- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Urban Studies Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 497524, 9 pages
The Impact of Anthropogenic Heat on Formation of Urban Heat Island and Energy Consumption Balance
Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi Selangor, Malaysia
Received 26 December 2010; Revised 3 May 2011; Accepted 8 May 2011
Academic Editor: Andrejs Skaburskis
Copyright © 2011 P. Shahmohamadi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. Santamouris, Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment, James & James, London, UK, 2001.
- M. R. Emmanuel, An Urban Approach to Climate-Sensitive Design; Strategies for the Tropics, Spon Press, London, UK, 2005.
- D. N. Asimakopoulos, V. D. Assimakopoulos, N. Chrisomallidou, et al., Energy and Climate in the Urban Built Environment, James & James, London, UK, 2001.
- T. R. Oke, Boundary Layer Climates, Methuen and Co., New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1987.
- B. Givoni, Climate Considerations in Building and Urban Design, John Wiley & Sons, Canada, 1998.
- G. Bonan, Ecological Climatology, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
- H. E. Landsberg, The Urban Climate, Academic Press, Md, USA, 1981.
- S. Grimmond, “Urbanization and global environmental change: local effects of urban warming,” Geographical Journal, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 2007.
- T. R. Oke, “Canyon geometry and the nocturnal urban heat island: comparison of scale model and field observations,” Journal of Climatology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 237–254, 1981.
- M. Roth, “Effects of cities on local climates,” in Proceedings of the Workshop of IGES/APN Mega-City Project, Kitakyushu, Japan, January 2002.
- L. Gartland, Heat Islands: Understanding and Mitigating Heat in Urban Areas, Earthscan Press, London, UK, 2008.
- T. R. Oke, G. T. Johnson, D. G. Steyn, and I. D. Watson, “Simulation of surface urban heat islands under “ideal” conditions at night—part 2: diagnosis of causation,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 339–358, 1991.
- J. T. Peterson, “The climate of cities: a survey of recent literature,” in Climate in Review, G. McBoyle, Ed., pp. 264–285, 1973.
- D. O. Lee, “Urban climates,” Progress in Physical Geography, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–31, 1984.
- T. R. Oke, “The energetic basis of the urban heat island (Symons Memorial Lecture, 20 May 1980),” Quarterly Journal, Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 108, no. 455, pp. 1–24, 1982.
- K. Sahashi, T. Hieda, and E. Yamashita, “Nitrogen-oxide layer over the urban heat island in Okayama city,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 531–535, 1996.
- T. R. Oke, “The urban energy balance,” Progress in Physical Geography, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 471–508, 1988.
- J. A. Brotzge and K. C. Crawford, “Examination of the surface energy budget: a comparison of eddy correlation and bowen ratio measurement systems,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 160–178, 2003.
- A. Christen and R. Vogt, “Energy and radiation balance of a central European City,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1395–1421, 2004.
- J. Sang, H. Liu, H. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Observational and numerical studies of wintertime urban boundary layer,” Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, vol. 87, no. 2-3, pp. 243–258, 2000.
- G. Stanhill and J. D. Kalma, “Solar dimming and urban heating at Hong Kong,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 933–941, 1995.
- D. J. Sailor and L. Lu, “A top-down methodology for developing diurnal and seasonal anthropogenic heating profiles for urban areas,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 38, no. 17, pp. 2737–2748, 2004.
- C. S. B. Grimmond, “The suburban energy balance: methodological considerations and results for a mid-latitude west coast city under winter and spring conditions,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 481–497, 1992.
- H. Taha, “Urban climates and heat islands: albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 99–103, 1997.
- B. Offerle, C. S. B. Grimmond, K. Fortuniak, K. Kłysik, and T. R. Oke, “Temporal variations in heat fluxes over a central European city centre,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 84, no. 1-3, pp. 103–115, 2006.
- J. Hafner and S. Q. Kidder, “Urban heat island modeling in conjunction with satellite-derived surface/soil parameters,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 448–465, 1999.
- V. Masson, “A physically-based scheme for the urban energy budget in atmospheric models,” Boundary-Layer Meteorology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 357–397, 2000.
- P. W. Suckling, “The energy balance microclimate of a suburban lawn,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 606–608, 1980.
- A. J. Arnfield and C. S. B. Grimmond, “An urban canyon energy budget model and its application to urban storage heat flux modeling,” Energy and Buildings, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 61–68, 1998.
- R. Emmanuel, “Energy Conscious Urban Design Guidelines for Warm Humid Cities: Strategies for Colombo, Sri Lanka,” Journal of Architectural & Planning Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 58–75, 1995.
- H. Bridgman, R. Warner, and J. Dodson, Urban Biophysical Environments, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995.
- D. J. Sailor, “Sensitivity of coastal meteorology and air quality to urban surface characteristics,” in Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on the Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, vol. 8, pp. 286–293, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Mass, USA, 1994.