About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 301902, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/301902
Research Article

Detection of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and Antimicrobial Residues in Raw and Processed Cow Milk from Selected Smallholder Farms of Zimbabwe

1Department of Animal Science, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe
2Department of Paraclinical Veterinary Studies, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe

Received 14 February 2012; Revised 3 August 2012; Accepted 23 August 2012

Academic Editor: Douglas Morck

Copyright © 2012 Tryness Anastazia Mhone et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Nanu, C. Latha, B. Sunil, Prejit, M. Thomas, and K. V. Menon, “Quality assurance and public health safety of raw milk at the production point,” American Journal of Food Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 145–152, 2007. View at Scopus
  2. P. Grimaud, M. Sserunjogi, M. Wesuta, N. Grillet, M. Kato, and B. Faye, “Effects of season and agro-ecological zone on the microbial quality of raw milk along the various levels of the value chain in Uganda,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 883–890, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. H. M. Gran, H. T. Gadaga, and J. A. Narvhus, “Utilization of various starter cultures in the production of Amasi, a Zimbabwean naturally fermented raw milk product,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. M. Mubarack, A. Dos, R. Dhanabalan, and S. Balachander, “Microbial quality of raw milk samples collected from different villages of Combatore District, Tamilhadu, South India,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 61–63, 2010.
  5. A. K. Dogru, N. D. Ayaz, and Y. E. Gencay, “Serotype identification and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken carcasses,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 893–897, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. H. Cody, S. L. Abbott, A. A. Marfin et al., “Two outbreaks of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotype Typhimurium DT104 infections linked to raw-milk cheese in Northern California,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 281, no. 19, pp. 1805–1810, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. P. Oliver, B. M. Jayarao, and R. A. Almeida, “Foodborne pathogens in milk and the dairy farm environment: food safety and public health implications,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 115–129, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. G. Matope, J. Schlundt, P. V. Makaya, S. Aarbo, and D. L. Bagessen, “Salmonella Enteritidis infection in poultry: an emerging zoonosis in Zimbabwe,” Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal, vol. 29, pp. 132–139, 1998.
  9. N. Nesser, “Residues in milk after the use of health treatments,” http://www.ansci.wisc.edu/, 2009.
  10. S. E. Katz and M. S. Brady, “Antibiotic residues in food and their significance,” Food Biotechnology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 147–171, 2000. View at Scopus
  11. F. de Zayas-Blanco, M. S. Garcia-Blanco, and J. Simal-Gándara, “Determination of sulfamethazine in milk by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatographic separation with ultraviolet detection,” Food Control, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 375–378, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. A. Adesiyun, S. Stoute, and B. David, “Pre-processed bovine milk quality in Trinidad: prevalence and characteristics of bacterial pathogens and occurrence of antimicrobial residues in milk from collection centres,” Food Control, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 312–320, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Borland, “Information pamphlet on milk grading system to be applied in Zimbabwe,” Tech. Rep., Zimbabwe Dairy Services, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1992.
  14. T. A. Mhone, G. Matope, P. T. Saidi, and “, “Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 151, no. 2, pp. 223–228, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. P. J. Quinn, M. E. Carter, B. Markey, and G. R. Carter, Clinical Veterinary Microbiology, Grafos Verlag GmbH, Madrid, Spain, 2002.
  16. J. Schlundt and B. Munch, “A comparison of the efficiency of Rappaport-Vassiliadis, tetrathionate and selenite broths with and without pre-enrichment for the isolation of Salmonella in animal waste biogas plants.,” Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, vol. 279, no. 3, pp. 336–343, 1993. View at Scopus
  17. W. E. Harrigan, Laboratory Methods in Food Microbiology, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 3rd edition, 1998.
  18. J. S. Van Kessel, J. S. Karns, L. Gorski, B. J. McCluskey, and M. L. Perdue, “Prevalence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and fecal coliforms in bulk tank milk on US dairies,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 2822–2830, 2004. View at Scopus
  19. S. Kariuki, G. Revathi, N. Kariuki et al., “Invasive multidrug-resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in Africa: zoonotic or anthroponotic transmission?” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 585–591, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. E. L. Corry, V. M. Allen, W. R. Hudson, M. F. Breslin, and R. H. Davies, “Sources of Salmonella on broiler carcasses during transportation and processing: modes of contamination and methods of control,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 424–432, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. B. R. Radke, M. McFall, and S. M. Radostitts, “Salmonella Muenster in a dairy herd,” Canadian Veterinary Journal, vol. 43, pp. 443–453, 2002.
  22. A. A. Bankole, A. Secka, and C. Ly, “Risk behaviours for milk-borne diseases transmission along the milk chain in The Gambia and Senegal,” Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 103–109, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. A. Ghiasian and A. H. Maghsood, “Occurrence of aflatoxigenic fungi in cow feeds during the summer and winter season in hamadan, iran,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 516–521, 2011. View at Scopus
  24. S. Z. Leila, S. Azar, K. Alireza, B. Amir, B. Mansour, and E. Hosein, “Comparison of allergenic power of A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger fungi by using patients' sera with asthma,” Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 5, pp. 350–354, 2010.
  25. N. B. Cawe, General hygiene of commercially available milk in the Bloemfontein area [M.S. thesis], University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2006.
  26. L. Wrobel, J. K. Whittington, C. Pujol et al., “Molecular phylogenetic analysis of a geographically and temporally matched set of Candida albicans isolates from humans and nonmigratory wildlife in central Illinois,” Eukaryotic Cell, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1475–1486, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. Satana, G. E. Genc, and Z. Erturan, “The antifungal susceptibilities of oral Candida spp. isolates from HIV-infected patients,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 4, no. 17, pp. 1831–1835, 2010. View at Scopus
  28. E. K. Kang'ethe, G. O. Aboge, S. M. Arimi, L. W. Kanja, A. O. Omore, and J. J. McDermott, “Investigation of the risk of consuming marketed milk with antimicrobial residues in Kenya,” Food Control, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 349–355, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. O. Aboge, E. K. Kang'ethe, S. M. Arimi et al., “Antimicrobial agents detected in marketed milk in Kenya,” in Proceedings of the 3rd All Africa Conference on Animal Agriculture (AACAA '00), Alexandria, Egypt, November 2000.