About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Veterinary Medicine International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 789816, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/789816
Research Article

Compensatory Structural Adaptive Modifications of Vagina in Response to Functional Demand in Goat

1Anatomy and Histology Department, Veterinary Medicine College, Baghdad University, Baghdad 28601, Iraq
2Surgery and Obstetrics Department, Veterinary Medicine College, Baghdad University, Baghdad 28601, Iraq

Received 14 October 2013; Accepted 20 January 2014; Published 23 February 2014

Academic Editor: Sumanta Nandi

Copyright © 2014 Amer M. Hussin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. O. O. Leigh, A. K. Raheem, and J. A. O. Olugbuyiro, “Improving the reproductive efficiency of the goat: vaginal cytology and vulvar biometry as predictors of synchronized estrus/breeding time in west African dwarf goat,” International Journal of Morphology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 923–928, 2010. View at Scopus
  2. S. I. Ola, W. A. Sanni, and G. Egbunike, “Exfoliative vaginal cytology during the oestrous cycle of West African dwarf goats,” Reproduction Nutrition Development, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. R. Campbell, M. D. Kenealy, and K. L. Campbell, Animal Sciences, McGraw-Hill, Toronto, Canada, 4th edition, 2003.
  4. R. W. Dudek, High Yield Histology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 3rd edition, 2004.
  5. M. B. Padua, Endometrial adenogenesis and uterine immune regulation in sheep [M.S. thesis], Graduate School, University of Florida, 2004.
  6. D. E. Noakes, T. J. Parkinson, and G. C. W. England, Arthur's Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, Elsevier, Beijing, China, 8th edition, 2008.
  7. S. Matsuura, N. Koyama, M. Kashimata, H. Hayashi, and A. Kikuta, “Temporary accumulation of glycogen in the epithelial cells of the developing mouse submandibular gland,” Anatomical Science International, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 164–174, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. M. Hussin, “The vaginal exfoliative cytology of Awassi ewes during post-parturient periods,” Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 130–137, 2006.
  9. N. W. Zaid, “Effect of prostaglandins f2α on the evaluation of vaginal epithelial cells of Iraqi ewes during puerperium,” Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 138–144, 2006.
  10. R. C. Seals, M. C. Wulster-Radcliffe, and G. S. Lewis, “Uterine response to infectious bacteria in estrous cyclic ewes,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 269–278, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Hafez and E. S. E. Hafez, Reproduction in Farm Animals, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 7th edition, 2000.
  12. F. W. Bazer, R. C. Burghardt, G. A. Johnson, T. E. Spencer, and G. Wu, “Interferons and progesterone for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy: interactions among novel cell signaling pathways,” Reproductive Biology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 179–211, 2008. View at Scopus
  13. L. P. Gartner and J. L. Hiatt, Color Atlas of Histology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 4th edition, 2006.
  14. S. K. Suvarna, C. Layton, and J. D. Bancroft, Bancroft's Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques, Elsevier, Churchill Livingstone, Beijing, China, 7th edition, 2013.
  15. H. F. Neama, Evaluation of reproductive performance of Awassi ewe lambs by using some hormonal programs [M.S. thesis], Agriculture College, University of Baghdad, 2000.
  16. K. E. Vagnoni, S. B. Abbruzzese, N. D. Christiansen, and G. R. Holyoak, “The influence of the phase of the estrous cycle on sheep endometrial tissue response to lipopolysaccharide,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 463–469, 2001. View at Scopus
  17. A. M. Hussin and N. W. Zaid, “Histological study of the constituents that related to the immune defensive mechanism in the vagina of ewes,” Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 88–99, 2011.
  18. L. C. Junqueira and J. Carneiro, Basic Histology Text Atlas, A Lange Medical Book, 11th edition, 2009.
  19. D. A. Samuelson, Veterinary Histology, Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2007.
  20. Internet, “Female reproductive system,” 2012, http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine/Physiology/Reproductive/Female.htm.
  21. J. Veijola, T. Pihlajaniemi, and K. I. Kivirikko, “Co-expression of the α subunit of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase with BiP polypeptide in insect cells leads to the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes: soluble α-subunit-BiP complexes have no prolyl 4-hydroxylase activity,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 315, no. 2, pp. 613–618, 1996. View at Scopus
  22. Internet, “What is the function of the muscularis mucosa?” 2012, http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_function_of_the_muscularis_mucosa.
  23. M. Budatha, S. Roshanravan, Q. Zheng et al., “Extracellular matrix proteases contribute to progression of pelvic organ prolapse in mice and humans,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 2048–2059, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. L. Mescher, Junqueira's Basic Histology, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 12th edition, 2010.
  25. R. N. Bajpai, Human Histology, Jay Pee Brothers, 3rd edition, 1985.
  26. W. M. Copenhaver, R. P. Bunge, and M. B. Bunge, Bailey's Textbook of Histology, Williams Company, 16th edition, 1971.
  27. A. M. Hussin, “The theory of neutrophilic cellular penetration,” Al-Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 58–68, 2009.
  28. M. R. Ahmadi and S. Nazifi, “Evaluation of reproductive status with cervical and uterine cytology in fat-tailed sheep,” Comparative Clinical Pathology, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 161–164, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Y. Liu, S. K. Shaw, S. Ma, L. Yang, F. W. Luscinskas, and C. A. Parkos, “Regulation of leukocyte transmigration: cell surface interactions and signaling events,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 7–13, 2004. View at Scopus
  30. N. M. Markandeya and V. M. Bhutar, Considerations of Intra-Uterine Therapy in Gynaeco-Clinical Practice, Government Photozinco Press, Pune, India, 2006.
  31. W. F. Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology, A Lange Medical Book, 6th edition, 2005.
  32. A. M. Hussin, “The theory of keratinization,” Kufa Journal for Veterinary Medical Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 219–229, 2010.
  33. E. J. Nouwen, W. A. Verstrepen, N. Buyssens, M. Q. Zhu, and M. E. de Broe, “Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and phenotypic alterations in the distal nephron after acute proximal tubular injury in the rat,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 479–493, 1994. View at Scopus
  34. A. M. Hussin, “The histological effects of vitamin A supplement on the vaginal epithelial cells during estrus and luteal phases in Awassi sheep,” AL-Qadisiya Journal of Veterinary Medicine Science, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 69–77, 2010.
  35. N. W. Zaid, “The effect of vitamin A supplement on the vaginal epithelium during pregnancy months and post parturition,” Al-Anbar Journal of Veterinary Sciences, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 99–108, 2010.
  36. N. W. Zaid, “Metachromasia in the exfoliated vaginal cells of Awassi ewes,” Kufa Journal for Veterinary Medical Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2011.
  37. B. Larsen, A. J. Markovetz, and R. P. Galask, “Relationship of vaginal cytology to alterations of the vaginal microflora of rats during the estrous cycle,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 556–562, 1977. View at Scopus