Table 1: Tokyo’s 23 Ku, Japan’s Seirei Shitei Toshi (Government Ordinance Designated Cities)(1).

CityPrefectureDate incorporatedDate authorizedPopulation at authorizationPopulation April 1, 2010

Tokyo 23 Ku(T)Tokyo-to1889-Apr 11943-Jul 14,177,5488,868,642
1YokohamaKanagawa1889-Apr 11956-Sep 11,143,6873,698,623
2OsakaOsaka1889-Apr 11956-Sep 12,547,3162,652,333
3NagoyaAichi1889-Oct 11956-Sep 11,336,7802,240,751
4KobeHyogo1905-May 101956-Sep 1979,3051,556,491
5KyotoKyoto1889-Apr 11956-Sep 11,204,0841,425,955
6Kita Kyushu(M, K)Fukuoka1963-Feb 101963-Apr 1986,401989,723
7Sapporo(A)Hokkaido1922-Aug 11972-Apr 11,010,1231,914,358
8Fukuoka(A)Fukuoka1905-May 261972-Apr 1853,2701,420,184
9KawasakiKanagawa1924-Jul 11972-Apr 1973,4861,404,532
10Hiroshima(A)Hiroshima1905-Jun 31980-Apr 1899,3991,171,559
11Sendai(A)Miyagi1905-Jun 121989-Apr 1857,3351,020,319
12ChibaChiba1921-Jan 11992-Apr 1829,455955,022
13Saitama(M)Saitama2001-May 12003-Apr 11,023,9371,226,487
14Shizuoka(M, C)Shizuoka1889-Apr 12005-Apr 1469,695726,060
15Sakai(A, C)Osaka1889-Apr 12006-Apr 1792,018849,547
16Hamamatsu(A, C)Shizuoka1911-Jul 12007-Apr 1582,085820,971
17Niigata(A, C)Niigata1889-Apr 12007-Apr 1501,431807,748
18Okayama(A, C)Okayama1889-Jun 12009-Apr 1626,642699,160
19Sagamihara(A, C)Kanagawa1954-Nov 202010-Apr 1605,561712,604
20Kumamoto(A, C)Kumamoto1889-Apr 12012-Apr 1662,012728,332

Sources: [61, 81].
(1)Authorization populations were based upon the Japanese Census preceding their special designation. For example, the 1990 Census population was used for Chiba. However, to show the impacts of mergers or annexations on these cities, 2000 Census original populations were utilized as the authorization population for the six cities reaching this status after Saitama. Kumamoto’s authorization population represents its municipal estimate for April 1, 2010 (See the bolded numbers).
(A)Established through the annexation of adjacent municipalities.
(C)Formerly a Core City.
(K)Kitakyushu surpassed one million inhabitants in the 1965 Census.
(M)Established through the merger of two or more cities.
(T)The 23 Tokubetsu-Ku of Tokyo do not comprise a Government Ordinance Designated City, but are generally discussed along with them. Its authorization population was based upon the 1947 Census.