About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 765430, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/765430
Research Article

A Study of the Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis in the Environment under Natural Weather Conditions in Michigan, USA

1Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Center for Comparative Epidemiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1314, USA
2Wildlife Conservation Society, P.O. Box 485, Post Office 38, Ulaanbaatar 211238, Mongolia
3Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University, 4125 Beaumont Road, Lansing, MI 48910-8104, USA
4Department of Epidemiology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, B601 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA

Received 4 January 2011; Accepted 16 February 2011

Academic Editor: Mitchell V. Palmer

Copyright © 2011 Amanda E. Fine et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. J. O'Brien, S. M. Schmitt, S. D. Fitzgerald, D. E. Berry, and G. J. Hickling, “Managing the wildlife reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis: the Michigan, USA, experience,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 112, no. 2–4, pp. 313–323, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. M. Schmitt, S. D. Fitzgerald, T. M. Cooley et al., “Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging white-tailed deer from Michigan,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 749–758, 1997. View at Scopus
  3. D. L. Whipple, J. L. Jarnagin, and J. B. Payeur, “DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from animals in northeast Michigan,” in Proceedings of the IX International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, College Station, Tex, USA, 1999.
  4. T. J. DeLiberto, K. C. Vercauteren, and G. W. Witmer, “The ecology of Mycobacterium bovis in Michigan,” in Activities Report and Conference Proceedings, Michigan Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Project, Lansing, Mich, USA, 2004.
  5. G. Frye, “Bovine tuberculosis eradication: the program in the United States,” in Mycobacterium bovis Infection in Animals and Humans, C. O. Thoen and J. H. Steele, Eds., pp. 119–129, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA, 1995.
  6. G. J. Hickling, “Dynamics of bovine tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer in Michigan,” Wildlife Division Report No. 3363, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 2002.
  7. R. Miller, J. B. Kaneene, S. D. Fitzgerald, and S. M. Schmitt, “Evaluation of the influence of supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Michigan wild deer population,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 84–95, 2003. View at Scopus
  8. A. E. Fine, D. J. O’Brien, S. R. Winterstein, and J. B. Kaneene, “An effort to isolate Mycobacterium bovis from environmental substrates during investigations of bovine tuberculosis transmission sites (cattle farms and wildlife areas) in Michigan, USA,” submitted.
  9. G. Witmer, A. E. Fine, J. Glonfriddo et al., “Epizootiologic survey of Mycobacterium bovis in wildlife and farm environments in northern Michigan,” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 368–378, 2010. View at Scopus
  10. J. B. Kaneene, C. S. Bruning-Fann, L. M. Granger, R. Miller, and B. A. Porter-Spalding, “Environmental and farm management factors associated with tuberculosis on cattle farms in northeastern Michigan,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 221, no. 6, pp. 837–842, 2002. View at Scopus
  11. T. W. A. Little, P. F. Naylor, and J. W. Wilesmith, “Laboratory study of Mycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and calves,” Veterinary Record, vol. 111, no. 24, pp. 550–557, 1982. View at Scopus
  12. B. J. Duffield and D. A. Young, “Survival of Mycobacterium bovis in defined environmental conditions,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 193–197, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. Jackson, G. W. de Lisle, and R. S. Morris, “A study of the environmental survival of Mycobacterium bovis on a farm in New Zealand,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 43, pp. 346–352, 1995.
  14. M. Tanner and A. L. Michel, “Investigation of the viability of M. bovis under different environmental conditions in the Kruger National Park,” Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 185–190, 1999. View at Scopus
  15. J. S. Young, E. Gormley, and E. M. H. Wellington, “Molecular detection of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur) in soil,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1946–1952, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. E. Fine, The role of indirect transmission in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and white-tailed deer in Michigan, Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich, USA, 2006, p. 157.
  17. P. T. Kent and G. P. Kubica, Public Health Mycobacteriology: A Guide for Level III Laboratory, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga, USA, 1985.
  18. S. R. Williams and W. A. Hoy, “The viability of B. tuberculosis (bovinus) on pasture land, in stored faeces and in liquid manure,” Journal of Hygiene, vol. 30, pp. 413–419, 1930.
  19. E. C. G. Maddock, “Studies on the survival time of the bovine tubercle bacillus in soil, soil and dung, in dung and on grass, with experiments on the preliminary treatment of infected organic matter and the cultivation of the organism,” Journal of Hygiene, vol. 33, pp. 103–117, 1933.
  20. E. C. G. Maddock, “Further studies on the survival time of the bovine tubercle bacillus in soil, soil and dung, in dung and on grass, with experiments on feeding guinea-pigs and calves on grass artificially infected with bovine tubercle bacilli,” Journal of Hygiene, vol. 34, pp. 372–379, 1934.
  21. E. C. G. Maddock, “Experiments on the infectivity for healthy calves on bovine tubercle bacilli discharged in dung upon pasture. Part 1. From tubercular calves fed with emulsion of tubercle bacilli 1934–1935. Part 2. From tubercular cows passing tubercle bacilli in their dung 1935–1936,” Journal of Hygiene, vol. 36, pp. 594–601, 1936.
  22. C. Wray, “Survival and spread of pathogenic bacteria of veterinary importance within the environment,” Veterinary Bulletin, vol. 45, pp. 543–550, 1975.
  23. D. J. van Donsel and E. P. Larkin, “Persistence of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in soil and on vegetables spray-irrigated with Sewage effluent and sludge,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 160–163, 1977.
  24. E. Mitscherlich and E. H. Marth, “Mycobacterium bovis,” in Microbial Survival in the Environment: Bacteria and Rickettsiae Important in Human and Animal Health, pp. 235–242, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1984.
  25. M. V. Palmer and D. L. Whipple, “Survival of Mycobacterium bovis on feedstuffs commonly used as supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus),” Journal of Wildlife Diseases, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 853–858, 2006. View at Scopus
  26. M. V. Palmer, W. R. Waters, and D. L. Whipple, “Lesion development in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) experimentally infected with Mycobacterium bovis,” Veterinary Pathology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 334–340, 2002. View at Scopus
  27. M. V. Palmer, W. R. Waters, and D. L. Whipple, “Investigation of the transmission of Mycobacterium bovis from deer to cattle through indirect contact,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 1483–1489, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. L. Smith, “Tuberculosis in the opossum,” New Zealand Veterinary Journal, vol. 20, p. 199, 1972.
  29. T. McCorry, A. O. Whelan, M. D. Welsh et al., “Shedding of Mycobacterium bovis in the nasal mucus of cattle infected experimentally with tuberculosis by the intranasal and intratracheal routes,” Veterinary Record, vol. 157, no. 20, pp. 613–618, 2005. View at Scopus
  30. R. S. Morris, D. U. Pfeiffer, and R. Jackson, “The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 40, no. 1-2, pp. 153–177, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus