Table 1: Shedding of Mycobacterium bovis in experimentally and naturally infected free-ranging wildlife species.

Species Study type ShedAuthor

Crow Corvus brachyrhynchos,
starling Sturnus vulgaris
Laboratory inoculationNegative fecal samples, concluded no shedding occursButler et al. [34]

Pigeon Columba livia Laboratory inoculationPositive fecal samples for at least 60 days after inoculationFitzgerald et al. [36]

Mallard ducks
Anas platyrhynchos
Laboratory inoculationNegative fecal samples, concluded no shedding occursFitzgerald et al. [35]

Brushtail possum
Trichosurus vulpecula
Laboratory inoculation of wild caught individualsTransmission between infected brushtail possum and controls was noted with gross lesion distribution consistent with aerosol transmissionCorner et al. [16]

Virginia opossum
Didelphis virginianus
Laboratory oral inoculation1 Virginia opossum fecal culture tested positive after 1 day after inoculation and another on day 31 after inoculation Diegel et al. [37]

Virginia opossum
Didelphis virginianus
Laboratory aerosol inoculation of wild caught individualsOnly 1 of 12 Virginia opossum had a positive fecal sample during the 90 studyFitzgerald et al. [38]

Vole Microtus pennsylvanicus,
mice Mus musculus,
rat Rattus norvegicus
Laboratory inoculationPositive samples of fecal cultures from the Meadow vole onlyClarke et al. [40]

European badger
Meles meles
Samples from free-ranging groupsPositive samples from urine, feces, and bite woundsChambers et al. [42]

European badger
Meles meles
Samples from free-ranging animalsPositive samples from sputum, urine, feces, and bite woundsClifton-Hadley et al. [2]

European badger
Meles meles
Necropsies of animals found deadConcluded that M. bovis could be shed via sputum, urine, and feces Clifton-Hadley (cited in Gallagher et al. [90]

European badger
Meles meles
Laboratory inoculationPositive samples from urine and found in feces for 165–1305 daysLittle et al. [41]

Feral ferret Mustela furo Examination of captured free-ranging individualsOral cavity was the most common site of excretion of M. bovis; further positive samples of shedding came from tracheobronchial, urine, feces, and mammary gland samplesLugton et al. [43]

Raccoon Procyon lotor Inoculated individuals with single oral doses of M. bovis (ranging from 30 to 1 . 7 × 1 0 5  cfu, five daily oral doses (ranging from 10 to 1 × 1 0 5  cfu), or a single intravenous dose of 1 × 1 0 5  cfu Low doses of M. bovis in saliva or nasal secretions but no shedding in urine or fecesPalmer et al. [39]

Coyote Canis latrans Samples from free-ranging individuals that tested
tissue positive for M. bovis
Authors concluded that shedding was minimal based on negative culture samples from oral, nasal, and feces samplesBerentsen et al. [45]

Red deer Cervus elaphus Samples from free-ranging individualsLow shedding in feces and in nasal, pharyngeal, and tracheal swabs but no shedding in urineLugton et al. [46]

Marsh deer
Blastocerus dichotomus
Esophageal-pharyngeal fluids from 53 free-ranging individualsConcluded no shedding through this routeLuna et al. 2003 [47]

Domestic cattle
Bos taurus
Inoculation (low dose, 104 cfu; high dose 106 cfu; intranasal and intratracheal inoculation) of calves in a laboratory settingNasal shedding was detected in 21 of 24 animals, but no calves given a low-dose shedMcCorry et al. [50]

White-tailed deer
Odocoileus virginianus
Laboratory inoculation of mature female white-tailed deer with intratonsilar instillation of 2 × 1 0 3 (low dose) or 2 × 1 0 5 (high dose) cfu of M. bovis. Authors conclude that the results indicated that M. bovis persists in tonsilar crypts for prolonged periods and can be shed in saliva and nasal secretionsPalmer et al. [48]

White-tailed deer
Odocoileus virginianus
Laboratory inoculation and co-minglingPositive at 63 (nasal swab), 90 (oral), and 113 (rectal) days post inoculation; positive at 69 (oral and nasal) days post co-mingling with inoculated; positive sample in feed on day 63 and 150 post inoculation, positive sample on hay on day 90 and 210 days post inoculationPalmer et al. [49]