About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 537213, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/537213
Research Article

Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1620, USA

Received 19 September 2013; Accepted 30 October 2013; Published 12 January 2014

Academic Editor: Philip H. Kass

Copyright © 2014 Andrea S. Lear et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. C. van Metre and R. J. Callan, “Selenium and vitamin E,” The Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 373–402, 2001. View at Scopus
  2. K. J. Baalsrud and G. Overnes, “Influence of vitamin E and selenium supplement on antibody production in horses,” Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 472–474, 1986. View at Scopus
  3. M. Lessard, W. C. Yang, G. S. Elliott et al., “Cellular immune responses in pigs fed a vitamin E- and selenium-deficient diet,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 1575–1582, 1991. View at Scopus
  4. T. H. Herdt, “Blood serum concentrations of selenium in female llamas (Lama glama) in relationship to feeding practices, region of United States, reproductive stage, and health of offspring,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 337–344, 1995. View at Scopus
  5. T. M. Frye, S. N. Williams, and T. W. Graham, “Vitamin deficiencies in cattle,” The Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 217–275, 1991. View at Scopus
  6. F. Calderón, B. Chauveau-Duriot, P. Pradel et al., “Variations in carotenoids, vitamins A and E, and color in cow's plasma and milk following a shift from hay diet to diets containing increasing levels of carotenoids and vitamin E,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 5651–5664, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. O. Mohammed, T. J. Divers, B. A. Summers, and A. de Lahunta, “Vitamin E deficiency and risk of equine motor neuron disease,” Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, vol. 49, no. 1, article 17, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Maas, M. S. Bulgin, B. C. Anderson, and T. M. Frye, “Nutritional myodegeneration associated with vitamin E deficiency and normal selenium status in lambs,” Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 201–204, 1984. View at Scopus
  9. S. R. Byers, G. Barrington, D. Nelson, G. Haldorson, T. Holt, and R. Callan, “Neurological causes of diaphragmatic paralysis in 11 alpacas (Vicugna pacos),” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 380–385, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. M. Finch and R. J. Turner, “Effects of selenium and vitamin E on the immune responses of domestic animals,” Research in Veterinary Science, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 97–106, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. G. Hemingway, “The influences of dietary intakes and supplementation with selenium and vitamin E on reproduction diseases and reproductive efficiency in cattle and sheep,” Veterinary Research Communications, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 159–174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Craig, L. L. Blythe, K. E. Rowe, E. D. Lassen, R. Barrington, and K. C. Walker, “Variability of alpha-tocopherol values associated with procurement, storage, and freezing of equine serum and plasma samples,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2228–2234, 1992. View at Scopus
  13. S. B. Hooser, J. M. McCarthy, C. R. Wilson, J. L. Harms, G. Stevenson, and R. J. Everson, “Effects of storage conditions and hemolysis on vitamin E concentrations in porcine serum and liver,” Journal of veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 365–368, 2000. View at Scopus
  14. S. Clark, L. D. Youngman, B. Chukwurah et al., “Effect of temperature and light on the stability of fat-soluble vitamins in whole blood over several days: implications for epidemiological studies,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 518–525, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Q. Su, K. G. Rowley, and K. O'Dea, “Stability of individual carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in human plasma during exposure to light and after extraction,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 729, no. 1-2, pp. 191–198, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. E. Hankinson, S. J. London, C. G. Chute et al., “Effect of transport conditions on the stability of biochemical markers in blood,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2313–2316, 1989. View at Scopus
  17. T. H. Herdt and J. C. Smith, “Blood-lipid and lactation-stage factors affecting serum vitamin E concentrations and vitamin E cholesterol ratios in dairy cattle,” Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 228–232, 1996. View at Scopus
  18. M. G. Traber and I. Jialal, “Measurement of lipid-soluble vitamins—further adjustment needed?” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9220, pp. 2013–2014, 2000. View at Scopus
  19. L. Ford, J. Farr, P. Morris, and J. Berg, “The value of measuring serum cholesterol-adjusted vitamin E in routine practice,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 130–134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Tanner, N. Kent, B. Smith, S. Fletcher, and M. Lewer, “Stability of common biochemical analytes in serum gel tubes subjected to various storage temperatures and times pre-centrifugation,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 45, part 4, pp. 375–379, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. I. Thurnham, J. A. Davies, and B. J. Crump, “The use of different lipids to express serum tocopherol: lipids ratios for the measurement of vitamin E status,” Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 23, part 5, pp. 514–520, 1986. View at Scopus
  22. T. H. Herdt and H. D. Stowe, “Fat-soluble vitamin nutrition for dairy cattle,” The Veterinary Clinics of North America, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 391–415, 1991. View at Scopus
  23. W. P. Weiss, “Requirements of fat-soluble vitamins for dairy cows: a review,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 81, no. 9, pp. 2493–2501, 1998. View at Scopus