Veterinary Medicine International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training Wed, 16 Apr 2014 12:38:36 +0000 Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2 g/dL, IgG 15.9 g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4 g/dL, IgG 18.3 g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9 g/dL, IgG 24.6 g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. Deniece R. Williams, Patrick Pithua, Angel Garcia, John Champagne, Deborah M. Haines, and Sharif S. Aly Copyright © 2014 Deniece R. Williams et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:56:03 +0000 Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples () yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended. Sydney Malama, Tone Bjordal Johansen, John Bwalya Muma, Musso Munyeme, Grace Mbulo, Adrian Muwonge, Berit Djønne, and Jacques Godfroid Copyright © 2014 Sydney Malama et al. All rights reserved. Validation of a Real Time PCR for Classical Swine Fever Diagnosis Wed, 09 Apr 2014 09:26:42 +0000 The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF), caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF. Natanael Lamas Dias, Antônio Augusto Fonseca Júnior, Anapolino Macedo Oliveira, Érica Bravo Sales, Bruna Rios Coelho Alves, Fernanda Alves Dorella, and Marcelo Fernandes Camargos Copyright © 2014 Natanael Lamas Dias et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens Mon, 07 Apr 2014 12:13:41 +0000 Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46%) and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract. Arvind Kumar Sharma, Amit Kumar, Sharad Kumar Yadav, and Anu Rahal Copyright © 2014 Arvind Kumar Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Clinico Hemato Biochemical Findings, Clinical Management, and Production Performance of Bovines with Late Pregnancy Indigestion (Type IV Vagal Indigestion) Mon, 07 Apr 2014 11:13:53 +0000 This prospective study was conducted on 15 animals (eight buffaloes and seven cows), diagnosed with late pregnancy indigestion. Ten buffaloes and 10 cows served as the control group. The animals were in advanced pregnancy and had partial or complete anorexia, reduced water intake, loss of defecation or scanty faecal output, and mild to moderate dehydration. Heart and respiration rates were increased and rumen motility was reduced. Five animals had persistent tympany and moderate distension of left abdomen, and two animals each had bilateral abdominal distension and papple shaped abdomen. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher and lower than the control values. Total bilirubin, AST, total protein, globulin, BUN, glucose, and lactate were significantly higher, and chloride and calcium were significantly lower than the control values. Levels of ALP, GGT, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, fibrinogen, fibrinogen ratio, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium did not differ significantly from the control values. Rumen chloride concentration was higher than the reference range. Majority of animals were managed symptomatically until parturition. There was no effect on fetal survival or milk yield in current and subsequent lactation. So, late pregnancy indigestion causes clinical and hemato biochemical alterations which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. Syed Ashaq Hussain, Sanjeev Kumar Uppal, Naresh Kumar Sood, and Shashi Kant Mahajan Copyright © 2014 Syed Ashaq Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Electrophoretic Analysis of Indian Isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis by SDS-PAGE and Immunoblotting Thu, 03 Apr 2014 14:46:24 +0000 Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis both are responsible for respiratory conditions in sheep and goats. M. agalactiae is a major pathogen of sheep and goats and accounts for almost 90% of outbreaks of contagious agalactia syndrome in goats and almost 100% in sheep. On the basis of clinical signs and cultural, morphological, and biochemical characterization it is almost impossible to differentiate between both the species. Moreover, due to presence of genomic and proteomic similarity most of the time routine diagnostic tests fail to differentiate between them. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the protein profile of isolates of both the species by SDS-PAGE and to find out the cross-reacting as well as differentiating immunogenic proteins by Immunoblotting, which can be of immunoprophylactic as well as diagnostic values. The study revealed 6-7 major immunogenic cross-reactive proteins with the presence of two important non-cross-reacting species specific polypeptides particularly 25.50 and 24.54 kDa in M. agalactiae and M. bovis, respectively, that might be of diagnostic values. Amit Kumar, N. C. Srivastava, V. P. Singh, and Jai Sunder Copyright © 2014 Amit Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken Thu, 03 Apr 2014 14:22:30 +0000 The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Mossad Elsayed, Ashraf Elkomy, Mohamed Aboubakr, and Mohamed Morad Copyright © 2014 Mossad Elsayed et al. All rights reserved. Culture versus PCR for Salmonella Species Identification in Some Dairy Products and Dairy Handlers with Special Concern to Its Zoonotic Importance Thu, 03 Apr 2014 06:35:04 +0000 A total of 200 samples of milk and dairy products as well as 120 samples of dairy handlers were randomly collected from different dairy farms and supermarkets in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. The conventional cultural and serotyping methods for detection of Salmonella in dairy products were applied and the results were compared with those obtained by molecular screening assay using (ttr sequence). The obtained results revealed that 21% of milk and dairy products (42/200) were positive for Salmonella species using enrichment culture-based PCR method, while 12% of different dairy samples (24/200) were found to be positive for Salmonella species by using the conventional culture methods. Two stool specimens out of 40 apparently healthy dairy handlers were positive by the PCR method. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that 58.3% (14/24) from different dairy products were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium. We conclude that the enrichment culture-based PCR assay has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella species in dairy products and handlers. High incidence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the examined dairy samples highlights the important role played by milk and dairy products as a vehicle in disease prevalence. Great effort should be applied for reducing foodborne risk for consumers. Mayada M. Gwida and Maha A. M. AL-Ashmawy Copyright © 2014 Mayada M. Gwida and Maha A. M. AL-Ashmawy. All rights reserved. Assessing the Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Management in Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), through Indirect Surveillance of Mycobacterium bovis Infection Using Released Sentinel Pigs Wed, 02 Apr 2014 06:32:05 +0000 In New Zealand, wild pigs acquire Mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). We investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (TB) following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. Within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, TB prevalence and the incidence rate of M. bovis infection in released sentinel pigs were lower than in an adjacent area where possums had not been poisoned. Unexpectedly, TB did not decline to near zero levels among pigs in the poisoned area, a fact which reflected an unanticipated rapid increase in the apparent abundance of possums. Monitoring infection levels among resident wild pigs confirmed that TB prevalence, while reduced due to possum control, persisted in the poisoned area at >20% among pigs born 2-3 years after poisoning, while remaining >60% among resident wild pigs in the nonpoisoned area. When fitted with radio-tracking devices, purpose-released pigs provided precise spatial TB surveillance information and facilitated effective killing of wild pigs when employed as “Judas” animals to help locate residents. Sentinel pigs offer value for monitoring disease trends in New Zealand, as TB levels in possums decline nationally due to large-scale possum control. G. Nugent, I. J. Yockney, E. J. Whitford, and M. L. Cross Copyright © 2014 G. Nugent et al. All rights reserved. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum) Wed, 26 Mar 2014 08:48:01 +0000 The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults and juveniles ) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were  g,  cm and  g,  cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. A. Danmaigoro, J. E. Onu, M. L. Sonfada, M. A. Umaru, S. A. Hena, and A. Mahmuda Copyright © 2014 A. Danmaigoro et al. All rights reserved. Establishment, Culture, and Characterization of Guinea Pig Fetal Fibroblast Cell Tue, 25 Mar 2014 11:40:42 +0000 Establishment of Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cells and their biological evaluation before and after cryopreservation were the main purposes of this study. After determination of the proper age of pregnancy by ultrasonography, 30 days old fetuses of Guinea pigs were recovered. Their skins were cut into small pieces (1 mm2) and were cultured. When reaching 80–90% confluence, the cells were passaged. Cells of the second and eighth passages were cultured in 24-well plates ( cells/well) for 6 days and three wells per day were counted. The average cell counts at each time point were then plotted against time and the population doubling time (PDT) was determined. Then, vials of cells ( cells/mL) were cryopreserved for 1 month and after thawing, the cell viability was evaluated. The PDT of the second passage was about 23 h and for the eighth passage was about 30 h. The viability of the cultures was 95% in the second passage and 74.5% in the eighth passage. It was shown that the Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cell culture can be established using the adherent culture method while, after freezing, the viability indices of these cells were favorable. Davood Mehrabani, Reza Mahboobi, Mehdi Dianatpour, Shahrokh Zare, Amin Tamadon, and Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini Copyright © 2014 Davood Mehrabani et al. All rights reserved. Pathological Conditions Associated with the Male Reproductive Tract of the Sahel Bucks Mon, 24 Mar 2014 16:58:29 +0000 The study of pathological conditions of the male reproductive system is paramount to understanding reproductive inefficiency in the Sahel goat. In this study, 1048 Sahel bucks presented for slaughter at the Maiduguri metropolitan abattoir were evaluated for the presence of various pathological abnormalities of the reproductive system. A total incidence of 15.08% was recorded for various pathological conditions, with testicular, penile, and scrotal conditions having incidences of 7.82%, 4.80 and 2.50%, respectively. Bilateral testicular hypoplasia and atrophy and unilateral cryptorchidism accounted for incidences of 4.10%, 2.38%, and 1.24%, respectively, while paraphimosis and scrotal laceration had incidences of 1.72% and 1.05%, respectively. Age specific incidence of pathological conditions were not significant between bucks aged <1–1.5 and 2–2.5 years. However, bucks aged 3–3.5 year a had lower incidence of pathological conditions than other age groups. Histopathological evidence of inflammation, degeneration, and atrophy was observed in the testes, while inflammatory changes were observed in the prepuce. Yusuf Abba, Suleiman Simon, Halima Idris Gambo, Ikechukwu Onyebuchi Igbokwe, and Yusuf Iliyasu Copyright © 2014 Yusuf Abba et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle” Sun, 23 Mar 2014 06:42:08 +0000 Hisako Okura, Nils Toft, Nicola Pozzato, Annalucia Tondo, and Søren Saxmose Nielsen Copyright © 2014 Hisako Okura et al. All rights reserved. Environmental Attributes to Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants Thu, 20 Mar 2014 11:17:32 +0000 Respiratory diseases are the major disease crisis in small ruminants. A number of pathogenic microorganisms have been implicated in the development of respiratory disease but the importance of environmental factors in the initiation and progress of disease can never be overemphasized. They irritate the respiratory tree producing stress in the microenvironment causing a decline in the immune status of the small ruminants and thereby assisting bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections to break down the tissue defense barriers. Environmental pollutants cause acute or chronic reactions as they deposit on the alveolar surface which are characterized by inflammation or fibrosis and the formation of transitory or persistent tissue manifestation. Some of the effects of exposures may be immediate, whereas others may not be evident for many decades. Although the disease development can be portrayed as three sets of two-way communications (pathogen-environment, host-environment, and host-pathogen), the interactions are highly variable. Moreover, the environmental scenario is never static; new compounds are introduced daily making a precise evaluation of the disease burden almost impossible. The present review presents a detailed overview of these interactions and the ultimate effect on the respiratory health of sheep and goat. Anu Rahal, Abul Hasan Ahmad, Atul Prakash, Rajesh Mandil, and Aruna T. Kumar Copyright © 2014 Anu Rahal et al. All rights reserved. Breeding Services and the Factors Influencing Their Use on Smallholder Dairy Farms in Central Uganda Mon, 17 Mar 2014 12:28:19 +0000 Dairy cattle breeding is an important technology in the enhancement and promotion of dairy production in Uganda. The introduction of germplasm through AI is crucial to enhance the production potential of the local breeds. A study was conducted in six districts of Uganda in the central region using a questionnaire survey involving 450 randomly selected households to profile the dairy breeding services in use and investigate the factors that affect the success of dairy breeding focusing on AI. Adoption of the AI service was highly () dependent on ava ilability of extension services, record keeping practice (), and availability of milk markets (). On the other hand AI adoption was independent of formal education, age of farmer, labor availability, and feed/water availability (). Use or nonuse of AI did not significantly () influence the sex of the calf born. While preference for AI was marked, very few farmers actually used it. This implies that focus should be put on improved AI service delivery alongside improved extension services. Anthony Mugisha, Vincent Kayiizi, David Owiny, and John Mburu Copyright © 2014 Anthony Mugisha et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration” Sun, 16 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Mohamed Aboubakr and Ahmed Soliman Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Aboubakr and Ahmed Soliman. All rights reserved. Signalment and Blood Types in Cats Being Evaluated as Blood Donors at Two Italian University Blood Banks Sun, 16 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Data from potential feline blood donors presented at two university blood banks in Italy were recorded. Blood typing was performed using an immunochromatographic method. Over the three years of the study 357 cats representing 15 breeds, 45.3% female and 54.7% male, with a mean age of 3.8 years were evaluated. Of these 90.5% were blood type A, 5.6% type B, and 3.9% type AB. The majority of the cats (54.6%) were European DSH (92.3% were type A, 5.1% type B, and 2.6% type AB), and 21% were Maine Coon (MCO) cats (100% blood type A). The estimated frequencies of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion between DSH (donors and recipients), MCO (donor and recipients), DSH donors and MCO recipients, and MCO donors and DSH recipients were 4.8%, 0%, 0%, and 5.1% for major reactions and 7.2%, 0%, 7.7%, and 0% for minor transfusions reactions, respectively. In a population of blood donors that includes DSH and MCO the risk of transfusion reaction is between 5% and 8% if typing is not performed on donor and recipient blood. Blood typing should therefore be performed before transfusion to remove the risk of transfusion reactions due to blood type incompatibilities. Eva Spada, Arianna Miglio, Daniela Proverbio, Maria Teresa Antognoni, Giada Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Elisabetta Ferro, and Vittorio Mangili Copyright © 2014 Eva Spada et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Virucidal and Virustatic Properties of the Crude Extract of Cynodon dactylon against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Sun, 09 Mar 2014 08:01:55 +0000 The in vitro virustatic and virucidal tests of the crude extract of Cynodon dactylon against infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a cause of major devastating pig disease, were described. Crude extract of C. dactylon was prepared for cytotoxicity on tissue-culture cells that were used to measure virustatic and virucidal activities against PRRSV. Crude extract of C. dactylon at 0.78 mg/mL showed no cytotoxicity on the cell line, and at that concentration significantly inhibited replication of PRRSV as early as 24 hours post infection (hpi). C. dactylon also inactivated PRRSV as determined by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) compared to the control experiments. In summary, the present study may be among the earliest studies to describe virustatic and virucidal activities of C. dactylon crude extract against PRRSV in vitro. Extracts of C. dactylon may be useful for PRRSV control and prevention on pig farms. Kidsadagon Pringproa, Oapkun Khonghiran, Suchaya Kunanoppadol, Teerapong Potha, and Phongsakorn Chuammitri Copyright © 2014 Kidsadagon Pringproa et al. All rights reserved. Esophagojejunostomy Feeding Tube Placement in 5 Dogs with Pancreatitis and Anorexia Thu, 06 Mar 2014 14:06:03 +0000 Enteral feeding tube placement has been described in veterinary medicine for several years. Indications include oral, esophageal, gastrointestinal, pancreatic, hepatic, and neurologic diseases. In this paper, endoscopically assisted placement of an esophagojejunostomy (EJ) feeding tube in dogs with pancreatitis and prolonged anorexia is described. To the author’s knowledge there are no published reports of this procedure. Esophagojejunostomy feeding tubes provide an alternative to other forms of postgastric feeding tube placement (e.g., nasojejunal, gastrojejunostomy, and jejunostomy tubes) without the associated complications of patient discomfort, sneezing, epistaxis, and peritonitis. Tube occlusion, transient vomiting and loose stool were the most commonly reported complications. Forrest Cummings and Catherine A. Daley Copyright © 2014 Forrest Cummings and Catherine A. Daley. All rights reserved. Morphological Changes in the Bone Marrow of the Dogs with Visceral Leishmaniasis Wed, 05 Mar 2014 16:56:30 +0000 The aim of this study was to evaluate the most frequent lesions in the bone marrow of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Thirty-three dogs sacrificed at the Zoonosis Control Center of Araçatuba, a municipality endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), were used. The animals were classified as asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, and symptomatic groups. At the necropsy, bone marrow samples were collected from the femur, fixed, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The lesion intensity was classified as mild, moderate, or severe. The parasite load was determined using immunohistochemistry. The most important lesions consisted of multifocal to diffuse granulomas, megakaryocytic dysplasia, and medullary aplasia. There were no statistical differences between the three clinical groups regarding parasite load and lesion intensity. Asymptomatic dogs also presented high parasitism in the bone marrow as dogs with clinical signs of VL. It was concluded that, regardless of clinical group, the bone marrow is a site for multiplication of Leishmania chagasi. Possibly, the bone marrow dysplasia may arise from the presence of many parasitized and activated macrophages in this organ. Consequently, it affects the profile of hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and systemic circulation. Claudia Momo, Ana Paula Prudente Jacintho, Pamela Rodrigues Reina Moreira, Danísio Prado Munari, Gisele Fabrino Machado, and Rosemeri de Oliveira Vasconcelos Copyright © 2014 Claudia Momo et al. All rights reserved. Morphologic and Osteometric Analysis of the Skull of Markhoz Goat (Iranian Angora) Tue, 04 Mar 2014 12:02:19 +0000 This study provides some comprehensive osteometric and morphologic descriptions of the skull region of the Markhoz goat. Totally, 17 osteometric parameters of eight skulls of Markhoz goat were measured and expressed as mean ± SD. A skull length of , a cranial length of , a facial length of , a skull index of , a cranial index of , a facial index of and a foramen magnum index of were recorded. Morphologically frontal bone did not constitute the caudal extent of frontal surface; rather it was formed by the parietal bone. There were two supraorbital foramina in both sides. The prominent facial tuberosity lies dorsally to the 3rd cheek tooth. The infraorbital foramen was single on either side which was located directly dorsally to the junction of the first and second upper premolar. The orbits were round and complete and located on a frontolateral oblique plane. The basilar part of the occipital bone was surrounded by two pairs of muscular tubercles with similar size. The temporal line was continuous of the temporal crest and ran over the parietal bone. In conclusion, the morphologic and osteometric data of Markhoz goat are comparable to other ruminants. Nader Goodarzi Copyright © 2014 Nader Goodarzi. All rights reserved. Blastomyces dermatitidis: Antibody Detection in Sera from Dogs with Blastomycosis with Yeast Lysate Antigens Produced from Human and Dog Isolates Thu, 27 Feb 2014 09:03:26 +0000 Dogs are common hosts to the fungal organism Blastomyces dermatitidis, which causes the systemic disease blastomycosis. The goal of our study was to compare the reactivity of two B. dermatitidis yeast lysate antigens prepared from dog isolates (ERC-2, Wisconsin; T-58, Tennessee) and two lysate antigens prepared from human isolates (B5931 and B5896, Minnesota) against 48 serum specimens from dogs with confirmed blastomycosis using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Secondarily, we used three different ELISA substrates (Ultra TMB: A, SureBlue: B, and SureBlue Reserve: C) to compare the effectiveness of each substrate. Mean absorbance values ranged from 0.446 (B) to 0.651 (C) for the B5931 antigen and from 0.393 (B) to 0.540 (C) for the ERC-2 antigen in Trial 1. In Trial 2, the absorbance values ranged from 0.628 (B) to 0.909 (A) for the B5896 antigen and from 0.828 (B) to 1.375 (C) for the T-58 antigen. In Trial 1, the lysate antigen prepared from the human isolate B5931 exhibited the highest absorbance value and in Trial 2 the lysate prepared from the dog isolate T-58 was the most reactive. The overall results thus indicated that the T-58 lysate was the optimal reagent when used to detect antibody with the Sure-Blue Reserve substrate. Our laboratory is continuing to study B. dermatitidis antigen and substrate combinations for the reliable immunodiagnosis of blastomycosis in humans and animals. Katie Mondada, Jessie Fullmer, Eric Hungerford, Katrina Novack, Kristen Vickers, and Gene Scalarone Copyright © 2014 Katie Mondada et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Evaluation of Interrenal Gland and Kidney Macrophages Aggregates in Normal Healthy Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and after Bacterial Challenge with Yersinia ruckeri Mon, 24 Feb 2014 07:38:07 +0000 Macrophage aggregates (MA) occur in various organs of fish as discrete aggregations of pigmented macrophages. The study presented herein investigates the quantitative modifications from normal anatomical condition, of interrenal gland (IG) and kidney MA in six treatment groups of adult rainbow trout submitted to either specific or aspecific immune stimulation and subsequently challenged with Yersinia ruckeri. Routinely stained tissue sections from both IG and kidney were analysed. The percentage of tissues occupied by MA and the MA density (number/mm2) were calculated on at least 10 randomly selected nonoverlapping fields taken from each tissue section. MA morphometric findings from challenged fish were compared to those from a control group. Results showed that fish from control group displayed a statistically significant () higher percentage of tissue occupied by MA and MA density. Among different treatment groups, anti-Yersinia ruckeri immunized fish, which did not show clinical signs of disease after bacterial challenge, displayed higher values of morphometric parameters compared with symptomatic fish from other groups. Our study demonstrates that the quantification of the area occupied by MA might be an efficient parameter to evaluate the general condition of a salmonid population since it positively correlates with the health status and negatively with stress factor such as the acute bacterial infection. Michela Gregori, Vincenzo Miragliotta, Roberto Leotta, Stefano Cecchini, Marino Prearo, and Francesca Abramo Copyright © 2014 Michela Gregori et al. All rights reserved. Compensatory Structural Adaptive Modifications of Vagina in Response to Functional Demand in Goat Sun, 23 Feb 2014 15:33:24 +0000 Vaginal biopsies and smears were collected from ten adult local healthy goats. Routine histological methods were carried out on vaginal biopsies and then stained with PAS stain. The smears were stained with Methylene blue. All samples were inspected under light microscope. The present study found that many constituents of the wall of the vagina, which have an important functional role, were absent; among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa, and lymphatic nodules. On the other hand, vagina showed special compensatory histological mechanisms, namely, the deep epithelial folds, the well-developed germinated stratum basale, the apparent basement membrane, and the profuse defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells. The general stains of this study could not recognize dendritic cells although they play an important functional role. Moreover, the herein study declared also that the vaginal smears showing many adaptive cellular mechanisms among these were, the keratinization, the process of sheet formation that lines the vaginal lumen, the process of metachromasia which is related to the cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, and finally the presence of endogenous microorganisms. It was concluded that all the above cellular compensatory adaptive mechanisms may compensate the lacking vaginal constituents and act to raise the immune response of the vagina. Amer M. Hussin, Nazih W. Zaid, and S. O. Hussain Copyright © 2014 Amer M. Hussin et al. All rights reserved. The Relevance of CD117-Immunocytochemistry Staining Patterns to Mutational Exon-11 in c-kit Detected by PCR from Fine-Needle Aspirated Canine Mast Cell Tumor Cells Tue, 18 Feb 2014 06:47:41 +0000 Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) are the lethal skin tumors. The biological behavior of the MCT cells is quite varied and unpredictable. Almost MCT dogs usually require a rapid diagnosis and therapy. However, MCT diagnosis and prognosis are still dependent on histopathology which is rather inconvenient, time-consuming, painful, and harmful for some cases. Indeed, MCT can be easily accessible using fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In this study, our biopsy specimens were classified as low- and high-grade MCT based on the novel 2-tier histopathologic grading system. We have demonstrated the usage of fine-needle aspirated MCT cells (FNA-MCT cells) from these specimens as a primary cell source to study the distribution of CD117-immunocytochemistry (CD117-ICC) staining patterns and the frequency of internal tandem duplication- (ITD-) mutant exon-11 of c-kit. The result has substantially shown that there were three staining patterns identified in the cells. Only paranuclear pattern was significantly increased in the cells from high-grade MCT. Altogether, the ITD-mutant exon-11 was also detectable only in these cells. Therefore, the result has supported our hypothesis that there was an increased opportunity to observe a higher CD117-ICC staining pattern and exon-11 mutation in high-grade MCT; even these two parameters may not precisely indicate a histopathological grade. A. Sailasuta, D. Ketpun, P. Piyaviriyakul, S. Theerawatanasirikul, P. Theewasutrakul, and A. Rungsipipat Copyright © 2014 A. Sailasuta et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Staphylococcal Ocular Infections of Food Producing Animals in Nsukka Southeast, Nigeria Wed, 12 Feb 2014 08:40:46 +0000 Staphylococcal ocular infections of food animals have been somewhat under diagnosed probably due to the ubiquitous nature of staphylococcal organisms. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of staphylococcal ocular infections of food producing animals in Nsukka Southeast, Nigeria, and to determine the antibiogram of the isolated staphylococci. A total of 5,635 food producing animals were externally examined for signs of clinical ocular conditions. Animals that showed clinical eye lesions were further examined using pen light to assess the entire globe and the pupillary reflex. Blindness was assessed using menace blink reflex, palpebral reflex and obstacle methods. Isolation and identification of staphylococcal isolates from ocular swabs were done by standard methods. Antibiogram of the isolates was determined by disc diffusion method. Sixty-three (1.1%) of the examined animals showed signs of ocular condition. Thirty-one (49.2%) of the cultured swabs yielded Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Isolation rates from different animal species were caprine (60%), ovine (33.3%), bovine (12.5%), and porcine (0%). Resistance of the isolates was 100% to ampicillin/cloxacillin, 90% to tetracycline, 80% to streptomycin, 71% to chloramphenicol, 20% to erythromycin, 16% to gentamicin, and 0% to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. Twenty-five (81%) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. This study has shown that antibiotic-resistant staphylococci are associated with a sizeable percentage of ocular infections of food producing animals and should be considered during diagnosis and treatment. Sunday Ositadinma Udegbunam, Rita Ijeoma Udegbunam, and Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu Copyright © 2014 Sunday Ositadinma Udegbunam et al. All rights reserved. Clinical, Hematologic, and Molecular Findings in Naturally Occurring Babesia canis vogeli in Egyptian Dogs Tue, 11 Feb 2014 13:25:18 +0000 Background. Canine babesiosis is a clinically important hemoprotozoan parasite affecting dogs. The goal of this present study was to determine the clinical symptoms and to establish its hematological and microscopic detection and compare it with the PCR findings attained from dogs infected with Babesia canis vogeli. Methodology/Principal Findings. 13-PCR confirmed Babesia-infected dogs were examined; seminested PCR was used to discover the precise type of Babesia and Babesia canis vogeli was the only subspecies detected. The most consistent clinical signs were elevated rectal temperature and a pale mucous membrane. Thrombocytopenia, monocytosis, and lymphocytosis, along with a significant reduction in red cell parameters, were the most commonly recorded hematologic alterations. Microscopic examination revealed the presence of typical large merozoites and trophozoites of B. canis in the ratio 76.92%. Conclusions/Significance. The presumptive diagnosis of canine babesiosis should be based on a fever and anemia, while thrombocytopenia is considered the hallmark of the disease; microscopic examination may not be very revealing in the detection at low parasitemia, but it remains the most rapid confirmatory method. Seminested PCR turned out to be a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosis; during the process of differentiation between Babesia subspecies, only B. canis subsp. vogeli was detected. N. Y. Salem and H. S. Farag Copyright © 2014 N. Y. Salem and H. S. Farag. All rights reserved. Genotypes, Antibiotic Resistance, and ST-8 Genetic Clone in Campylobacter Isolates from Sheep and Goats in Grenada Tue, 11 Feb 2014 12:49:21 +0000 Rectal swabs from 155 sheep and 252 goats from Grenada were evaluated to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance, and multilocus sequence types. Fifteen Campylobacter isolates were obtained (14 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli). The prevalence (3.7%) did not differ significantly between sheep (4.5%) and goats (3.2%). Among the seven antimicrobials tested, resistance was only detected for tetracycline (30.8%) and metronidazole (38.5%). Campylobacter isolates showed no significant difference between sheep and goats for type of antimicrobial resistance or percent of resistant isolates. Twelve of the isolates were successfully genotyped consisting of four recognized clonal complexes and three novel sequence types. Importantly, one isolate from one goat was identified as the C. jejuni sequence type-8, a zoonotic and tetracycline-resistant clone reported to be a highly virulent clone associated with ovine abortion in the USA. Although most samples were from comingled sheep and goat production units, there were no shared sequence types between these two host species. None of the sequence types identified in this study have previously been reported in poultry in Grenada, suggesting sheep- and goat-specific Campylobacter clones in Grenada. This is the first report of genotyping of Campylobacter isolates from sheep and goats in the Eastern Caribbean. Diana M. Stone, Yogesh Chander, Aschalew Z. Bekele, Sagar M. Goyal, Harry Hariharan, Keshaw Tiwari, Alfred Chikweto, and Ravindra Sharma Copyright © 2014 Diana M. Stone et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Selenium and T3 in Selenium Supplemented and Nonsupplemented Ewes and Their Lambs Mon, 10 Feb 2014 07:34:47 +0000 Twenty pregnant ewes were selected and classified into two groups. The first group received subcutaneous selenium supplementation (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg BW) at the 8th and 5th weeks before birth and 1st week after birth while the other was control group without selenium injection. Maternal plasma and serum samples were collected weekly from the 8th week before birth until the 8th week after birth and milk samples were taken from ewes weekly, while plasma and serum samples were collected at 48 hours, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th, and 8th weeks after birth from the newborn lambs. Results demonstrated significant positive relationship between maternal plasma selenium and serum T3 in supplemented and control ewes ( to 0.72, ). There was significant () increase in T3 in supplemented ewes and their lambs until the 8th week after birth. There was positive relationship between milk, selenium concentration, and serum T3 in the newborn lambs of the supplemented group (, ), while the relationship was negative in the control one (, ). Muscular and thyroid pathological changes were independent of selenium supplementation. Selenium supplementation was important for maintaining T3 in ewes and newborn lambs until the 8th week after birth. Abd Elghany Hefnawy, Seham Youssef, P. Villalobos Aguilera, C. Valverde Rodríguez, and J. L. Tórtora Pérez Copyright © 2014 Abd Elghany Hefnawy et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle Thu, 06 Feb 2014 13:39:32 +0000 This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim’Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes. Nezar Adili, Mohamed Melizi, Hadj Belabbas, and Abdelhamid Achouri Copyright © 2014 Nezar Adili et al. All rights reserved.