Veterinary Medicine International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Inhibition of Pasteurella multocida Adhesion to Rabbit Respiratory Epithelium Using Lectins Tue, 24 Feb 2015 10:37:58 +0000 This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a panel of lectins to inhibit the ability of Pasteurella multocida to adhere to and affect the rabbit respiratory epithelium. Nasal septa from rabbit fetuses were cultured with various lectins before the addition of P. multocida. The percentage of bacteria adhering to the epithelium was evaluated semiquantitatively by indirect immunoperoxidase (IIP) staining. The goblet cells (GCs) were counted in semithin sections stained with toluidine blue and served as the main morphological criterion to evaluate the inhibitory effect of the lectins. The lectins PNA, WGA, RCA120, and DBA significantly inhibited the adhesion of P. multocida to the ciliated epithelium and prevented the pathogen-induced increase in the number of GCs compared with those of positive control tissues. In addition, VVA, SJA, UEA I, DSL, SBA, and ECL significantly inhibited the increase in GCs compared with that of the control tissues. The results suggest that less aggressive therapeutic strategies, such as treatment with lectins, may represent alternative approaches to control bacterial respiratory infections. Magda Patricia Carrillo, Nhora María Martinez, María del Pilar Patiño, and Carlos Arturo Iregui Copyright © 2015 Magda Patricia Carrillo et al. All rights reserved. Kennel Disinfectants for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp. Wed, 11 Feb 2015 09:33:15 +0000 The antifungal efficacy of commonly used kennel disinfectants for large surfaces was tested using naturally infective material from untreated animals (M. canis and Trichophyton sp.) soaked and macerated but unfiltered leaving visible fluorescing hairs and/or scales in the test inoculum to create a robust challenge. Disinfectants included sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 and 1 : 100), enilconazole (1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), potassium peroxymonosulfate (1% and 2%), and calcium hypochlorite “dry bleach.” Disinfectants were tested at a 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilution of test inoculum to disinfectant with a 10 min contact time. Good efficacy was defined as a disinfectant resulting in no growth. Control plates grew >300 colonies of each pathogen per plate. Enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite (all dilutions), accelerated hydrogen peroxide, and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate (but not 1%) inhibited all growth of both pathogens at 1 : 10, 1 : 5, and 1 : 1 dilutions. Calcium hypochlorite showed no antifungal efficacy (>300 colonies per plate). Enilconazole (1 : 100), sodium hypochlorite (1 : 32 or 1 : 100), accelerated hydrogen peroxide (1 : 16), and 2% potassium peroxymonosulfate are recommended for decontamination of kennels exposed to dermatophyte pathogens. Karen A. Moriello Copyright © 2015 Karen A. Moriello. All rights reserved. Elephant (Elephas maximus) Health and Management in Asia: Variations in Veterinary Perspectives Mon, 19 Jan 2015 09:16:06 +0000 There is a need to identify strategic investments in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) health that will yield maximal benefits for overall elephant health and conservation. As an exploratory first step, a survey was administered to veterinarians from Asian elephant range countries at a workshop and via email to help prioritize health-related concerns that will mostly benefit elephants. Responses were received from 45 veterinarians from eight countries that had a range of experience with captive and wild elephants. The occurrence of medical conditions and responses to treatment varied among responses. However, injuries, parasitism, and gastrointestinal disease were reported as the most common syndromes responsible for elephant morbidity, whereas injury and infectious disease not due to parasitism were the most commonly reported sources of elephant mortality. Substandard nutrition, water quality and quantity deficiencies, and inadequate or absent shelter were among the factors listed as barriers to optimal elephant health. While this survey’s results do not support definitive conclusions, they can be used to identify where and how subsequent investigations should be directed. Rigorous assessment of the relative costs and benefits of available options is required to ensure that investments in individual and population health yield the maximal benefits for elephants. David Miller, Bradford Jackson, Heidi S. Riddle, Christopher Stremme, Dennis Schmitt, and Thaddeus Miller Copyright © 2015 David Miller et al. All rights reserved. Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants Tue, 30 Dec 2014 09:22:15 +0000 Amit Kumar, Suresh K. Tikoo, Praveen Malik, and Aruna T. Kumar Copyright © 2014 Amit Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran Sun, 07 Dec 2014 08:52:21 +0000 Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%), Erythromycin (71.70%), Oxytetracycline (43.40%), Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%), Enrofloxacin (37.74%), Florfenicol (35.85%), Chlortetracycline (33.96%), Doxycycline (16.98%), Difloxacin (32.08%), Danofloxacin (28.30%), Chloramphenicol (20.75%), Ciprofloxacin (7.55%), and Gentamicin (5.66%). This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances. Reza Talebiyan, Mehdi Kheradmand, Faham Khamesipour, and Mohammad Rabiee-Faradonbeh Copyright © 2014 Reza Talebiyan et al. All rights reserved. Temporal Bacteriostatic Effect and Growth Factor Loss in Equine Platelet Components and Plasma Cultured with Methicillin-Sensitive and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Comparative In Vitro Study Mon, 24 Nov 2014 12:32:29 +0000 The aims were (1) to evaluate the bacteriostatic effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich gel (PRG), leukocyte-poor plasma (LPP), leukocyte-poor gel (LPG), plasma, and heat-inactivated plasma (IP) on both methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over a period of 24 h; (2) to determine and to compare the concentrations and degradation over time of platelet factor 4 (PF-4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), and platelet-derived growth factor isoform BB (PDGF-BB); and (3) to identify any correlations between MSSA and MRSA growth and either the cellular, PF-4, TGF-β1, or PDGF-BB concentrations in the blood components. PRP and its byproducts from 18 horses were obtained by the tube method. All blood components were cultured with either MSSA or MRSA. Bacterial growth, PF-4, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB were determined at 6 h and 24 h. At six hours, bacterial growth was significantly inhibited by all blood components, with the exception of IP. MSSA was more sensitive to the treatments than MRSA. At 24 hours, bacterial growth was significantly higher in IP. MRSA bacterial growth was significantly higher in PRP, LPP, and plasma when compared to MSSA. Growth factor concentrations were not significantly affected by bacteria. Catalina López, María E. Álvarez, and Jorge U. Carmona Copyright © 2014 Catalina López et al. All rights reserved. Virulence Genes Content and Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli from Broiler Chickens Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A total of 121 E. coli strains were isolated from broiler chickens (96 extraintestinal pathogenic (ExPEC) strains from diseased broiler chickens and 25 avian fecal E. coli (AFEC) from healthy ones). Ten of the isolates (6 from diseased chickens and 4 from healthy birds) were serogrouped and 25 were examined for 4 virulence markers (tsh, papC, colV, and iss genes) as well as for their antimicrobial resistance. Five strains were nontypable and the rest were serotyped as follows: O86:K61 (2/5), O78:K80 (1/5), and O128:K67 (1/5) were recovered from diseased chickens, while O111:K58 strain (1/4) was isolated from healthy ones. The iss gene was found in 72.2% of the examined ExPEC strains in contrast to zero percentages (0%) in the AFEC strains, which may serve as a good marker for distinguishing APEC and its knocking out may help in creation of candidate vaccine that may prove sucess in elimination of infections in broiler chickens. Antimicrobial resistance patterns revealed a complete resistance to gentamicin, pefloxacin, amoxicillin, and enrofloxacin among examined strains followed by varying degrees of resistance for the rest of tested agents. The highest resistance was recorded against norfloxacin, in 24 isolates (96%), in contrast to the lowest resistance was recorded against colistin sulphate, in 14 strains (56%). These findings suggest the need for the prudent use of antimicrobials with broiler chickens and act as a warrant for the possibility of avian sources to transmit these resistant isolates to humans. Moemen A. Mohamed, Mostafa A. Shehata, and Elshimaa Rafeek Copyright © 2014 Moemen A. Mohamed et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Detection, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Identification of Transcription Motifs in Feline Leukemia Virus from Naturally Infected Cats in Malaysia Mon, 17 Nov 2014 06:34:40 +0000 A nested PCR assay was used to determine the viral RNA and proviral DNA status of naturally infected cats. Selected samples that were FeLV-positive by PCR were subjected to sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and motifs search. Of the 39 samples that were positive for FeLV p27 antigen, 87.2% (34/39) were confirmed positive with nested PCR. FeLV proviral DNA was detected in 38 (97.3%) of p27-antigen negative samples. Malaysian FeLV isolates are found to be highly similar with a homology of 91% to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Malaysian FeLV isolates divided into two clusters, with a majority (86.2%) sharing similarity with FeLV-K01803 and fewer isolates (13.8%) with FeLV-GM1 strain. Different enhancer motifs including NF-GMa, Krox-20/WT1I-del2, BAF1, AP-2, TBP, TFIIF-beta, TRF, and TFIID are found to occur either in single, duplicate, triplicate, or sets of 5 in different positions within the U3-LTR-gag region. The present result confirms the occurrence of FeLV viral RNA and provirus DNA in naturally infected cats. Malaysian FeLV isolates are highly similar, and a majority of them are closely related to a UK isolate. This study provides the first molecular based information on FeLV in Malaysia. Additionally, different enhancer motifs likely associated with FeLV related pathogenesis have been identified. Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Latiffah Hassan, and Zunita Zakaria Copyright © 2014 Faruku Bande et al. All rights reserved. Peritoneal Reactivity Evaluation in Horses Subjected to Experimental Small Colon Enterotomy and Treated with Subcutaneous Heparin Tue, 11 Nov 2014 07:03:06 +0000 Heparin is routinely administered in postoperative abdominal surgery aiming to prevent adhesions formation; however, there is no consensus indicating its effectiveness. This study evaluated the effect of heparin on peritoneal reactivity after abdominal surgery, through the association between peritoneal fluid features and ultrasonographic and laparoscopic examination. Ten adult horses were used: control group (CG) and treated group (TG). Both groups underwent laparotomy and small colon enterotomy. TG received subcutaneous heparin at 150 IU/kg every 12 hours for 5 days. The animals underwent ultrasonography and peritoneal fluid examination prior to enterotomy (M0) 12 hours (M1), 1 day (M2), 2 days (M3), 4 days (M4), 6 days (M5), 10 days (M6), and 14 days after enterotomy (M7) with laparoscopic examination being performed on the fifth postoperative day. Peritoneal inflammatory response was observed in both groups. The peritoneal fluid of TG animals showed higher echogenicity during heparin therapy. No inflammatory difference was observed between groups through peritoneal fluid features, except for the higher D-dimer concentration in CG. On laparoscopy, slightly diffuse peritoneal reactivity for both groups was observed, being higher for TG. Laparoscopy and ultrasonography association allowed detailed access to the abdominal cavity. Ultrasonography assessed the diffuse peritoneal inflammation, and laparoscopy allowed the detailed analysis of the segments. No gross beneficial reactions resulting from the use of heparin on peritoneal reactivity were observed; however, it was observed by D-dimer evaluation that the TG had less fibrin deposition, which is directly related to a lower rate of abdominal adhesions formation. Juliana de Moura Alonso, Karoline Alves Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia Miluzzi Yamada, Marcos Jun Watanabe, Ana Liz Garcia Alves, Celso Antonio Rodrigues, and Carlos Alberto Hussni Copyright © 2014 Juliana de Moura Alonso et al. All rights reserved. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs Thu, 06 Nov 2014 09:07:34 +0000 This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag) best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged) on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F), apparent elimination rate (ke/F), and Tlag; sex (female; male) on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed) on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV) in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs. Ana Paula Prados, Paula Schaiquevich, Verónica Kreil, Agustina Monfrinotti, Pamela Quaine, Lisa Tarragona, Ruben Hallu, and Marcela Rebuelto Copyright © 2014 Ana Paula Prados et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics of Progesterone, TNF-α, and a Metabolite of PGF2α in Blood Plasma of Beef Cows following Embryo Transfer Thu, 02 Oct 2014 07:27:01 +0000 Lactating beef cows previously synchronized for estrus (d 0) were assigned to four treatments to assess their effectiveness in increasing blood progesterone (P4) and its effects on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) after the transfer of embryos. At the time of transfer (d 7), cows received no treatment (control; ), a controlled internal drug releasing device (CIDR; ), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; ), or gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH; ). Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21 for analysis of P4 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Blood was collected (every 15 min for 2 h) in half the animals in each treatment group on d 14 and the remaining half on d 21 for analysis of prostaglandin F2α metabolite (PGFM). Retention rates were 56.2, 62.5, 46.7, and 13.3% for cows in the control, CIDR, hCG, and GnRH groups, respectively. Progesterone was greater () in cows receiving hCG compared to others on d 14. Progesterone in all treatment groups increased from d 7 to d 14 and declined () from d 14 to d 21. Contrary to pregnant cows, P4 and TNF-α declined from d 7 to d 21 in nonpregnant cows (). Although PGFM increased by d 21, there was no difference between pregnant and nonpregnant cows. M. C. Mason, J. Copeland, E. J. Cuadra, T. H. Elsasser, Y. Jung, and J. Larson Copyright © 2014 M. C. Mason et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacological Overview of Galactogogues Sun, 31 Aug 2014 10:51:12 +0000 Galactogogues are substances used to induce, maintain, and increase milk production, both in human clinical conditions (like noninfectious agalactias and hypogalactias) and in massification of production in the animal dairy industry. This paper aims to report the state of the art on the possible mechanisms of action, effectiveness, and side effects of galactogogues, including potential uses in veterinary and human medicine. The knowledge gaps in veterinary clinical practice use of galactogogues, especially in the standardization of the lactogenic dose in some pure drugs and herbal preparations, are reviewed. Felipe Penagos Tabares, Juliana V. Bedoya Jaramillo, and Zulma Tatiana Ruiz-Cortés Copyright © 2014 Felipe Penagos Tabares et al. All rights reserved. Challenges and Economic Implications in the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from the Zambian Experience Thu, 21 Aug 2014 11:10:20 +0000 Foot and mouth disease is one of the world’s most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway. Y. Sinkala, M. Simuunza, D. U. Pfeiffer, H. M. Munang’andu, M. Mulumba, C. J. Kasanga, J. B. Muma, and A. S. Mweene Copyright © 2014 Y. Sinkala et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Interepidemic Activity in Some Hotspot Areas of Kenya by Sentinel Animal Surveillance, 2009–2012 Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:59:04 +0000 Rift Valley fever virus causes an important zoonotic disease of humans and small ruminants in Eastern Africa and is spread primarily by a mosquito vector. In this region, it occurs as epizootics that typically occur at 5–15-year intervals associated with unusual rainfall events. It has hitherto been known that the virus is maintained between outbreaks in dormant eggs of the mosquito vector and this has formed the basis of understanding of the epidemiology and control strategies of the disease. We show here that seroconversion and sporadic acute disease do occur during the interepidemic periods (IEPs) in the absence of reported cases in livestock or humans. The finding indicates that previously undetected low-level virus transmission during the IEPs does occur and that epizootics may also be due to periodic expansion of mosquito vectors in the presence of both circulating virus and naïve animals. Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Absolomon Kihara, Abuu A. Oriko, Leonard Ateya Okutoyi, James Ogaa Wauna, David P. Tchouassi, Caroline C. Tigoi, Steve Kemp, Rosemary Sang, and Rees Murithi Mbabu Copyright © 2014 Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle Wed, 06 Aug 2014 10:25:29 +0000 The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra and Yassir Adam Shuaib Copyright © 2014 Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra and Yassir Adam Shuaib. All rights reserved. Fatty Acid Composition of the Muscle Lipids of Five Fish Species in Işıklı and Karacaören Dam Lake, Turkey Sun, 20 Jul 2014 14:25:50 +0000 Total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids in some fish species (Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake), Tinca tinca (Işıklı Dam Lake), Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Işıklı Dam Lake), Cyprinus carpio (Karacaören Dam Lake), and Carassius carassius (Karacaören Dam Lake)) was determined by gas chromatography. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake) were found higher than PUFA of other species. Palmitic acid was the highest saturated fatty acid (SFA) in Tinca tinca (24.64%). Oleic acid was the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs) in Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake) (19.25%). The most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in Scardinius erythrophthalmus was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (17.94%). Total ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the total ω6 fatty acids of Cyprinus carpio in both dam lakes. ω3/ω6 rates in Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake), Tinca tinca, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Cyprinus carpio (Karacaören), and Carassius carassius were 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Ozcan Baris Citil, Leyla Kalyoncu, and Oguzhan Kahraman Copyright © 2014 Ozcan Baris Citil et al. All rights reserved. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows Mon, 14 Jul 2014 08:18:30 +0000 The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF) crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3) and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle. Umar Nazir Zahid, Swaran Singh Randhawa, Syed Ashaq Hussain, Sarnarinder Singh Randhawa, Vishal Mahajan, and Kirti Dua Copyright © 2014 Umar Nazir Zahid et al. All rights reserved. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review Thu, 03 Jul 2014 08:27:13 +0000 Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. Amit Kumar, Anu Rahal, Sandip Chakraborty, Amit Kumar Verma, and Kuldeep Dhama Copyright © 2014 Amit Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants Sun, 15 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. Sandip Chakraborty, Amit Kumar, Ruchi Tiwari, Anu Rahal, Yash Malik, Kuldeep Dhama, Amar Pal, and Minakshi Prasad Copyright © 2014 Sandip Chakraborty et al. All rights reserved. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran Wed, 11 Jun 2014 11:51:38 +0000 The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat) were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease. Reza Shafiei, Bahador Sarkari, Seyed Mahmuod Sadjjadi, Gholam Reza Mowlavi, and Abdolali Moshfe Copyright © 2014 Reza Shafiei et al. All rights reserved. Pamidronate Disodium for Palliative Therapy of Feline Bone-Invasive Tumors Mon, 09 Jun 2014 08:42:40 +0000 This study sought to quantify in vitro antiproliferative effects of pamidronate in feline cancer cells and assess feasibility of use of pamidronate in cats by assessing short-term toxicity and dosing schedule in cats with bone-invasive cancer. A retrospective pilot study included eight cats with bone invasive cancer treated with intravenous pamidronate. In vitro, pamidronate reduced proliferation in feline cancer cells (). One cat treated with pamidronate in combination with chemotherapy and two cats treated with pamidronate as a single agent after failing prior therapy had subjective clinically stable disease; median progression free interval in these cats from initial pamidronate treatment was 81 days. Three cats developed azotemia while undergoing various treatment modalities including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and pamidronate. Median overall survival was 116.5 days for all cats and 170 days for cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Median progression free survival was 55 days for all cats and 71 days for cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Pamidronate therapy appears feasible for administration in cancer bearing cats with aggressive bone lesions in the dose range of 1-2 mg/kg every 21–28 days for multiple treatments. No acute or short-term toxicity was directly attributable to pamidronate. Jackie M. Wypij and David A. Heller Copyright © 2014 Jackie M. Wypij and David A. Heller. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Direct Economic Losses from Bovine Tuberculosis in Makurdi, Nigeria Mon, 02 Jun 2014 09:16:17 +0000 A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and direct economic losses (DEL) from tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Makurdi abattoirs from 2008 to 2012, using abattoir records obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Out of 61654 cattle slaughtered during the study period 1172 (1.90%) were positive for tuberculosis lesions. The annual prevalence of bovine tuberculosis ranges from 0.90% in 2008 to 4.04% in 2012. There was significant () difference in annual prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. It was also observed that there was no seasonal difference in the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. A total of 1935 affected organs by BTB weighing 3046.50 kg, amounting to 2.91 × 106 Naira (1.82 × 104 USD), were condemned within the study period. Seasonal variation in organ condemnation due to bovine tuberculosis was significantly different (Mann-Whitney statistics = 774 × 103, ). It was concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent in Makurdi and accounts for heavy economic losses due to condemnation of edible organs. E. F. Ejeh, M. A. Raji, M. Bello, F. A. Lawan, M. I. Francis, A. C. Kudi, and S. I. B. Cadmus Copyright © 2014 E. F. Ejeh et al. All rights reserved. Validity of Weight Estimation Models in Pigs Reared under Different Management Conditions Wed, 28 May 2014 06:43:22 +0000 A study was carried out to determine the relationship between linear body measurements and live weight in Landrace and Large White pigs reared under different management conditions in Zimbabwe. Data was collected for body length, heart girth, and live weight in 358 pigs reared under intensive commercial conditions. The stepwise multiple linear regression method was done to develop a model using a random selection of 202 records of pigs. The model showed that age, body length, and heart girth were useful predictors of live weight in these pigs with significantly high positive correlations observed. The model was internally validated using records of the remaining 156 pigs and there was a significantly high positive correlation between the actual and predicted weights. The model was then externally validated using 40 market age pigs reared under communal conditions and there was a significantly low positive correlation between the actual and predicted weights. The results of the study show that while linear measurements can be useful in predicting pig weights the appropriateness of the model is also influenced by the management of the pigs. Models can only be applicable to pigs reared under similar conditions of management. Marvelous Sungirai, Lawrence Masaka, and Tonderai Maxwell Benhura Copyright © 2014 Marvelous Sungirai et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Treatment Response of Chronic Lung Diseases of Adult Sheep in the United Kingdom Based upon Ultrasonographic Findings Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Examination of the lungs of adult sheep with chronic respiratory diseases was readily achieved using both 5 MHz linear and sector scanners. Superficial lung abscesses in eight sheep appeared as anechoic areas containing multiple hyperechoic dots bordered distally by a broad hyperechoic capsule. Unilateral fibrinous pleurisy (2 sheep) appeared as an anechoic area containing a hyperechoic latticework. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) lesions appeared as sharply demarcated hypoechoic areas in the lung parenchyma initially in the cranioventral lung lobes (21 sheep) with lesions also present in the caudodorsal diaphragmatic lobe (11 sheep); abscesses and areas of calcification within the OPA tumour mass were also identified. Daily treatment with procaine penicillin for 30 consecutive days was successful in both sheep with unilateral fibrinous pleurisy and six sheep identified with superficial lung abscesses measuring 2–8 cm in diameter; only one of two sheep with more extensive lesions recovered. Auscultation of the chest failed to detect adventitious sounds in any of the ten sheep with lung abscesses; normal breath sounds were reduced over the area of fibrinous pleurisy; no pleuritic rubs were heard. Wheezes and crackles auscultated in some OPA cases and did not correlate well with lesions detected ultrasonographically. Phil Scott Copyright © 2014 Phil Scott. All rights reserved. Genetic Association Analysis of Paratuberculosis Forms in Holstein-Friesian Cattle Tue, 20 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A genetic susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants has been longtime suspected to exist. Recently, natural infections in cattle have been reclassified into latent and patent forms based on histopathological findings and their associations with immunological and microbiological variables. This study aims to explore whether these newly defined phenotypes are associated with twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six bovine candidate genes: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1), nuclear body protein SP110 (SP110), toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, and CD209 (also known as DC-SIGN, dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin). SNPs were genotyped for 772 Holstein-Friesian animals (52.6% apparently free; 38.1% latent; 9.3% patent) by TaqMan OpenArray technology. Genotypic-phenotypic associations were assessed by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age at slaughter, under five models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and log-additive), and corrected for multiple testing. The rs208222804 C allele (CD209 gene) was found to be associated with latent paratuberculosis (log-additive model: after permutation procedure; OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.48–0.86). No significant association was detected between any SNP and the patent phenotype. Consequently, CD209 gene may play a key role in the pathogenesis of bovine paratuberculosis. Patricia Vázquez, Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga, Joseba M. Garrido, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano, Mikel Agirre, Andone Estonba, and Ramón A. Juste Copyright © 2014 Patricia Vázquez et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Acute Bleeding Followed by Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or a Crystalloid on Propofol Concentrations, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Electroencephalographic and Haemodynamic Variables in Pigs Mon, 19 May 2014 09:12:08 +0000 Bleeding changes the haemodynamics, compromising organ perfusion. In this study, the effects of bleeding followed by replacement with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) or lactated Ringer’s (LR) on cerebral oxygenation and electroencephalogram-derived parameters were investigated. Twelve young pigs under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia were bled 30 mL/kg and, after a 20-minute waiting period, volume replacement was performed with HES (GHES; ) or LR (GRL; ). Bleeding caused a decrease of more than 50% in mean arterial pressure () and a decrease in cerebral oximetry (), bispectral index, and electroencephalogram total power ( and , resp.), while propofol plasma concentrations increased (). Both solutions restored the haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation similarly and were accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram total power. No differences between groups were found. However, one hour after the end of the volume replacement, the cardiac output () and the cerebral oxygenation () decreased in the GLR and were significantly lower than in GHES (). Volume replacement with HES 130/0.4 was capable of maintaining the cardiac output and cerebral oxygenation during a longer period than LR and caused a decrease in the propofol plasma concentrations. Aura Silva, Ana Liza Ortiz, Carlos Venâncio, Almir P. Souza, Luísa Maria Ferreira, Paula Sério Branco, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Pedro Amorim, and David A. Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Aura Silva et al. All rights reserved. Survey of Dermatophytes in Stray Cats with and without Skin Lesions in Northern Italy Tue, 13 May 2014 06:01:39 +0000 The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats with and without clinical lesions from different colonies in rural and urban areas of Milan and surroundings in northern Italy. Stray cats (273) were caught during a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program conducted in different colonies of northern Italy in both rural and urban areas. Each cat was examined in dark environment with a Wood’s lamp prior to sample collection. Hair or scales exhibiting typical fluorescence were removed with a pair of sterile hemostats and cultured. The hair of all cats was then sampled by Mackenzie modified brush technique regardless of the presence or absence of skin lesions attributable to dermatophytosis. All the hair samples were subjected to fungal culture. 15 cats were positive (5.5%). Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated (13/15). The only other isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2/15). Our estimated prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats was much lower than other Italian studies on the same population. Daniela Proverbio, Roberta Perego, Eva Spada, Giada Bagnagatti de Giorgi, Alessandra Della Pepa, and Elisabetta Ferro Copyright © 2014 Daniela Proverbio et al. All rights reserved. Serum Copper and Haematological Values of Sheep of Different Physiological Stages in the Dry and Wet Seasons of Central Trinidad Thu, 08 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A study was conducted to determine serum copper (Cu) concentrations and hematological values of 174 sheep from four medium sized farms, pertaining to physiological stage, in the late dry and late wet seasons of Central Trinidad. Serum Cu was significantly lower in the dry than in the wet season () with a corresponding high percentage of samples with low Cu levels in the former. 31% of dry nonpregnant sheep exhibited a nonregenerative anaemia. Also, hemoglobin and packed cell volume values varied () including lymphocyte () counts, among growing animals compared with other physiological stages. Significant variations also occurred among neutrophil () and eosinophil () values in sheep. Highest haemoglobin and packed cell volume, white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte values in growing sheep compared with other stages were probably age related. A. Mohammed, M. Campbell, and F. G. Youssef Copyright © 2014 A. Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Potential of the Polyherbal Formulation “ImmuPlus”: A Nutritional Supplement for Horses Sun, 04 May 2014 08:29:25 +0000 In order to counteract harmful effects of oxidative stress due to pathological conditions or physical exercise, horses are often administered dietary supplements having supposed high antioxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to identify the in vitro antioxidant potential of “ImmuPlus”, a polyherbal formulation (Global Herbs LTD, Chichester, West Sussex, Great Britain), containing three medicinal plants (Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, and Emblica officinalis), known in Ayurveda for their use in human disease treatment. Extracts obtained by different solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, and hexane) were tested for total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, scavenging activity against DPPH radical, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Our results showed that, except as regards hexane, all the used solvents are able to extract compounds having high antioxidant activity, even when compared to ascorbic acid. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between antioxidant properties and polyphenol/flavonoid contents, indicating the latter, known for their beneficial effects on health of human and animal beings, as major components responsible for the strong antioxidant capacities. Moreover, obtained results suggest the effective role of the polyherbal mixture as good source of antioxidants in horses. Stefano Cecchini, Mariateresa Paciolla, Anna Rocchina Caputo, and Alfonso Bavoso Copyright © 2014 Stefano Cecchini et al. All rights reserved. Current Perspectives on Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense, the Causal Agents of Bovine Farcy Wed, 30 Apr 2014 07:57:29 +0000 Mycobacterium farcinogenes and M. senegalense are the causal agents of bovine farcy, a chronic, progressive disease of the skin and lymphatics of zebu cattle. The disease, which is prevalent mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, was in earlier times thought to be caused by Nocardia farcinica and can be described as one of the neglected diseases in cattle. Some aspects of the disease have been investigated during the last five decades but the major development had been in the bacteriological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic aspects. Molecular analyses confirmed that M. farcinogenes and M. senegalense fall in a subclade together with M. houstonense and M. fortuitum. This subclade is closely related to the one accommodating M. peregrinum, M. porcinum, M. septicum, M. neworleansense, and M. alvei. DNA probes were designed from 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer and could be used for the rapid diagnosis of bovine farcy. An ELISA assay has been evaluated for the serodiagnosis of the disease. The zoonotic potentials of M. farcinogenes and M. senegalense are unknown; few studies reported the isolation of M. senegalense and M. farcinogenes from human clinical sources but not from environmental sources or from other domestic or wild animals. Mohamed E. Hamid Copyright © 2014 Mohamed E. Hamid. All rights reserved.