About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 157960, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/157960
Research Article

Computer Tomographic Illustration of the Development of the Pulmonary Function in Bovine Neonates until the Twenty-First Day Postnatum

1Clinic for Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Andrology of Large and Small Animals, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Frankfurter Street 106, 35392 Giessen, Germany
2Large Animal Clinic for Theriogenology and Ambulatory Services, Leipzig University, An den Tierkliniken 29, 04103 Leipzig, Germany

Received 12 June 2013; Accepted 13 August 2013

Academic Editor: Philip H. Kass

Copyright © 2013 Bernd Linke et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Barcroft, “Fetal circulation and respiration,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 16, pp. 103–128, 1936.
  2. J. Barcroft, D. H. Barron, A. T. Cowie, and P. H. Forsham, “The oxygen supply oft he foetal brain oft he sheep and the effect of asphyxia on foetal respiratory movement,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 97, pp. 338–346, 1940.
  3. J. Barcroft, Researches on Prenatal Live, Oxford Press, 1946.
  4. G. S. Dawes, J. C. Mott, J. G. Widdicombe, and D. G. Wyatt, “Changes in the lungs of the new-born lamb,” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 141–162, 1953. View at Scopus
  5. G. S. Dawes, “Oxygen supply and consumption in late fetal life and the onset of breathing in birth in Fenn WO,” in Handbook of Physiology, H. Rahn, Ed., vol. 2, pp. 1313–1328, 1965.
  6. G. S. Dawes, S. L. Duncan, B. V. Lewis, C. L. Merlet, J. B. Owen-Thomas, and J. T. Reeves, “Hypoxaemia and aortic chemoreceptor function in foetal lambs,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 201, no. 1, pp. 105–116, 1969. View at Scopus
  7. J. Facwitt, J. Lind, and C. Wegelins, “The first breath,” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 122, pp. 1–17, 1960.
  8. S. Cassin, G. S. Dawes, and B. B. Ross, “Pulmonary blood flow and vascular resistance in immature foetal lambs,” Journal of physiology, vol. 171, pp. 80–89, 1964. View at Scopus
  9. W. F. Howatt, P. W. Humphreys, I. C. Normand, and L. B. Strang, “Ventilation of liquid by the fetal lamb during asphyxia,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 496–502, 1965. View at Scopus
  10. H. S. Harned Jr., R. T. Herrington, and J. I. Ferreiro, “The effect of immersion and temperature on respiration in newborn lambs,” Pediatrics, vol. 151, pp. 707–714, 1970. View at Scopus
  11. B. D. Fletcher, B. F. Sachs, and R. V. Kotas, “Radiologic demonstration of postnatal liquid in the lungs of newborn lambs,” Pediatrics, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 252–258, 1970. View at Scopus
  12. H. Bartels, K. Riegel, J. Wenner, and H. Wulf, Perinatale Atmung, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1972.
  13. J. Egberts, P. Fontijne, and G. C. van der Weijden, “Premature changes in surface activity in lung fluid of fetal lambs,” European Journal of Obstetrics Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 1981. View at Scopus
  14. R. E. Oliver, “Of labour and the lungs,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 56, pp. 650–664, 1981.
  15. P. J. Berger, A. M. Walker, R. Horne et al., “Phase respiratory activity in the fetal lamb during late gestation and labour .,” Respiration Physiology, vol. 65, pp. 55–68, 1988.
  16. S. J. Flecknoe, M. J. Wallace, M. L. Cock, R. Harding, and S. B. Hooper, “Changes in alveolar epithelial cell proportions during fetal and postnatal development in sheep,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 285, no. 3, pp. L664–L670, 2003. View at Scopus
  17. R. Ridsdale and M. Post, “Surfactant lipid synthesis and lamellar body formation in glycogen-laden type II cells,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 4, pp. L743–L751, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Lind, “Changes in the circulation and lungs at birth,” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 49, supplement 122, pp. 39–52, 1960.
  19. J. Facwitt, J. Linden, and C. Wegekins, “The first breath. A preliminary communication description some methods of investigastion of the first breath of a baby and results obtained from therm,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 123, pp. 5–17, 1960.
  20. P. Karlberg, R. P. Cherry, F. E. Excardo, and G. Koch, “Respiratory studies in newborn infants. II: pulmonary ventilations and mechanics of breathing in the first minutes of life, including the onset of respiration,” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 51, pp. 121–136, 1962.
  21. A. D. Milner and H. Vyas, “Lung expansion at birth,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 879–886, 1982. View at Scopus
  22. C. W. Leffler, J. R. Hessler, and R. S. Green, “The onset of breathing at birth stimulates pulmonary vascular prostacyclin synthesis,” Pediatric Research, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 938–942, 1984. View at Scopus
  23. I. M. Kuipers, W. J. Maertzdorf, D. S. De Jong, M. A. Hanson, and C. E. Blanco, “Initiation and maintenance of continuous breathing at birth,” Pediatric Research, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 163–168, 1997. View at Scopus
  24. J. T. Reeves and J. E. Leathers, “Circulatory changes following birth of calf and the effect of hypoxia,” Circulation Research, vol. 15, pp. 343–354, 1964. View at Scopus
  25. H. A. Schoon, Lungen- und Plazentareifung beim Rind in der Endphase der Gravidität, 1989.
  26. R. Reinhold, “Struktur und Funktion der sich entwickelnden bovinen Lunge,” Pneumologie, vol. 61, pp. 428–483, 2007.
  27. L. E. De Zabala and D. E. Weinmann, “Prenatal development of the bovin lung,” Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia, vol. 13, pp. 1–14, 1984.
  28. H. A. Schoon and D. Kikovic, “Morphologischer Nachweis und pathogenetische Bewertung von Fruchtwasseraspirationen hinsichtlich der Diagnose “pulmonale Asphyxie” bei neugeborenen Kälbern und Fohlen,” Deutsche Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, vol. 94, pp. 73–76, 1987.
  29. W. L. Castleman and J. C. Lay, “Morphometric and ultrastructural study of postnatal lung growth and development in calves,” The American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 789–795, 1990. View at Scopus
  30. C. Uystepruyst, P. Reinhold, J. Coghe, F. Bureau, and P. Lekeux, “Mechanics of the respiratory system in healthy newborn calves using impulse oscillometry,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2000. View at Scopus
  31. C. Jung and H. Bostedt, “Thoracic ultrasonography technique in newborn calves and description of normal and pathological findings,” Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 331–335, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. Apgar, “A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant,” Current Researches in Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 260–267, 1953. View at Scopus
  33. K. Herfen and H. Bostedt, “Zum Säure-Basen-Status bei neugeborenen Kälbern in den ersten Lebenstagen unter Berücksichtigung differenter Vitalitätssituationen,” Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrif, vol. 112, pp. 166–171, 1996.
  34. B. R. Richter and H. Bostedt, “Evaluation of an appropriate puncture site for arterial blood sampling to allow repeated blood gas-analysis in the newborn calf,” Tierarztliche Praxis Ausgabe, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2010. View at Scopus
  35. B. Linke, Computertromographische Untersuchungen zur Erfassung der Lungenfunktion bei vitalen Kälbern in der frühen postnatalen Periode [M.S. thesis], Universität Gießen, 2009.
  36. A. E. Barclay, J. Barcroft, D. H. Barron, K. J. Franklin, and M. M. Prichard, “Pulmonary circulation times before and after functional closure of the ductus arteriosus,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 101, pp. 375–377, 1942.
  37. K. Walser, “Anatomische und physiologische Grundlagen des Neugeborenen: Blut,” in Neugeborenen und Säuglingskrankheiten der Tiere, K. Walser and H. Bostedt, Eds., Enke, Stuttgart, Germany, 1990.
  38. H. McNamara and N. Johnson, “The effect of uterine contractions on fetal oxygen saturation,” British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 644–647, 1995. View at Scopus
  39. D. G. Alcorn, T. M. Adamson, J. E. Maloney, and R. M. Robinson, “A morphologic and morphometric analysis of fetal lung development in the sheep,” Anatomical Record, vol. 201, no. 4, pp. 655–667, 1981. View at Scopus
  40. A. J. Lechner and N. Banchero, “Advanced pulmonary development in newborn guinea pigs,” The American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 235–246, 1982. View at Scopus
  41. W. Künzel and K. H. Wulf, Physiologie und Pathologie der Geburt II, Urbau und Schwarenberg München Wien Baltimore, 1990.
  42. J. P. Mortola, Respiratory Physiology of Newborn Mannuals, John Hopkins University Press, London, UK, 2001.
  43. J. Varga, J. Mester, L. Borzsonyl et al., “Adaptation of respiration to extrauterine life in healthy newborn calves,” Reproduction in Domestic Animals, vol. 34, pp. 377–379, 1999.
  44. J. Lind, T. Peltonen, L. Törnwall, and C. Wegelius, “Röntgenologische Lungenbefunde beim ersten Atemzug des Neugeborenen,” Zeitschrift für Kinderheilkunde, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 568–578, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Dragomir, Y. Akay, A. K. Curran, and M. Akay, “Investigating the complexity of respiratory patterns during the laryngeal chemoreflex,” Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, vol. 5, article 17, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. K. Herfen and H. Bostedt, “Die Korrelation zwischen klinischer und labordiagnostischer Vitalitätsbewertung beim neugeborenen Kalb unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Geburtslänge und Geburtsart,” Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift, vol. 86, pp. 255–261, 1999.
  47. H. Bostedt, “Erstversorgung des neugeborenen Kalbes,” in Fruchtbarkeitsmanagement Beim Rind, H. Bostedt, Ed., DLG, Frankfurt, Germany, 2006.
  48. E. Dean, “Effect of body position on pulmonary function,” Physical Therapy, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 613–618, 1985. View at Scopus
  49. A. M. Rudolph and M. A. Heymann, “Circulatory changes during growth in the fetal lamb,” Circulation Research, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 289–299, 1970. View at Scopus
  50. A. M. Perks and S. Cassin, “The effects of arginine vasopressin and epinephrine on lung liquid production in fetal goats,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 491–498, 1989. View at Scopus
  51. M. J. Wallace, S. B. Hooper, and R. Harding, “Regulation of lung liquid secretion by arginine vasopressin in fetal sheep,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 258, no. 1, pp. R104–R111, 1990. View at Scopus
  52. L. B. Strang, “Fetal lung liquid: secretion and reabsorption,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 991–1016, 1991. View at Scopus
  53. S. B. Hooper and R. Harding, “Fetal lung liquid: a major determinant of the growth and functional development of the fetal lung,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 235–247, 1995. View at Scopus
  54. F. Sinowatz, “Atmungsorgane,” in Lehrbuch Der Embryologie Der Haustiere, I. Rüsse and F. Sinowatz, Eds., Paul Parey Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 1991.
  55. S. J. Flecknoe, K. J. Crossley, G. M. Zuccala et al., “Increased lung expansion alters lung growth but not alveolar epithelial cell differentiation in newborn lambs,” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 292, no. 2, pp. L454–L461, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Yu, P. G. R. Harding, N. Smith, and F. Possmayer, “Bovine pulmonary surfactant: chemical composition and physical properties,” Lipids, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 522–529, 1983. View at Scopus
  57. J. Pérez-Gil, “Molecular interactions in pulmonary surfactant films,” Biology of the Neonate, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 6–15, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. Johansson and T. Curstedt, “Molecular structures and interactions of pulmonary surfactant components,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 244, no. 3, pp. 675–693, 1997. View at Scopus
  59. Y. Tian, R. Zhou, J. E. Rehg, and S. Jackowski, “Role of phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase α in lung development,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 975–982, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. O. Szenci, M. A. M. Taverne, and E. Takács, “A review of 126 Caesarean sections by blood gas and the acid-base status of newborn calves,” Theriogenology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 667–673, 1989. View at Scopus
  61. B. R. Richter, Prognostische Aussagekraft arterieller gegenüber venöser Blutgasparameter im wiederholten Meßrhythmus hinsichtlich des Schweregrades des neonatalen Atemnotsyndrom beim Kalb [M.S. thesis], Universität Gießen, 2005.
  62. U. Bleul, B. Lejeune, S. Schwantag, and W. Kähn, “Blood gas and acid-base analysis of arterial blood in 57 newborn calves,” Veterinary Record, vol. 161, no. 20, pp. 688–691, 2007. View at Scopus