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Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 789816, 5 pages
Research Article

Compensatory Structural Adaptive Modifications of Vagina in Response to Functional Demand in Goat

1Anatomy and Histology Department, Veterinary Medicine College, Baghdad University, Baghdad 28601, Iraq
2Surgery and Obstetrics Department, Veterinary Medicine College, Baghdad University, Baghdad 28601, Iraq

Received 14 October 2013; Accepted 20 January 2014; Published 23 February 2014

Academic Editor: Sumanta Nandi

Copyright © 2014 Amer M. Hussin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Vaginal biopsies and smears were collected from ten adult local healthy goats. Routine histological methods were carried out on vaginal biopsies and then stained with PAS stain. The smears were stained with Methylene blue. All samples were inspected under light microscope. The present study found that many constituents of the wall of the vagina, which have an important functional role, were absent; among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa, and lymphatic nodules. On the other hand, vagina showed special compensatory histological mechanisms, namely, the deep epithelial folds, the well-developed germinated stratum basale, the apparent basement membrane, and the profuse defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells. The general stains of this study could not recognize dendritic cells although they play an important functional role. Moreover, the herein study declared also that the vaginal smears showing many adaptive cellular mechanisms among these were, the keratinization, the process of sheet formation that lines the vaginal lumen, the process of metachromasia which is related to the cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, and finally the presence of endogenous microorganisms. It was concluded that all the above cellular compensatory adaptive mechanisms may compensate the lacking vaginal constituents and act to raise the immune response of the vagina.