The Scientific World Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Coefficient Bounds for Some Families of Starlike and Convex Functions of Reciprocal Order Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:47:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/989640/ The aim of the present paper is to investigate coefficient estimates, Fekete-Szegő inequality, and upper bound of third Hankel determinant for some families of starlike and convex functions of reciprocal order. Muhammad Arif, Maslina Darus, Mohsan Raza, and Qaiser Khan Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Arif et al. All rights reserved. Performance Analysis for Wireless Networks: An Analytical Approach by Multifarious Sym Teredo Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:42:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/304914/ IPv4-IPv6 transition rolls out numerous challenges to the world of Internet as the Internet is drifting from IPv4 to IPv6. IETF recommends few transition techniques which includes dual stack and translation and tunneling. By means of tunneling the IPv6 packets over IPv4 UDP, Teredo maintains IPv4/IPv6 dual stack node in isolated IPv4 networks behindhand network address translation (NAT). However, the proposed tunneling protocol works with the symmetric and asymmetric NATs. In order to make a Teredo support several symmetric NATs along with several asymmetric NATs, we propose multifarious Sym Teredo (MTS), which is an extension of Teredo with a capability of navigating through several symmetric NATs. The work preserves the Teredo architecture and also offers a backward compatibility with the original Teredo protocol. D. Shalini Punithavathani and Sheryl Radley Copyright © 2014 D. Shalini Punithavathani and Sheryl Radley. All rights reserved. Suicidal Ideation and Associated Factors among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:31:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/450943/ This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among Brazilian adolescents. The instrument designed for the research was used considering three models with outcomes that identified the following: (a) adolescent had considered suicide, (b) adolescents have planned suicide, and (c) adolescents have attempted suicide. Logistic Regression was used in all models with significance level of 5%. An association between being female and suicidal ideation , CI 95% 1.60 to 2.97), suicide planning , CI 95% = 1.26–2.56), and suicide attempt , CI 95% 1.79 to 4.75) was found. Violent behavior/involvement in fights was associated with thinking about suicide , CI 95% = 1.43 to 2.81), suicide planning , CI 95% = 1.10–2.46), and suicide attempt , CI 95% = 1.49 to 3.70). For cigarette consumption, association was found with suicide ideation , CI 95% 1.03 to 2.55), planning , CI 95% = 1.15 to 3.08), and attempt , CI 95% 1.37 to 4.03). For alcohol consumption, association was found with suicide ideation , CI 95% 1.47 to 2.54), planning , CI 95% 1.61 to 3.08), and attempt , CI 95% 1.15 to 2.59). It was concluded that suicidal ideation was associated with female sex, involvement in fights, and illicit drug use. Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva, Fabio Alexandre Lima dos Santos, Nara Michelle Moura Soares, and Emerson Pardono Copyright © 2014 Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva et al. All rights reserved. Development and Optimization of Polymeric Self-Emulsifying Nanocapsules for Localized Drug Delivery: Design of Experiment Approach Mon, 24 Nov 2014 09:57:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/516069/ The purpose of the present study was to formulate polymeric self-emulsifying curcumin nanocapsules with high encapsulation efficiency, good emulsification ability, and optimal globule size for localized targeting in the colon. Formulations were prepared using modified quasiemulsion solvent diffusion method. Concentration of formulation variables, namely, (oil), (polymeric emulsifier), and (adsorbent), was optimized by design of experiments using Box-Behnken design, for its impact on mean globule size () and encapsulation efficiency () of the formulation. Polymeric nanocapsules with an average diameter of 100–180 nm and an encapsulation efficiency of 64.85 ± 0.12% were obtained. In vitro studies revealed that formulations released the drug after 5 h lag time corresponding to the time to reach the colonic region. Pronounced localized action was inferred from the plasma concentration profile ( 200 ng/mL) that depicts limited systemic absorption. Roentgenography study confirms the localized presence of carrier (0–2 h in upper GIT; 2–4 h in small intestine; and 4–24 h in the lower intestine). Optimized formulation showed significantly higher cytotoxicity (IC50 value 20.32 μM) in HT 29 colonic cancer cell line. The present study demonstrates systematic development of polymeric self-emulsifying nanocapsule formulation of curcumin for localized targeting in colon. Jyoti Wadhwa, Abhay Asthana, Sumeet Gupta, Gyati Shilkari Asthana, and Ranjit Singh Copyright © 2014 Jyoti Wadhwa et al. All rights reserved. Intraoperative Neuromonitoring of the External Branch of the Superior Laryngeal Nerve during Thyroidectomy: The Need for Evidence-Based Data and Perioperative Technical/Technological Standardization Mon, 24 Nov 2014 08:06:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/692365/ The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) is surgically relevant since its close anatomical proximity to the superior thyroid vessels. There is heterogeneity in the EBSLN anatomy and EBSLN damage produces changes in voice that are very heterogenous and difficult to diagnose. The reported prevalence of EBSLN injury widely ranges. EBSLN iatrogenic injury is considered the most commonly underestimated complication in endocrine surgery because vocal assessment underestimates such event and laryngoscopic postsurgical evaluation does not show standardized findings. In order to decrease the risk for EBSLN injury, multiple surgical approaches have been described so far. IONM provides multiple advantages in the EBSLN surgical approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of the monitored approach to the EBSLN. In particular, we summarize, providing our additional remarks, the most relevant aspects of the standardized technique brilliantly described by the INMSG (International Neuromonitoring Study Group). In conclusion, in our opinion, there is currently the need for more prospective randomized trials investigating the electrophysiological and pathological aspects of the EBSLN for a better understanding of the role of IONM in the EBSLN surgery. Alberto Mangano, Georgios D. Lianos, Luigi Boni, Hoon Yub Kim, Dimitrios H. Roukos, and Gianlorenzo Dionigi Copyright © 2014 Alberto Mangano et al. All rights reserved. Critical Product Features’ Identification Using an Opinion Analyzer Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/340583/ The increasing use and ubiquity of the Internet facilitate dissemination of word-of-mouth through blogs, online forums, newsgroups, and consumer’s reviews. Online consumer’s reviews present tremendous opportunities and challenges for consumers and marketers. One of the challenges is to develop interactive marketing practices for making connections with target consumers that capitalize consumer-to-consumer communications for generating product adoption. Opinion mining is employed in marketing to help consumers and enterprises in the analysis of online consumers’ reviews by highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the products. This paper describes an opinion mining system based on novel review and feature ranking methods to empower consumers and enterprises for identifying critical product features from enormous consumers’ reviews. Consumers and business analysts are the main target group for the proposed system who want to explore consumers’ feedback for determining purchase decisions and enterprise strategies. We evaluate the proposed system on real dataset. Results show that integration of review and feature-ranking methods improves the decision making processes significantly. Azra Shamim, Vimala Balakrishnan, Muhammad Tahir, and Muhammad Shiraz Copyright © 2014 Azra Shamim et al. All rights reserved. Ammonia Diffusion through Nalophan Double Bags: Effect of Concentration Gradient Reduction Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/214190/ The ammonia loss through Nalophan bags has been studied. The losses observed for storage conditions and times as allowed by the reference standard for dynamic olfactometry (EN 13725:2003) indicate that odour concentration values due to the presence of small molecules may be significantly underestimated if samples are not analysed immediately after sampling. A diffusion model was used in order to study diffusion through the bag. The study discusses the effect of concentration gradient () across the polymeric membrane of the analyte. The was controlled by using a setup bag called “double bags.” Experimental data show a reduction of ammonia percentage losses due to the effect of the external multibarrier. The expedient of the double bag loaded with the same gas mixture allows a reduced diffusion of ammonia into the inner bag. Comparing the inner bag losses with those of the single bag stored in the same conditions (, , ) and with equal geometrical characteristics (, ), it was observed that the inner bag of the double bag displays a 16% loss while the single bag displays a 37% loss. Acting on the it is possible to achieve a gross reduction of 57% in the ammonia leakage due to diffusion. Selena Sironi, Lidia Eusebio, Laura Capelli, Emanuela Boiardi, and Renato Del Rosso Copyright © 2014 Selena Sironi et al. All rights reserved. Production, Characterization of Tannase from Penicillium montanense URM 6286 under SSF Using Agroindustrial Wastes, and Application in the Clarification of Grape Juice (Vitis vinifera L.) Sun, 23 Nov 2014 12:57:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/182025/ Tannase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes esters and lateral bonds of tannins, such as tannic acid, releasing glucose and gallic acid and stands out in the clarification of wines and juices. Fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium are excellent producers of this enzyme. The search for fungi that produce high levels of tannase as well as new substrates for the enzyme production by the SSF is required. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of tannase by Aspergillus and Penicillium species through SSF using leaves and agroindustrial waste barbados cherry and mangaba fruit as substrate, select the best producer, optimize production, characterize the crude enzyme extract, and apply it the clarification of grape juice. Selecting the best producer was performed by planning Placket-Burman and RSM. P. montanense showed highest activity with 41.64 U/mL after 72 h of fermentation residue using barbados cherry, with 3.5% tannic acid and 70% moisture. The enzyme showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 50°C. The tannase of P. montanense was stable over a wide pH range and temperature and, when applied to grape juice, showed higher efficiency by reducing 46% of the tannin content after incubation 120 m. Juliana Silva de Lima, Roberta Cruz, Julyanna Cordoville Fonseca, Erika Valente de Medeiros, Marília de Holanda Cavalcanti Maciel, Keila Aparecida Moreira, and Cristina Maria de Souza Motta Copyright © 2014 Juliana Silva de Lima et al. All rights reserved. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mixed Culture of Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius L.) Juice: Synergism in the Aroma Compounds Production Sun, 23 Nov 2014 12:46:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/163174/ Blackberry (Rubus sp.) juice was fermented using four different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Vitilevure-CM4457, Enoferm-T306, ICV-K1, and Greroche Rhona-L3574) recognized because of their use in the wine industry. A medium alcoholic graduation spirit (<6) with potential to be produced at an industrial scale was obtained. Alcoholic fermentations were performed at , 200 rpm, and noncontrolled pH. The synergistic effect on the aromatic compounds production during fermentation in mixed culture was compared with those obtained by monoculture and physic mixture of spirits produced in monoculture. The aromatic composition was determined by HS-SPME-GC. The differences in aromatic profile principally rely on the proportions in aromatic compounds and not on the number of those compounds. The multivariance analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and factorial discriminant analysis (DFA) permit to demonstrate the synergism between the strains. Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales, Juan Arturo Ragazzo-Sánchez, Gabriela Ruiz-Montañez, Rosa Isela Ortiz-Basurto, Guadalupe Luna-Solano, and Montserrat Calderón-Santoyo Copyright © 2014 Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales et al. All rights reserved. Detection, Characterization, and Molecular Typing of Human Mycoplasma spp. from Major Hospitals in Cairo, Egypt Sun, 23 Nov 2014 08:55:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/549858/ Mycoplasmas are fastidious slow growing organisms lacking a cell wall and mostly isolated from the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts. There is a dearth of information regarding clinical Mycoplasma spp. isolates among Egyptian patients. A total of 170 samples were collected from patients and apparently healthy personnel in local public hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Isolation of Mycoplasma spp. was carried out using appropriate culture media and further identification was carried out by biochemical tests followed by serotyping using specific antisera. Confirmation was done by PCR for detection of different Mycoplasma spp. using genus-specific primers targeting 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Characterization of the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity pattern against different antimicrobials was carried out using disc diffusion test. The results indicated the presence of six Mycoplasma spp. in 22.94% of the samples. Mycoplasmas were detected more frequently in throat swabs than sputum. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was highly sensitive to macrolides and quinolones but less sensitive to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Molecular techniques were found to be of more rapid, highly sensitive, able to detect nonviable organisms, and cost effective. These results shed light on difficulties of Mycoplasma detection and the superiority of molecular techniques over culture. Mirihan A. Metwally, Aymen S. Yassin, Tamer M. Essam, Hayam M. Hamouda, and Magdy A. Amin Copyright © 2014 Mirihan A. Metwally et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Different Types of Walking on Dual-Task Performance and Task Prioritization among Community-Dwelling Older Adults Sun, 23 Nov 2014 08:29:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/259547/ Background. The ability to safely conduct different types of walking concurrently with a cognitive task (i.e., dual task) is crucial for daily life. The contribution of different walking types to dual-task performance has not yet been determined, nor is there agreement on the strategies that older adults use to divide their attention between two tasks (task prioritization). Objectives. To compare the effect of walking in three different directions (forward, backward, and sideways) on dual-task performance and to explore the strategies of older adults to allocate their attention in response to different motor task demands. Design. A cross-sectional study. Subjects. Thirty-two (22 female) community-dwelling older adults (aged years). Methods. Subjects randomly conducted single and dual task: walking to three directions separately, cognitive tasks separately, and combination of the two. Results. Walking forward was the least demanding task, during single (FW < BW, SW) () and dual tasks (FW < BW < SW) (). The calculation of DTC revealed the same pattern (). DTC of the cognitive tasks was not significantly different among the three walking types. Conclusions. The decline mainly in the motor performance during dual task indicates that participants prioritized the cognitive task. These findings challenge the “posture first” paradigm for task prioritization. Maayan Agmon, Einat Kodesh, and Rachel Kizony Copyright © 2014 Maayan Agmon et al. All rights reserved. Supernumerary Teeth in Nepalese Children Sun, 23 Nov 2014 08:17:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/215396/ Objective. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth in a patient sample of Nepalese children. Study Design. A survey was performed on 2684 patients (1829 females and 1035 males) ranging in age from 6 to 14 for the presence of supernumerary teeth. For each patient with supernumerary teeth the demographic variables (age and sex), number, location, eruption status, and morphology were recorded. Descriptive statistics were performed. Results. Supernumerary teeth were detected in 46 subjects (1.6%), of which 26 were males and 20 were females with a male : female ratio of 1.3 : 1. The most commonly found supernumerary tooth was mesiodens followed by maxillary premolars, maxillary lateral incisor, and mandibular lateral incisor. Of the 55 supernumerary teeth examined, 58.18% () had conical morphology, followed by tuberculate (30.90%, ) and supplemental (10.90%, ) forms. The majority of the supernumerary teeth were erupted (56.36%, ). Conclusion. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in Nepalese children was found to be 1.6%, the most frequent type being mesiodens. Conical morphology was found to be the most common form of supernumerary tooth. Varun Pratap Singh, Amita Sharma, and Sonam Sharma Copyright © 2014 Varun Pratap Singh et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Selected Honey and One of Its Phenolic Constituent Eugenol against L1210 Lymphoid Leukemia Sun, 23 Nov 2014 07:36:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/912051/ People affected with leukemia are on the rise and several strategies were employed to thwart this deadly disease. Recent decade of research focuses on phenolic constituents as a tool for combating various inflammatory, cancer, and cardiac diseases. Our research showed honey and its phenolic constituents as crusaders against cancer. In this work, we explored the antileukemic activity of selected honey and one of its phenolic constituent eugenol against L1210 leukemia animal model. Results of this experiment showed that the selected honey samples as well as eugenol after intraperitoneal injection could not increase the median survival time (MST) of animals. Further, there was only slight marginal increase in the %T/C values of honey and eugenol treated groups. The number of phenolics present in the honey may not be a prime factor to promote antileukemic effect since there was no difference in the MST of two different honeys tested. This study limits the use of selected honey and eugenol against leukemia animal model. Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Dilip Mondhe, Z. A. Wani, and Eko Supriyanto Copyright © 2014 Saravana Kumar Jaganathan et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Evaluation of Effectiveness of IAVchip DNA Microarray in Influenza A Diagnosis Sun, 23 Nov 2014 07:16:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/620580/ The paper describes comparative evaluation of IAVchip DNA microarray, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), and real-time RT-PCR versus virus isolation in chicken embryos and shows their diagnostic effectiveness in detection and subtyping of influenza A virus. The tests were evaluated with use of 185 specimens from humans, animals, and birds. IAVchip DNA microarray demonstrates higher diagnostic effectiveness (99.45%) in early influenza A diagnosis as compared to the real-time PCR (98.38%) and RT-PCR (96.22%), thus showing its clear superiority. Diagnostic sensitivity of IAVchip DNA microarray (100%) exceeds the same of RT-PCR (95.95%) and real-time RT-PCR (97.96%) in the range of estimated confidence intervals. IAVchip DNA microarray and real-time RT-PCR displayed equal diagnostic specificity (98.85%), while diagnostic specificity of RT-PCR was 96.40%. IAVchip DNA microarray has an advantage over the other tests for influenza A diagnosis and virus identification as a more rapid method that allows performing simultaneous detection and subtyping of about tens of specimens within one experiment during 8–10 hours. The developed IAVchip DNA microarray is a general test tool that enables identifying simultaneously 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes of influenza A virus and also to screen the influenza A viruses from humans, animals, and birds by M and NP genes. K. T. Sultankulova, O. V. Chervyakova, N. S. Kozhabergenov, K. A. Shorayeva, V. M. Strochkov, M. B. Orynbayev, N. T. Sandybayev, A. R. Sansyzbay, and A. V. Vasin Copyright © 2014 K. T. Sultankulova et al. All rights reserved. Strength and Durability Performance of Alkali-Activated Rice Husk Ash Geopolymer Mortar Sun, 23 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/209584/ This paper describes the experimental investigation carried out to develop the geopolymer concrete based on alkali-activated rice husk ash (RHA) by sodium hydroxide with sodium silicate. Effect on method of curing and concentration of NaOH on compressive strength as well as the optimum mix proportion of geopolymer mortar was investigated. It is possible to achieve compressive strengths of 31 N/mm2 and 45 N/mm2, respectively for the 10 M alkali-activated geopolymer mortar after 7 and 28 days of casting when cured for 24 hours at 60°C. Results indicated that the increase in curing period and concentration of alkali activator increased the compressive strength. Durability studies were carried out in acid and sulfate media such as H2SO4, HCl, Na2SO4, and MgSO4 environments and found that geopolymer concrete showed very less weight loss when compared to steam-cured mortar specimens. In addition, fluorescent optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have shown the formation of new peaks and enhanced the polymerization reaction which is responsible for strength development and hence RHA has great potential as a substitute for ordinary Portland cement concrete. Yun Yong Kim, Byung-Jae Lee, Velu Saraswathy, and Seung-Jun Kwon Copyright © 2014 Yun Yong Kim et al. All rights reserved. Cone-Like Rectification Properties of cGMP-Gated Channels in Transmutated Retinal Photoreceptors of Nocturnal Geckoes Sun, 23 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/942510/ Photoreceptors of nocturnal geckoes are scotopic, with rod-shaped outer segments, and sensitivities to light similar to the one of retinal rods from other species of lower vertebrates. However, these cells are not rods, but they originated from cones of ancestral diurnal geckoes with pure-cone retinas, after being forced to adapt to a nocturnal behavior. Several interesting adaptations of these rod-like cones have been studied to date; molecular biology and functional studies confirmed that several proteins of the phototransductive cascade display structural and functional properties that indicate their origin from cones rather than from rods. In this paper, we investigate, with whole cell voltage clamp in the photoreceptor detached outer segment preparation, the voltage rectification properties of cGMP-gated channels in three species, Gekko gecko, Tarentola mauritanica, and Hemidactylus frenatus. We show that the current-voltage properties in the physiological voltage range are reminiscent of the ones of cGMP-gated channels from cones rather than from rods of other cold-blooded vertebrates. The origin and the relevance of the mechanisms investigated are discussed. Vittorio Vellani and Chiara Giacomoni Copyright © 2014 Vittorio Vellani and Chiara Giacomoni. All rights reserved. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:56:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/923859/ The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. Abdelghani Bouras, Mageed A. Ghaleb, Umar S. Suryahatmaja, and Ahmed M. Salem Copyright © 2014 Abdelghani Bouras et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:54:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/345939/ Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score was observed in the treatment groups. Significant improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. Alkesh Patel, Subhankar Biswas, Muhammed Haneefa Shoja, Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, and K. Nandakumar Copyright © 2014 Alkesh Patel et al. All rights reserved. Healthcare Waste Management: Qualitative and Quantitative Appraisal of Nurses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of India Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:49:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/935101/ Background. The nurse’s role in healthcare waste management is crucial. Objectives. (1) To appraise nurses quantitatively and qualitatively regarding healthcare waste management; (2) to elicit the determinants of knowledge and attitudes of healthcare waste management. Method. A cross-sectional study was undertaken at a tertiary care hospital of Mangalore, India. Self-administered pretested questionnaire and “nonparticipatory observation” were used for quantitative and qualitative appraisals. Percentage knowledge score was calculated based on their total knowledge score. Nurses’ knowledge was categorized as excellent (70%), good (50–70%), and poor (50%). Chi square test was applied to judge the association of study variables with their attitudes and knowledge. Results. Out of 100 nurses 47 had excellent knowledge (70% score). Most (86%) expressed the need of refresher training. No study variable displayed significant association with knowledge. Apt segregation practices were followed except in casualty. Patients and entourages misinterpreted the colored containers. Conclusion. Nurses’ knowledge and healthcare waste management practices were not satisfactory. There is a need of refresher trainings at optimum intervals to ensure sustainability and further improvement. Educating patients and their entourages and display of segregation information board in local language are recommended. Siddharudha Shivalli and Vasudha Sanklapur Copyright © 2014 Siddharudha Shivalli and Vasudha Sanklapur. All rights reserved. Effects of Plant Size, Temperature, and Light Intensity on Flowering of Phalaenopsis Hybrids in Mediterranean Greenhouses Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:55:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/420807/ Mediterranean greenhouses for cultivation of Phalaenopsis orchids reproduce the warm, humid, and shaded environment of tropical underbrush. Heating represents the highest production cost, due to the high thermal requirements and the long unproductive phase of juvenility, in which plants attain the critical size for flowering. Our researches aimed to investigate the effect of plant size, temperature, and light intensity, during the phase of flower induction, on flowering of modern genotypes selected for Mediterranean greenhouses. Three experiments were carried out to compare (i) plant size: reduced size versus size considered optimal for flowering (hybrids “Sogo Yukidian,” “Chain Xen Diamond,” and “Pinlong”); (ii) temperature: moderate reduction of temperature versus standard thermal regime (hybrid “Premium”); (iii) light intensity: supplemental lighting versus reference light intensity (hybrid “Premium”). The premature exposure of plants to the inductive treatment delayed the beginning of flowering and reduced the flower stem quality, in all the tested hybrids. In “Premium,” the lower temperature did not affect flowering earliness and commercial quality of flower stems compared to the standard regime, whereas it promoted stem branching. In the same hybrid, supplemental lighting anticipated flowering and promoted the emission of the second stem and the stem branching, compared to the reference light regime. Roberta Paradiso and Stefania De Pascale Copyright © 2014 Roberta Paradiso and Stefania De Pascale. All rights reserved. Alteration of Loperamide-Induced Prostate Relaxation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:47:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/517836/ Objective. To investigate the change of loperamide-induced prostate relaxation in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and Methods. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: (1) control rats fed with normal chow and (2) rats fed with HFD for 6 months. The prostate was removed for histology study. Isolated prostate strips were hung in organ bath and precontracted with 1 μmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. The relaxation responses to loperamide 0.1 to 10 μmol/L were recorded. Western blotting analyses were performed for prostate μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and ATP-sensitive potassium () channel proteins: sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits. Results. Body weight, prostate weight, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol, as well as systolic blood pressure, were significantly increased in the HFD rats. Histology showed prostatic hyperplasia in the HFD rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by loperamide was markedly reduced in HFD when compared to the control. Protein expressions of MOR, SUR, and Kir 6.2 were decreased in HFD-fed rats. Conclusion. Loperamide-induced prostate relaxation is decreased in HFD rats due to reduced MOR and channel expressions. Sheng-Lung Hsu, Hsien-Hui Chung, I-Hung Chen, and Yat-Ching Tong Copyright © 2014 Sheng-Lung Hsu et al. All rights reserved. Age Changes of Jaws and Soft Tissue Profile Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:52:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/301501/ Age-related changes of jaws and soft tissue profile are important both for orthodontists and general dentists. Mouth profile is the area which is manipulated during dental treatment. These changes should be planned in accordance with other components of facial profile to achieve ultimate aim of structural balance, functional efficacy, and esthetic harmony. Through this paper, the authors wish to discuss age changes of the hard and soft tissues of human face which would help not only the orthodontists but also oral surgeons, prosthodontists, pedodontists, and general dentists. Padmaja Sharma, Ankit Arora, and Ashima Valiathan Copyright © 2014 Padmaja Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Visual Perception during Mirror-Gazing at One’s Own Face in Patients with Depression Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:13:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/946851/ In normal observers, gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the apparition of strange faces. Observers see distortions of their own faces, but they often see hallucinations like monsters, archetypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In this research, patients with depression were compared to healthy controls with respect to strange-face apparitions. The experiment was a 7-minute mirror-gazing test (MGT) under low illumination. When the MGT ended, the experimenter assessed patients and controls with a specifically designed questionnaire and interviewed them, asking them to describe strange-face apparitions. Apparitions of strange faces in the mirror were very reduced in depression patients compared to healthy controls. Depression patients compared to healthy controls showed shorter duration of apparitions; minor number of strange faces; lower self-evaluation rating of apparition strength; lower self-evaluation rating of provoked emotion. These decreases in depression may be produced by deficits of facial expression and facial recognition of emotions, which are involved in the relationship between the patient (or the patient’s ego) and his face image (or the patient’s bodily self) that is reflected in the mirror. Giovanni B. Caputo, Marco Bortolomasi, Roberta Ferrucci, Mario Giacopuzzi, Alberto Priori, and Stefano Zago Copyright © 2014 Giovanni B. Caputo et al. All rights reserved. Virtual Visits in Home Health Care for Older Adults Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:08:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/689873/ Background. This review identifies the content of virtual visits in community nursing services to older adults and explores the manner in which service users and the nurses use virtual visits. Design. An integrative literature review. Method. Data collection comprised a literature search in three databases: Cinahl, Medline, and PubMed. In addition, a manual search of reference lists and expert consultation were performed. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed in terms of study characteristics, service content and utilization, and patient and health care provider experience. Results. Our review shows that in most studies the service is delivered on a daily basis and in combination with in-person visits. The findings suggest that older home-dwelling patients can benefit from virtual visits in terms of enhanced social inclusion and medication compliance. Service users and their nurses found virtual visits satisfactory and suitable for care delivery in home care to the elderly. Evidence for cost-saving benefits of virtual visits was not found. Conclusions. The findings can inform the planning of virtual visits in home health care as a complementary service to in-person visits, in order to meet the increasingly complex needs of older adults living at home. Anne Marie Lunde Husebø and Marianne Storm Copyright © 2014 Anne Marie Lunde Husebø and Marianne Storm. All rights reserved. Research on Optimal Policy of Single-Period Inventory Management with Two Suppliers Thu, 20 Nov 2014 05:59:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/417319/ We study a single-period inventory control problem with two independent suppliers. With the first supplier, the buyer incurs a high variable cost but negligible fixed cost; with the second supplier, the buyer incurs a lower variable cost but a positive fixed cost. At the same time, the ordering quantity is limited. We develop the optimal inventory control policy when the holding and shortage cost function is convex. We also conduct some numerical experiments to explore the effects of the fixed setup cost K and the ordering capacity Q on the optimal control policy. Baimei Yang, Lihui Sui, and Peipei Zhu Copyright © 2014 Baimei Yang et al. All rights reserved. The Surface Structure and Thermal Properties of Novel Polymer Composite Films Based on Partially Phosphorylated Poly(vinyl alcohol) with Aluminum Phosphate Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/439839/ Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA) with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4) composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (y = 0, 1, and 2). The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4. Asmalina Mohamed Saat and Mohd Rafie Johan Copyright © 2014 Asmalina Mohamed Saat and Mohd Rafie Johan. All rights reserved. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/302903/ While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation. Radovan Václav and Jana Blažeková Copyright © 2014 Radovan Václav and Jana Blažeková. All rights reserved. Facile Synthesis of Pyrazole- and Benzotriazole-Containing Selenoethers Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/578762/ Azole-containing selenoethers, 1,5-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-3-selena pentane and 1,3-bis(1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)-2-selena propane were prepared by the reaction of corresponding tosylate or chloride with sodium selenide generated in situ from elemental selenium and sodium formaldehydesulfoxylate (rongalite). Andrei S. Potapov, Nina P. Chernova, Vladimir D. Ogorodnikov, Tatiana V. Petrenko, and Andrei I. Khlebnikov Copyright © 2014 Andrei S. Potapov et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Next Generation Sequencing: Potential and Application in Drug Discovery” Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:11:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/621354/ Navneet Kumar Yadav, Pooja Shukla, Ankur Omer, Shruti Pareek, A. K. Srivastava, F. W. Bansode, and R. K. Singh Copyright © 2014 Navneet Kumar Yadav et al. All rights reserved. Production and Structural Characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus Derived Biosurfactant Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:22:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/493548/ A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm−1 pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL−1. Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL−1 biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. Deepansh Sharma, Baljeet Singh Saharan, Nikhil Chauhan, Anshul Bansal, and Suresh Procha Copyright © 2014 Deepansh Sharma et al. All rights reserved.