Table 2: Progression of Japan’s Chukaku-shi (Core Cities), April 1, 1996-April 1, 2011(1).

Date authorizedCity name (alphabetically listed)Number authorizedTotal

April 1, 1996Gifu, Hamamatsu, Himeji, Kagoshima, Kanazawa, Kumamoto, Niigata, Okayama, Sakai, Shizuoka, Toyama, Utsunomiya1212
April 1, 1997Akita, Koriyama, Nagasaki, Oita, Wakayama517
April 1, 1998Fukuyama, Kochi, Miyazaki, Toyota421
April 1, 1999Iwaki, Nagano, Toyohashi, Takamatsu425
April 1, 2000Asahikawa, Matsuyama227
April 1, 2001Yokosuka128
April 1, 2002Nara, Kurashiki230
April 1, 2003Funabashi(w), Kawagoe(d), Okazaki(d), Sagamihara(w), Takatsuki(d)
Shizuoka merges with Special Case City, Shimizu
535
April 1, 2005Higashi Osaka(w)
Shizuoka becomes a Designated City
135
October 1, 2005Hakodate(a, t), Shimonoseki(m, s)237
April 1, 2006Sakai becomes a Designated City36
October 1, 2006Aomori(m)137
April 1, 2007Hamamatsu and Niigata become Designated Cities035
April 1, 2008Kashiwa(a, w), Kurume(a, t), Morioka(a, s), Nishinomiya(a, w)439
April 1, 2009Amagasaki(a, t), Maebashi(a, t), Otsu(a, s)
Okayama becomes a Designated City
341
April 1, 2010Sagamihara becomes a Designated City040
April 1, 2011Takasaki(a, s)141
April 1, 2012Kumamoto to become Designated City40

Source: [87].
Notes: ( 1 ) The seven cities in italics have been promoted to Designated City.
(a)Achieved the status by annexing adjacent municipalities.
(b)Originally authorized after the elimination of the daytime/nighttime requirement.
(m)Achieved the status by merging with adjacent municipalities. Shimonoseki and Aomori are listed as mergers by the MIC but were existing Special Case Cities which essentially annexed adjacent areas.
(s)Formerly a Special Case City.
(w)Qualified only after revisions were made to the 100 km2 requirement.