Veterinary Medicine International The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Challenges and Economic Implications in the Control of Foot and Mouth Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from the Zambian Experience Thu, 21 Aug 2014 11:10:20 +0000 Foot and mouth disease is one of the world’s most important livestock diseases for trade. FMD infections are complex in nature and there are many epidemiological factors needing clarification. Key questions relate to the control challenges and economic impact of the disease for resource-poor FMD endemic countries like Zambia. A review of the control challenges and economic impact of FMD outbreaks in Zambia was made. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journals articles, conference proceedings, unpublished scientific reports, and personal communication with scientists and personal field experiences. The challenges of controlling FMD using mainly vaccination and movement control are discussed. Impacts include losses in income of over US$ 1.6 billion from exports of beef and sable antelopes and an annual cost of over US$ 2.7 million on preventive measures. Further impacts included unquantified losses in production and low investment in agriculture resulting in slow economic growth. FMD persistence may be a result of inadequate epidemiological understanding of the disease and ineffectiveness of the control measures that are being applied. The identified gaps may be considered in the annual appraisal of the FMD national control strategy in order to advance on the progressive control pathway. Y. Sinkala, M. Simuunza, D. U. Pfeiffer, H. M. Munang’andu, M. Mulumba, C. J. Kasanga, J. B. Muma, and A. S. Mweene Copyright © 2014 Y. Sinkala et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Rift Valley Fever Virus Interepidemic Activity in Some Hotspot Areas of Kenya by Sentinel Animal Surveillance, 2009–2012 Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:59:04 +0000 Rift Valley fever virus causes an important zoonotic disease of humans and small ruminants in Eastern Africa and is spread primarily by a mosquito vector. In this region, it occurs as epizootics that typically occur at 5–15-year intervals associated with unusual rainfall events. It has hitherto been known that the virus is maintained between outbreaks in dormant eggs of the mosquito vector and this has formed the basis of understanding of the epidemiology and control strategies of the disease. We show here that seroconversion and sporadic acute disease do occur during the interepidemic periods (IEPs) in the absence of reported cases in livestock or humans. The finding indicates that previously undetected low-level virus transmission during the IEPs does occur and that epizootics may also be due to periodic expansion of mosquito vectors in the presence of both circulating virus and naïve animals. Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti, Absolomon Kihara, Abuu A. Oriko, Leonard Ateya Okutoyi, James Ogaa Wauna, David P. Tchouassi, Caroline C. Tigoi, Steve Kemp, Rosemary Sang, and Rees Murithi Mbabu Copyright © 2014 Jacqueline Kasiiti Lichoti et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle Wed, 06 Aug 2014 10:25:29 +0000 The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra and Yassir Adam Shuaib Copyright © 2014 Mukhtar Taha Abu-Samra and Yassir Adam Shuaib. All rights reserved. Fatty Acid Composition of the Muscle Lipids of Five Fish Species in Işıklı and Karacaören Dam Lake, Turkey Sun, 20 Jul 2014 14:25:50 +0000 Total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids in some fish species (Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake), Tinca tinca (Işıklı Dam Lake), Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Işıklı Dam Lake), Cyprinus carpio (Karacaören Dam Lake), and Carassius carassius (Karacaören Dam Lake)) was determined by gas chromatography. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake) were found higher than PUFA of other species. Palmitic acid was the highest saturated fatty acid (SFA) in Tinca tinca (24.64%). Oleic acid was the highest monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFAs) in Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake) (19.25%). The most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in Scardinius erythrophthalmus was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (17.94%). Total ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the total ω6 fatty acids of Cyprinus carpio in both dam lakes. ω3/ω6 rates in Cyprinus carpio (Işıklı Dam Lake), Tinca tinca, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Cyprinus carpio (Karacaören), and Carassius carassius were 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Ozcan Baris Citil, Leyla Kalyoncu, and Oguzhan Kahraman Copyright © 2014 Ozcan Baris Citil et al. All rights reserved. Claw Lesions Causing Clinical Lameness in Lactating Holstein Frisian Crossbred Cows Mon, 14 Jul 2014 08:18:30 +0000 The objective of this study was to identify claw lesions causing clinical lameness in lactating Holstein Frisian (HF) crossbred cows in dairy cattle. Seventy dairy farmers were interviewed at the monthly meetings of Progressive Dairy Farmers Association of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Ten dairy farms were randomly selected as per probability proportional to size and a total of 450 lactating HF crossbred cows were taken into the study. All the lactating cows were scored for locomotion and rear leg view index. Trimming was done in all the clinically lame animals (animals with locomotion scores 2 and 3) and equal number of animals selected randomly from those with locomotion scores 0 and 1. Various claw lesions were evaluated in both the groups. There was a significant relationship between locomotion score and rear leg view index to identify lameness. Sole ulcers and white line fissures were the lesions responsible for clinical lameness. Other lesions did not cause clinical lameness but increased the asymmetry in lactating HF crossbred cows. Both locomotion score and rear leg view index could be reliably used to identify clinical lameness in lactating cattle. Umar Nazir Zahid, Swaran Singh Randhawa, Syed Ashaq Hussain, Sarnarinder Singh Randhawa, Vishal Mahajan, and Kirti Dua Copyright © 2014 Umar Nazir Zahid et al. All rights reserved. Mycoplasma agalactiae, an Etiological Agent of Contagious Agalactia in Small Ruminants: A Review Thu, 03 Jul 2014 08:27:13 +0000 Mycoplasma agalactiae is one of the causal agents of classical contagious agalactia (CA), a serious, economically important but neglected enzootic disease of small ruminants. It occurs in many parts of the world and most notably in the Mediterranean Basin. Following the infection common complications are septicaemia, mastitis, arthritis, pleurisy, pneumonia, and keratoconjunctivitis. Primary or tentative diagnosis of the organism is based upon clinical signs. Various serological tests, namely, growth precipitation, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test, haemagglutination inhibition, agglutination, immunodiffusion, enzyme immunoassays, immunoelectrophoresis, blotting techniques, and others, are available. Molecular tools seem to be much more sensitive, specific, and faster and help to differentiate various strains. The real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, quantitative PCR, PCR-RFLP, MLST, and gene probes, complementary to segments of chromosomal DNA or 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), have strengthened the diagnosis of M. agalactiae. Both live attenuated and adjuvant (alum precipitated or saponified) inactivated vaccines are available with greater use of inactivated ones due to lack of side effects. The present review discusses the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical signs of contagious agalactia in small ruminants along with trends and advances in its diagnosis, treatment, vaccination, prevention, and control strategies that will help in countering this disease. Amit Kumar, Anu Rahal, Sandip Chakraborty, Amit Kumar Verma, and Kuldeep Dhama Copyright © 2014 Amit Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases of Small Ruminants Sun, 15 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Irrespective of aetiology, infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats contribute to 5.6 percent of the total diseases of small ruminants. These infectious respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: the diseases of upper respiratory tract, namely, nasal myiasis and enzootic nasal tumors, and diseases of lower respiratory tract, namely, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), parainfluenza, Pasteurellosis, Ovine progressive pneumonia, mycoplasmosis, caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, caseous lymphadenitis, verminous pneumonia, and many others. Depending upon aetiology, many of them are acute and fatal in nature. Early, rapid, and specific diagnosis of such diseases holds great importance to reduce the losses. The advanced enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of antigen as well as antibodies directly from the samples and molecular diagnostic assays along with microsatellites comprehensively assist in diagnosis as well as treatment and epidemiological studies. The present review discusses the advancements made in the diagnosis of common infectious respiratory diseases of sheep and goats. It would update the knowledge and help in adapting and implementing appropriate, timely, and confirmatory diagnostic procedures. Moreover, it would assist in designing appropriate prevention protocols and devising suitable control strategies to overcome respiratory diseases and alleviate the economic losses. Sandip Chakraborty, Amit Kumar, Ruchi Tiwari, Anu Rahal, Yash Malik, Kuldeep Dhama, Amar Pal, and Minakshi Prasad Copyright © 2014 Sandip Chakraborty et al. All rights reserved. Molecular and Morphological Characterization of Fasciola spp. Isolated from Different Host Species in a Newly Emerging Focus of Human Fascioliasis in Iran Wed, 11 Jun 2014 11:51:38 +0000 The current study aimed to find out the morphometric and genotypic divergences of the flukes isolated from different hosts in a newly emerging focus of human fascioliasis in Iran. Adult Fasciola spp. were collected from 34 cattle, 13 sheep, and 11 goats from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, southwest of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted from the flukes and PCR-RFLP was used to characterize the isolates. The ITS1, ITS2, and mitochondrial genes (mtDNA) of NDI and COI from individual liver flukes were amplified and the amplicons were sequenced. Genetic variation within and between the species was evaluated by comparing the sequences. Moreover, morphometric characteristics of flukes were measured through a computer image analysis system. Based on RFLP profile, from the total of 58 isolates, 41 isolates (from cattle, sheep, and goat) were identified as Fasciola hepatica, while 17 isolates from cattle were identified as Fasciola gigantica. Comparison of the ITS1 and ITS2 sequences showed six and seven single-base substitutions, resulting in segregation of the specimens into two different genotypes. The sequences of COI markers showed seven DNA polymorphic sites for F. hepatica and 35 DNA polymorphic sites for F. gigantica. Morphological diversity of the two species was observed in linear, ratios, and areas measurements. The findings have implications for studying the population genetics, epidemiology, and control of the disease. Reza Shafiei, Bahador Sarkari, Seyed Mahmuod Sadjjadi, Gholam Reza Mowlavi, and Abdolali Moshfe Copyright © 2014 Reza Shafiei et al. All rights reserved. Pamidronate Disodium for Palliative Therapy of Feline Bone-Invasive Tumors Mon, 09 Jun 2014 08:42:40 +0000 This study sought to quantify in vitro antiproliferative effects of pamidronate in feline cancer cells and assess feasibility of use of pamidronate in cats by assessing short-term toxicity and dosing schedule in cats with bone-invasive cancer. A retrospective pilot study included eight cats with bone invasive cancer treated with intravenous pamidronate. In vitro, pamidronate reduced proliferation in feline cancer cells (). One cat treated with pamidronate in combination with chemotherapy and two cats treated with pamidronate as a single agent after failing prior therapy had subjective clinically stable disease; median progression free interval in these cats from initial pamidronate treatment was 81 days. Three cats developed azotemia while undergoing various treatment modalities including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and pamidronate. Median overall survival was 116.5 days for all cats and 170 days for cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Median progression free survival was 55 days for all cats and 71 days for cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Pamidronate therapy appears feasible for administration in cancer bearing cats with aggressive bone lesions in the dose range of 1-2 mg/kg every 21–28 days for multiple treatments. No acute or short-term toxicity was directly attributable to pamidronate. Jackie M. Wypij and David A. Heller Copyright © 2014 Jackie M. Wypij and David A. Heller. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Direct Economic Losses from Bovine Tuberculosis in Makurdi, Nigeria Mon, 02 Jun 2014 09:16:17 +0000 A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and direct economic losses (DEL) from tuberculosis in cattle slaughtered in Makurdi abattoirs from 2008 to 2012, using abattoir records obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Out of 61654 cattle slaughtered during the study period 1172 (1.90%) were positive for tuberculosis lesions. The annual prevalence of bovine tuberculosis ranges from 0.90% in 2008 to 4.04% in 2012. There was significant () difference in annual prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. It was also observed that there was no seasonal difference in the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis. A total of 1935 affected organs by BTB weighing 3046.50 kg, amounting to 2.91 × 106 Naira (1.82 × 104 USD), were condemned within the study period. Seasonal variation in organ condemnation due to bovine tuberculosis was significantly different (Mann-Whitney statistics = 774 × 103, ). It was concluded that bovine tuberculosis is prevalent in Makurdi and accounts for heavy economic losses due to condemnation of edible organs. E. F. Ejeh, M. A. Raji, M. Bello, F. A. Lawan, M. I. Francis, A. C. Kudi, and S. I. B. Cadmus Copyright © 2014 E. F. Ejeh et al. All rights reserved. Validity of Weight Estimation Models in Pigs Reared under Different Management Conditions Wed, 28 May 2014 06:43:22 +0000 A study was carried out to determine the relationship between linear body measurements and live weight in Landrace and Large White pigs reared under different management conditions in Zimbabwe. Data was collected for body length, heart girth, and live weight in 358 pigs reared under intensive commercial conditions. The stepwise multiple linear regression method was done to develop a model using a random selection of 202 records of pigs. The model showed that age, body length, and heart girth were useful predictors of live weight in these pigs with significantly high positive correlations observed. The model was internally validated using records of the remaining 156 pigs and there was a significantly high positive correlation between the actual and predicted weights. The model was then externally validated using 40 market age pigs reared under communal conditions and there was a significantly low positive correlation between the actual and predicted weights. The results of the study show that while linear measurements can be useful in predicting pig weights the appropriateness of the model is also influenced by the management of the pigs. Models can only be applicable to pigs reared under similar conditions of management. Marvelous Sungirai, Lawrence Masaka, and Tonderai Maxwell Benhura Copyright © 2014 Marvelous Sungirai et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Treatment Response of Chronic Lung Diseases of Adult Sheep in the United Kingdom Based upon Ultrasonographic Findings Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Examination of the lungs of adult sheep with chronic respiratory diseases was readily achieved using both 5 MHz linear and sector scanners. Superficial lung abscesses in eight sheep appeared as anechoic areas containing multiple hyperechoic dots bordered distally by a broad hyperechoic capsule. Unilateral fibrinous pleurisy (2 sheep) appeared as an anechoic area containing a hyperechoic latticework. Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) lesions appeared as sharply demarcated hypoechoic areas in the lung parenchyma initially in the cranioventral lung lobes (21 sheep) with lesions also present in the caudodorsal diaphragmatic lobe (11 sheep); abscesses and areas of calcification within the OPA tumour mass were also identified. Daily treatment with procaine penicillin for 30 consecutive days was successful in both sheep with unilateral fibrinous pleurisy and six sheep identified with superficial lung abscesses measuring 2–8 cm in diameter; only one of two sheep with more extensive lesions recovered. Auscultation of the chest failed to detect adventitious sounds in any of the ten sheep with lung abscesses; normal breath sounds were reduced over the area of fibrinous pleurisy; no pleuritic rubs were heard. Wheezes and crackles auscultated in some OPA cases and did not correlate well with lesions detected ultrasonographically. Phil Scott Copyright © 2014 Phil Scott. All rights reserved. Genetic Association Analysis of Paratuberculosis Forms in Holstein-Friesian Cattle Tue, 20 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A genetic susceptibility to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in ruminants has been longtime suspected to exist. Recently, natural infections in cattle have been reclassified into latent and patent forms based on histopathological findings and their associations with immunological and microbiological variables. This study aims to explore whether these newly defined phenotypes are associated with twenty-four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six bovine candidate genes: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), solute carrier family 11 member A1 (SLC11A1), nuclear body protein SP110 (SP110), toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2 and 4, and CD209 (also known as DC-SIGN, dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing nonintegrin). SNPs were genotyped for 772 Holstein-Friesian animals (52.6% apparently free; 38.1% latent; 9.3% patent) by TaqMan OpenArray technology. Genotypic-phenotypic associations were assessed by logistic regression analysis adjusted for age at slaughter, under five models (codominant, dominant, recessive, overdominant, and log-additive), and corrected for multiple testing. The rs208222804 C allele (CD209 gene) was found to be associated with latent paratuberculosis (log-additive model: after permutation procedure; OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.48–0.86). No significant association was detected between any SNP and the patent phenotype. Consequently, CD209 gene may play a key role in the pathogenesis of bovine paratuberculosis. Patricia Vázquez, Otsanda Ruiz-Larrañaga, Joseba M. Garrido, Mikel Iriondo, Carmen Manzano, Mikel Agirre, Andone Estonba, and Ramón A. Juste Copyright © 2014 Patricia Vázquez et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Acute Bleeding Followed by Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 or a Crystalloid on Propofol Concentrations, Cerebral Oxygenation, and Electroencephalographic and Haemodynamic Variables in Pigs Mon, 19 May 2014 09:12:08 +0000 Bleeding changes the haemodynamics, compromising organ perfusion. In this study, the effects of bleeding followed by replacement with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES) or lactated Ringer’s (LR) on cerebral oxygenation and electroencephalogram-derived parameters were investigated. Twelve young pigs under propofol-remifentanil anaesthesia were bled 30 mL/kg and, after a 20-minute waiting period, volume replacement was performed with HES (GHES; ) or LR (GRL; ). Bleeding caused a decrease of more than 50% in mean arterial pressure () and a decrease in cerebral oximetry (), bispectral index, and electroencephalogram total power ( and , resp.), while propofol plasma concentrations increased (). Both solutions restored the haemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation similarly and were accompanied by an increase in electroencephalogram total power. No differences between groups were found. However, one hour after the end of the volume replacement, the cardiac output () and the cerebral oxygenation () decreased in the GLR and were significantly lower than in GHES (). Volume replacement with HES 130/0.4 was capable of maintaining the cardiac output and cerebral oxygenation during a longer period than LR and caused a decrease in the propofol plasma concentrations. Aura Silva, Ana Liza Ortiz, Carlos Venâncio, Almir P. Souza, Luísa Maria Ferreira, Paula Sério Branco, Paula Guedes de Pinho, Pedro Amorim, and David A. Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Aura Silva et al. All rights reserved. Survey of Dermatophytes in Stray Cats with and without Skin Lesions in Northern Italy Tue, 13 May 2014 06:01:39 +0000 The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats with and without clinical lesions from different colonies in rural and urban areas of Milan and surroundings in northern Italy. Stray cats (273) were caught during a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program conducted in different colonies of northern Italy in both rural and urban areas. Each cat was examined in dark environment with a Wood’s lamp prior to sample collection. Hair or scales exhibiting typical fluorescence were removed with a pair of sterile hemostats and cultured. The hair of all cats was then sampled by Mackenzie modified brush technique regardless of the presence or absence of skin lesions attributable to dermatophytosis. All the hair samples were subjected to fungal culture. 15 cats were positive (5.5%). Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated (13/15). The only other isolated dermatophyte was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (2/15). Our estimated prevalence of dermatophytes in stray cats was much lower than other Italian studies on the same population. Daniela Proverbio, Roberta Perego, Eva Spada, Giada Bagnagatti de Giorgi, Alessandra Della Pepa, and Elisabetta Ferro Copyright © 2014 Daniela Proverbio et al. All rights reserved. Serum Copper and Haematological Values of Sheep of Different Physiological Stages in the Dry and Wet Seasons of Central Trinidad Thu, 08 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A study was conducted to determine serum copper (Cu) concentrations and hematological values of 174 sheep from four medium sized farms, pertaining to physiological stage, in the late dry and late wet seasons of Central Trinidad. Serum Cu was significantly lower in the dry than in the wet season () with a corresponding high percentage of samples with low Cu levels in the former. 31% of dry nonpregnant sheep exhibited a nonregenerative anaemia. Also, hemoglobin and packed cell volume values varied () including lymphocyte () counts, among growing animals compared with other physiological stages. Significant variations also occurred among neutrophil () and eosinophil () values in sheep. Highest haemoglobin and packed cell volume, white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte values in growing sheep compared with other stages were probably age related. A. Mohammed, M. Campbell, and F. G. Youssef Copyright © 2014 A. Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant Potential of the Polyherbal Formulation “ImmuPlus”: A Nutritional Supplement for Horses Sun, 04 May 2014 08:29:25 +0000 In order to counteract harmful effects of oxidative stress due to pathological conditions or physical exercise, horses are often administered dietary supplements having supposed high antioxidant activities. The aim of the present study was to identify the in vitro antioxidant potential of “ImmuPlus”, a polyherbal formulation (Global Herbs LTD, Chichester, West Sussex, Great Britain), containing three medicinal plants (Withania somnifera, Tinospora cordifolia, and Emblica officinalis), known in Ayurveda for their use in human disease treatment. Extracts obtained by different solvents (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, and hexane) were tested for total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power, scavenging activity against DPPH radical, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Our results showed that, except as regards hexane, all the used solvents are able to extract compounds having high antioxidant activity, even when compared to ascorbic acid. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between antioxidant properties and polyphenol/flavonoid contents, indicating the latter, known for their beneficial effects on health of human and animal beings, as major components responsible for the strong antioxidant capacities. Moreover, obtained results suggest the effective role of the polyherbal mixture as good source of antioxidants in horses. Stefano Cecchini, Mariateresa Paciolla, Anna Rocchina Caputo, and Alfonso Bavoso Copyright © 2014 Stefano Cecchini et al. All rights reserved. Current Perspectives on Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense, the Causal Agents of Bovine Farcy Wed, 30 Apr 2014 07:57:29 +0000 Mycobacterium farcinogenes and M. senegalense are the causal agents of bovine farcy, a chronic, progressive disease of the skin and lymphatics of zebu cattle. The disease, which is prevalent mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, was in earlier times thought to be caused by Nocardia farcinica and can be described as one of the neglected diseases in cattle. Some aspects of the disease have been investigated during the last five decades but the major development had been in the bacteriological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic aspects. Molecular analyses confirmed that M. farcinogenes and M. senegalense fall in a subclade together with M. houstonense and M. fortuitum. This subclade is closely related to the one accommodating M. peregrinum, M. porcinum, M. septicum, M. neworleansense, and M. alvei. DNA probes were designed from 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer and could be used for the rapid diagnosis of bovine farcy. An ELISA assay has been evaluated for the serodiagnosis of the disease. The zoonotic potentials of M. farcinogenes and M. senegalense are unknown; few studies reported the isolation of M. senegalense and M. farcinogenes from human clinical sources but not from environmental sources or from other domestic or wild animals. Mohamed E. Hamid Copyright © 2014 Mohamed E. Hamid. All rights reserved. Chemical Immobilization of Sloth Bears (Melursus ursinus) with Ketamine Hydrochloride and Xylazine Hydrochloride: Hematology and Serum Biochemical Values Mon, 28 Apr 2014 07:57:10 +0000 The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive sloth bears immobilized with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and to determine and compare the values of hematology and serum biochemical parameters between sexes. A total of 15 sloth bears were immobilized using combination of ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride drugs at the dose rate of 5.0 milligram (mg) per kg body weight and 2.0 mg per kg body weight, respectively. The use of combination of these drugs was found satisfactory for the chemical immobilization of captive sloth bears. There were no significant differences observed in induction time and recovery time and physiological parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature between sexes. Health related parameters comprising hematological values like packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), erythrocyte indices, and so forth and biochemical values like total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alkaline amino-transferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), and so forth were estimated in 11 (5 males and 6 females) apparently healthy bears. Comparison between sexes revealed significant difference in PCV () and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) (). The study might help to evaluate health profiles of sloth bears for appropriate line treatment. M. Veeraselvam, R. Sridhar, P. Perumal, and M. G. Jayathangaraj Copyright © 2014 M. Veeraselvam et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training Wed, 16 Apr 2014 12:38:36 +0000 Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR) or second-milking colostrum (transition milk) on failure of passive transfer (FPT) and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1), 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2), or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3). Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2 g/dL, IgG 15.9 g/L) and 3 (TP 5.4 g/dL, IgG 18.3 g/L) did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9 g/dL, IgG 24.6 g/L). Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.). Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp.) or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp.) did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia. Deniece R. Williams, Patrick Pithua, Angel Garcia, John Champagne, Deborah M. Haines, and Sharif S. Aly Copyright © 2014 Deniece R. Williams et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:56:03 +0000 Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples () yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended. Sydney Malama, Tone Bjordal Johansen, John Bwalya Muma, Musso Munyeme, Grace Mbulo, Adrian Muwonge, Berit Djønne, and Jacques Godfroid Copyright © 2014 Sydney Malama et al. All rights reserved. Validation of a Real Time PCR for Classical Swine Fever Diagnosis Wed, 09 Apr 2014 09:26:42 +0000 The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF), caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF. Natanael Lamas Dias, Antônio Augusto Fonseca Júnior, Anapolino Macedo Oliveira, Érica Bravo Sales, Bruna Rios Coelho Alves, Fernanda Alves Dorella, and Marcelo Fernandes Camargos Copyright © 2014 Natanael Lamas Dias et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens Mon, 07 Apr 2014 12:13:41 +0000 Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE) of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46%) and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract. Arvind Kumar Sharma, Amit Kumar, Sharad Kumar Yadav, and Anu Rahal Copyright © 2014 Arvind Kumar Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Clinico Hemato Biochemical Findings, Clinical Management, and Production Performance of Bovines with Late Pregnancy Indigestion (Type IV Vagal Indigestion) Mon, 07 Apr 2014 11:13:53 +0000 This prospective study was conducted on 15 animals (eight buffaloes and seven cows), diagnosed with late pregnancy indigestion. Ten buffaloes and 10 cows served as the control group. The animals were in advanced pregnancy and had partial or complete anorexia, reduced water intake, loss of defecation or scanty faecal output, and mild to moderate dehydration. Heart and respiration rates were increased and rumen motility was reduced. Five animals had persistent tympany and moderate distension of left abdomen, and two animals each had bilateral abdominal distension and papple shaped abdomen. Neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher and lower than the control values. Total bilirubin, AST, total protein, globulin, BUN, glucose, and lactate were significantly higher, and chloride and calcium were significantly lower than the control values. Levels of ALP, GGT, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, fibrinogen, fibrinogen ratio, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium did not differ significantly from the control values. Rumen chloride concentration was higher than the reference range. Majority of animals were managed symptomatically until parturition. There was no effect on fetal survival or milk yield in current and subsequent lactation. So, late pregnancy indigestion causes clinical and hemato biochemical alterations which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. Syed Ashaq Hussain, Sanjeev Kumar Uppal, Naresh Kumar Sood, and Shashi Kant Mahajan Copyright © 2014 Syed Ashaq Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Electrophoretic Analysis of Indian Isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis by SDS-PAGE and Immunoblotting Thu, 03 Apr 2014 14:46:24 +0000 Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma bovis both are responsible for respiratory conditions in sheep and goats. M. agalactiae is a major pathogen of sheep and goats and accounts for almost 90% of outbreaks of contagious agalactia syndrome in goats and almost 100% in sheep. On the basis of clinical signs and cultural, morphological, and biochemical characterization it is almost impossible to differentiate between both the species. Moreover, due to presence of genomic and proteomic similarity most of the time routine diagnostic tests fail to differentiate between them. Hence the present study was conducted to find out the protein profile of isolates of both the species by SDS-PAGE and to find out the cross-reacting as well as differentiating immunogenic proteins by Immunoblotting, which can be of immunoprophylactic as well as diagnostic values. The study revealed 6-7 major immunogenic cross-reactive proteins with the presence of two important non-cross-reacting species specific polypeptides particularly 25.50 and 24.54 kDa in M. agalactiae and M. bovis, respectively, that might be of diagnostic values. Amit Kumar, N. C. Srivastava, V. P. Singh, and Jai Sunder Copyright © 2014 Amit Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Tissue Residues, Hematological and Biochemical Effects of Tilmicosin in Broiler Chicken Thu, 03 Apr 2014 14:22:30 +0000 The aim of this study was to determine the blood and tissue concentrations profile and effect of tilmicosin on some hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Fifty clinically healthy Hubbard chickens were orally administered 25 mg/kg BW of tilmicosin once daily for 5 consecutive days. Tissue residues of tilmicosin in slaughtered healthy chicken could not be detected by microbiological assay in all tested tissues except in lung (at 96 hours) and liver and kidneys (at 72 hours) after last administration. Tilmicosin caused temporary decrease in the RBCs and WBCs counts and has no effect on hemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume concentration (PCV). Also, the effect of tilmicosin on some biochemical parameters was as follows: the concentrations of creatinine, uric acid, electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and calcium), glucose, AST, ALT, ALP, and HDL-cholesterol in the serum of treated chicken did not change in response to the repeated oral administration of tilmicosin. There were only a temporary significant decrease in total protein and albumin concentrations and a significant increase in cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations. Chicken must not be slaughtered before 4 days from the stopping of tilmicosin administration. Tilmicosin makes temporary changes on hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicken. Mossad Elsayed, Ashraf Elkomy, Mohamed Aboubakr, and Mohamed Morad Copyright © 2014 Mossad Elsayed et al. All rights reserved. Culture versus PCR for Salmonella Species Identification in Some Dairy Products and Dairy Handlers with Special Concern to Its Zoonotic Importance Thu, 03 Apr 2014 06:35:04 +0000 A total of 200 samples of milk and dairy products as well as 120 samples of dairy handlers were randomly collected from different dairy farms and supermarkets in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. The conventional cultural and serotyping methods for detection of Salmonella in dairy products were applied and the results were compared with those obtained by molecular screening assay using (ttr sequence). The obtained results revealed that 21% of milk and dairy products (42/200) were positive for Salmonella species using enrichment culture-based PCR method, while 12% of different dairy samples (24/200) were found to be positive for Salmonella species by using the conventional culture methods. Two stool specimens out of 40 apparently healthy dairy handlers were positive by the PCR method. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that 58.3% (14/24) from different dairy products were contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium. We conclude that the enrichment culture-based PCR assay has high sensitivity and specificity for detection of Salmonella species in dairy products and handlers. High incidence of Salmonella Typhimurium in the examined dairy samples highlights the important role played by milk and dairy products as a vehicle in disease prevalence. Great effort should be applied for reducing foodborne risk for consumers. Mayada M. Gwida and Maha A. M. AL-Ashmawy Copyright © 2014 Mayada M. Gwida and Maha A. M. AL-Ashmawy. All rights reserved. Assessing the Effectiveness of Tuberculosis Management in Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula), through Indirect Surveillance of Mycobacterium bovis Infection Using Released Sentinel Pigs Wed, 02 Apr 2014 06:32:05 +0000 In New Zealand, wild pigs acquire Mycobacterium bovis infection by scavenging tuberculous carrion, primarily carcasses of the main disease maintenance host, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). We investigated the utility of captive-reared, purpose-released pigs as sentinels for tuberculosis (TB) following lethal possum control and subsequent population recovery. Within 2-3 years of possum control by intensive poisoning, TB prevalence and the incidence rate of M. bovis infection in released sentinel pigs were lower than in an adjacent area where possums had not been poisoned. Unexpectedly, TB did not decline to near zero levels among pigs in the poisoned area, a fact which reflected an unanticipated rapid increase in the apparent abundance of possums. Monitoring infection levels among resident wild pigs confirmed that TB prevalence, while reduced due to possum control, persisted in the poisoned area at >20% among pigs born 2-3 years after poisoning, while remaining >60% among resident wild pigs in the nonpoisoned area. When fitted with radio-tracking devices, purpose-released pigs provided precise spatial TB surveillance information and facilitated effective killing of wild pigs when employed as “Judas” animals to help locate residents. Sentinel pigs offer value for monitoring disease trends in New Zealand, as TB levels in possums decline nationally due to large-scale possum control. G. Nugent, I. J. Yockney, E. J. Whitford, and M. L. Cross Copyright © 2014 G. Nugent et al. All rights reserved. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum) Wed, 26 Mar 2014 08:48:01 +0000 The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults and juveniles ) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were  g,  cm and  g,  cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. A. Danmaigoro, J. E. Onu, M. L. Sonfada, M. A. Umaru, S. A. Hena, and A. Mahmuda Copyright © 2014 A. Danmaigoro et al. All rights reserved. Establishment, Culture, and Characterization of Guinea Pig Fetal Fibroblast Cell Tue, 25 Mar 2014 11:40:42 +0000 Establishment of Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cells and their biological evaluation before and after cryopreservation were the main purposes of this study. After determination of the proper age of pregnancy by ultrasonography, 30 days old fetuses of Guinea pigs were recovered. Their skins were cut into small pieces (1 mm2) and were cultured. When reaching 80–90% confluence, the cells were passaged. Cells of the second and eighth passages were cultured in 24-well plates ( cells/well) for 6 days and three wells per day were counted. The average cell counts at each time point were then plotted against time and the population doubling time (PDT) was determined. Then, vials of cells ( cells/mL) were cryopreserved for 1 month and after thawing, the cell viability was evaluated. The PDT of the second passage was about 23 h and for the eighth passage was about 30 h. The viability of the cultures was 95% in the second passage and 74.5% in the eighth passage. It was shown that the Guinea pig fetal fibroblast cell culture can be established using the adherent culture method while, after freezing, the viability indices of these cells were favorable. Davood Mehrabani, Reza Mahboobi, Mehdi Dianatpour, Shahrokh Zare, Amin Tamadon, and Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini Copyright © 2014 Davood Mehrabani et al. All rights reserved.