independent fuzzy numbers and on partly or fully dependent fuzzy numbers with taking into account the order relation and how to solve equations, which can be a difficult task for 1-dimensional FAs. Andrzej Piegat and Marcin Pluciński Copyright © 2015 Andrzej Piegat and Marcin Pluciński. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Algorithm for Intrusion Detection Using Significant Features Mon, 22 Jun 2015 08:47:53 +0000 Intrusion detection has become a main part of network security due to the huge number of attacks which affects the computers. This is due to the extensive growth of internet connectivity and accessibility to information systems worldwide. To deal with this problem, in this paper a hybrid algorithm is proposed to integrate Modified Artificial Bee Colony (MABC) with Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) to predict the intrusion detection problem. The algorithms are combined together to find out better optimization results and the classification accuracies are obtained by 10-fold cross-validation method. The purpose of this paper is to select the most relevant features that can represent the pattern of the network traffic and test its effect on the success of the proposed hybrid classification algorithm. To investigate the performance of the proposed method, intrusion detection KDDCup’99 benchmark dataset from the UCI Machine Learning repository is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the other machine learning algorithms and found to be significantly different. P. Amudha, S. Karthik, and S. Sivakumari Copyright © 2015 P. Amudha et al. All rights reserved. Methotrexate Associated Renal Impairment Is Related to Delayed Elimination of High-Dose Methotrexate Sun, 21 Jun 2015 12:43:03 +0000 Although Methotrexate (MTX) is an effective drug for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the toxicity remains a significant problem. In this prospective study, fifty-four patients with ALL were enrolled. 3 g or 5 g MTX/m2 was administered over 24 hours. Serum MTX concentrations were determined in 24, 48, and 96 hours after MTX infusion. Serum creatinine concentrations and creatinine clearance rate (CCR) were determined before and 24 and 48 hours after MTX infusion. A total of 173 courses of MTX infusion were administered. The serum creatinine concentrations did not change much after MTX infusion while the CCR was gradually decreased. MTX clearance status was independently related to CCR decrease, with the risk of 8.07 to develop renal impairment in patients with delayed MTX elimination. Serum creatinine concentration, serum creatinine ratio, CCR, and CCR ratio at 24 hours were all related to MTX elimination delay. Patients with serum creatinine level >35.0 μmol/L, creatinine ratio >1.129, or CCR <100.0 mL/min were more likely to undergo MTX elimination delay. In conclusion, MTX could induce transient renal impairment and compromised renal function will delay MTX clearance. The serum creatinine concentration and the ratio and CCR are useful tools for evaluating MTX elimination status. Shi-Long Yang, Fen-Ying Zhao, Hua Song, Di-Ying Shen, and Xiao-Jun Xu Copyright © 2015 Shi-Long Yang et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Modifications in Flap Anastomosis Patterns and Skin Incision Types for External Dacryocystorhinostomy: Anterior-Only Flap Anastomosis with W Skin Incision versus Anterior and Posterior Flap Anastomosis with Linear Skin Incision Sun, 21 Jun 2015 12:05:18 +0000 Purpose. To compare the outcomes of external dacryocystorhinostomy (E-DCR) by using two different flap anastomosis patterns and skin incision types. Methods. This study included 79 patients (88 eyes) with lacrimal drainage system disorders who underwent E-DCR surgery. Fifty eyes of 44 patients (group A) underwent E-DCR by suturing anterior and posterior flaps (H-flap) of the lacrimal sac with curvilinear skin incision whereas in 38 eyes of 35 patients (group B) DCR was performed by suturing only anterior flaps (U-flap) with W skin incision. Results. The success rate was evaluated according to lacrimal patency and scar assessment scores. Patency was achieved in 78 patients (88.6%). In terms of groups, patency was 44 eyes (88.0%) in group A and 34 eyes (89.5%) in group B. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates of lacrimal patency between the two groups. Further, there was no statistically significant difference concerning cutaneous scar scores. Conclusion. Our study suggests that anastomoses of only anterior flaps or both anterior and posterior flaps have similar success rates; suturing only anterior flaps is easier to perform and shortens the operative time. In addition, W skin incision is a reasonable alternative to curvilinear incision for reducing scar formation. Burcu Dirim, Selam Yekta Sendul, Mehmet Demir, Erdem Ergen, Zeynep Acar, Ali Olgun, Semra Tiryaki, Hakan Sensoz, and Dilek Guven Copyright © 2015 Burcu Dirim et al. All rights reserved. Underestimated Rate of Status Epilepticus according to the Traditional Definition of Status Epilepticus Sun, 21 Jun 2015 11:49:16 +0000 Purpose. Status epilepticus (SE) is an important neurological emergency. Early diagnosis could improve outcomes. Traditionally, SE is defined as seizures lasting at least 30 min or repeated seizures over 30 min without recovery of consciousness. Some specialists argued that the duration of seizures qualifying as SE should be shorter and the operational definition of SE was suggested. It is unclear whether physicians follow the operational definition. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the incidence of SE was underestimated and to investigate the underestimate rate. Methods. This retrospective study evaluates the difference in diagnosis of SE between operational definition and traditional definition of status epilepticus. Between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2014, patients discharged with ICD-9 codes for epilepsy (345.X) in Chia-Yi Christian Hospital were included in the study. A seizure lasting at least 30 min or repeated seizures over 30 min without recovery of consciousness were considered SE according to the traditional definition of SE (TDSE). A seizure lasting between 5 and 30 min was considered SE according to the operational definition of SE (ODSE); it was defined as underestimated status epilepticus (UESE). Results. During a 2-year period, there were 256 episodes of seizures requiring hospital admission. Among the 256 episodes, 99 episodes lasted longer than 5 min, out of which 61 (61.6%) episodes persisted over 30 min (TDSE) and 38 (38.4%) episodes continued between 5 and 30 min (UESE). In the 38 episodes of seizure lasting 5 to 30 minutes, only one episode was previously discharged as SE (ICD-9-CM 345.3). Conclusion. We underestimated 37.4% of SE. Continuing education regarding the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is important for physicians. Cheung-Ter Ong, Yi-Sin Wong, Sheng-Feng Sung, Chi-Shun Wu, Yung-Chu Hsu, Yu-Hsiang Su, and Ling-Chien Hung Copyright © 2015 Cheung-Ter Ong et al. All rights reserved. Consensus of Nonlinear Complex Systems with Edge Betweenness Centrality Measure under Time-Varying Sampled-Data Protocol Thu, 18 Jun 2015 12:18:43 +0000 This paper proposes a new consensus criterion for nonlinear complex systems with edge betweenness centrality measure. By construction of a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, the consensus criterion for such systems is established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) which can be easily solved by various effective optimization algorithms. One numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. M. J. Park, O. M. Kwon, and E. J. Cha Copyright © 2015 M. J. Park et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between the Rotation of the First Molars and the Severity of Class II Division 1 Malocclusion Thu, 18 Jun 2015 11:48:15 +0000 This study aimed to evaluate the potential correlation between the severity of Class II division 1 malocclusion and the magnitude of mesiopalatal rotation of the maxillary first molars. Scanned images of 104 cast models were grouped according to the severity of Class II malocclusion as follows: Group 1, 1/4 Class II malocclusion; Group 2, 1/2 Class II malocclusion; Group 3, 3/4 Class II malocclusion; and Group 4, complete Class II malocclusion. The rotation was measured using parameters described by Henry, Friel, and Ricketts, referred to as indicators 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The correlation was evaluated using the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. The rotational indicators were compared using one-way analysis of variance. For all statistical analyses used , a positive correlation was observed between the severity of Class II malocclusion and the mesiopalatal rotation of the maxillary first molar. This correlation was statistically significant for indicator 1 between Groups 1 and 3 and for indicator 2 between Groups 1 and 4, which include cases of extreme malocclusion. In conclusion, there is a positive correlation between the severity of Class II division 1 malocclusion and the magnitude of mesiopalatal rotation in the maxillary first molars. Betânia Pessoa Lima, Célia Regina Maio Pinzan-Vercelino, Laércio Santos Dias, Fausto Silva Bramante, and Rudys Rodolfo De Jesus Tavarez Copyright © 2015 Betânia Pessoa Lima et al. All rights reserved. Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Preparation of Biocomposites Based on Poly(lactic acid) and Durian Peel Cellulose Thu, 18 Jun 2015 11:41:24 +0000 Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination () value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m2, respectively. Patpen Penjumras, Russly Abdul Rahman, Rosnita A. Talib, and Khalina Abdan Copyright © 2015 Patpen Penjumras et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Processing Parameters in ECM of Die Tool Steel Using Nanofluid by Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm Thu, 18 Jun 2015 11:29:37 +0000 Formation of spikes prevents achievement of the better material removal rate (MRR) and surface finish while using plain NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte in electrochemical machining (ECM) of die tool steel. Hence this research work attempts to minimize the formation of spikes in the selected workpiece of high carbon high chromium die tool steel using copper nanoparticles suspended in NaNO3 aqueous electrolyte, that is, nanofluid. The selected influencing parameters are applied voltage and electrolyte discharge rate with three levels and tool feed rate with four levels. Thirty-six experiments were designed using Design Expert 7.0 software and optimization was done using multiobjective genetic algorithm (MOGA). This tool identified the best possible combination for achieving the better MRR and surface roughness. The results reveal that voltage of 18 V, tool feed rate of 0.54 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 12 lit/min would be the optimum values in ECM of HCHCr die tool steel. For checking the optimality obtained from the MOGA in MATLAB software, the maximum MRR of 375.78277 mm3/min and respective surface roughness Ra of 2.339779 μm were predicted at applied voltage of 17.688986 V, tool feed rate of 0.5399705 mm/min, and nanofluid discharge rate of 11.998816 lit/min. Confirmatory tests showed that the actual performance at the optimum conditions was 361.214 mm3/min and 2.41 μm; the deviation from the predicted performance is less than 4% which proves the composite desirability of the developed models. V. Sathiyamoorthy, T. Sekar, and N. Elango Copyright © 2015 V. Sathiyamoorthy et al. All rights reserved. Reliability Estimation of Parameters of Helical Wind Turbine with Vertical Axis Thu, 18 Jun 2015 11:13:40 +0000 Due to the prolonged use of wind turbines they must be characterized by high reliability. This can be achieved through a rigorous design, appropriate simulation and testing, and proper construction. The reliability prediction and analysis of these systems will lead to identifying the critical components, increasing the operating time, minimizing failure rate, and minimizing maintenance costs. To estimate the produced energy by the wind turbine, an evaluation approach based on the Monte Carlo simulation model is developed which enables us to estimate the probability of minimum and maximum parameters. In our simulation process we used triangular distributions. The analysis of simulation results has been focused on the interpretation of the relative frequency histograms and cumulative distribution curve (ogive diagram), which indicates the probability of obtaining the daily or annual energy output depending on wind speed. The experimental researches consist in estimation of the reliability and unreliability functions and hazard rate of the helical vertical axis wind turbine designed and patented to climatic conditions for Romanian regions. Also, the variation of power produced for different wind speeds, the Weibull distribution of wind probability, and the power generated were determined. The analysis of experimental results indicates that this type of wind turbine is efficient at low wind speed. Adela-Eliza Dumitrascu, Badea Lepadatescu, Dorin-Ion Dumitrascu, Anisor Nedelcu, and Doina Valentina Ciobanu Copyright © 2015 Adela-Eliza Dumitrascu et al. All rights reserved. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach Thu, 18 Jun 2015 11:12:06 +0000 Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems. Adrian-Valentin Nedelcu, Mihai Machedon-Pisu, Mihai Duguleana, and Doru Talaba Copyright © 2015 Adrian-Valentin Nedelcu et al. All rights reserved. Damping Estimation from Free Decay Responses of Cables with MR Dampers Wed, 17 Jun 2015 09:04:18 +0000 This paper discusses the damping measurements on cables with real-time controlled MR dampers that were performed on a laboratory scale single strand cable and on cables of the Sutong Bridge, China. The control approach aims at producing amplitude and frequency independent cable damping which is confirmed by the tests. The experimentally obtained cable damping in comparison to the theoretical value due to optimal linear viscous damping reveals that support conditions of the cable anchors, force tracking errors in the actual MR damper force, energy spillover to higher modes, and excitation and sensor cables hanging on the stay cable must be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the identified cable damping values. Felix Weber and Hans Distl Copyright © 2015 Felix Weber and Hans Distl. All rights reserved. Impact of Cross-Tie Properties on the Modal Behavior of Cable Networks on Cable-Stayed Bridges Wed, 17 Jun 2015 08:41:00 +0000 Dynamic behaviour of cable networks is highly dependent on the installation location, stiffness, and damping of cross-ties. Thus, these are the important design parameters for a cable network. While the effects of the former two on the network response have been investigated to some extent in the past, the impact of cross-tie damping has rarely been addressed. To comprehend our knowledge of mechanics associated with cable networks, in the current study, an analytical model of a cable network will be proposed by taking into account both cross-tie stiffness and damping. In addition, the damping property of main cables in the network will also be considered in the formulation. This would allow exploring not only the effectiveness of a cross-tie design on enhancing the in-plane stiffness of a constituted cable network, but also its energy dissipation capacity. The proposed analytical model will be applied to networks with different configurations. The influence of cross-tie stiffness and damping on the modal response of various types of networks will be investigated by using the corresponding undamped rigid cross-tie network as a reference base. Results will provide valuable information on the selection of cross-tie properties to achieve more effective cable vibration control. Javaid Ahmad, Shaohong Cheng, and Faouzi Ghrib Copyright © 2015 Javaid Ahmad et al. All rights reserved.