Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Anesthetic Management of a Surgical Patient with Chronic Renal Tubular Acidosis Complicated by Subclinical Hypothyroidism Sun, 28 Aug 2016 06:41:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cria/2016/2434381/ A 53-year-old man with chronic renal tubular acidosis and subclinical hypothyroidism underwent lower leg amputation surgery under general anesthesia. Perioperative acid-base management in such patients poses many difficulties because both pathophysiologies have the potential to complicate the interpretation of capnometry and arterial blood gas analysis data; inappropriate correction of chronic metabolic acidosis may lead to postoperative respiratory deterioration. We discuss the management of perioperative acidosis in order to achieve successful weaning from mechanical ventilation and promise a complete recovery from anesthesia. Hiroe Yoshioka, Haruyuki Yamazaki, Rie Yasumura, Kosuke Wada, and Yoshiro Kobayashi Copyright © 2016 Hiroe Yoshioka et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Characteristics of River Water Downstream of a Large Tropical Hydroelectric Dam Sun, 28 Aug 2016 06:27:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/7895234/ Water quality in the downstream river of a hydroelectric dam may be affected by the structural design and operation. To date, little is known about the water quality downstream of the largest dam in Malaysia, the Bakun hydroelectric dam. Therefore, the objective of the study was to determine the water quality downstream of the dam when the spillway was closed and when it was opened. Results of the study indicate that the dam plays a significant role in regulating the water quality downstream of it. When the spillway was closed, pH and oxygen were lower in the river where DO was below 5 mg/L. When the spillway was opened, the water quality improved in terms of oxygen content (>8.0 mg/L), total sulphide (TS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) but deteriorated in terms of five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and total phosphorus (TP). Additionally, the intensity of the impacts, particularly BOD5, COD, and TAN, shows a declining trend as distance from the dam increases. This study shows that impacts on the water quality extend to a distance of 32 km from the dam particularly turbidity and DO and opening the spillway changes the water quality significantly. Teck-Yee Ling, Chen-Lin Soo, Teresa Lee-Eng Heng, Lee Nyanti, Siong-Fong Sim, and Jongkar Grinang Copyright © 2016 Teck-Yee Ling et al. All rights reserved. Holding the Inflammatory System in Check: TLRs and NLRs Thu, 25 Aug 2016 18:58:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/8156816/ Eda K. Holl, Irving C. Allen, and Jennifer Martinez Copyright © 2016 Eda K. Holl et al. All rights reserved. Whole-Genome Expression Analysis and Signal Pathway Screening of Synovium-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis Thu, 25 Aug 2016 18:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/1375031/ Synovium-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SMSCs) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and show promise for therapeutic applications in RA. In this study, a whole-genome microarray analysis was used to detect differential gene expression in SMSCs from RA patients and healthy donors (HDs). Our results showed that there were 4828 differentially expressed genes in the RA group compared to the HD group; 3117 genes were upregulated, and 1711 genes were downregulated. A Gene Ontology analysis showed significantly enriched terms of differentially expressed genes in the biological process, cellular component, and molecular function domains. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that the MAPK signaling and rheumatoid arthritis pathways were upregulated and that the p53 signaling pathway was downregulated in RA SMSCs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to verify the expression variations of the partial genes mentioned above, and a western blot analysis was used to determine the expression levels of p53, p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-p38. Our study found that differentially expressed genes in the MAPK signaling, rheumatoid arthritis, and p53 signaling pathways may help to explain the pathogenic mechanism of RA and lead to therapeutic RA SMSC applications. Jingyi Hou, Yi Ouyang, Haiquan Deng, Zhong Chen, Bin Song, Zhongyu Xie, Peng Wang, Jinteng Li, Weiping Li, and Rui Yang Copyright © 2016 Jingyi Hou et al. All rights reserved. Potential Nociceptive Regulatory Effect of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01 (DSM 14870) on Mechanical Sensitivity in Diet-Induced Obesity Model Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:16:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2016/5080438/ Treatments for obesity have been shown to reduce pain secondary to weight loss. Intestinal microbiota, as an endogenous factor, influences obesity and pain sensitivity but the effect of oral probiotic supplementation on musculoskeletal pain perception has not been studied systematically. The present study examined the effect of a single daily oral dose (1 × 109 CFU) of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM14870) supplement on mechanical pain thresholds in behaving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and their normal weight (NW) controls. The mice (, 6-week-old male) were randomly divided into four groups on either standard or high fat diet with and without probiotic supplementation. Both DIO and NW groups with probiotic supplementation maintained an insignificant weight gain while the control groups gained significant weight (). Similarly, both DIO and NW probiotics supplemented groups demonstrated a significantly () lower sensitivity to mechanical stimulation compared to their corresponding control. The results of this study suggest a protective effect of probiotics on nociception circuits, which propose a direct result of the weight reduction or an indirect result of anti-inflammatory properties of the probiotics. Deciphering the exact underlying mechanism of the weight loss and lowering nociception effect of the probiotic applied in this study require further investigation. Fereshteh Dardmeh, Hans Ingolf Nielsen, Hiva Alipour, Benedict Kjærgaard, Erik Brandsborg, and Parisa Gazerani Copyright © 2016 Fereshteh Dardmeh et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Mapping of Human Onchocerciasis in Transmission Suspected Districts of Bale, Borena, and West Arsi Zones of Eastern Ethiopia Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:11:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ipid/2016/6937509/ Onchocerciasis is mainly found in western part of Ethiopia and there is no evidence of transmission in the east ward. However, some zones (Bale, Borena, and West Arsi) are suspected for transmission given the area has fast flowing rivers and is covered with vegetation. Therefore, this study was conducted to map onchocerciasis transmission in those zones. About 19 villages were selected based on proximity to the rivers, representation of districts, zones, and vegetation covers, whereas the study participants, all village residents of age > 5 years with good health condition, were skin sniped and examined using microscopy. In this study a total of 2560 study participants were surveyed of which 1332 were female (52%) and 122 were male (48%). The age group of 21–30 years was highest (34.4%) and that of age > 51 years was the lowest (3.1%) study participants. The survey result revealed that none of the study participants regardless of age, sex, and location demonstrated skin snip Onchocerca microfilariae. The prevalence of microfilariae and community microfilarial load (CMFL) were 0% and 0 mf/s, respectively. The finding implied that there is no onchocerciasis in the area and, therefore, there is no need for interventions. Black fly distribution, cytotaxonomic study, and intraborder cross transmission monitoring are recommended. Sindew Mekasha Feleke, Gemechu Tadesse, Kalkidan Mekete, Afework Hailemariam Tekle, and Amha Kebede Copyright © 2016 Sindew Mekasha Feleke et al. All rights reserved. Variational Histogram Equalization for Single Color Image Defogging Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:11:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9897064/ Foggy images taken in the bad weather inevitably suffer from contrast loss and color distortion. Existing defogging methods merely resort to digging out an accurate scene transmission in ignorance of their unpleasing distortion and high complexity. Different from previous works, we propose a simple but powerful method based on histogram equalization and the physical degradation model. By revising two constraints in a variational histogram equalization framework, the intensity component of a fog-free image can be estimated in HSI color space, since the airlight is inferred through a color attenuation prior in advance. To cut down the time consumption, a general variation filter is proposed to obtain a numerical solution from the revised framework. After getting the estimated intensity component, it is easy to infer the saturation component from the physical degradation model in saturation channel. Accordingly, the fog-free image can be restored with the estimated intensity and saturation components. In the end, the proposed method is tested on several foggy images and assessed by two no-reference indexes. Experimental results reveal that our method is relatively superior to three groups of relevant and state-of-the-art defogging methods. Li Zhou, Du Yan Bi, and Lin Yuan He Copyright © 2016 Li Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Impact of a New Nasal Pillows Mask on Patients’ Acceptance, Compliance, and Willingness to Remain on CPAP Therapy Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sd/2016/6713236/ Aim. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) masks are a key factor in patient compliance. This program assessed the performance of a new nasal pillows mask (NPM) on a variety of new and established obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients using CPAP therapy. Methods. Five programs were developed to assess the new NPM [AirFit P10, ResMed] on naïve patients; patients established on another NPM; patients using a nasal mask; patients with low CPAP compliance; and patients who wished to stop using CPAP therapy. Results. A total of 212 patients were included. In naïve patients, CPAP usage after 3 months was hours/night, compared with the control group at hours/night (). In patients established on another NPM, usage improved to hours/night versus (). 78% of nasal mask users wished to continue using the new NPM. Low compliance patients improved with an average of 0.87 hours/night () when using the new NPM. In patients at the point of quitting CPAP, 60% continued with therapy using the new NPM. Conclusion. The new NPM mask performed well in a variety of clinical groups of OSA patients receiving CPAP therapy and shows that technical advances in CPAP masks can improve patient compliance. Alison Wimms, Sahisha Ketheeswaran, Claus Ziegenbein, Laura Jennings, and Holger Woehrle Copyright © 2016 Alison Wimms et al. All rights reserved. Role of Macrophages in the Repair Process during the Tissue Migrating and Resident Helminth Infections Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:06:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8634603/ The Th1/Th2/Th17 balance is a fundamental feature in the regulation of the inflammatory microenvironment during helminth infections, and an imbalance in this paradigm greatly contributes to inflammatory disorders. In some cases of helminthiasis, an initial Th1 response could occur during the early phases of infection (acute), followed by a Th2 response that prevails in chronic infections. During the late phase of infection, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are important to counteract the inflammation caused by the Th1/Th17 response and larval migration, limiting damage and repairing the tissue affected. Macrophages are the archetype of phagocytic cells, with the primary role of pathogen destruction and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, other subtypes of macrophages have been described with important roles in tissue repair and immune regulation. These types of macrophages challenge the classical view of macrophages activated by an inflammatory response. The role of these subtypes of macrophages during helminthiasis is a controversial topic in immunoparasitology. Here, we analyze some of the studies regarding the role of AAMs in tissue repair during the tissue migration of helminths. Berenice Faz-López, Jorge Morales-Montor, and Luis I. Terrazas Copyright © 2016 Berenice Faz-López et al. All rights reserved. Ectopic Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Review of the Literature Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:06:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2016/7618631/ Ectopic molar pregnancy is extremely rare, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Our literature search found only one report of molar pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively. Moreover, there is no English literature depicting magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of ectopic molar pregnancy. We report a case of ectopic molar pregnancy preoperatively diagnosed using MRI. A literature review of 31 cases of ectopic molar pregnancy demonstrated that lesions have been found in the fallopian tube (19 cases, 61%), ovary (5 cases, 16%), cornu (3 cases, 10%), peritoneum (2 cases, 6%), uterine cervix (1 case, 3%), and cesarean scar (1 case, 3%). Abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding were reported in 70% and 61% of the patients, respectively. Twenty-one cases (67%) presented with rupture and hemoperitoneum. All patients underwent surgical resection or dilatation and curettage. Methotrexate therapy was performed in one case because residual trophoblastic tissue was suspected. A second operation was performed in one case of ovarian molar pregnancy because serum hCG levels increased again after primary focal ovarian resection. No patients developed metastatic disease or relapsed. These findings suggest the prognosis of ectopic molar pregnancy to be favorable. Yasushi Yamada, Satoshi Ohira, Teruyuki Yamazaki, and Tanri Shiozawa Copyright © 2016 Yasushi Yamada et al. All rights reserved. Recombination Hotspot/Coldspot Identification Combining Three Different Pseudocomponents via an Ensemble Learning Approach Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:06:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8527435/ Recombination presents a nonuniform distribution across the genome. Genomic regions that present relatively higher frequencies of recombination are called hotspots while those with relatively lower frequencies of recombination are recombination coldspots. Therefore, the identification of hotspots/coldspots could provide useful information for the study of the mechanism of recombination. In this study, a new computational predictor called SVM-EL was proposed to identify hotspots/coldspots across the yeast genome. It combined Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Ensemble Learning (EL) based on three features including basic kmer (Kmer), dinucleotide-based auto-cross covariance (DACC), and pseudo dinucleotide composition (PseDNC). These features are able to incorporate the nucleic acid composition and their order information into the predictor. The proposed SVM-EL achieves an accuracy of 82.89% on a widely used benchmark dataset, which outperforms some related methods. Bingquan Liu, Yumeng Liu, and Dong Huang Copyright © 2016 Bingquan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Empedobacter brevis Meningitis in a Neonate: A Very Rare Case of Neonatal Meningitis and Literature Review Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:03:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/7609602/ Empedobacter brevis is gram-negative bacilli that belongs to Flavobacteriaceae family. It was previously known with name of Flavobacterium breve. The reservoir of these bacteria is soil, plants, water, food, hospital water sources, including incubators, sinks, faucets, tap water, hemodialysis systems, saline solutions, and other pharmaceutical solutions. We report a case of term female newborn, admitted with complaint of respiratory distress developing soon after birth and developed clinical features of sepsis at age of 92 hours of postnatal life. The sepsis screen was positive and blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid showed growth of Empedobacter brevis that was resistant to multiple antibiotics. The neonate was treated with appropriate antibiotics and was discharged successfully. The novelty of the case report is that this is the first case report of neonatal sepsis caused by Empedobacter brevis. Deepak Sharma, Ankur Patel, Priyanka Soni, Pradeep Sharma, and Basudev Gupta Copyright © 2016 Deepak Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Biomonitoring Climate Change and Pollution in Marine Ecosystems: A Review on Aulacomya ater Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:03:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2016/7183813/ The sedentarism and wide global distribution of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis have made it a useful bioindicator to assess changes in the health status of the marine ecosystem in response to pollution and other environmental stresses. Effective biomonitoring of an ecosystem requires, however, that multiple biomarkers be used to obtain an accurate measure of the cumulative effects of different sources of environmental stress. Here, we provide a first integrated review of the biological, economical, and geographical characteristics of another species of mussels, the ribbed mussel Aulacomya ater. We discuss the use of Aulacomya ater as a complementary biomonitor to the blue mussel to assess the impact of pollutants and climate change. Recent findings have indeed shown that Mytilus edulis and Aulacomya ater have distinctive anatomy and physiology and respond differently to environmental stress. Monitoring of mixed beds containing blue and ribbed mussels may thus represent a unique opportunity to study the effect of environmental stress on the biodiversity of marine ecosystems, most notably in the Southern hemisphere, which is particularly sensitive to climate change and where both species often cohabitate in the same intertidal zones. France Caza, Maximiliano Cledon, and Yves St-Pierre Copyright © 2016 France Caza et al. All rights reserved. The Robot Path Planning Based on Improved Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:01:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3297585/ Path planning is critical to the efficiency and fidelity of robot navigation. The solution of robot path planning is to seek a collision-free and the shortest path from the start node to target node. In this paper, we propose a new improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA) to process the mobile robot path planning problem in a real environment. In IAFSA, an attenuation function is introduced to improve the visual of standard AFSA and get the balance of global search and local search; also, an adaptive operator is introduced to enhance the adaptive ability of step. Besides, a concept of inertia weight factor is proposed in IAFSA inspired by PSO intelligence algorithm to improve the convergence rate and accuracy of IAFSA. Five unconstrained optimization test functions are given to illustrate the strong searching ability and ideal convergence of IAFSA. Finally, the ROS (robot operation system) based experiment is carried out on a Pioneer 3-DX mobile robot; the experiment results also show the superiority of IAFSA. Yi Zhang, Guolun Guan, and Xingchen Pu Copyright © 2016 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Differential Regulation of the Extracellular Cysteine/Cystine Redox State (EhCySS) by Lung Fibroblasts from Young and Old Mice Thu, 25 Aug 2016 17:01:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/1561305/ Aging is associated with progressive oxidation of plasma cysteine (Cys)/cystine (CySS) redox state, expressed as . Cultured cells condition their media to reproduce physiological , but it is unknown whether aged cells produce a more oxidized extracellular environment reflective of that seen in vivo. In the current study, we isolated primary lung fibroblasts from young and old female mice and measured the media before and after challenge with Cys or CySS. We also measured expression of genes related to redox regulation and fibroblast function. These studies revealed that old fibroblasts produced a more oxidizing extracellular than young fibroblasts and that old fibroblasts had a decreased capacity to recover from an oxidative challenge due to a slower rate of reduction of CySS to Cys. These defects were associated with 10-fold lower expression of the Slc7a11 subunit of the xCT cystine-glutamate transporter. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (Sod3) was the only antioxidant or thiol-disulfide regulating enzyme among 36 examined that was downregulated in old fibroblasts by more than 2-fold, but there were numerous changes in extracellular matrix components. Thus, aging fibroblasts not only contribute to remodeling of the extracellular matrix but also have a profound effect on the extracellular redox environment. Walter H. Watson, Tom J. Burke, Igor N. Zelko, Edilson Torres-González, Jeffrey D. Ritzenthaler, and Jesse Roman Copyright © 2016 Walter H. Watson et al. All rights reserved. Application of ADM Using Laplace Transform to Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Deformation for Cantilever Beam Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:58:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2016/5052194/ We investigate semianalytical solutions of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation by using Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition method (LADM). The deformation of a uniform flexible cantilever beam is formulated to initial value problems. We separate the problems into 2 cases: integer order for small deformation and fractional order for large deformation. The numerical results show the approximated solutions of deflection curve, moment diagram, and shear diagram of the presented method. Ratchata Theinchai, Siriwan Chankan, and Weera Yukunthorn Copyright © 2016 Ratchata Theinchai et al. All rights reserved. The Clinical and Medicolegal Analysis of Electrical Shocked Rats: Based on the Serological and Histological Methods Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:57:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4896319/ This research was aimed at discovering the serological and histological changes in cardiac and hepatic tissue after electric shock. The CK-MB, ALT, and AMS indexes were tested with serological methods. Moreover, the Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60 expression levels were carefully measured. An electrical injury model was established by giving rats electric shocks at 110 V with alternating electric current. Blood samples from the rats were analyzed for the biochemical indexes. The degrees of pathological changes in the heart and liver were evaluated using IHC staining for Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60. The levels of CK-MB in the electrical injury group rapidly peaked at 0.5 hours after the electric shock. Additionally, the levels of Bcl-2, Bax, and Hsp-60 in the cardiac and hepatic tissues changed regularly after the electrical injury and exhibited apparent differences from the levels in the control group. CK-MB, ALT, and AMS were altered regularly after electric shock, and these results provide significant information for clinical and medicolegal practice. This research has shed light on the assessment of electrical injury without obvious electrical burns. Furthermore, the findings obtained for Bcl-2/Bax and Hsp-60 can also facilitate pathological diagnosis and the identification of antemortem and postmortem electrical injury. Huitong Liu, Qiaofeng Wang, Ze Zhao, Yanan Xie, Suzhen Ding, and Zhenyuan Wang Copyright © 2016 Huitong Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Nonlinear Multitarget -Degree Coverage Preservation Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:57:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/3434961/ Due to the existence of a large number of redundant data in the process of covering multiple targets, the effective coverage of monitored region decreases, causing the network to consume more energy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a multitarget -degree coverage preservation protocol. Firstly, the affiliation between the sensor nodes and target nodes is established in the network model; meanwhile the method used to calculate the coverage expectation value of the monitored region is put forward; secondly, in the aspect of the network energy conversion, use scheduling mechanisms on the sensor nodes to balance the network energy and achieve different network coverage quality with energy conversion between different nodes. Finally, simulation results show that NMCP can improve the network lifetime by effectively reducing the number of active nodes to meet certain coverage requirements. Zeyu Sun, Xiaofei Xing, Chuanfeng Li, Yalin Nie, and Yangjie Cao Copyright © 2016 Zeyu Sun et al. All rights reserved. Variational Approaches to Characterize Weak Solutions for Some Problems of Mathematical Physics Equations Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:54:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2016/2071926/ This paper is aimed at providing three versions to solve and characterize weak solutions for Dirichlet problems involving the -Laplacian and the -pseudo-Laplacian. In this way generalized versions for some results which use Ekeland variational principle, critical points for nondifferentiable functionals, and Ghoussoub-Maurey linear principle have been proposed. Three sequences of generalized statements have been developed starting from the most abstract assertions until their applications in characterizing weak solutions for some mathematical physics problems involving the abovementioned operators. Irina Meghea Copyright © 2016 Irina Meghea. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Determination of Hydrochlorothiazide in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:54:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cri/2016/1693024/ An HPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the determination of hydrochlorothiazide in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. The method was optimized selecting chromatographic conditions of 50 : 50 acetonitrile : water, Inertsil® column (ODS-3 250 mm × 4.6 mm 5 μm), 20 μL injection volume, flow rate of 1 mL/min at ambient temperature (30°C), and 272 nm. Another column of C18Zorbax® (Eclipse Plus, 4.6 × 250 mm, 5 μm) was tested showing no big difference in the method results. The method was validated giving good precision (RSD% < 1), acceptable linearity ( ≥ 0.9978), and low LOD and LOQ (0.5 and 1.7 μg/mL, resp.) on both columns. Successful application on pharmaceutical dosage tablet form gave high recovery of 99.93%. The method was compared with official BP and other reported methods. The proposed method is economic, simple, and rapid and hence can be employed for routine analysis in quality control laboratories. Nidhal S. Mohammed and Ahmed J. Mohammed Copyright © 2016 Nidhal S. Mohammed and Ahmed J. Mohammed. All rights reserved. Supine Frequent Ventricular Extrasystoles in a Pregnant Woman without Structural Heart Disease Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:52:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/6213198/ Arrhythmias are the most common cardiac complication during gestational period and may occur in women with or without known structural heart disease. Premature extra beats and sustained tachyarrhythmias are the most common arrhythmias in pregnancy. Symptomatic episodes occur in 20–44% of pregnant women, usually as palpitations, dizziness, or syncope. We searched on Pubmed for ventricular premature complexes (VPC) in pregnant women and found no case reporting increased incidence of this arrhythmia while supine. The aim of this study is to report a case of a pregnant woman without previous structural heart disease that presented a great number of VPC when supine. The arrhythmogenesis increase during pregnancy is multifactorial. In the reported case, we believe that augmented venous return was the most important pathophysiologic process. When the patient changes to left lateral decubitus, there could be a sudden release of the inferior vena cava, causing an abrupt augmentation of venous return to the right heart chambers and increasing the risk of arrhythmias. Obstetricians and primary care physicians should be aware of palpitations and related patient complains while they are asleep or supine. Natália Stela Sandes Ferreira, Tatiana La Croix Barros, and Ronaldo Altenburg Gismondi Copyright © 2016 Natália Stela Sandes Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Paper Mulberry Fibers and Possibility of Cotton/Paper Mulberry Yarns Production Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:52:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2016/1498967/ The novelty of yarn production from cotton/paper mulberry fiber blends was reported. The objective of this research was to prepare the paper mulberry fibers and study the possibility of production of yarns from cotton/paper mulberry fibers. For preparation of paper mulberry fibers, the inner bark was first immersed in water for 24 h. Then, the fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide at concentration of 5–10% (w/v) for 1–3 h. After that, the bleaching process was conducted with hydrogen peroxide at concentration of 5–25% (v/v) for different temperature and time. Finally, the fibers were washed with 10% (v/v) of nonionic surfactant at temperature of 90°C for 30 minute to remove the residual gum from the fibers. The results showed that optimum condition for scouring of the paper mulberry fibers was 15% (w/v) sodium hydroxide at 90°C for 2 h. The bleaching process with 15% (v/v) H2O2 at 90°C for 90 minute was suitable. The obtained fibers were blended with the cotton fibers to produce yarns by open-end spinning method. The % elongation and tenacity of the blended yarns increased with the increasing of the paper mulberry ratio. Also, the antifungal property of yarns was improved by the blending of cotton fibers with the paper mulberry fibers. Manoon Jitjaicham and Boonsri Kusuktham Copyright © 2016 Manoon Jitjaicham and Boonsri Kusuktham. All rights reserved. The Improvement of Hyperglycemia after RYGB Surgery in Diabetic Rats Is Related to Elevated Hypothalamus GLP-1 Receptor Expression Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:51:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/5308347/ Objectives. This study aimed to explore the expression of GLP-1 receptor in hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tissues after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in diabetic rats. Methods. Male 12-week-old Wistar rats (control) and Goto-Kakizaki rats (diabetic) were randomly divided into two groups, respectively: control sham surgery group (C), control RYGB group (C + R), diabetic sham surgery group (D), and diabetic RYGB group (D + R). Body weight and blood glucose were monitored before and after surgery every week. Eight weeks after surgery, all rats were sacrificed and the serum fasting GLP-1 concentrations were measured by ELISA. GLP-1R and DPP-4 expression in hypothalamus and ileum were measured by RT-PCR. Results. The body weight and fasting/random blood glucose in the D + R group decreased significantly compared with the D group (). Serum GLP-1 levels in diabetic rats treated with RYGB were higher than the corresponding sham surgery rats. The expression of GLP-1R of hypothalamus in RYGB-treated diabetic rats was significantly higher than those of the sham surgery diabetic rats and both control group rats (). We found a negative correlation between hypothalamus GLP-1R mRNA and blood glucose level. No significant difference was seen in ileum GLP-1R and DPP-4 expression among all groups. Conclusions. RYGB efficiently promoted serum GLP-1 levels and the expression of GLP-1 receptor in the hypothalamus in diabetic rats. These data suggest that the hypothalamus GLP-1R may play an important role in the GLP-1 system for improving glucose homeostasis after reconstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Jazyra Zynat, Yuyu Guo, Yingli Lu, and Dongping Lin Copyright © 2016 Jazyra Zynat et al. All rights reserved. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Urea Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes in Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Uptake by Paddy Plants Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:51:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/1250739/ Efficient use of urea fertilizer (UF) as important nitrogen (N) source in the world’s rice production has been a concern. Carbon-based materials developed to improve UF performance still represent a great challenge to be formulated for plant nutrition. Advanced N nanocarrier is developed based on functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) grafted with UF to produce urea-multiwall carbon nanotubes (UF-MWCNTs) for enhancing the nitrogen uptake (NU) and use efficiency (NUE). The grafted N can be absorbed and utilized by rice efficiently to overcome the N loss from soil-plant systems. The individual and interaction effect between the specified factors of f-MWCNTs amount (0.10–0.60 wt%) and functionalization reflux time (12–24 hrs) with the corresponding responses (NUE, NU) were structured via the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on five-level CCD. The UF-MWCNTs with optimized 0.5 wt% f-MWCNTs treated at 21 hrs reflux time achieve tremendous NUE up to 96% and NU at 1180 mg/pot. Significant model terms ( value < 0.05) for NUE and NU responses were confirmed by the ANOVA. Homogeneous dispersion of UF-MWCNTs was observed via FESEM and TEM. The chemical changes were monitored by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Hence, this UF-MWCNTs’ approach provides a promising strategy in enhancing plant nutrition for rice. Norazlina Mohamad Yatim, Azizah Shaaban, Mohd Fairuz Dimin, Faridah Yusof, and Jeefferie Abd Razak Copyright © 2016 Norazlina Mohamad Yatim et al. All rights reserved. A Novel NDT Method for Coercive Force of Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel Applied in Cigarette Machines Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:30:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmet/2016/1980930/ Coercive force of grain-oriented electrical steel applied in cigarette machines is tested by a novel NDT method in which Barkhausen noise was applied. Linear relationship between coercive force and Barkhausen noise of conventional and high-permeability electrical steel was built and the precision of the model was verified. Experimental results show that the coercive force is linearly related to Barkhausen noise. The variation of coercive force with magnetic induction intensity increase was also interpreted in view of magnetic domain changing process, and the correlation formula derivation of MBN and coercive force domain wall was illustrated as well. Hao Wang, Jianbo Zhan, Zhenhua Yu, Yao Yu, Liang Cheng, Baoshan Yue, Yafeng Ji, Shuzong Chen, Li Wang, and Chen Chen Copyright © 2016 Hao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Metallosis after Exchange of the Femoral Head and Liner following Ceramic Acetabular Liner Dissociation in Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Modular Layered Acetabular Component Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:29:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/5301451/ The type of bearing material that should be used in revision surgery after the failure of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains controversial. In the case of ceramic fracture, the residual ceramic particles can cause consequent metallosis when metal implants are used for revision THA. On the other hand, in the case of THA failure without ceramic fracture, revision THA with a metal femoral head provides satisfactory results. We report an unusual case of progressive osteolysis due to metallosis that developed after revision THA for ceramic liner dissociation without a liner fracture performed using a metal femoral head and polyethylene liner. The residual metal debris and abnormal pumping motion of the polyethylene liner due to the breakage of the locking system or the aspherical metal shell being abraded by the ceramic head seemed to be the cause of the progressive osteolysis. Tomoya Takasago, Tomohiro Goto, Keizo Wada, Daisuke Hamada, Toshiyuki Iwame, Tetsuya Matsuura, Akihiro Nagamachi, and Koichi Sairyo Copyright © 2016 Tomoya Takasago et al. All rights reserved. UV Treatment of the Stabilizing Shell for Improving the Photostability of Silver Nanoparticles Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:29:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7510563/ Silver nanoparticles or nanoclusters are quite sensitive to light exposure. In particular, irradiation in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) region brings about a drastic modification of their optical properties due to growth and reshaping of the nanoparticles. In order to obtain luminescent colloids, small silver colloidal nanoparticles were prepared in chloroform using vinylpyrrolidone oligomers as capping agent and their luminescence properties were used to control their stability upon prolonged exposure to visible light. The polymeric shell around the metal clusters was hardened through photo-cross-linking by UV light. This process did not alter the morphology and the optical properties of the nanoparticles but greatly improved the particle photostability as confirmed also by confocal laser scanning microscopy measurements. The data clearly show that UV curing of the stabilizing layer could be a simple postsynthetic procedure to obtain materials with stable properties. Silvia Rinaldi, Luigi Tarpani, and Loredana Latterini Copyright © 2016 Silvia Rinaldi et al. All rights reserved. Gait Analysis of Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty and Bicruciate Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty Using a Triaxial Accelerometer Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:28:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/6875821/ One component of conventional total knee arthroplasty is removal of the anterior cruciate ligament, and the knee after total knee arthroplasty has been said to be a knee with anterior cruciate ligament dysfunction. Bicruciate stabilized total knee arthroplasty is believed to reproduce anterior cruciate ligament function in the implant and provide anterior stability. Conventional total knee arthroplasty was performed on the right knee and bicruciate stabilized total knee arthroplasty was performed on the left knee in the same patient, and a triaxial accelerometer was fitted to both knees after surgery. Gait analysis was then performed and is reported here. The subject was a 78-year-old woman who underwent conventional total knee arthroplasty on her right knee and bicruciate stabilized total knee arthroplasty on her left knee. On the femoral side with bicruciate stabilized total knee arthroplasty, compared to conventional total knee arthroplasty, there was little acceleration in the -axis direction (anteroposterior direction) in the early swing phase. Bicruciate stabilized total knee arthroplasty may be able to replace anterior cruciate ligament function due to the structure of the implant and proper anteroposterior positioning. Takenori Tomite, Hidetomo Saito, Toshiaki Aizawa, Hiroaki Kijima, Naohisa Miyakoshi, and Yoichi Shimada Copyright © 2016 Takenori Tomite et al. All rights reserved. Idiopathic Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis: A Rare Cause of Subacute Intestinal Obstruction Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:28:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/8206894/ We present a case of a previously healthy 50-year-old gentleman who had recurrent vomiting and abdominal pain of two-month duration. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with abdominal cocoon on computed tomography. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, also known as abdominal cocoon, is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction. Visualization of variable encasement of the small bowel loops by a characteristic membranous sac, either preoperatively with cross-sectional imaging or intraoperatively, is the key to diagnosis. This is a highly treatable condition; surgical excision of the sac with adhesiolysis facilitates a full recovery in affected patients. Mei Chin Lim, Niketa Chandrakant Chotai, and Danilo Medina Giron Copyright © 2016 Mei Chin Lim et al. All rights reserved. Internal Occipital Crest Misalignment with Internal Occipital Protuberance: A Case Report of Posterior Cranial Fossa Anatomic Variations Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:27:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/7575623/ During gross anatomy head and neck laboratory session, one dissection group observed an abnormal anatomic variation in the posterior cranial fossa of a 94-year-old male cadaver. The internal occipital crest was not aligned with internal occipital protuberance and groove for superior sagittal sinus. It seemed that the internal occipital protuberance was shifted significantly to the right side. As a result the skull was overly stretched in order to connect with the internal occipital ridge. These internal skull variations of occipital bone landmarks can influence the location of adjacent dural venous sinuses and possibly influence cerebrospinal fluid flow. Similar anatomical anomalies have been attributed to presence of hydrocephalus and abnormalities in cisterna magna. Jae Ha Kim and Maha Ahmad Copyright © 2016 Jae Ha Kim and Maha Ahmad. All rights reserved. Identifying the Prognosis Factors in Death after Liver Transplantation via Adaptive LASSO in Iran Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:27:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2016/7620157/ Despite the widespread use of liver transplantation as a routine therapy in liver diseases, the effective factors on its outcomes are still controversial. This study attempted to identify the most effective factors on death after liver transplantation. For this purpose, modified least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), called Adaptive LASSO, was utilized. One of the best advantages of this method is considering high number of factors. Therefore, in a historical cohort study from 2008 to 2013, the clinical findings of 680 patients undergoing liver transplant surgery were considered. Ridge and Adaptive LASSO regression methods were then implemented to identify the most effective factors on death. To compare the performance of these two models, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used. According to the results, 12 factors in Ridge regression and 9 ones in Adaptive LASSO regression were significant. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Adaptive LASSO was equal to 89% (95% CI: 86%–91%), which was significantly greater than Ridge regression (64%, 95% CI: 61%–68%) (). As a conclusion, the significant factors and the performance criteria revealed the superiority of Adaptive LASSO method as a penalized model versus traditional regression model in the present study. Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Saeedeh Pourahmad, and Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi Copyright © 2016 Hadi Raeisi Shahraki et al. All rights reserved. Harmful Chemicals in the Environment 2016 Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:27:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/6327312/ Jian Lu, Patrick C. Wilson, Xianghua Wen, Qiang Jin, and Jun Wu Copyright © 2016 Jian Lu et al. All rights reserved. Gender-Based Differences and Barriers in Skin Protection Behaviors in Melanoma Survivors Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:24:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jsc/2016/3874572/ Purpose. Skin protection behaviors and environmental exposure play a crucial role in the development and subsequent management of melanoma. This study investigates gender-based differences in skin protection behaviors after melanoma treatment. Methods. Patients diagnosed and surgically treated for cutaneous melanomas over the last six years in a geographically high risk area were surveyed over telephone using a standardized script. Results. Of 150 survey results obtained, there were 82 males and 68 females. Overall, 87% of participants reported skin self-examination for abnormal markings more often and 94% reported wearing skin protective clothing more often, with females being more than males. Females limited outdoor activity more often than males, 79% to 54%, . When outside, females sought shade more often than males, 75% to 56%, . However, males wore a wide brim hat more often than females, 52% to 28%, . Interestingly, 60% of participants reported wearing SPF 30 sunscreen less often, . Conclusion. Larger percentage of females adopted behavioral changes to prevent future melanoma. Those living in high risk areas and with outdoor occupations need particular attention to skin care. Population based screening should be adopted to deal with this rising public health crisis. Jeffrey Chen, Johnny Shih, Andrew Tran, Aaron Mullane, Christina Thomas, Nail Aydin, and Subhasis Misra Copyright © 2016 Jeffrey Chen et al. All rights reserved. Phenolic Compounds and In Vitro Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Three Tropic Fruits: Persimmon, Guava, and Sweetsop Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:15:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4287461/ In our previous study, we have found that persimmon, guava, and sweetsop owned considerably high antioxidant activity and contained high total phenolic contents as well. In order to further supply information on the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of these three tropic fruits, they were extracted by 80% methanol. We then examined the extractions about their phenolic compounds and also studied the extractions and phenolic contents about their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against twelve targeted pathogens including 8 standard strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Monilia albican, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 4 multidrug-resistant strains (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, ESBLs-producing Escherichia coli, carbapenems-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii), which are common and comprehensive in clinic. We also employed two ways, that is, FRAP and TEAC, to evaluate their antioxidant activities, using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. Our study indicated that the three tropical fruits possessed obvious antioxidant and antibacterial activity, which supported the possibility of developing the fruits into new natural resource food and functional food as well as new natural antimicrobial agent and food preservatives. Moreover, phenolic compounds detected in the fruits could be used as a potential natural antibacterial agent and antioxidant. Li Fu, WenQing Lu, and XiaoMin Zhou Copyright © 2016 Li Fu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets on the Morphology and Properties of Phenolic Resins Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:14:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3485167/ Graphene nanoplatelets (Gnps) were covalently functionalized by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH550) and noncovalently functionalized by Triton X-100, respectively. The morphology and structure of KH550 modified graphene (K-Gnp) and Triton X-100 modified graphene (T-Gnp) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron micrograph, and Raman spectrometer. The influences of K-Gnp and T-Gnp on thermal conductivity, fracture toughness, and thermal stability of the boron phenolic resin (BPR) were investigated. Both covalently functionalized K-Gnp and noncovalently functionalized T-Gnp not only improve the dispersion of Gnp in the polymer matrix but also increase interfacial bonding strength between the BPR matrix and Gnp, thus leading to the enhanced mechanical property and thermal stability of nanocomposites. Besides this, mechanical property and thermal stability of the BPR containing K-Gnp are superior to those of BPR containing T-Gnp. Jing Dai, Chao Peng, Fuzhong Wang, Guangwu Zhang, and Zhixiong Huang Copyright © 2016 Jing Dai et al. All rights reserved. Correlation of Serum β-Endorphin and the Quality of Life in Allergic Rhinitis Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:13:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/2025418/ Background. Allergic rhinitis (AR) significantly impairs the quality of life of the patients; however, a questionnaire alone is an insufficient and subjective measure of this condition. Obtaining an objective clinical assessment of the level of impairment will be valuable for its treatment. β-Endorphin is one of the most important mediators of both mental state and specific immunity. Thus, we investigated the possibility of using β-endorphin as a biomarker for evaluating the impairment level in AR. Methods. This study included 48 patients with AR and 32 healthy volunteers. The serum β-endorphin level was determined by enzyme immunoassay, and the serum-specific IgE and total IgE levels were determined by immunoblot assay. The Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) was used to assess the impairment level in the symptom duration. Results. The β-endorphin concentration was significantly decreased in AR patients compared to the healthy controls (, ). There was significant negative correlation between the impairment level and serum β-endorphin level (correlation coefficient: 0.468; ; ), but there was no association between the serum β-endorphin and total IgE levels (, ). Conclusion. -Endorphin is a systemic biomarker that has the potential to assess the impairment level in AR and may therefore be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of AR. Jichao Sha, Cuida Meng, Lin Li, Na Cui, Qian Xiu, and Dongdong Zhu Copyright © 2016 Jichao Sha et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Motor Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and Vascular Risk in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:12:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2016/1589747/ Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3%) with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients’ cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY), Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy ​​levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy ​​levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy ​​and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases. Bilge Kocer, Hayat Guven, Isik Conkbayir, Selim Selcuk Comoglu, and Sennur Delibas Copyright © 2016 Bilge Kocer et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acid Related Metabolomic Signature and Insulin Resistance: A Systematic Review Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:06:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/2794591/ Recent studies have shown the positive association between increased circulating BCAAs (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) and insulin resistance (IR) in obese or diabetic patients. However, results seem to be controversial in different races, diets, and distinct tissues. Our aims were to evaluate the relationship between BCAA and IR as well as later diabetes risk and explore the phenotypic and genetic factors influencing BCAA level based on available studies. We performed systematic review, searching MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception to March 2016. After selection, 23 studies including 20,091 participants were included. Based on current evidence, we found that BCAA is a useful biomarker for early detection of IR and later diabetic risk. Factors influencing BCAA level can be divided into four parts: race, gender, dietary patterns, and gene variants. These factors might not only contribute to the elevated BCAA level but also show obvious associations with insulin resistance. Genes related to BCAA catabolism might serve as potential targets for the treatment of IR associated metabolic disorders. Moreover, these factors should be controlled properly during study design and data analysis. In the future, more large-scale studies with elaborate design addressing BCAA and IR are required. Xue Zhao, Qing Han, Yujia Liu, Chenglin Sun, Xiaokun Gang, and Guixia Wang Copyright © 2016 Xue Zhao et al. All rights reserved. The Strategy and Early Clinical Outcome of Percutaneous Full-Endoscopic Interlaminar or Extraforaminal Approach for Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:04:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4702946/ Objective is to analyze the surgical strategy, safety, and clinical results of percutaneous full-endoscopic discectomy through interlaminar or extraforaminal puncture technique for LDH. Preoperative CT and MRI were analyzed, which were based on the main location of the herniated disc and its relationship with compressed nerve root. Sixty-two patients satisfied the inclusion criteria during the period from August 2012 to March 2014. We use percutaneous full-endoscopic discectomy through different puncture technique to remove the protrusive NP for LDH. Sixty patients completed the full-endoscopic operation successfully. Their removed disc tissue volume ranged from 1.5 mL to 3.8 mL each time. Postoperative ODI and VAS of low back and sciatica pain were significantly decreased in each time point compared to preoperative ones. No nerve root injury, infection, and other complications occurred. The other two patients were shifted to open surgery. No secondary surgery was required and 91.6% of excellent-to-good ratio was achieved on the basis of Macnab criteria at postoperative 12 months. Acquired benefits are fewer complications, rapid recovery, complete NP removal, effective nerve root decompression, and satisfactory cosmetic effect as well. This is a safe, effective, and rational minimally invasive spine-surgical technology with excellent clinical outcome. Weijun Kong, Wenbo Liao, Jun Ao, Guangru Cao, Jianpu Qin, and Yuqiang Cai Copyright © 2016 Weijun Kong et al. All rights reserved. A Temperature Compensation Model for Low Cost Quartz Accelerometers and Its Application in Tilt Sensing Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:03:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2950376/ Although the quartz accelerometer has made great advances, the performance, in some specific applications such as tilt sensing, needs to be well compensated in high temperature environment. Based on the high temperature testing of low cost quartz accelerometers, we found that the normalized positive and negative parts are asymmetrical at high temperature and the temperature curve of zero sensor output is related to the roll angle of the sensor. Traditional temperature compensation method only considers the temperature factor and ignores the roll sensitivity, which leads to deteriorated accuracy. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel and simple mathematical model to obtain a more accurate expression of zero sensor output, which makes the sensor output more robust at high temperature. Experimental results on two low cost quartz accelerometers demonstrate that the proposed model is feasible and effective, which could reduce the temperature drift error of the sensor output typically from 0.01 g to 0.001 g. Furthermore, we introduce the compensated sensors in the three-axis inclinometer system for tilt sensing, and the evaluation results show that the temperature drift error of the inclination in the range (, ) is reduced typically from to compared to the traditional method. Weibin Yang, Bin Fang, Yuan Yan Tang, and Xudong Qin Copyright © 2016 Weibin Yang et al. All rights reserved. Applying a Locally Linear Embedding Algorithm for Feature Extraction and Visualization of MI-EEG Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:02:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/7481946/ Robotic-assisted rehabilitation system based on Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is an applicable solution for stroke survivors with a poorly functioning hemiparetic arm. The key technique for rehabilitation system is the feature extraction of Motor Imagery Electroencephalography (MI-EEG), which is a nonlinear time-varying and nonstationary signal with remarkable time-frequency characteristic. Though a few people have made efforts to explore the nonlinear nature from the perspective of manifold learning, they hardly take into full account both time-frequency feature and nonlinear nature. In this paper, a novel feature extraction method is proposed based on the Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) algorithm and DWT. The multiscale multiresolution analysis is implemented for MI-EEG by DWT. LLE is applied to the approximation components to extract the nonlinear features, and the statistics of the detail components are calculated to obtain the time-frequency features. Then, the two features are combined serially. A backpropagation neural network is optimized by genetic algorithm and employed as a classifier to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The experiment results of 10-fold cross validation on a public BCI Competition dataset show that the nonlinear features visually display obvious clustering distribution and the fused features improve the classification accuracy and stability. This paper successfully achieves application of manifold learning in BCI. Mingai Li, Xinyong Luo, Jinfu Yang, and Yanjun Sun Copyright © 2016 Mingai Li et al. All rights reserved. Loan Transactions with Random Dates for the First and Last Periodic Instalments Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:02:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2016/2152189/ Usually, loan transactions contracted in practice are nonrandom; that is to say, all amounts received (principal) and paid (period instalments) by the borrower are previously agreed with the lender, as well as their respective dates. In this paper, two new alternative loan models are introduced, depending on whether the borrower survives or not to fulfil all repayment obligations. In this way, either the initial or the final date of repayments can be subject to this contingency. Additionally, the different parameters of such random transactions are determined, as well as several measures of profitability/cost for the lender/borrower, respectively. These transactions can be attractive for both the lender and the borrower, which therefore make them worthy of consideration and subsequent implementation for the benefit of both parties. María del Carmen Valls Martínez and Salvador Cruz Rambaud Copyright © 2016 María del Carmen Valls Martínez and Salvador Cruz Rambaud. All rights reserved. Euonymus alatus: A Review on Its Phytochemistry and Antidiabetic Activity Thu, 25 Aug 2016 16:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9425714/ Euonymus alatus (E. alatus) is a medicinal plant used in some Asian countries for treating various conditions including cancer, hyperglycemia, and diabetic complications. This review outlines the phytochemistry and bioactivities of E. alatus related to antidiabetic actions. More than 100 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from E. alatus, including flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, lignans, cardenolides, phenolic acids, and alkaloids. Studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated the hypoglycemic activity of E. alatus extracts and its certain constituents. The hypoglycemic activity of E. alatus may be related to regulation of insulin signaling and insulin sensitivity, involving PPARγ and aldose reductase pathways. Further studies on E. alatus and its bioactive compounds may help to develop new agents for treating diabetes and diabetic complications. Xifeng Zhai, George Binh Lenon, Charlie C. L. Xue, and Chun-Guang Li Copyright © 2016 Xifeng Zhai et al. All rights reserved. Some Interval 2-Tuple Linguistic Harmonic Mean Operators and Their Application in Material Selection Thu, 25 Aug 2016 15:57:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7034938/ We investigate the multiple attribute group material selection problems in which the attribute values take the form of interval 2-tuple linguistic information. Firstly, some operational laws and possibility degree of interval 2-tuple linguistic variables are introduced. Then, we develop some interval 2-tuple linguistic aggregation operators called interval 2-tuple hybrid harmonic mean (ITHHM) operator, induced interval 2-tuple ordered weighted harmonic mean (I-ITOWHM) operator, and induced interval 2-tuple hybrid harmonic mean (I-ITHHM) operator and study some desirable properties of the I-ITOWHM operator. In particular, all these operators can be reduced to aggregate 2-tuple linguistic variables. Based on the I-ITHHM and the ITWHM (interval 2-tuple weighted harmonic mean) operators, an approach to multiple attribute group decision-making with interval 2-tuple linguistic information is proposed. Finally, a practical application to material selection problem is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness. Meng-Meng Shan, Jian-Xin You, and Hu-Chen Liu Copyright © 2016 Meng-Meng Shan et al. All rights reserved. Response to: Comment on “Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Critically Ill Patients” Thu, 25 Aug 2016 14:36:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ccrp/2016/9724504/ Mattia Arrigo, Dominique Bettex, and Alain Rudiger Copyright © 2016 Mattia Arrigo et al. All rights reserved. A New Impact Time and Angle Control Guidance Law for Stationary and Nonmaneuvering Targets Thu, 25 Aug 2016 14:26:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/6136178/ A guidance problem for impact time and angle control applicable to cooperative attack is considered based on the sliding mode control. In order to satisfy the impact angle constraint, a line-of-sight rate polynomial function is introduced with four tuning parameters. And the time-to-go derivative with respect to a downrange orientation is derived to minimize the impact time error. Then the sliding mode control surface with impact time and angle constraints is constructed using nonlinear engagement dynamics to provide an accurate solution. The proposed guidance law is easily extended to a nonmaneuvering target using the predicted interception point. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law for different engagement scenarios. Zhe Yang, Hui Wang, Defu Lin, and Luyao Zang Copyright © 2016 Zhe Yang et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Load Balancing Using Active Replica Management in a Storage System Thu, 25 Aug 2016 14:26:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4751829/ Many algorithms can uniformly distribute data to storage nodes in a storage system. However, it cannot avoid load imbalance because data has different popularity. To resolve this issue, we propose a novel dynamic replication scheme, namely, Active Replica Management (ARM). ARM actively establishes optimal number of copies for hotspot data according to data access behaviors and then efficiently distributes copies to other storage nodes based on current amount of copies related to hotspot data. To improve storage utilization, ARM automatically and gradually dereplicates the useless copies of hotspot data when they become nonhotspot data. ARM resolves load imbalance by allocating dynamic copies to adequate storage nodes, and hence it can prevent partial storage nodes from overburdening. Simulation results demonstrate that ARM is an efficient scheme with excellent performance on load balancing, significantly closer to Optimal Load Balancing (OLB). In addition, ARM’s performance outperforms both Static Load Balancing (SLB) and No Replica schemes. Jui-Pin Yang Copyright © 2016 Jui-Pin Yang. All rights reserved. Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models Thu, 25 Aug 2016 14:25:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/1625015/ Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone marrow retroviral transduction models followed by transplantation. With the advancement of immunodeficient xenograft models, it has become possible to use human stem/progenitor cells for in vivo studies as well as cells directly derived from CML patients. These models not only mimic CML but also have been instrumental in uncovering various fundamental mechanisms of CML disease progression and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. With the availability of iPSC technology, it has become feasible to derive, maintain, and expand CML subclones that are at least genetically identical to those in patients. The following review provides an overview of all murine as well as human xenograft models for CML established till date. Pallavi Sontakke, Jenny Jaques, Edo Vellenga, and Jan Jacob Schuringa Copyright © 2016 Pallavi Sontakke et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Complexities in 2-Dimensional Discrete-Time Predator-Prey Systems with Allee Effect in the Prey Thu, 25 Aug 2016 14:05:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4275372/ The Allee effect is incorporated into a predator-prey model with linear functional response. Compared with the predator-prey which only takes the crowding effect and predator partially dependent on prey into consideration, it is found that the Allee effect of the prey species would increase the extinction risk of both the prey and predator. Moreover, by using a center manifold theorem and bifurcation theory, it is shown that the model with Allee effect undergoes the flip bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the interior of with different Allee effect values. In the two bifurcations, we can come to the conclusion that different Allee effect will have different bifurcation value and the increasing of the Allee effect will increase the value of bifurcation, respectively. Jie Yan, Chunli Li, Xueli Chen, and Lishun Ren Copyright © 2016 Jie Yan et al. All rights reserved. Advantages of Extracellular Ubiquitin in Modulation of Immune Responses Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:57:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4190390/ T and B lymphocytes play a central role in protecting the human body from infectious pathogens but occasionally they can escape immune tolerance, become activated, and induce autoimmune diseases. All deregulated cellular processes are associated with improper functioning of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in eukaryotic cells. The role of ubiquitin in regulation of immune responses and in autoimmune diseases is only beginning to emerge. Ubiquitin is found in intra- and extracellular fluids and is involved in regulation of numerous cellular processes. Extracellular ubiquitin ascribed a role in lymphocyte differentiation. It regulates differentiation and maturation of hematopoietic cell lines. Ubiquitination is involved in initiation, propagation, and termination of immune responses. Disrupted ubiquitination can lead to autoimmunity. Recent observations showed that it can suppress immune response and prevent inflammation. Exogenous ubiquitin may provide good potential as a new tool for targeted therapy for immune mediated disorders of various etiologies. Rusudan Sujashvili Copyright © 2016 Rusudan Sujashvili. All rights reserved. Maxillary Osteomyelitis: A Rare Entity Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:45:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/9723806/ Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is now a rare event with the advent of antibiotics. The two predominant causes are odontogenic infections and sinusitis. Immunocompromised states such as diabetes, HIV, and malnutrition increase the risk of osteomyelitis. It is important to recognize this early as it is a difficult entity to treat with potentially serious consequences. We report an unusual case of right sided maxillary osteomyelitis in a lady with poorly controlled diabetes in rural Lincolnshire. Biopsy of the right maxillary bone showed features of acute osteomyelitis. This responded well to a prolonged course of oral antibiotics. Ayaaz Habib, Nagaraj Sivaji, and Tauseef Ashraf Copyright © 2016 Ayaaz Habib et al. All rights reserved. Myocardial Infarction and Aortic Root Mycotic Aneurysm Complicating Aortic Valve Endocarditis: Utility of Cardiac CT Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:43:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/3756302/ Aortic mycotic aneurysms are a rare but life-threatening potential complication of infective endocarditis. Rapid deterioration of the vascular wall in highly focal areas makes these pseudoaneurysms particularly prone to rupture, resulting in uncontrolled aortic hemorrhage. While computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of mycotic aneurysms, it is not routinely performed in patients with known or suspected infective endocarditis (IE). However, current valvular heart disease guidelines support the use of cardiac CTA in cases of IE and suspected perivalvular extension when there is inadequate or ambiguous visualization on echocardiography. Here, we describe a case of IE in which cardiac CTA was used for two purposes: to assess perivalvular complications and to define coronary anatomy in a patient with a suspected embolic myocardial infarction. Subsequent detection of an aortic root mycotic aneurysm not previously demonstrated on transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography allowed for timely and uncomplicated surgical intervention, while avoiding invasive coronary angiography. Aimee E. Moores, Michael S. Cahill, and Todd C. Villines Copyright © 2016 Aimee E. Moores et al. All rights reserved. β-Cyclodextrin Production by Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase from an Alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 Using Different Starch Substrates Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:39:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/btri/2016/2034359/ Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) is an important member of α-amylase family which can degrade the starch and produce cyclodextrins (CDs) as a result of intramolecular transglycosylation (cyclization). β-Cyclodextrin production was carried out using the purified CGTase enzyme from an alkaliphile Microbacterium terrae KNR 9 with different starches in raw as well as gelatinized form. Cyclodextrin production was confirmed using thin layer chromatography. Six different starch substrates, namely, soluble starch, potato starch, sago starch, corn starch, corn flour, and rice flour, were tested for CD production. Raw potato starch granules were found to be the best substrate giving 13.46 gm/L of cyclodextrins after 1 h of incubation at 60°C. Raw sago starch gave 12.96 gm/L of cyclodextrins as the second best substrate. To achieve the maximum cyclodextrin production, statistical optimization using Central Composite Design (CCD) was carried out with three parameters, namely, potato starch concentration, CGTase enzyme concentration, and incubation temperature. Cyclodextrin production of 28.22 (gm/L) was achieved with the optimized parameters suggested by the model which are CGTase 4.8 U/L, starch 150 gm/L, and temperature 55.6°C. The suggested optimized conditions showed about 15% increase in β-cyclodextrin production (28.22 gm/L) at 55.6°C as compared to 24.48 gm/L at 60°C. The degradation of raw potato starch granules by purified CGTase was also confirmed by microscopic observations. Kiransinh N. Rajput, Kamlesh C. Patel, and Ujjval B. Trivedi Copyright © 2016 Kiransinh N. Rajput et al. All rights reserved. A 26-Year-Old Female with Systemic Mastocytosis with Associated Myeloid Neoplasm with Eosinophilia and Abnormalities of PDGFRB, t(4;5)(q21;q33) Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:33:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2016/4158567/ Various translocations involving the PDGFRB gene are identified in myeloid neoplasms. However, the PRKG2/PDGFRB fusion gene associated with t(4;5)(q21;q33) has previously been reported in only 3 patients. We present the case of a 26-year-old woman with microcytic anemia, basophilia, thrombocytosis, and massive splenomegaly, who was found to have systemic mastocytosis and associated clonal hematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD), with myeloid neoplasm with PRKG2/PDGFRB rearrangement. Initial findings included basophilia (37%, 4.1 k/L), hypercellular marrow with eosinophilia, and increased and atypical megakaryocytes, suggestive of myeloproliferative neoplasm. Additional studies revealed large clusters of CD25 positive mast cells, fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis. Consistent with prior reports of this translocation, our patient has responded well to imatinib. This case, in conjunction with others in the literature, suggests a possible connection between t(4;5)(q21;q33) PRKG2/PDGFRB and systemic mastocytosis and highlights their favorable response to imatinib. Laura E. Brown, Da Zhang, Diane L. Persons, Abdulraheem Yacoub, Shivani Ponnala, and Wei Cui Copyright © 2016 Laura E. Brown et al. All rights reserved. Malrotated Subhepatic Caecum with Subhepatic Appendicitis: Diagnosis and Management Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/6067374/ Subhepatically located caecum and appendix is a very rare entity. It occurs due to the anomaly in fetal gut rotation that results in an incomplete rotation and fixation of the intestine. Appendicitis, which is a common surgical emergency, in combination with the abnormal subhepatic location, presents a great challenge in its diagnosis and management. Here, we describe a 42-year-old male with chronic dyspepsia who presented with sepsis and severe pain at his right hypochondriac and epigastric region. The final diagnosis was acute appendicitis of the subhepatic appendix. Our discussion focuses on the diagnostic approach and clinical and surgical management. We hope that our report will increase the awareness among the clinicians and hasten the management of such rare condition to avoid complications. Hock Chin Chong, Feng Yih Chai, Dhayal Balakrishnan, Siti Mohd Desa Asilah, Irene Nur Ibrahim Adila, and Khuzaimah Zahid Syibrah Copyright © 2016 Hock Chin Chong et al. All rights reserved. Voltammetric Determination of Epinephrine in Pharmaceutical Sample with a Tyrosinase Nanobiosensor Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:30:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/5653975/ A novel carbon paste electrode modified with a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), tyrosinase, and Nafion membrane (CP/MWCNT/Tyr/Nafion) was developed for voltammetric determination of epinephrine (EP). The CP/MWCNT/Tyr/Nafion biosensor exhibited linear dynamic range from  M to  M EP concentration with a good correlation coefficient (). The detection limit of the biosensor was calculated as  M EP from the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3). Reproducibility of the biosensor was also calculated from relative standard deviation as 3.8% (). Ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) did not interfere in the quantification of epinephrine. The developed biosensor was also successfully applied for the determination of epinephrine in pharmaceutical sample. The CP/MWCNT/Tyr/Nafion biosensor has good sensitivity, selectivity, stability, easy preparation procedure, and short analysis time and can be used for the determination of EP in pharmacological samples. Şenol Alpat, Kazım Özdemir, and Sibel Kılınç Alpat Copyright © 2016 Şenol Alpat et al. All rights reserved. Resection and Resolution of Bone Marrow Lesions Associated with an Improvement of Pain after Total Knee Replacement: A Novel Case Study Using a 3-Tesla Metal Artefact Reduction MRI Sequence Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/6043497/ We present our case report using a novel metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to observe resolution of subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which are strongly associated with pain, in a patient after total knee replacement surgery. Large BMLs were seen preoperatively on the 3-Tesla MRI scans in a patient with severe end stage OA awaiting total knee replacement surgery. Twelve months after surgery, using a novel metal artefact reduction MRI sequence, we were able to visualize the bone-prosthesis interface and found complete resection and resolution of these BMLs. This is the first reported study in the UK to use this metal artefact reduction MRI sequence at 3-Tesla showing that resection and resolution of BMLs in this patient were associated with an improvement of pain and function after total knee replacement surgery. In this case it was associated with a clinically significant improvement of pain and function after surgery. Failure to eradicate these lesions may be a cause of persistent postoperative pain that is seen in up to 20% of patients following TKR surgery. Thomas Kurien, Robert Kerslake, Brett Haywood, Richard G. Pearson, and Brigitte E. Scammell Copyright © 2016 Thomas Kurien et al. All rights reserved. Removing Noises Induced by Gamma Radiation in Cerenkov Luminescence Imaging Using a Temporal Median Filter Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:27:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7948432/ Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) can provide information of medical radionuclides used in nuclear imaging based on Cerenkov radiation, which makes it possible for optical means to image clinical radionuclide labeled probes. However, the exceptionally weak Cerenkov luminescence (CL) from Cerenkov radiation is susceptible to lots of impulse noises introduced by high energy gamma rays generating from the decays of radionuclides. In this work, a temporal median filter is proposed to remove this kind of impulse noises. Unlike traditional CLI collecting a single CL image with long exposure time and smoothing it using median filter, the proposed method captures a temporal sequence of CL images with shorter exposure time and employs a temporal median filter to smooth a temporal sequence of pixels. Results of in vivo experiments demonstrated that the proposed temporal median method can effectively remove random pulse noises induced by gamma radiation and achieve a robust CLI image. Xu Cao, Yang Li, Yonghua Zhan, Xueli Chen, Fei Kang, Jing Wang, and Jimin Liang Copyright © 2016 Xu Cao et al. All rights reserved. Optimized Virtual Machine Placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing in Data Center Networks Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:14:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/3101658/ Virtualization has been an efficient method to fully utilize computing resources such as servers. The way of placing virtual machines (VMs) among a large pool of servers greatly affects the performance of data center networks (DCNs). As network resources have become a main bottleneck of the performance of DCNs, we concentrate on VM placement with Traffic-Aware Balancing to evenly utilize the links in DCNs. In this paper, we first proposed a Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (VMPPTB) and then proved it to be NP-hard and designed a Longest Processing Time Based Placement algorithm (LPTBP algorithm) to solve it. To take advantage of the communication locality, we proposed Locality-Aware Virtual Machine Placement Problem with Traffic-Aware Balancing (LVMPPTB), which is a multiobjective optimization problem of simultaneously minimizing the maximum number of VM partitions of requests and minimizing the maximum bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of Top of Rack (ToR) switches. We also proved it to be NP-hard and designed a heuristic algorithm (Least-Load First Based Placement algorithm, LLBP algorithm) to solve it. Through extensive simulations, the proposed heuristic algorithm is proven to significantly balance the bandwidth occupancy on uplinks of ToR switches, while keeping the number of VM partitions of each request small enough. Tao Chen, Xiaofeng Gao, and Guihai Chen Copyright © 2016 Tao Chen et al. All rights reserved. A New Method of Wave Mapping with HF Radar Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:13:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/4135404/ Study of wave height inversion with High-Frequency Surface Wave Radars (HFSWRs) has been going on for more than 40 years. Various wave inversion methods have been proposed, and HFSWRs have achieved great success in local wave measurements. However, the method of wave mapping is still under development, especially for the broad-beam HF radars. Existing methods of wave mapping are based on narrow-beam radar with beamforming. This paper introduces a way of wave height inversion, using the ratio of the second-harmonic peak (SHP) to the Bragg peak (RSB). A new wave mapping method is proposed, which can be used in both narrow and broad-beam radars, according to the way of wave inversion based on the RSB. In addition, radar wave measurements at the buoy position are compared with the in situ buoy, which show a good agreement. At last, the results of wave mapping on the two-hour timescale are given. Lijie Jin, Biyang Wen, and Hao Zhou Copyright © 2016 Lijie Jin et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Fatal Isoniazid-Induced Hepatotoxicity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:13:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3617408/ This paper describes a case of an acute and fatal isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity and provides a review of the literature. A 65-year-old female diagnosed with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection was receiving oral isoniazid 300 mg daily. She was admitted to the hospital for epigastric and right sided flank pain of one-week duration. Laboratory results and imaging confirmed hepatitis. After ruling out all other possible causes, she was diagnosed with isoniazid-induced acute hepatitis (probable association by the Naranjo scale). After discharge, the patient was readmitted and suffered from severe coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, hepatic encephalopathy, and cardiorespiratory arrest necessitating two rounds of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Despite maximal hemodynamic support, the patient did not survive. A review of the literature, from several European countries and the United States of America, revealed a low incidence of mortality due to isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity when used as a single agent for latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. As for the management, the first step consists of withdrawing isoniazid and rechallenge is usually discouraged. Few treatment modalities have been proposed; however there is no robust evidence to support any of them. Routine monitoring for hepatotoxicity in patients receiving isoniazid is warranted to prevent morbidity and mortality. Wissam K. Kabbara, Aline T. Sarkis, and Paola G. Saroufim Copyright © 2016 Wissam K. Kabbara et al. All rights reserved. Reversible Oxygenation of 2,4-Diaminobutanoic Acid-Co(II) Complexes Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:08:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2016/8296365/ This paper introduces the structural characterization and studies on reversible oxygenation behavior of a new oxygen carrier Co(II)-2,4-diaminobutanoic acid (DABA) complex in aqueous solution. The composition of the oxygenated complex was determined by gas volumetric method, molar ratio method, and mass spectrometry, and the formula of the oxygenated complex was determined to be [Co(DABA)2O2]. In aqueous solution, the complex can continuously uptake and release dioxygen and exhibit excellent reversibility of oxygenation and deoxygenation ability. This complex can maintain 50% of its original oxygenation capacity after 30 cycles in 24 h and retain 5% of the original oxygenation capacity after more than 260 cycles after 72 h. When a ligand analogue was linked to histidine (His), the new complex exhibited as excellent reversible oxygenation property as His-Co(II) complex. Insight into the relationship between structural detail and oxygenation properties will provide valuable suggestion for a new family of oxygen carriers. Xiang Cheng, Yan Huang, Hui Li, Fan Yue, Hongmei Wen, and Jide Wang Copyright © 2016 Xiang Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:07:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/8379105/ Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. Renata Rebeca Pereira, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich de Abreu, Joyce Ferreira da Costa Guerra, Nara Nunes Lage, Juliana Márcia Macedo Lopes, Maísa Silva, Wanderson Geraldo de Lima, Marcelo Eustáquio Silva, and Maria Lucia Pedrosa Copyright © 2016 Renata Rebeca Pereira et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Treatment with Romidepsin in Patients with Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:07:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2016/8175957/ Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a heterogeneous group of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a common subtype of PTCL, and patients with AITL typically have a poor prognosis with limited treatment options. Clinical studies have demonstrated the activity of romidepsin, a structurally unique, potent, bicyclic class 1 selective histone deacetylase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed or refractory AITL. In the case presented herein, we describe a patient treated with single-agent romidepsin at first diagnosis of AITL, resulting in complete remission for over 2 years and leading to the use of maintenance dosing. The patient eventually underwent a successful autologous stem cell transplant. This case illustrates the successful use of romidepsin for the long-term treatment of a patient with AITL in a clinical setting. Maintenance dosing may be an option for patients who have an extended response to romidepsin in order to optimize outcomes and to prolong time to the next subsequent line of therapy. In our case, the patient was able to remain in complete remission for more than 1 year while receiving maintenance dosing of romidepsin. Claudius Irlé and Jonathan Weintraub Copyright © 2016 Claudius Irlé and Jonathan Weintraub. All rights reserved. Existence of Nonoscillatory Solutions of Higher-Order Neutral Differential Equations with Distributed Coefficients and Delays Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:05:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1026726/ We consider the existence of nonoscillatory solutions of higher-order neutral differential equations with distributed coefficients. We use the contraction principle to obtain new sufficient condition for the existence of nonoscillatory solutions. Youjun Liu, Huanhuan Zhao, and Jurang Yan Copyright © 2016 Youjun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Use of Moringa oleifera (Moringa) Seed Pods and Sclerocarya birrea (Morula) Nut Shells for Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater and Borehole Water Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:05:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/9312952/ Use of nonedible seed pods of Moringa oleifera (Moringa) tree and nutshells of Sclerocarya birrea (Morula) tree for removal of selected metal ions (lead, cadmium, copper, manganese, iron, zinc, and magnesium) from wastewater and borehole water samples was investigated. Removal parameters such as contact time, pH, temperature, particle size, sorbent dose, and initial metal concentration were optimized. Determination of residual metal ions after employing sorbent was done using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Using 200 ng synthetic metal ion mixture in 50 mL of water sample, the optimized parameters for Moringa seed pods were 60 min contact time, 1.0 g of sorbent dose, pH 8, 100 μm sorbent particle size, and extraction temp 35°C. While using Morula nutshells, the optimized conditions were 120 min contact time, 2.0 g sorbent dose, pH 8, 100 μm sorbent particle size, and extraction temp of 35°C. The removal efficiency of acid treated sorbents was compared to that of untreated sorbents and it was found to be higher for acid treated sorbents. These nonedible plant parts for Morula and Moringa plants are proposed as a cheap, simple, and an effective alternative for purification of water contaminated with heavy metals. Irene Wangari Maina, Veronica Obuseng, and Florence Nareetsile Copyright © 2016 Irene Wangari Maina et al. All rights reserved. A Potential Therapeutic Role of Myoinositol in the Metabolic and Cardiovascular Profile of PCOS Iranian Women Aged between 30 and 40 Years Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:04:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/7493147/ Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder in reproductive age. This pilot study investigated the effects of myoinositol (MI) treatment on metabolic and cardiovascular profile in PCOS women over 30 years of age. Methods. Between 2015 and 2016, 50 women with diagnosis of PCOS by the Rotterdam Criteria were included in the study. All women received MI 2 g plus 200 μg of folic acid (Inofolic, Health Parsian, Iran; twice daily) for 3 months. Baseline and 3-month serum samples were taken after an overnight fast to evaluate the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting glucose, and the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), homocysteine, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. Participants’ weight was measured before and after treatment and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Results. The data showed a significant improvement in the serum level of insulin sensitivity and a reduction of cholesterol, LDL, and homocysteine after three months of treatment. Furthermore, blood pressure was significantly reduced in the treated patients. Three participants became pregnant during treatment. Conclusion. Results showed that supplementation with MI and folic acid in PCOS patients over 30 years of age could decrease the risk of cardiovascular problems by normalizing the metabolic profile. Saghar Salehpour, Leila Nazari, Sedighe Hoseini, Nasrin Saharkhiz, Fatemeh Ghazi, and Mohammad Reza Sohrabi Copyright © 2016 Saghar Salehpour et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Anterior Segment’s Structures in Tilted Disc Syndrome Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:03:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/5185207/ Purpose. To evaluate anterior segment’s structures by Pentacam in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods. Group 1 included forty-six eyes of forty-six patients who have the TDS. Group 2 including forty-six eyes of forty-six cases was the control group which was equal to the study group in age, gender, and refraction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in both groups. All cases were evaluated by Pentacam. The axial length (AL) of eyes was measured by ultrasound. Quantitative data obtained from these measurements were compared between two groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference for age, gender, axial length, and spherical equivalent measurements between two groups (, , , and ). There was a statistically significant difference for central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil size measurements between two groups (, , , and ). Also, there was no statistically significant difference for anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), and lens thickness (LT) measurements between two groups (, , and ). Conclusion. We determined that CCT was thinner, CV was less, and ACA was narrower in patients with TDS. There are some changes in the anterior segment of the eyes with tilted disc. Ercan Ozsoy, Abuzer Gunduz, Ersin Ersan Demirel, and Tongabay Cumurcu Copyright © 2016 Ercan Ozsoy et al. All rights reserved. Functional Polymeric Materials Based on Cellulose Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:03:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2016/5176968/ Haisong Qi, Ang Lu, Qingbin Zheng, and Quanling Yang Copyright © 2016 Haisong Qi et al. All rights reserved. Successful Resection of Isolated Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence from Advanced Sigmoid Colon Cancer following 156 Courses of FOLFIRI Regimen Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:02:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/4548798/ Isolated para-aortic lymph node (PLN) recurrence from colorectal cancer (CRC) is rare, with no currently validated treatments. Few reports have described the successful resection of isolated PLN involvement from CRC following chemotherapy. We report the case of a 63-year-old man who underwent sigmoidectomy for sigmoid colon cancer at our hospital. Pathological examination demonstrated advanced sigmoid colon cancer with metastatic involvement in both of the tested PLNs. Palliative chemotherapy was initiated four weeks after surgical resection, with administration of the FOLFIRI regimen. Four years after the operation, computed tomography (CT) revealed an enlarged PLN below the left renal vein. As PLN enlarged to 15 mm in the minor axis on a CT scan in 2014 after receiving a total of 156 courses of the FOLFIRI regimen, we considered the enlarged PLN to represent an isolated metastasis. Accordingly, lymph node resection was performed with microscopically negative margins. The patient maintained a good quality of life without any side effects throughout the whole course of his treatment and remains disease-free at 24 months without chemotherapy after resection of the isolated PLN. Curative resection following chemotherapy may improve survival of carefully selected advanced CRC patients with locoregional recurrence, such as isolated PLN involvement. Kaoru Takeshima, Kazuo Yamafuji, Atsunori Asami, Hideo Baba, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Hidena Takahashi, Chisato Takagi, and Kiyoshi Kubochi Copyright © 2016 Kaoru Takeshima et al. All rights reserved. Method of Quantitative Analysis for Multirobot Cooperative Hunting Behaviors Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:02:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4370635/ The kinematic behavior of mobile robots can be represented as functions of time. During the operation of a multirobot system, the orbit of a special robot is recorded. The embedding dimension and the delay time are chosen based on the correlation integral method. A chaotic attractor equivalent to the original system is reconstructed in phase space. The multirobot system can be adequately described based on the phase space information, and the dynamic system states can be forecast based on this information. The eigenvalues of the attractor are calculated including the maximum Lyapunov exponent and correlation dimension. The robot collective behavior is described and analyzed quantitatively based on the eigenvalues. The critical factor that affects the interaction of robots is investigated based on quantified parameters. Our analysis results can be used to improve the understanding of robot interaction mechanisms. Yong Song, Chengjin Zhang, and Hai Liu Copyright © 2016 Yong Song et al. All rights reserved. A Case of p63 Positive Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of the Bladder Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:01:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2016/4348208/ Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), currently the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), is an aggressive B cell neoplasm that typically presents in older adults as a rapidly enlarging mass. The enlarging mass typically represents a lymph node, although extranodal disease can occur in a significant percentage (40%) of cases. The most common extranodal sites of involvement include the gastrointestinal tract and skin; primary bladder lymphoma represents only 0.2% of extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma occurring in the bladder of an 83-year-old gentleman with an initial presentation of hematuria. This neoplasm displayed large, atypical cells with vesicular chromatin and prominent nucleoli that involved the bladder mucosa with invasion into muscularis propria, prostate, and urethra. Positive staining for p63 initially raised suspicion for poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma; however, lack of staining for pancytokeratin and positive staining for LCA, CD20, CD79a, and PAX-5 confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Though it does not occur in all cases, p63 can be positive in a significant percentage of cases of DLBCL; therefore, a diagnosis of lymphoma remains an important entity on the differential diagnosis of aggressive and particularly poorly differentiated neoplasms. Chelsey D. Deel, Carol Jones, and Teresa Scordino Copyright © 2016 Chelsey D. Deel et al. All rights reserved. A Numberable Set of Exact Solutions for the Macroscopic Approach to Extended Thermodynamics of Polyatomic Gases with Many Moments Thu, 25 Aug 2016 12:09:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2016/1307813/ A new model for Polyatomic Gases with an arbitrary but fixed number of moments has been recently proposed and investigated in the framework of Extended Thermodynamics; the arbitrariness of the number of moments is linked to a number and the resulting model is called an -Model. This model has been elaborated in order to take into account the entropy principle, the Galilean relativity principle, and some symmetry conditions. It has been proved that the solution for all these conditions exists, but it has not been written explicitly because hard notation is necessary; it has only been shown how the theory is self-generating in the sense that if we know the closure of the -Model, then we will be able to find that of -Model. Up to now only a single particular solution has been found in this regard. Instead of this, we find here a numberable set of exact solutions which hold for every fixed number . Maria Cristina Carrisi, Rita Enoh Tchame, Marcel Obounou, and Sebastiano Pennisi Copyright © 2016 Maria Cristina Carrisi et al. All rights reserved. Ethnomedicinal Uses of Honeybee Products in Lithuania: The First Analysis of Archival Sources Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:56:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9272635/ Lithuania has old ethnomedicine traditions, consisting of many recipes with herbal, animal, and mineral original ingredients. All these findings were mostly collected in Lithuanian language, often in local community’s dialects, and stored only in archives. We analyzed archival sources about honeybee and its products used for medicinal purposes dated from 1886 till 1992 in different parts of Lithuania. We systematized and presented the most important information about bees and their products: indication for usage, ingredients used in the recipe, their preparation techniques, and application for therapeutic purposes. Researchers in Lithuania are now looking for new evidence based indications and preparation and standardization methods of bee products. Archival sources are a foundation for studies in Lithuania. The results can be integrated into scientifically approved folk medicine practices into today’s healthcare. Zivile Pranskuniene, Jurga Bernatoniene, Zenona Simaitiene, Andrius Pranskunas, and Tauras Mekas Copyright © 2016 Zivile Pranskuniene et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Effects of Using Geosynthetics and Lime Stabilization to Increase Bearing Capacity of Unpaved Road Subgrade Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:56:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7129356/ So many soil improvement methods have been developed in order to increase bearing capacity of superstructure of the road to be constructed on the soft clayey road base soils, decrease settlements, and increase other strength specifications (CBR, , values, etc.). In this paper, lime stabilization of clayey road base soil with high water content and its improvement with geosynthetics (geocell + geotextile) reinforcement and comparisons of these two different improvement methods were made. For this purpose, plate loading experimental comparisons of clayey soil, which had high water content by 10% increasing the optimum water content, were made after it was improved with lime at the rates of 3, 6, and 12%, geotextile reinforcement, geocell reinforcement, geosynthetics reinforcement, and geosynthetics reinforcement + lime stabilization at various rates. It was understood that these improvement methods will not yield sufficient results on clayey soils with high water content on their own, and method of improvement with lime and then reinforcement with geosynthetics yields better results on these types of soils. Only one improvement state among ten different states examined in this study gave the sufficient results for the soil to be used for unpaved roads. Erhan Burak Pancar and Muhammet Vefa Akpınar Copyright © 2016 Erhan Burak Pancar and Muhammet Vefa Akpınar. All rights reserved. Statistical Approaches for the Construction and Interpretation of Human Protein-Protein Interaction Network Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:55:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5313050/ The overall goal is to establish a reliable human protein-protein interaction network and develop computational tools to characterize a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and the role of individual proteins in the context of the network topology and their expression status. A novel and unique feature of our approach is that we assigned confidence measure to each derived interacting pair and account for the confidence in our network analysis. We integrated experimental data to infer human PPI network. Our model treated the true interacting status (yes versus no) for any given pair of human proteins as a latent variable whose value was not observed. The experimental data were the manifestation of interacting status, which provided evidence as to the likelihood of the interaction. The confidence of interactions would depend on the strength and consistency of the evidence. Yang Hu, Ying Zhang, Jun Ren, Yadong Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, and Jun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yang Hu et al. All rights reserved. Preparation, Characterization, and In Vitro and Vivo Antitumor Activity of Oridonin-Conjugated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Carboxylic Group Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:54:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3439419/ Carbon nanotubes have shown great potential in tumor therapy. Oridonin (ORI) is a poorly water-soluble diterpenoid compound (C20H28O6) used in the treatment of esophageal and hepatic carcinoma for decades. For the purpose of enhancing the antitumor potency and reducing cytotoxicity of ORI, multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with carboxylic group (MWCNTs-COOH) were used as ORI carrier. ORI was noncovalently encapsulated into (or onto) the functionalized carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-ORI). The obtained MWCNTs-ORI has been characterized. The ORI loading efficiency in MWCNTs-COOH carrier was studied to be about 82.6% (w/w). In vitro cytotoxicity assay on MWCNTs-ORI gave IC50 of  μg/mL and ORI-F gave IC50 of  μg/mL. The antitumor effect studies in vivo showed that MWCNTs-ORI improved antitumor activity of ORI in comparison with ORI-F. The tumor inhibition ratio for MWCNTs-ORI ( g·Kg−1·d−1) was 86.4%, higher than that of ORI-F ( g·Kg−1·d−1) which was 39.2%. This can greatly improve the pharmaceutical efficiency and reduce potential side effects. Chuanjin Wang and Wei Li Copyright © 2016 Chuanjin Wang and Wei Li. All rights reserved. Multigrid Nonlocal Gaussian Mixture Model for Segmentation of Brain Tissues in Magnetic Resonance Images Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:52:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6727290/ We propose a novel segmentation method based on regional and nonlocal information to overcome the impact of image intensity inhomogeneities and noise in human brain magnetic resonance images. With the consideration of the spatial distribution of different tissues in brain images, our method does not need preestimation or precorrection procedures for intensity inhomogeneities and noise. A nonlocal information based Gaussian mixture model (NGMM) is proposed to reduce the effect of noise. To reduce the effect of intensity inhomogeneity, the multigrid nonlocal Gaussian mixture model (MNGMM) is proposed to segment brain MR images in each nonoverlapping multigrid generated by using a new multigrid generation method. Therefore the proposed model can simultaneously overcome the impact of noise and intensity inhomogeneity and automatically classify 2D and 3D MR data into tissues of white matter, gray matter, and cerebral spinal fluid. To maintain the statistical reliability and spatial continuity of the segmentation, a fusion strategy is adopted to integrate the clustering results from different grid. The experiments on synthetic and clinical brain MR images demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed model comparing with several state-of-the-art algorithms. Yunjie Chen, Tianming Zhan, Ji Zhang, and Hongyuan Wang Copyright © 2016 Yunjie Chen et al. All rights reserved. Use and Adoption of an Assisted Cognition System to Support Therapies for People with Dementia Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:41:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/1075191/ The cognitive deficits in persons with dementia (PwD) can produce significant functional impairment from early stages. Although memory decline is most prominent, impairments in attention, orientation, language, reasoning, and executive functioning are also common. Dementia is also characterized by changes in personality and behavioral functioning that can be very challenging for caregivers and patients. This paper presents results on the use and adoption of an assisted cognition system to support occupational therapy to address psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia. During 16 weeks, we conducted an in situ evaluation with two caregiver-PwD dyads to assess the adoption and effectiveness of the system to ameliorate challenging behaviors and reducing caregiver burden. Evaluation results indicate that intervention personalization and a touch-based interface encouraged the adoption of the system, helping reduce challenging behaviors in PwD and caregiver burden. René F. Navarro, Marcela D. Rodríguez, and Jesús Favela Copyright © 2016 René F. Navarro et al. All rights reserved. Wen-Luo-Tong Prevents Glial Activation and Nociceptive Sensitization in a Rat Model of Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Pain Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:32:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3629489/ One of the main dose-limiting complications of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin (OXL) is painful neuropathy. Glial activation and nociceptive sensitization may be responsible for the mechanism of neuropathic pain. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Wen-luo-tong (WLT) has been widely used in China to treat chemotherapy induced neuropathic pain. However, there is no study on the effects of WLT on spinal glial activation induced by OXL. In this study, a rat model of OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain was established and WLT was administrated. Pain behavioral tests and morphometric examination of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were conducted. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining was performed, glial activation was evaluated, and the excitatory neurotransmitter substance P (SP) and glial-derived proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were analyzed. WLT treatment alleviated OXL-induced mechanical allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. Changes in the somatic, nuclear, and nucleolar areas of neurons in DRG were prevented. In the spinal dorsal horn, hypertrophy and activation of GFAP-positive astrocytes were averted, and the level of GFAP mRNA decreased significantly. Additionally, TNF-α mRNA and protein levels decreased. Collectively, these results indicate that WLT reversed both glial activation in the spinal dorsal horn and nociceptive sensitization during OXL-induced chronic neuropathic pain in rats. Bo Deng, Liqun Jia, Lin Pan, Aiping Song, Yuanyuan Wang, Huangying Tan, Qing Xiang, Lili Yu, and Dandan Ke Copyright © 2016 Bo Deng et al. All rights reserved. From Boole to Leggett-Garg: Epistemology of Bell-Type Inequalities Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:22:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2016/4623040/ In 1862, George Boole derived an inequality for variables that represents a demarcation line between possible and impossible experience. This inequality forms an important milestone in the epistemology of probability theory and probability measures. In 1985 Leggett and Garg derived a physics related inequality, mathematically identical to Boole’s, that according to them represents a demarcation between macroscopic realism and quantum mechanics. We show that a wide gulf separates the “sense impressions” and corresponding data, as well as the postulates of macroscopic realism, from the mathematical abstractions that are used to derive the inequality of Leggett and Garg. If the gulf can be bridged, one may indeed derive the said inequality, which is then clearly a demarcation between possible and impossible experience: it cannot be violated and is not violated by quantum theory. This implies that the Leggett-Garg inequality does not mean that the SQUID flux is not there when nobody looks, as Leggett and Garg suggest, but instead that the probability measures may not be what Leggett and Garg have assumed them to be, when no data can be secured that directly relate to them. We show that similar considerations apply to other quantum interpretation-puzzles such as two-slit experiments. Karl Hess, Hans De Raedt, and Kristel Michielsen Copyright © 2016 Karl Hess et al. All rights reserved. Analyses of the Calendaring Process for Performance Optimization of Li-Ion Battery Cathode Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:17:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ac/2016/7395060/ Olivine structure LiFePO4 (LFP) was synthesized via solid state processes, using Li2CO3, NH4H2PO4, and FeC2O4·H2O and C12H22O11 as precursor materials. The effects of calendaring are analyzed in terms of electrochemical performance, cycle life, surface morphology, and ac impedance analysis. The resulting LFP electrode was divided into calendared and uncalendared samples. Under electrochemical impedance testing, the calendared and uncalendared electrodes exhibited a charge transfer resistance of 157.8 Ω and 182.4 Ω, respectively. The calendared electrode also exhibited a higher discharge capacity of about 130 mAh/g at compared to a discharge capacity of 120 mAh/g at for the uncalendared electrode. Charles F. Oladimeji, Pedro L. Moss, and Mark H. Weatherspoon Copyright © 2016 Charles F. Oladimeji et al. All rights reserved. Robust Individual-Cell/Object Tracking via PCANet Deep Network in Biomedicine and Computer Vision Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:17:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8182416/ Tracking individual-cell/object over time is important in understanding drug treatment effects on cancer cells and video surveillance. A fundamental problem of individual-cell/object tracking is to simultaneously address the cell/object appearance variations caused by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper, inspired by the architecture of deep learning, we propose a robust feature learning method for constructing discriminative appearance models without large-scale pretraining. Specifically, in the initial frames, an unsupervised method is firstly used to learn the abstract feature of a target by exploiting both classic principal component analysis (PCA) algorithms with recent deep learning representation architectures. We use learned PCA eigenvectors as filters and develop a novel algorithm to represent a target by composing of a PCA-based filter bank layer, a nonlinear layer, and a patch-based pooling layer, respectively. Then, based on the feature representation, a neural network with one hidden layer is trained in a supervised mode to construct a discriminative appearance model. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem, a sample update scheme is carefully designed to keep track of the most representative and diverse samples during tracking. We test the proposed tracking method on two standard individual cell/object tracking benchmarks to show our tracker's state-of-the-art performance. Bineng Zhong, Shengnan Pan, Cheng Wang, Tian Wang, Jixiang Du, Duansheng Chen, and Liujuan Cao Copyright © 2016 Bineng Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Gluten-Free Diet Only during Pregnancy Efficiently Prevents Diabetes in NOD Mouse Offspring Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:15:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/3047574/ Studies have documented that the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes is influenced by the intake of gluten. Aims. To investigate the importance of gluten exposure during pregnancy and the subsequent development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring. Methods. Nonobese diabetic mice were divided into 7 groups to receive combinations of gluten-free and standard diet before, during, or after pregnancy. Diabetes incidence in offspring was followed in each group () for 310 days. Insulitis score and intestinal expression of T-cell transcription factors (RT-QPCR) were evaluated in animals from the different diet groups. Results. If mothers were fed a gluten-free diet only during pregnancy, the development of autoimmune diabetes in offspring was almost completely prevented with an incidence reduction from 62.5% in gluten-consuming mice to 8.3% () in the gluten-free group. The islets of Langerhans were less infiltrated () and the intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17) () reduced in mice whose mothers were Gluten-free during pregnancy. Conclusion. A gluten-free diet exclusively during pregnancy efficiently prevents autoimmune diabetes development in offspring and reduces insulitis and intestinal expression of RORγt (Th17). Julie C. Antvorskov, Knud Josefsen, Martin Haupt-Jorgensen, Petra Fundova, David P. Funda, and Karsten Buschard Copyright © 2016 Julie C. Antvorskov et al. All rights reserved. Protection of Pentoxifylline against Testis Injury Induced by Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:13:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/3406802/ To investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and unveil the underlying mechanism, experimental animals were assigned to Control, IHH+Vehicle, and IHH+PTX groups and exposed to 4 cycles of 96 h of hypobaric hypoxia followed by 96 h of normobaric normoxia for 32 days. PTX was administered for 32 days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 7 days thereafter. Serum malondialdehyde levels were used to assess lipid peroxidation; ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide dismutase, and catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were assessed to determine antioxidant capacity in various samples. Testis histopathology was assessed after hematoxylin-eosin staining by Johnsen’s testicular scoring system. Meanwhile, testosterone synthase and vimentin amounts were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Sperm count, motility, and density were assessed to determine epididymal sperm quality. IHH treatment induced significant pathological changes in testicular tissue and enhanced serum lipid peroxide levels, while reducing serum FRAP, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone synthase expression. Moreover, IHH impaired epididymal sperm quality and vimentin structure in Sertoli cells. Oral administration of PTX improved the pathological changes in the testis. IHH may impair spermatogenesis function of testicular tissues by inducing oxidative stress, but this impairment could be attenuated by administration of PTX. Chen Yao, Gang Li, Yeyong Qian, Ming Cai, Hong Yin, Li Xiao, Wei Tang, Fengjie Guo, and Bingyi Shi Copyright © 2016 Chen Yao et al. All rights reserved. An Enhanced OFDM Resource Allocation Algorithm in C-RAN Based 5G Public Safety Network Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:07:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/9586287/ Public Safety Network (PSN) is the network for critical communication when disaster occurs. As a key technology in 5G, Cloud-Radio Access Network (C-RAN) can play an important role in PSN instead of LTE-based RAN. This paper firstly introduces C-RAN based PSN architecture and models the OFDM resource allocation problem in C-RAN based PSN as an integer quadratic programming, which allows the trade-off between expected bitrates and allocating fairness of PSN Service User (PSU). However, C-RAN based PSN needs to improve the efficiency of allocating algorithm because of a mass of PSU-RRH associations when disaster occurs. To deal with it, the resources allocating problem with integer variables is relaxed into one with continuous variables in the first step and an algorithm based on Generalized Bender’s Decomposition (GBD) is proposed to solve it. Then we use Feasible Pump (FP) method to get a feasible integer solution on the original OFDM resources allocation problem. The final experiments show the total throughput achieved by C-RAN based PSN is at most higher by 19.17% than the LTE-based one. And the average computational time of the proposed GBD and FP algorithm is at most lower than Barrier by 51.5% and GBD with no relaxation by 30.1%, respectively. Lei Feng, Wenjing Li, Peng Yu, and Xuesong Qiu Copyright © 2016 Lei Feng et al. All rights reserved. Differentiation and Molecular Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Murine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived on Gelatin or Collagen Thu, 25 Aug 2016 11:03:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/9013089/ The generation of induced-pluripotential stem cells- (iPSCs-) derived mesenchymal stem cells (iMSCs) is an attractive and promising approach for preparing large, uniform batches of applicable MSCs that can serve as an alternative cell source of primary MSCs. Appropriate culture surfaces may influence their growth and differentiation potentials during iMSC derivation. The present study compared molecular properties and differentiation potential of derived mouse iPS-MSCs by deriving on gelatin or collagen-coated surfaces. The cells were derived by a one-step method and expressed CD73 and CD90, but CD105 was downregulated in iMSCs cultured only on gelatin-coated plates with increasing numbers of passages. A pairwise scatter analysis revealed similar expression of MSC-specific genes in iMSCs derived on gelatin and on collagen surfaces as well as in primary mouse bone marrow MSCs. Deriving iMSCs on gelatin and collagen dictated their osteogenic and adipose differentiation potentials, respectively. Derived iMSCs on gelatin upregulated Bmp2 and Lif prior to induction of osteogenic or adipose differentiation, while PPARγ was upregulated by deriving on collagen. Our results suggest that extracellular matrix components such as gelatin biases generated iMSC differentiation potential towards adipose or bone tissue in their derivation process via up- or downregulation of these master genes. Chizuka Obara, Kazuya Takizawa, Kenichi Tomiyama, Masaharu Hazawa, Ai Saotome-Nakamura, Takaya Gotoh, Takeshi Yasuda, and Katsushi Tajima Copyright © 2016 Chizuka Obara et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Graphene/TiO2 Composite Nanomaterials and Its Photocatalytic Performance for the Degradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Thu, 25 Aug 2016 10:16:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5858906/ The graphene (GR) was prepared by an improved electrochemical stripping method using a high-purity graphite rod as raw material and high temperature heat reduction in hydrogen atmosphere, and the graphene/TiO2 (GR/TiO2) composite nanomaterials were manufactured by the method of sol-gel and high temperature crystallization in hydrogen atmosphere using butyl titanate and electrolysis graphene as precursors. The physical and chemical properties of the composites had been characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM),  and specific surface area (SSA) by BET method. The photocatalytic properties of GR/TiO2 composites nanomaterials in anoxic water were studied by using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as probe. The results showed that graphite was well intercalated and peeled by a facile electrolysis method in different electric field environment; a well dispersed and rings structure of graphene was prepared by coupling ultrasound-assisted changing voltage electrochemical stripping technology. The as-prepared GR/TiO2 composites had good performance for the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-D in anoxic water; the chlorines were removed from benzene ring; the middle products of dichlorophenol, chlorophenol, phloroglucinol, and so forth were produced from the photocatalytic redox reaction of 2,4-D in anoxic water; parts of 2,4-D were decomposed completely, and CO2 and H2O were produced. Donggen Huang, Tianzi Yang, Zhuanghong Mo, Qin Guo, Shuiqing Quan, Cui Luo, and Lei Liu Copyright © 2016 Donggen Huang et al. All rights reserved. Oxidation-Reduction Potential as a Biomarker for Severity and Acute Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury Thu, 25 Aug 2016 10:08:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/6974257/ There are few reliable markers for assessing traumatic brain injury (TBI). Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been observed in TBI patients. We hypothesized that oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) could be a potent biomarker in TBI. Two types of ORP were measured in patient plasma samples: the static state of oxidative stress (sORP) and capacity for induced oxidative stress (icORP). Differences in ORP values as a function of time after injury, severity, and hospital discharge were compared using ANOVAs with significance at . Logit regression analyses were used to predict acute outcome comparing ORP, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). Antioxidant capacity (icORP) on day 4 was prognostic for acute outcomes (). An odds ratio of 4.08 was associated with poor acute outcome when icORP > 7.25 μC. IcORP was a better predictor than ISS, AIS, or GCS scores. sORP increased in those with the highest ISS values (). Based on these findings ORP is useful biomarker for severity and acute outcome in TBI patients. Changes in ORP values on day 4 after injury were the most prognostic, suggesting that patients’ response to brain injury over time is a factor that determines outcome. Kimberly B. Bjugstad, Leonard T. Rael, Stewart Levy, Matthew Carrick, Charles W. Mains, Denetta S. Slone, and David Bar-Or Copyright © 2016 Kimberly B. Bjugstad et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Algorithms Applied to Antennas and Propagation: A Review of State of the Art Thu, 25 Aug 2016 10:04:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/1010459/ A review of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) with applications to antenna and propagation problems is presented. EAs have emerged as viable candidates for global optimization problems and have been attracting the attention of the research community interested in solving real-world engineering problems, as evidenced by the fact that very large number of antenna design problems have been addressed in the literature in recent years by using EAs. In this paper, our primary focus is on Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), and Differential Evolution (DE), though we also briefly review other recently introduced nature-inspired algorithms. An overview of case examples optimized by each family of algorithms is included in the paper. Sotirios K. Goudos, Christos Kalialakis, and Raj Mittra Copyright © 2016 Sotirios K. Goudos et al. All rights reserved. Morphological Diversity of Pretibial Myxedema and Its Mechanism of Evolving Process and Outcome: A Retrospective Study of 216 Cases Thu, 25 Aug 2016 10:03:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtr/2016/2652174/ Background. Pretibial myxedema (PTM) is a rare dermopathy. The morphologic features and mechanism of its evolving process are not reported in large case series. Methods. 216 cases with PTM were retrospectively reviewed to analyze demographics, history, lesional morphology and its evolving process, histopathology and immunohistochemistry, serum TRAb levels, treatment, and outcome. Results. First appearing lesions evolved into 6 variants that were correlated with serum TRAb levels. Subvariants were caused by different kinds and frequencies of local trauma. The evolving process could be classified into 4 stages that were correlated with serum TRAb levels and perivascular infiltration of CD8+ and CD4+ lymphocytes. Serum TRAb levels at remission and in nonrecurred cases became lower than those before therapy and in recurred cases, respectively, but increased when PTM relapsed. TRAb level in nodule variant went down invariably with the extension of course and its autoimmune activity had a trend to stop but in other 5 variants TRAb levels fluctuated. Their autoimmune activities had no trends to stop and clinically worsen through intermittent repeats of active and stable stages. Conclusions. In the chronic course of PTM, nodule variant is self-limited and other 5 variants are not self-limited. PTM needed early treatment to avoid severe variants. Changgui Lan, Yi Wang, Xia Zeng, Jing Zhao, and Xiaoxi Zou Copyright © 2016 Changgui Lan et al. All rights reserved. Opinions and Practice of US-Based Obstetrician-Gynecologists regarding Vitamin D Screening and Supplementation of Pregnant Women Thu, 25 Aug 2016 10:03:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2016/1454707/ Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is prevalent among pregnant women. Recommendations for adequate levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and appropriate vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy differ between the Institute of Medicine and the Endocrine Society. Obstetrician-gynecologists must make clinical decisions in this environment of uncertain guidance. An online questionnaire regarding physician practice patterns for screening and supplementing pregnant women was administered to 225 randomly selected practicing obstetrician-gynecologists of whom 101 (45%) completed the questionnaire. A majority indicated that vitamin D insufficiency was a problem in their patient population (68.4%) and that most of their pregnant patients would benefit from vitamin D supplementation (66.3%). Half (52.5%) would recommend vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy to some patients, but only 16.8% to all. Only one in four (25.8%) routinely screen their pregnant patients for vitamin D status. Physicians who indicated that vitamin D status was a problem in their patient population were more likely to screen routinely (32.8% versus 9.7%, ) and believe their patients would benefit from supplementation (91.2% versus 16.1%, ). Opinion regarding supplementation levels and indicators of adequacy were split between the two competing recommendations, suggesting that clinical practice will likely remain variable across physicians, with uncertain public health consequences. Sara A. Mohamed, Ayman Al-Hendy, Jay Schulkin, and Michael L. Power Copyright © 2016 Sara A. Mohamed et al. All rights reserved. A Novel E-DVA Module Synthesis Featuring of Synergy between Driving and Vibration Attenuation Thu, 25 Aug 2016 10:02:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/8464317/ To attenuate the negative effects brought by heavy unsprung mass of the decentralized driving electric vehicle, a novel e-DVA module featuring of synergy between driving and vibration attenuation is proposed in this paper. It presents the advantages of compact structure and low cost. Structure design proves the feasibility of the e-DVA module. Kinematic analysis of the slider-crank mechanism is carried out to conclude the transmission ratio ripple under road excitation. After parameter matching and optimization of the e-DVA module based on the norm criterions, vertical dynamics analyses in both frequency and time domains are conducted theoretically to prove the performance improvements on the ride comfort and handling stability under the constraint of DVA deflection bound. Cheng Gu, Jianfei Zhu, and Xinbo Chen Copyright © 2016 Cheng Gu et al. All rights reserved. GDF-15 and Hepcidin Levels in Nonanemic Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:58:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/1240843/ Aims. Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF-15) has been suggested as one of the regulators of hepcidin, an important regulatory peptide for iron deposition. Current data is conflicting about the relationship between hepcidin and disorders of glucose metabolism. We aimed to investigate serum hepcidin and GDF-15 concentrations and their associations with each other, in nonanemic subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in comparison with the nonanemic subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods. Thirty-seven subjects with IGT and 32 control subjects with NGT, who were age-, gender-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched, were included in the study. Results. Serum GDF-15 levels were significantly higher in IGT compared to NGT. There were no differences in hepcidin, interleukin-6, and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels between the groups. We found a positive correlation between GDF-15 and hepcidin levels. There were also positive correlations between GDF-15 and age, uric acid, creatinine, and area under the curve for glucose (AUC-G). Hepcidin was correlated positively with ferritin levels. In the multiple regression analysis, GDF-15 concentrations were independently associated with age, uric acid, and AUC-G. Conclusions. Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with increased GDF-15 levels even in the absence of anemia, but the levels of hepcidin are not significantly altered in prediabetic state. Mehmet Muhittin Yalcin, Alev Eroglu Altinova, Mujde Akturk, Ozlem Gulbahar, Emre Arslan, Damla Ors Sendogan, Ilhan Yetkin, and Fusun Balos Toruner Copyright © 2016 Mehmet Muhittin Yalcin et al. All rights reserved. Hemodynamic Transesophageal Echocardiography-Guided Venous-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in a Case of Giant Cell Myocarditis Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:50:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2016/5407597/ Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare and commonly fatal form of fulminant myocarditis. During the acute phase, while immunosuppressive therapy is initiated, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support is commonly used as a bridge to heart transplantation or recovery. Until recently, conventional transesophageal echocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were the tools available for hemodynamic assessment of patients on this form of mechanical circulatory support. Nevertheless, both techniques have their limitations. We present a case of a 54-year-old man diagnosed with GCM requiring VA-ECMO support that was monitored under a novel miniaturized transesophageal echocardiography (hTEE) probe recently approved for 72 hours of continuous hemodynamic monitoring. Our case highlights the value of this novel, flexible, and disposable device for hemodynamic monitoring, accurate therapy guidance, and potential VA-ECMO weaning process of patients with this form of severe myocarditis. Juan G. Ripoll, Robert A. Ratzlaff, David M. Menke, Maria C. Olave, Joseph J. Maleszewski, and José L. Díaz-Gómez Copyright © 2016 Juan G. Ripoll et al. All rights reserved. Incoherent Dictionary Learning Method Based on Unit Norm Tight Frame and Manifold Optimization for Sparse Representation Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:47:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9407503/ Optimizing the mutual coherence of a learned dictionary plays an important role in sparse representation and compressed sensing. In this paper, a efficient framework is developed to learn an incoherent dictionary for sparse representation. In particular, the coherence of a previous dictionary (or Gram matrix) is reduced sequentially by finding a new dictionary (or Gram matrix), which is closest to the reference unit norm tight frame of the previous dictionary (or Gram matrix). The optimization problem can be solved by restricting the tightness and coherence alternately at each iteration of the algorithm. The significant and different aspect of our proposed framework is that the learned dictionary can approximate an equiangular tight frame. Furthermore, manifold optimization is used to avoid the degeneracy of sparse representation while only reducing the coherence of the learned dictionary. This can be performed after the dictionary update process rather than during the dictionary update process. Experiments on synthetic and real audio data show that our proposed methods give notable improvements in lower coherence, have faster running times, and are extremely robust compared to several existing methods. HongZhong Tang, Xiaogang Zhang, Hua Chen, Ling Zhu, Xiang Wang, and Xiao Li Copyright © 2016 HongZhong Tang et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Bearing Stiffness on the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Shaft-Final Drive System Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:45:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3524609/ The bearing stiffness has a considerable influence on the nonlinear coupling vibration characteristics of the shaft-final drive system. A 14-DOF nonlinear coupled vibration model was established by employing the lumped mass method so as to identify the coupling effects of the bearing stiffness to the vibration response of the shaft-final drive system. The engine’s torque ripple, the alternating load from the universal joint (U-joint), and the time-varying mesh parameters of hypoid gear of the shaft-final drive system were also considered for accurate quantitative analysis. The numerical analysis of the vibration response of the coupled system was performed and the experimental measurements were carried out for the validation test. Results show that, at the given driving speed, improving the bearing stiffness can reduce the vibration response of the given coupled system; however, when the bearing stiffness increases to a critical value, the effects of bearing stiffness on the vibration reduction become insignificant; when the driving speed changes, the resonance regions of the coupled system vary with the bearing stiffness. The results are helpful to determine the proper bearing stiffness and the optimum control strategy for the shaft-final drive system. It is hoped that the optimal shaft-final drive system can provide good vibration characteristics to achieve the energy saving and noise reduction for the vehicle application. Xu Jinli, Wan Lei, and Luo Wenxin Copyright © 2016 Xu Jinli et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Hedging Based on Fractional Order Stochastic Model with Memory Effect Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:45:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6817483/ Many researchers have established various hedge models to get the optimal hedge ratio. However, most of the hedge models only discuss the discrete-time processes. In this paper, we construct the minimum variance model for the estimation of the optimal hedge ratio based on the stochastic differential equation. At the same time, also by considering memory effects, we establish the continuous-time hedge model with memory based on the fractional order stochastic differential equation driven by a fractional Brownian motion to estimate the optimal dynamic hedge ratio. In addition, we carry on the empirical analysis to examine the effectiveness of our proposed hedge models from both in-sample test and out-of-sample test. Qing Li, Yanli Zhou, Xinquan Zhao, and Xiangyu Ge Copyright © 2016 Qing Li et al. All rights reserved. Computationally Efficient Angle and Polarization Estimation in the Presence of Multipath Propagation Using Dual-Polarization Vector Sensor Array Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:44:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/7537160/ This paper presents a computationally efficient angle and polarization estimation method for a mixture of uncorrelated and coherent sources using a dual-polarization vector sensor array. The uncorrelated sources are separated from the coherent sources on the basis of the modulus property of eigenvalues. The angles of the uncorrelated sources are estimated by employing rotational invariance and the associated polarization is obtained from the estimate of the uncorrelated array response matrix through elementwise division. For the distinguished coherent sources, two Hankel matrices are constructed from the elements of the estimated coherent array response matrix of each coherent group, from which two rotational-invariant submatrix pairs are extracted for estimating the coherent angles with a high precision. The least-square solution to the coherent polarization equation is derived for estimating the coherent polarization parameters. For each uncorrelated source and coherent group, the proposed method estimates the associated angle and polarization parameters separately, which avoids the need of 3D spectral search. In comparison with the existing methods, the simulation results show that the proposed method yields favorable performance in terms of computational efficiency and estimation accuracy. Weijian Si, Pinjiao Zhao, Zhiyu Qu, and Liwei Wang Copyright © 2016 Weijian Si et al. All rights reserved. Atmospheric Effect on Cosmic Ray Muons at High Cut-Off Rigidity Station Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:44:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2016/9620189/ Cosmic ray data and radiosonde measurements from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Rc = 14.4 GV), for the period 2002–2012, were used to study the effect of atmospheric pressure, level of pion production, and temperature at that level, on cosmic ray muons. We found that, even if corrections were made to the detected muons using these three parameters, seasonal variations of the cosmic rays still exist. This suggests that other terrestrial and/or extraterrestrial causes may be considered. The levels of pion production and atmospheric pressure are inversely correlated with the muon rate. On the other hand, the temperature at the pion production level is correlated with muons in spring and winter and inversely correlated in fall and summer. There is no clear explanation for this behavior. Abdullrahman Maghrabi and Mohammed Almutayri Copyright © 2016 Abdullrahman Maghrabi and Mohammed Almutayri. All rights reserved. Monte Carlo Registration and Its Application with Autonomous Robots Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:35:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/2546819/ This work focuses on Monte Carlo registration methods and their application with autonomous robots. A streaming and an offline variant are developed, both based on a particle filter. The streaming registration is performed in real-time during data acquisition with a laser striper allowing for on-the-fly pose estimation. Thus, the acquired data can be instantly utilized, for example, for object modeling or robot manipulation, and the laser scan can be aborted after convergence. Curvature features are calculated online and the estimated poses are optimized in the particle weighting step. For sampling the pose particles, uniform, normal, and Bingham distributions are compared. The methods are evaluated with a high-precision laser striper attached to an industrial robot and with a noisy Time-of-Flight camera attached to service robots. The shown applications range from robot assisted teleoperation, over autonomous object modeling, to mobile robot localization. Christian Rink, Simon Kriegel, Daniel Seth, Maximilian Denninger, Zoltan-Csaba Marton, and Tim Bodenmüller Copyright © 2016 Christian Rink et al. All rights reserved. Multiple-Modal-Coupling Modeling and Stability Analysis of Cold Rolling Mill Vibration Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:35:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/2347386/ An effective dynamic model is the basis for studying rolling mill vibration. Through analyzing characteristics of different types of vibration, a coupling vibration structure model is established, in which vertical vibration, horizontal vibration, and torsional vibration can be well indicated. In addition, based on the Bland-Ford-Hill rolling force model, a dynamic rolling process model is formulated. On this basis, the rolling mill vertical-torsional-horizontal coupled dynamic model is constructed by coupling the rolling process model and the mill structure model. According to this mathematical model, the critical rolling speed is determined and the accuracy of calculated results is verified by experimental data. Then, the interactions between different subsystems are demonstrated by dynamic responses in both time and frequency domains. Finally, the influences of process parameters and structure parameters on system stability are analyzed. And a series of experiments are conducted to verify the correctness of these analysis conclusions. The results show that the vertical-torsional-horizontal coupled model can reasonably characterize the coupling relationship between the mill structure and the rolling process. These studies are helpful for formulating a reasonable technological procedure of the rolling process and determining a feasible dynamic modification strategy of the structure as well. Lingqiang Zeng, Yong Zang, and Zhiying Gao Copyright © 2016 Lingqiang Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Convergence of Global Solutions to the Cauchy Problem for the Replicator Equation in Spatial Economics Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:32:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4021516/ We study the initial-value problem for the replicator equation of the -region Core-Periphery model in spatial economics. The main result shows that if workers are sufficiently agglomerated in a region at the initial time, then the initial-value problem has a unique global solution that converges to the equilibrium solution expressed by full agglomeration in that region. Minoru Tabata and Nobuoki Eshima Copyright © 2016 Minoru Tabata and Nobuoki Eshima. All rights reserved. An Improved Total Variation Minimization Method Using Prior Images and Split-Bregman Method in CT Reconstruction Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:25:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3094698/ Compressive Sensing (CS) theory has great potential for reconstructing Computed Tomography (CT) images from sparse-views projection data and Total Variation- (TV-) based CT reconstruction method is very popular. However, it does not directly incorporate prior images into the reconstruction. To improve the quality of reconstructed images, this paper proposed an improved TV minimization method using prior images and Split-Bregman method in CT reconstruction, which uses prior images to obtain valuable previous information and promote the subsequent imaging process. The images obtained asynchronously were registered via Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). To validate the method, two studies were performed. Numerical simulation using an abdomen phantom has been used to demonstrate that the proposed method enables accurate reconstruction of image objects under sparse projection data. A real dataset was used to further validate the method. Luzhen Deng, Peng Feng, Mianyi Chen, Peng He, and Biao Wei Copyright © 2016 Luzhen Deng et al. All rights reserved. Separate DOD and DOA Estimation for Bistatic MIMO Radar Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:22:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/9170403/ A novel MUSIC-type algorithm is derived in this paper for the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in a bistatic MIMO radar. Through rearranging the received signal matrix, we illustrate that the DOD and the DOA can be separately estimated. Compared with conventional MUSIC-type algorithms, the proposed separate MUSIC algorithm can avoid the interference between DOD and DOA estimations effectively. Therefore, it is expected to give a better angle estimation performance and have a much lower computational complexity. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that our method is also effective for coherent targets in MIMO radar. Simulation results verify the efficiency of the proposed method, particularly when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is low and/or the number of snapshots is small. Lin Li, Fangfang Chen, and Jisheng Dai Copyright © 2016 Lin Li et al. All rights reserved. A Novel SIW H-Plane Horn Antenna Based on Parabolic Reflector Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:21:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3659230/ A new type of H-plane horn antenna based on the parabolic reflector principle is proposed in this paper. The parabolic reflector is constructed with the substrate integrated waveguide technology and is used for generating large radiation aperture and uniform phase distribution at the aperture, yielding a fan beam with very narrow beamwidth in H-plane. A feeding source composed of a probe and an inductive-post reflector is designed as the feed, which can transmit a unidirectional incident wave toward the parabolic reflector. Two metallic strips with post arrays are designed as a transition for the matching between the horn aperture and the free space and also work as a director to realize unidirectional radiation and reduce the front-to-back ratio. The antenna has the advantages of narrow beam, compact size, and easy integration, and the operation bandwidth is from 27 GHz to 35.5 GHz. The experimental results show good agreement with the simulated results. Shiqiao Zhang, Zheng Li, and Junhong Wang Copyright © 2016 Shiqiao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. On-Body Characterization of Planar Differential Antennas for Multiple, Wide, and Narrow Bands Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:21:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/7439403/ This paper reports the results of the on-body experimental tests of a set of four planar differential antennas, originated by design variations of radiating elements with the same shape and characterized by the potential for covering wide and narrow bands. All the antenna designs have been implemented on low-cost FR4 substrate and characterized experimentally through on-body measurements. The results show the impact of the proximity to the human body on antenna performance and the opportunities in terms of potential coverage of wide and narrow bands for future ad hoc designs and implementations through wearable substrates targeting on-body and off-body communication and sensing applications. Luigi Vallozzi, Domenico Pepe, Thijs Castel, Hendrik Rogier, and Domenico Zito Copyright © 2016 Luigi Vallozzi et al. All rights reserved. AzioInositols in the Treatment of Insulin-Mediated Diseases Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:18:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/3058393/ A growing body of research is currently focused on the role of inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MYO-INS) and D-chiroinositol (DCI) in the treatment of insulin resistance states. Both isomers have been shown to exert insulin-mimetic action and to lower postprandial glucose. Further, insulin resistance-related diseases were associated to derangements in inositol metabolism. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide current evidence on the potential benefits of inositol isomers (MYO-INS and DCI) in the treatment of disease associated to insulin resistance such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular insights into inositol insulin-sensitizing effects will be covered focusing on the possible role of inositol glycans as insulin second messengers. Giovanna Muscogiuri, Stefano Palomba, Antonio Simone Laganà, and Francesco Orio Copyright © 2016 Giovanna Muscogiuri et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge of Latin American Obstetricians and Gynecologists regarding Heavy Menstrual Bleeding Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:59:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ogi/2016/6870679/ Background. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is a common gynecological complaint affecting quality of life. Objectives. To assess knowledge on diagnosis and treatments of HMB of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs). Methods. A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting, organized to provide updated information on topics of reproductive medicine to OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire. Results. Of the 210 OBGYNs participating in the survey, from 169 (80.4%) to 203 (96.7%) answered the questions. Most respondents (80%) gave accurate answers regarding the amount of blood loss which defines HMB, underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB, and were aware that the use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) with ethynyl estradiol is not an adequate treatment in women with HMB. Female OBGYNs and those who worked in the private sector were more prone to report a higher possibility of improvement of HMB with a COC that contained estradiol valerate and dienogest or with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system. Conclusions. In general, the respondents were aware of the importance of HMB in gynecological practice and of the new medical treatments and underreported the proportion of women who consulted due to HMB. Luis Bahamondes, Victor Marin, Silvia Ciarmatori, Agnaldo L. Silva-Filho, Juan Manuel Acuña, and Maria Y. Makuch Copyright © 2016 Luis Bahamondes et al. All rights reserved. Innate Immune Response of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Fibroblasts and Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Periodontopathogens Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:56:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/8905365/ Periodontitis involves complex interplay of bacteria and host immune response resulting in destruction of supporting tissues of the tooth. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a role in recognizing microbial pathogens and eliciting an innate immune response. Recently, the potential application of multipotent stem cells and pluripotent stem cells including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in periodontal regenerative therapy has been proposed. However, little is known about the impact of periodontopathogens on hESC-derived progenies. This study investigates the effects of heat-killed periodontopathogens, namely, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, on TLR and cytokine expression profile of hESC-derived progenies, namely, fibroblasts (hESC-Fib) and mesenchymal stem cells (hESC-MSCs). Additionally, the serotype-dependent effect of A. actinomycetemcomitans on hESC-derived progenies was explored. Both hESC-Fib and hESC-MSCs constitutively expressed TLR-2 and TLR-4. hESC-Fib upon exposure to periodontopathogens displayed upregulation of TLRs and release of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8). In contrast, hESC-MSCs were largely nonresponsive to bacterial challenge, especially in terms of cytokine production. Further, exposure of hESC-Fib to A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype c was associated with higher IL-8 production than serotype b. In contrast, the hESC-MSCs displayed no serotype-dependent response. Differential response of the two hESC progenies implies a phenotype-dependent response to periodontopathogens and supports the concept of immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. Gopu Sriram, Vaishali Prakash Natu, Intekhab Islam, Xin Fu, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne, Kai Soo Tan, and Tong Cao Copyright © 2016 Gopu Sriram et al. All rights reserved. Climate Change Detection and Annual Extreme Temperature Analysis of the Amur River Basin Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:56:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/6268938/ This paper aims to detect climate change points and compare the extreme temperature changes with the average-value changes in the Amur River basin. The daily air temperatures of 44 stations in the Amur River basin were collected from April 1, 1954, to March 31, 2013. The change points for annual mean and extreme temperature in 44 individual stations and their average were detected by the Mann-Kendall test, respectively. The annual mean temperature changed during 1980s in terms of increased mean value and relative stable standard deviation. The annual maximum temperature from 31 stations mostly located in the central and northwest basin changed significantly, and their change points occurred mainly in 1990s. For the annual minimum temperature, 32 stations mainly located in the central basin had significant changes. The generalized extreme value distribution was fitted to the postchange point subseries of annual extreme temperature and the parameters were estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The 10/50/100-year return levels were estimated by the method of profile likelihood. For the areas in the central and Northwestern basin, the probability of occurrence of hot extremes increased, while the occurrence probability of cold extremes was decreased in the central basin under climate change. Bo Yan, Ziqiang Xia, Feng Huang, Lidan Guo, and Xiao Zhang Copyright © 2016 Bo Yan et al. All rights reserved. Modelling a Coupled Thermoelectromechanical Behaviour of Contact Elements via Fractal Surfaces Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:55:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2016/5219876/ A three-dimensional coupled thermoelectromechanical model for electrical connectors is here proposed to evaluate local stress and temperature distributions around the contact area of electric connectors under different applied loads. A micromechanical numerical model has been developed by merging together the contact theory approach, which makes use of the so-called roughness parameters obtained from experimental measurements on real contact surfaces, with the topology description of the rough surface via the theory of fractal geometry. Particularly, the variation of asperities has been evaluated via the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot function. In this way the micromechanical model allowed for an upgraded contact algorithm in terms of effective contact area and thermal and electrical contact conductivities. Such an algorithm is subsequently implemented to construct a global model for performing transient thermoelectromechanical analyses without the need of simulating roughness asperities of contact surfaces, so reducing the computational cost. A comparison between numerical and analytical results shows that the adopted procedure is suitable to simulate the transient thermoelectromechanical response of electric connectors. G. Mazzucco, F. Moro, and M. Guarnieri Copyright © 2016 G. Mazzucco et al. All rights reserved. FLAIR Hyperintense Vessel Sign of Both MCAs with Severe Heart Failure Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:09:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/5169056/ Introduction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHVs) can be seen in patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the cerebral arteries. FHVs are known to reflect stagnant or slow blood flow within the cerebral artery. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman presented with suddenly developed gait disturbance. She had a history of hypertension, heart failure, and dementia. Brain MRI demonstrated FHVs within both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). However, there was no acute ischemic lesion and severe stenosis or occlusion of the cerebral arteries. In the baseline routine laboratory investigations, the AST, ALT, and B-type natriuretic peptide levels were elevated. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed mitral valve prolapse with severe regurgitation. Blood pressure control and conservative management for ischemic hepatitis were performed. After 7 days, the transaminase levels were normalized, and the patient was able to walk with normal gait. Conclusions. In this patient, underlying chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and additionally decreased systemic perfusion seemed to provoke ischemic hepatitis and contribute to the development of FHVs. Donghee Kim, Seung-Yul Lee, and Kwon-Duk Seo Copyright © 2016 Donghee Kim et al. All rights reserved. Linking Protection with the Distribution of Grouper and Habitat Quality in Seychelles Thu, 25 Aug 2016 08:04:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2016/7851425/ Marine protected areas can be designated for a number of reasons, but exactly how they provide benefits is only recently being understood. We assessed the effect of protection on the size and distribution of six common species of grouper in a coral reef ecosystem. Data on live coral cover, coral genus diversity, and coral colony structure type were also compared to give an indication of reef quality between sites. A significant interaction was found for Aethaloperca rogaa and Cephalopholis nigripinnis, indicating that protected areas held greater numbers of smaller and median sized fish of these species than unprotected areas. Similar but nonsignificant trends were found for Cephalopholis miniata and Cephalopholis argus. For Anyperodon leucogrammicus, MPAs held significantly more fish than unprotected sites, but as the increase was equal between size categories there was no interaction. The last species Epinephelus fasciatus, which was one of the smallest species, had no significant interaction, similar mean counts between protected and unprotected areas, and no obvious strong favouritism for particular sites with values indicating better reef quality, indicating intraspecies competition. The results of this study indicate that while the MPAs in this study are likely too small to benefit large groupers, the improvements to habitat quality have indirect benefits to groupers, especially at their earlier life stages. Samantha J. Howlett, Richard Stafford, Matt Waller, Sylvanna Antha, and Christophe Mason-Parker Copyright © 2016 Samantha J. Howlett et al. All rights reserved. Generalized Minimum Variance Control for MDOF Structures under Earthquake Excitation Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:56:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/7458654/ Control of a multi-degree-of-freedom structural system under earthquake excitation is investigated in this paper. The control approach based on the Generalized Minimum Variance (GMV) algorithm is developed and presented. Our approach is a generalization to multivariable systems of the GMV strategy designed initially for single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. Kanai-Tajimi and Clough-Penzien models are used to generate the seismic excitations. Those models are calculated using the specific soil parameters. Simulation tests using a 3DOF structure are performed and show the effectiveness of the control method. Lakhdar Guenfaf and Mohamed Azira Copyright © 2016 Lakhdar Guenfaf and Mohamed Azira. All rights reserved. Depletion of Neutrophils Exacerbates the Early Inflammatory Immune Response in Lungs of Mice Infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:42:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3183285/ Neutrophils predominate during the acute phase of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Herein, we determined the role of the neutrophil during the early stages of experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for neutrophils. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with or P. brasiliensis yeast cells. The mAb was administered 24 h before infection, followed by doses every 48 h until mice were sacrificed. Survival time was evaluated and mice were sacrificed at 48 h and 96 h after inoculation to assess cellularity, fungal load, cytokine/chemokine levels, and histopathological analysis. Neutrophils from mAb-treated mice were efficiently depleted (99.04%). Eighty percent of the mice treated with the mAb and infected with yeast cells died during the first two weeks after infection. When mice were treated and infected with yeast cells, 100% of them succumbed by the first week after infection. During the acute inflammatory response significant increases in numbers of eosinophils, fungal load and levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines were observed in the mAb-treated mice. We also confirmed that neutrophils are an important source of IFN-γ and IL-17. These results indicate that neutrophils are essential for protection as well as being important for regulating the early inflammatory immune response in experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo, Juan David Puerta-Arias, Damaris Lopera, Martha Eugenia Urán-Jiménez, and Ángel González Copyright © 2016 Paula Andrea Pino-Tamayo et al. All rights reserved. Damage Identification Investigation of Retaining Wall Structures Based on a Virtual Impulse Response Function Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:41:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/1346939/ To eliminate the influence of excitation on the wavelet packet frequency band energy spectrum (ES), ES is acquired via wavelet packet decomposition of a virtual impulse response function. Based on ES, a character frequency band vector spectrum and damage eigenvector spectrum (DES) are created. Additionally, two damage identification indexes, the energy ratio standard deviation and energy ratio variation coefficient, are proposed. Based on the damage index, an updated damage identification method for retaining wall structures is advanced. The damage state of a retaining wall can be diagnosed through DES, the damage location can be detected through the damage index trend surface, and the damage intensity can be identified by establishing a quantitative relationship between the damage intensity and damage index. To verify the feasibility and validity of this damage identification method, a vibration test on a pile plate retaining wall is performed. Test results demonstrate that it can distinguish whether the retaining wall is damaged, and the location of partial damage within the retaining wall can be easily detected; in addition, the damage intensity of the wall can also be identified validly. Consequently, this damage identification theory and method may be used to identify damage within retaining wall structures. Qian Xu Copyright © 2016 Qian Xu. All rights reserved. Progressive FastICA Peel-Off and Convolution Kernel Compensation Demonstrate High Agreement for High Density Surface EMG Decomposition Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:37:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/3489540/ Decomposition of electromyograms (EMG) is a key approach to investigating motor unit plasticity. Various signal processing techniques have been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition, among which the convolution kernel compensation (CKC) has achieved high decomposition yield with extensive validation. Very recently, a progressive FastICA peel-off (PFP) framework has also been developed for high density surface EMG decomposition. In this study, the CKC and PFP methods were independently applied to decompose the same sets of high density surface EMG signals. Across 91 trials of 64-channel surface EMG signals recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle of 9 neurologically intact subjects, there were a total of 1477 motor units identified from the two methods, including 969 common motor units. On average, common motor units were identified from each trial, which showed a very high matching rate of % in their discharge instants. The high degree of agreement of common motor units from the CKC and the PFP processing provides supportive evidence of the decomposition accuracy for both methods. The different motor units obtained from each method also suggest that combination of the two methods may have the potential to further increase the decomposition yield. Maoqi Chen, Ales Holobar, Xu Zhang, and Ping Zhou Copyright © 2016 Maoqi Chen et al. All rights reserved. Endoscopic versus Percutaneous Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Advanced Malignant Hilar Obstruction: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:25:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjgh/2016/4726078/ Background. Palliation in advanced unresectable hilar malignancies can be achieved by endoscopic (EBD) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). It is unclear if one approach is superior to the other in this group of patients. Aims. Compare clinical outcomes of EBD versus PTBD. Methods. (i) Study Selection Criterion. Studies using PTBD and EBD for palliation of advanced unresectable hilar malignancies. (ii) Data Collection and Extraction. Articles were searched in Medline, PubMed, and Ovid journals. (iii) Statistical Method. Fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the pooled proportions. Results. Initial search identified 786 reference articles, in which 62 articles were selected and reviewed. Data was extracted from nine studies () that met the inclusion criterion. The pooled odds ratio for successful biliary drainage in PTBD versus EBD was 2.53 (95% CI = 1.57 to 4.08). Odds ratio for overall adverse effects in PTBD versus EBD groups was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.52 to 1.26). Odds ratio for 30-day mortality rate in PTBD group versus EBD group was 0.84 (95% CI = 0.37 to 1.91). Conclusions. In patients with advanced unresectable hilar malignancies, palliation with PTBD seems to be superior to EBD. PTBD is comparable to EBD in regard to overall adverse effects and 30-day mortality. Harsha Moole, Sirish Dharmapuri, Abhiram Duvvuri, Sowmya Dharmapuri, Raghuveer Boddireddy, Vishnu Moole, Prathyusha Yedama, Naveen Bondalapati, Achuta Uppu, and Charan Yerasi Copyright © 2016 Harsha Moole et al. All rights reserved. Repeat Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration in Patients with Suspected Pancreatic Cancer: Diagnostic Yield and Associated Change in Access to Appropriate Care Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:21:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjgh/2016/7678403/ Background. There is a high incidence of inconclusive cytopathology at initial EUS-FNA (endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration) for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. To obtain appropriate preoperative or palliative chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, definitive cytopathology is often required. The utility of repeat EUS-FNA is not well established. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating the yield of repeat EUS-FNA in determining a cytological diagnosis in patients who had undergone a prior EUS-FNA for diagnosis of suspected malignant pancreatic lesions with inconclusive cytopathology. The wait times to the second procedure and to decisions regarding therapy were calculated. Results. Overall, 45 repeat EUS-FNA procedures were performed over seven years for suspected malignant pancreatic lesions. Cytopathological class (I to IV) changed between first and second EUS-FNA in 32 patients (71%). Of 34 patients with an initially nonconclusive diagnosis, 20 had a conclusive diagnosis (59%) on repeat EUS-FNA. The cumulative yield after repeat EUS-FNA for definite pancreatic adenocarcinoma was 7 (16%). The median time interval between first and second EUS-FNA was 31 (7–175) days. Conclusions. A substantial number of patients had a definitive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma on repeat FNA and were, therefore, subsequently able to access appropriate care. Robert A. Mitchell, Dylan Stanger, Constantin Shuster, Jennifer Telford, Eric Lam, and Robert Enns Copyright © 2016 Robert A. Mitchell et al. All rights reserved. The Antidepressant Effect of Angelica sinensis Extracts on Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression Is Mediated via the Upregulation of the BDNF Signaling Pathway in Rats Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:10:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7434692/ Angelica sinensis (AS), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has pharmaceutical effects on menstrual illness, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cognitive impairments. However, until recently, few studies had explored its antidepressant effect. The current study attempts to investigate the effect of AS extracts on chronic unpredictable mild stress- (CUMS-) induced depression in rats. Male SD rats were exposed to a CUMS-inducing procedure for 5 weeks, resulting in rodent depressive behaviors that included reduced sucrose consumption and lessened sucrose preference ratios in sucrose preference test, prolonged immobility times and decreased struggling time in force swim test, and decreased locomotor activity in open field test. Moreover, the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK 1/2) were markedly decreased in the hippocampus in depressed rats. However, chronically treating the depressed rats with AS (1 g/kg) normalized their depression-related behaviors and molecular profiles. In conclusion, in the present study, we show that AS extracts exerted antidepressant effects that were mediated by the BDNF signaling pathway: in AS-treated depressed rats, the expression of the BDNF protein and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets (ERK 1/2, CREB) were upregulated in the hippocampus. Jun Shen, Junjian Zhang, Min Deng, Yue Liu, Yuan Hu, and Lei Zhang Copyright © 2016 Jun Shen et al. All rights reserved. A Flexible and Highly Sensitive Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor Based on Micropatterned Films Coated with Carbon Nanotubes Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:03:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3024815/ Excellent flexibility, high sensitivity, and low consumption are essential characteristics in flexible microtube pressure sensing occasion, for example, implantable medical devices, industrial pipeline, and microfluidic chip. This paper reports a flexible, highly sensitive, and ultrathin piezoresistive pressure sensor for fluid pressure sensing, whose sensing element is micropatterned films with conductive carbon nanotube layer. The flexible pressure sensor, the thickness of which is 40 ± 10 μm, could be economically fabricated by using biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Experimental results show that the flexible pressure sensor has high sensitivity (0.047 kPa−1 in gas sensing and 5.6 × 10−3 kPa−1 in liquid sensing) and low consumption (<180 μW), and the sensor could be used to measure the pressure in curved microtubes. Jia-lin Yao, Xing Yang, Na Shao, Hui Luo, Ting Zhang, and Wu-gui Jiang Copyright © 2016 Jia-lin Yao et al. All rights reserved. Analyses of Short Channel Effects of Single-Gate and Double-Gate Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors Thu, 25 Aug 2016 07:00:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2016/8242469/ Short channel effects of single-gate and double-gate graphene nanoribbon field effect transistors (GNRFETs) are studied based on the atomistic orbital model for the Hamiltonian of graphene nanoribbon using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism. A tight-binding Hamiltonian with an atomistic orbital basis set is used to describe the atomistic details in the channel of the GNRFETs. We have investigated the vital short channel effect parameters such as and , the threshold voltage, the subthreshold swing, and the drain induced barrier lowering versus the channel length and oxide thickness of the GNRFETs in detail. The gate capacitance and the transconductance of both devices are also computed in order to calculate the intrinsic cut-off frequency and switching delay of GNRFETs. Furthermore, the effects of doping of the channel on the threshold voltage and the frequency response of the double-gate GNRFET are discussed. We have shown that the single-gate GNRFET suffers more from short channel effects if compared with those of the double-gate structure; however, both devices have nearly the same cut-off frequency in the range of terahertz. This work provides a collection of data comparing different features of short channel effects of the single gate with those of the double gate GNRFETs. The results give a very good insight into the devices and are very useful for their digital applications. Hojjatollah Sarvari, Amir Hossein Ghayour, Zhi Chen, and Rahim Ghayour Copyright © 2016 Hojjatollah Sarvari et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Different Extraction Methods on Antioxidant Properties, Chemical Composition, and Thermal Behavior of Black Seed (Nigella sativa L.) Oil Thu, 25 Aug 2016 06:43:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6273817/ The Nigella sativa L. popularly referred to as black seeds are widely used as a form of traditional nutrition and medicine. N. sativa seeds were used for the extraction of their oil by way of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and cold press (CP) to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and thermal behavior. The GC-MS results showed the primary constituents in the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) were Caryophyllene (17.47%) followed by thymoquinone (TQ) (11.80%), 1,4-Cyclohexadiene (7.17%), longifolene (3.5%), and carvacrol (1.82%). The concentration of TQ was found to be 6.63 mg/mL for oil extracted using SFE and 1.56 mg/mL for oil extracted by CP method. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and the IC50 was 1.58 mg/mL and 2.30 mg/mL for SFE oil and cold pressed oil, respectively. The ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) activity for SFE oil and CP oil was 538.67 mmol/100 mL and 329.00 mmol/100 mL, respectively. The total phenolic content (TPC) of SFE oil was 160.51 mg/100 mL and 94.40 mg/100 mL for CP oil presented as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). This research showed that a high level of natural antioxidants could be derived from NSO extracted by SFE. Nameer Khairullah Mohammed, Mohd Yazid Abd Manap, Chin Ping Tan, Belal J. Muhialdin, Amaal M. Alhelli, and Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin Copyright © 2016 Nameer Khairullah Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Plasma Leptin Is Elevated in Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Thu, 25 Aug 2016 06:35:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/6940480/ Background. The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is very complex and unpredictable. Some patients will experience acute exacerbation (AE) and fatal outcomes. Methods. The study included 30 AE-IPF patients, 32 stable IPF (S-IPF) patients, and 12 healthy controls. We measured the plasma concentrations of leptin and KL-6. Simple correlation was used to assess associations between leptin and other variables. Plasma leptin levels were compared between AE-IPF and S-IPF subjects, decedents, and survivors. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to display survival and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine risk factors for survival. Results. In subjects with AE-IPF, plasma leptin was significantly greater than in subjects with S-IPF () or healthy controls (). Plasma leptin was correlated with BMI, KL-6, LDH, CRP, and PaO2/FiO2 (; ; ; and resp.). Plasma leptin was significantly greater in 33 decedents than in the 23 survivors (). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed leptin (>13.79 ng/mL) was an independent predictor of survival (). Conclusions. Leptin could be a promising plasma biomarker of AE-IPF occurrence and predictor of survival in IPF patients. Mengshu Cao, Jeffery J. Swigris, Xin Wang, Min Cao, Yuying Qiu, Mei Huang, Yonglong Xiao, and Hourong Cai Copyright © 2016 Mengshu Cao et al. All rights reserved. Endoscopic Ultrasound for the Detection of Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus: A Useful Technique in Patients with Transesophageal Echocardiography Contraindication Thu, 25 Aug 2016 06:21:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/7387946/ Endoscopic ultrasound is a diagnostic and therapeutic technique used in specialized centers for patients that have undergone digestive procedures. This technique enables highly precise real-time imaging of the digestive tract wall and surrounding organs. Endoscopic ultrasound is also useful in patients with cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation. In patients with contraindication for transesophageal echocardiography due to high risk of esophageal bleeding or complications that may require immediate intervention, endoscopic ultrasound may be a safer option for visualizing atrial chambers to rule out the presence of left atrial appendage thrombi before cardioversion. Manuel Marina-Breysse, Alfonso Jurado-Román, Bartolomé López-Viedma, Jesús Piqueras-Flores, and María T. López-Lluva Copyright © 2016 Manuel Marina-Breysse et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Recovery after Surgery in a Single High-Volume Surgical Oncology Unit: Details Matter Thu, 25 Aug 2016 06:21:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srp/2016/6830260/ Benefits of ERAS protocol have been well documented; however, it is unclear whether the improvement stems from the protocol or shifts in expectations. Interdisciplinary educational seminars were conducted for all health professionals. However, one test surgeon adopted the protocol. 394 patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery from June 2013 to April 2015 with a median age of 63 years were included. The implementation of ERAS protocol resulted in a decrease in the length of stay (LOS) and mortality, whereas the difference in cost was found to be insignificant. For the test surgeon, ERAS was associated with decreased LOS, cost, and mortality. For the control providers, the LOS, cost, mortality, readmission rates, and complications remained similar both before and after the implementation of ERAS. An ERAS protocol on the single high-volume surgical unit decreased the cost, LOS, and mortality. Timothy L. Fitzgerald, Catalina Mosquera, Nicholas J. Koutlas, Nasreen A. Vohra, Kimberly V. Edwards, and Emmanuel E. Zervos Copyright © 2016 Timothy L. Fitzgerald et al. All rights reserved. Postpartum Granulomatous Hypophysitis: A Case Study, Review of the Literature, and Discussion of Pathogenesis Wed, 24 Aug 2016 18:05:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2016/7510323/ Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland that has three main histologic subtypes: lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH), granulomatous hypophysitis (GH), and xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH). Among these, LH is the most common and is strongly associated with the postpartum state, while XH is the least common. Many hypophysitis cases have been reported in the literature but only a few cases of postpartum GH have been discussed. Here, we describe a case of GH in a 24-year-old female presenting eleven days postpartum. We also review the current literature on postpartum GH and discuss the possible alterations in the immune environment during and after pregnancy that could explain this phenomenon. With more cases of GH being reported, the commonalities of female predominance, postpartum time of presentation, and occasional spontaneous resolution between LH and GH lend support to the theory that these two diseases likely represent spectrums of a single immunologic disorder. Upasana Joneja, D. Craig Hooper, James J. Evans, and Mark T. Curtis Copyright © 2016 Upasana Joneja et al. All rights reserved. Discrete Approaches to Continuous Boundary Value Problems: Existence and Convergence of Solutions Wed, 24 Aug 2016 18:04:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2016/3910972/ We investigate two types of first-order, two-point boundary value problems (BVPs). Firstly, we study BVPs that involve nonlinear difference equations (the “discrete” BVP); and secondly, we study BVPs involving nonlinear ordinary differential equations (the “continuous” BVP). We formulate some sufficient conditions under which the discrete BVP will admit solutions. For this, our choice of methods involves a monotone iterative technique and the method of successive approximations (a.k.a. Picard iterations) in the absence of Lipschitz conditions. Our existence results for the discrete BVP are of a constructive nature and are of independent interest in their own right. We then turn our attention to applying our existence results for the discrete BVP to the continuous BVP. We form new existence results for solutions to the continuous BVP with our methods involving linear interpolation of the data from the discrete BVP, combined with a priori bounds and the convergence Arzela-Ascoli theorem. Thus, our use of discrete BVPs to yield results for the continuous BVP may be considered as a discrete approach to continuous BVPs. Douglas R. Anderson and Christopher C. Tisdell Copyright © 2016 Douglas R. Anderson and Christopher C. Tisdell. All rights reserved. Colloidal Gold Probe-Based Immunochromatographic Strip Assay for the Rapid Detection of Microbial Transglutaminase in Frozen Surimi Wed, 24 Aug 2016 18:02:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/8592962/ Adding microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) to frozen surimi to enable the surimi to be sold as a higher-grade product at a higher price defrauds surimi product manufacturers and undercuts legitimate industry prices. Therefore, it is important to develop an accurate method of detecting the presence of MTGase in surimi. In this study, an immunochromatographic strip assay with a colloidal gold antibody probe was successfully developed and used to rapidly and qualitatively detect MTGase in surimi samples. The results were obtained in less than 10 min. The limit for the qualitative detection of MTGase using the immunochromatographic strip assay was identified as 1.0 μg/mL. The results of the immunochromatographic strip analysis of frozen surimi samples were verified by comparison with the results of a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The colloidal gold probe-based immunochromatographic strip assay was thus found to be a rapid, economical, and user friendly method of detecting MTGase in surimi. Daming Fan, Yi Li, Zhennan Gu, Jianlian Huang, Wenguo Zhou, Wenhai Zhang, Jianxin Zhao, and Hao Zhang Copyright © 2016 Daming Fan et al. All rights reserved. CEACAM1: Expression and Role in Melanocyte Transformation Wed, 24 Aug 2016 18:00:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/9406319/ Metastases represent the main cause of death in melanoma patients. Despite the current optimized targeted therapy or immune checkpoint inhibitors the treatment of metastatic melanoma is unsatisfactory. Because of the poor prognosis of advanced melanoma there is an urgent need to identify new biomarkers to differentiate melanoma cells from normal melanocytes, to stratify patients according to their risk, and to identify subgroups of patients that require close follow-up or more aggressive therapy. Furthermore, melanoma progression has been associated with the dysregulation of cell adhesion molecules. We have reviewed the literature and have discussed the important role of the expression of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) in the development of melanoma. Thus, novel insights into CEACAM1 may lead to promising strategies in melanoma treatment, in monitoring melanoma patients, in assessing the response to immunotherapy, and in completing the standard immunohistochemical panel used in melanoma examination. Gabriela Turcu, Roxana Ioana Nedelcu, Daniela Adriana Ion, Alice Brînzea, Mirela Daniela Cioplea, Lucia Beatrice Jilaveanu, and Sabina Andrada Zurac Copyright © 2016 Gabriela Turcu et al. All rights reserved. Mirror Visual Feedback Training Improves Intermanual Transfer in a Sport-Specific Task: A Comparison between Different Skill Levels Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:59:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/8628039/ Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF) could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained) performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals’ skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research. Fabian Steinberg, Nils Henrik Pixa, and Michael Doppelmayr Copyright © 2016 Fabian Steinberg et al. All rights reserved. Insertion Success of the Laryngeal Tube in Emergency Airway Management Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:59:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3619159/ Background. Emergency airway management (AM) is a priority when resuscitating critically ill or severely injured patients. The goal of this study was to determine the success rates of LT insertion during AM. Methods. Studies that included LT first-pass insertion (FPI) and overall-pass insertion (OPI) success by emergency medical services and in-hospital providers performing AM for emergency situations as well as for scheduled surgery published until July 2014 were searched systematically in Medline. Results. Data of 36 studies ( = 1,897) reported a LT FPI success by physicians of 82.5% with an OPI success of 93.6% (). A cumulative analysis of all 53 studies ( = 3,600) led to FPI and OPI success of 80.1% and 92.6% (), respectively. The results of 26 studies ( = 2,159) comparing the LT with the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) demonstrated a FPI success of 77.0 versus 78.7% () and an OPI success of 92.2 versus 97.7% (). Conclusion. LT insertion failed in the first attempt in one out of five patients, with an overall failure rate in one out of 14 patients. When compared with the LT, the LMA had a cumulative 5.5% better OPI success rate. Michael Bernhard, André Gries, Alexandra Ramshorn-Zimmer, Volker Wenzel, and Bjoern Hossfeld Copyright © 2016 Michael Bernhard et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Acute Matriptase Inhibition in Hepatic Inflammatory Models Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:58:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6306984/ Purpose. Dysfunction of matriptase-2 can be involved in iron regulatory disorder via downregulation of hepcidin expression. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-amidinophenylalanine-derived matriptase inhibitors on porcine hepatic inflammatory cell models. Methods. Hepatocyte-Kupffer cell cocultures (ratio of 2 : 1 and 6 : 1) were treated with four structurally related matriptase inhibitors at 50 μM. Cell cytotoxicity and relative expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 and the levels of hepcidin were determined by MTS and porcine-specific ELISA. The extracellular H2O2 contents were analyzed by Amplex Red method. Results. Matriptase inhibitors at 50 µM for 24 h did not increase cell death rate. The elevated ROS production observed after short-term application of inhibitor MI-441 could be correlated with lowered hepcidin expression. MI-460 could significantly enhance hepcidin levels in the supernatants of cocultures (by in hepatocyte-Kupffer cell, 2 : 1, and by in hepatocyte-Kupffer cell, 6 : 1, cocultures, resp.). No significant changes were found in IL-6 and IL-8 levels in cocultures exposed to matriptase inhibitors. Conclusions. Based on in vitro findings, administration of MI-460 via modulation of hepcidin expression without cytotoxic and oxidative stress inducing properties might be a reliable alternative to treat iron overload in human and veterinary clinical practice. Judit Pomothy, Gergely Szombath, Patrik Rokonál, Gábor Mátis, Zsuzsanna Neogrády, Torsten Steinmetzer, and Erzsébet Pászti-Gere Copyright © 2016 Judit Pomothy et al. All rights reserved. Toward an Agile Approach to Managing the Effect of Requirements on Software Architecture during Global Software Development Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:58:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/8198039/ Requirement change management (RCM) is a critical activity during software development because poor RCM results in occurrence of defects, thereby resulting in software failure. To achieve RCM, efficient impact analysis is mandatory. A common repository is a good approach to maintain changed requirements, reusing and reducing effort. Thus, a better approach is needed to tailor knowledge for better change management of requirements and architecture during global software development (GSD).The objective of this research is to introduce an innovative approach for handling requirements and architecture changes simultaneously during global software development. The approach makes use of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and agile practices. Agile practices make our approach iterative, whereas CBR stores requirements and makes them reusable. Twin Peaks is our base model, meaning that requirements and architecture are handled simultaneously. For this research, grounded theory has been applied; similarly, interviews from domain experts were conducted. Interview and literature transcripts formed the basis of data collection in grounded theory. Physical saturation of theory has been achieved through a published case study and developed tool. Expert reviews and statistical analysis have been used for evaluation. The proposed approach resulted in effective change management of requirements and architecture simultaneously during global software development. Abdulaziz Alsahli, Hameed Khan, and Sultan Alyahya Copyright © 2016 Abdulaziz Alsahli et al. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Embolism Presenting as Abdominal Pain: An Atypical Presentation of a Common Diagnosis Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:58:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2016/7832895/ Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent diagnosis made in the emergency department and can present in many different ways. Abdominal pain is an unusual presenting symptom for PE. It is essential to maintain a high degree of suspicion in these patients, as a delay in diagnosis can be devastating for the patient and confers a high risk of mortality if left untreated. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with worsening right upper quadrant abdominal pain with fevers. Initial imaging was benign, although lab work showed worsening leukocytosis and bilirubin. Abdominal pathology seemed most likely, but the team kept PE on the differential. Further imaging revealed acute pulmonary embolus in the segmental branch of the right lower lobe extending distally into subsegmental branches. The patient was started on anticoagulation and improved drastically. This case highlights the necessity of keeping a broad differential and maintaining a systematic approach when dealing with nonspecific complaints. Furthermore, a discussion on the pathophysiology on why PE can present atypically as abdominal pain, as well as fevers, is reviewed. Using this information can hopefully lead to a subtle diagnosis of PE in the future and lead to a life-saving diagnosis. Hasan Rehman, Elizabeth John, and Payal Parikh Copyright © 2016 Hasan Rehman et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Adaptive Window Size Selection Method for Improving Spectrogram Visualization Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:56:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/6172453/ Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is an important technique for the time-frequency analysis of a time varying signal. The basic approach behind it involves the application of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to a signal multiplied with an appropriate window function with fixed resolution. The selection of an appropriate window size is difficult when no background information about the input signal is known. In this paper, a novel empirical model is proposed that adaptively adjusts the window size for a narrow band-signal using spectrum sensing technique. For wide-band signals, where a fixed time-frequency resolution is undesirable, the approach adapts the constant Q transform (CQT). Unlike the STFT, the CQT provides a varying time-frequency resolution. This results in a high spectral resolution at low frequencies and high temporal resolution at high frequencies. In this paper, a simple but effective switching framework is provided between both STFT and CQT. The proposed method also allows for the dynamic construction of a filter bank according to user-defined parameters. This helps in reducing redundant entries in the filter bank. Results obtained from the proposed method not only improve the spectrogram visualization but also reduce the computation cost and achieves 87.71% of the appropriate window length selection. Shibli Nisar, Omar Usman Khan, and Muhammad Tariq Copyright © 2016 Shibli Nisar et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Long-Term Exercise on the Production of Osteoclastogenic and Antiosteoclastogenic Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:56:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2016/5925380/ Although it is recognized that the mechanical stresses associated with physical activity augment bone mineral density and improve bone quality, our understanding of how exercise modulates bone homeostasis at the molecular level is lacking. In a before and after trial involving 43 healthy adults, we measured the effect of six months of supervised exercise training on the spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of osteoclastogenic cytokines (interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α), antiosteoclastogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukins 4 and 10), pleiotropic cytokines with variable effects on osteoclastogenesis (interferon-γ, interleukin-6), and T cell growth and differentiation factors (interleukins 2 and 12) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also measured lymphocyte phenotypes and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin), bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen), and bone homeostasis (25 (OH) vitamin D, estradiol, testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1). A combination of aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises done on average of 2.5 hours a week attenuated the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines and enhanced the production of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. These changes were accompanied by a 16% reduction in collagen degradation products and a 9.8% increase in osteocalcin levels. We conclude that long-term moderate intensity exercise exerts a favorable effect on bone resorption by changing the balance between blood mononuclear cells producing osteoclastogenic cytokines and those producing antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02765945. J. Kelly Smith, Rhesa Dykes, and David S. Chi Copyright © 2016 J. Kelly Smith et al. All rights reserved. Outcomes of Sutureless Iris-Claw Lens Implantation Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:54:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/7013709/ Purpose. To evaluate the indications, refraction, and visual and safety outcomes of iris-claw intraocular lens implanted retropupillary with sutureless technique during primary or secondary operation. Methods. Retrospective study of case series. The Haigis formula was used to calculate intraocular lens power. In all cases the wound was closed without suturing. Results. The study comprised 47 eyes. The mean follow-up time was 15.9 months (SD 12.2). The mean preoperative CDVA was 0.25 (SD 0.21). The final mean CDVA was 0.46 (SD 0.27). No hypotony or need for wound suturing was observed postoperatively. Mean postoperative refractive error was −0.27 Dsph (−3.87 Dsph to +2.85 Dsph; median 0.0, SD 1.28). The mean postoperative astigmatism was −1.82 Dcyl (min −0.25, max −5.5; median −1.25, SD 1.07). Postoperative complications were observed in 10 eyes. The most common complication was ovalization of the iris, which was observed in 8 eyes. The mean operation time was 35.9 min (min 11 min, max 79 min; median 34, SD 15.4). Conclusion. Retropupilary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with sutureless wound closing is an easy and fast method, ensuring good refractive outcome and a low risk of complication. The Haigis formula proved to be predictable in postoperative refraction. Tomasz Choragiewicz, Robert Rejdak, Andrzej Grzybowski, Katarzyna Nowomiejska, Joanna Moneta-Wielgoś, Małgorzata Ozimek, and Anselm G. M. Jünemann Copyright © 2016 Tomasz Choragiewicz et al. All rights reserved. Interval Oscillation Criteria for Forced Second-Order Nonlinear Delay Dynamic Equations with Damping and Oscillatory Potential on Time Scales Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:53:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijde/2016/3298289/ We are concerned with the interval oscillation of general type of forced second-order nonlinear dynamic equation with oscillatory potential of the form , on a time scale . We will use a unified approach on time scales and employ the Riccati technique to establish some oscillation criteria for this type of equations. Our results are more general and extend the oscillation criteria of Erbe et al. (2010). Also our results unify the oscillation of the forced second-order nonlinear delay differential equation and the forced second-order nonlinear delay difference equation. Finally, we give some examples to illustrate our results. Hassan A. Agwa, Ahmed M. M. Khodier, and Heba A. Hassan Copyright © 2016 Hassan A. Agwa et al. All rights reserved. Predictors and Modulators of Synthetic Lethality: An Update on PARP Inhibitors and Personalized Medicine Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:53:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2346585/ Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have proven to be successful agents in inducing synthetic lethality in several malignancies. Several PARP inhibitors have reached clinical trial testing for treatment in different cancers, and, recently, Olaparib (AZD2281) has gained both United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the European Commission (EC) approval for use in BRCA-mutated advanced ovarian cancer treatment. The need to identify biomarkers, their interactions in DNA damage repair pathways, and their potential utility in identifying patients who are candidates for PARP inhibitor treatment is well recognized. In this review, we detail many of the biomarkers that have been investigated for their ability to predict both PARP inhibitor sensitivity and resistance in preclinical studies as well as the results of several clinical trials that have tested the safety and efficacy of different PARP inhibitor agents in BRCA and non-BRCA-mutated cancers. Stephen Murata, Catherine Zhang, Nathan Finch, Kevin Zhang, Loredana Campo, and Eun-Kyoung Breuer Copyright © 2016 Stephen Murata et al. All rights reserved. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Shanghai Rail Transit System Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:52:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1290138/ With increasing passenger flows and construction scale, Shanghai rail transit system (RTS) has entered a new era of networking operation. In addition, the structure and properties of the RTS network have great implications for urban traffic planning, design, and management. Thus, it is necessary to acquire their network properties and impacts. In this paper, the Shanghai RTS, as well as passenger flows, will be investigated by using complex network theory. Both the topological and dynamic properties of the RTS network are analyzed and the largest connected cluster is introduced to assess the reliability and robustness of the RTS network. Simulation results show that the distribution of nodes strength exhibits a power-law behavior and Shanghai RTS network shows a strong weighted rich-club effect. This study also indicates that the intentional attacks are more detrimental to the RTS network than to the random weighted network, but the random attacks can cause slightly more damage to the random weighted network than to the RTS network. Our results provide a richer view of complex weighted networks in real world and possibilities of risk analysis and policy decisions for the RTS operation department. Yingying Xing, Jian Lu, and Shengdi Chen Copyright © 2016 Yingying Xing et al. All rights reserved. Differential Regulation of Morphology and Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Expression in the Vagina of Ovariectomized Adult Virgin Rats by Estrogen Replacement: A Histological Study Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:52:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/1093512/ Background. To determine the exact role of estrogen in vaginal tissue morphology and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) distribution in the vagina, which remains controversial. Methods. Sixty rats were randomly categorized: sham-operated (sham), ovariectomy (OVX), and four estradiol treatments (estradiol valerate at 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Thereafter, vaginal samples were biopsied from the distal- and proximal-half portions. The percentage of ERα-immunoreactive cells and the ERα score were quantified using immunohistochemistry to assess changes in ERα expression and distribution. Results. OVX induced significant vaginal atrophy and organic index. Estrogen-replacement therapy (ERT) reversed vaginal atrophy. The vaginal distal-half areas showed lower ERα% than the proximal-half areas. The ERα% increased sharply 4 weeks after OVX, especially in the epithelial layer (). ERT elicited different degrees of reductions in tissues after the 2-week treatment, but the ERα% in only the epithelium recovered in parallel with that in the sham group (). The OVX group showed higher ERα histological scores than the sham group, and the distal-half area changed more evidently than the proximal-half area. ERα expression was nearly unchanged after ERT (). Conclusions. ERT is effective for treating obesity and vulvovaginal atrophy caused by hypoestrogenism and advancing age in menopausal women but cannot recover the distribution and expression of ERα. Ting Li, Yuanyuan Ma, Hong Zhang, Ping Yan, Lili Huo, Yongyan Hu, Xi Chen, Ting Li, Miao Zhang, and Zhaohui Liu Copyright © 2016 Ting Li et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness and Safety of Newer Antidiabetic Medications for Ramadan Fasting Diabetic Patients Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:52:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/6962574/ Hypoglycemia is the most common side effects for most glucose-lowering therapies. It constitutes a serious risk that faces diabetic patients who fast during Ramadan (the 9th month in the Islamic calendar). New glucose-lowering classes like dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are efficacious in controlling blood glucose level with less tendency to induce hypoglycemia and thus may constitute a good choice for diabetic patients during Ramadan. This study reviews the safety and efficacy of newer glucose-lowering therapies during Ramadan. This study was accomplished through a careful literature search about studies that assess the benefit and side effects of these new glucose-lowering therapies during Ramadan during September 2015. Vildagliptin, sitagliptin, liraglutide, exenatide, and dapagliflozin were the only studied glucose-lowering therapies. All of the studied newer glucose-lowering therapies except dapagliflozin were associated with reduced risk to induce hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal upset was common with the usage of liraglutide while increased thirst sensation was common with dapagliflozin. In conclusion DPP-4 inhibitors such as vildagliptin and sitagliptin may form a suitable glucose-lowering therapy option for Ramadan fasting patients. Ehab Mudher Mikhael Copyright © 2016 Ehab Mudher Mikhael. All rights reserved. Dosimetric UV Exposure Effect on the Optical Properties of Ag2O Doped P2O5-ZnO-CuO Glass Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:11:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2016/2360729/ Silver phosphate glass types within composition 60P2O5-30ZnO-10CuO-100000 ppm Ag2O were prepared by melt-quenching technique. The optical properties of these glass types were studied under UV exposure at different times, 0, 20, 80, 105, and 115 minutes. The optical absorbance spectra were measured in the range of wavelength from 190 to 3200 nm. The absorbance bandwidth decreases with increasing the time of UV exposure. The optical energy gap, , linear refractive index, , ratio between molar refraction, , and molar volume, , and metallization criterion () were estimated. The value of decreases from 2.132 to 1.91 eV with increasing the time of UV exposure from 0 to 115 min. Otherwise value and metallization increase with increase in the time of UV exposure. The results indicated that these glass types are promising for using an ultraviolet radiation dosimeter. K. S. Al Mugren, El Sayed Yousef, A. El-Taher, and H. Shoukry Copyright © 2016 K. S. Al Mugren et al. All rights reserved. Thin Film Nanofibrous Composite Membrane for Dead-End Seawater Desalination Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2694373/ The aim of the study was to prepare a thin film nanofibrous composite membrane utilized for nanofiltration technologies. The composite membrane consists of a three-layer system including a nonwoven part as the supporting material, a nanofibrous scaffold as the porous surface, and an active layer. The nonwoven part and the nanofibrous scaffold were laminated together to improve the mechanical properties of the complete membrane. Active layer formations were done successfully via interfacial polymerization. A filtration test was carried out using solutions of MgSO4, NaCl, Na2SO4, CaCl2, and real seawater using the dead-end filtration method. The results indicated that the piperazine-based membrane exhibited higher rejection of divalent salt ions (>98%) with high flux. In addition, the m-phenylenediamine-based membrane exhibited higher rejection of divalent and monovalent salt ions (>98% divalent and >96% monovalent) with reasonable flux. The desalination of real seawater results showed that thin film nanofibrous composite membranes were able to retain 98% of salt ions from highly saline seawater without showing any fouling. The electrospun nanofibrous materials proved to be an alternative functional supporting material instead of the polymeric phase-inverted support layer in liquid filtration. Baturalp Yalcinkaya, Fatma Yalcinkaya, and Jiri Chaloupek Copyright © 2016 Baturalp Yalcinkaya et al. All rights reserved. Perilla Oil Supplementation Ameliorates High-Fat/High-Cholesterol Diet Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats via Enhanced Fecal Cholesterol and Bile Acid Excretion Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:10:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2384561/ Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis. Perilla oil also increased fecal bile acid and cholesterol excretion. Hepatic RNA-Seq analysis found that the long time perilla oil supplement notably modified the gene expression involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results implicate that, after long-term high level dietary cholesterol feeding, rat liver endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and cholesterol-rich low density lipoprotein uptake was significantly inhibited, and perilla oil did not modulate expression of genes responsible for cholesterol synthesis but did increase cholesterol removed from hepatocytes by conversion to bile acids and increased fecal cholesterol excretion. Ting Chen, Fahu Yuan, Hualin Wang, Yu Tian, Lei He, Yang Shao, Na Li, and Zhiguo Liu Copyright © 2016 Ting Chen et al. All rights reserved. Complementarity of Clinician Judgment and Evidence Based Models in Medical Decision Making: Antecedents, Prospects, and Challenges Wed, 24 Aug 2016 15:08:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1425693/ Early accounts of the development of modern medicine suggest that the clinical skills, scientific competence, and doctors’ judgment were the main impetus for treatment decision, diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment, and medical progress. Yet, clinician judgment has its own critics and is sometimes harshly described as notoriously fallacious and an irrational and unfathomable black box with little transparency. With the rise of contemporary medical research, the reputation of clinician judgment has undergone significant reformation in the last century as its fallacious aspects are increasingly emphasized relative to the evidence based options. Within the last decade, however, medical forecasting literature has seen tremendous change and new understanding is emerging on best ways of sharing medical information to complement the evidence based medicine practices. This review revisits and highlights the core debate on clinical judgments and its interrelations with evidence based medicine. It outlines the key empirical results of clinician judgments relative to evidence based models and identifies its key strengths and prospects, the key limitations and conditions for the effective use of clinician judgment, and the extent to which it can be optimized and professionalized for medical use. Zhou Lulin, Ethel Yiranbon, and Henry Asante Antwi Copyright © 2016 Zhou Lulin et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Simulation of Daily Streamflow Using Radar Rainfall and the SWAT Model: A Case Study of the Gamcheon Basin of the Nakdong River, Korea Wed, 24 Aug 2016 14:20:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/2485251/ In recent years, with the increasing need for improving the accuracy of hydrometeorological data, interests in rain-radar are also increasing. Accordingly, with high spatiotemporal resolution of rain-radar rainfall data and increasing accumulated data, the application scope of rain-radar rainfall data into hydrological fields is expanding. To evaluate the hydrological applicability of rain-radar rainfall data depending on the characteristics of hydrological model, this study applied and to a SWAT model in the Gamcheon stream basin of the Nakdong River and analyzed the effect of rainfall data on daily streamflow simulation. The daily rainfall data for , , and were utilized as input data for the SWAT model. As a result of the daily runoff simulation for analysis periods using and , the simulation which utilized reflected the rainfall-runoff characteristics better than the simulations which applied or . However, in the rainy or wet season, the simulations which utilized or were similar to or better than the simulation that applied . This study reveals that analysis results and degree of accuracy depend significantly on rainfall characteristics (rainy season and dry season) and QPE algorithms when conducting a runoff simulation with radar. Huiseong Noh, Jongso Lee, Narae Kang, Dongryul Lee, Hung Soo Kim, and Soojun Kim Copyright © 2016 Huiseong Noh et al. All rights reserved. Based on Fuzzy Bayesian Network of Oil Wharf Handling Risk Assessment Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:46:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6532691/ In order to make the risk assessment method of oil wharf handling more reasonable, basic data calibration method more accurate, and assessment findings more objective, the fuzzy weights of the relative probability of basic events are calibrated by ANP decision-making (Analytic Network Process). ANP decision-making is appropriate for reflecting the dependence between the basic events and the feedback relationship. The calibration value is used as the probability value of each basic event. Based on the fault tree model, the relationship between the accidents caused by the Bayesian network is constructed, and the important degree of the basic events is quantitatively evaluated. The case focuses on wharf handling gasoline fire and explosions, using ANP method to calibrate probability, and analyzing and sorting the structural importance, the probability importance, and critical degree of each basic event through forward and backward reasoning. The results showed that the evaluation model can better characterize the effect of the basic events on the top events, which can be targeted to identify security weaknesses in oil wharf handling process. It has some practical significance for finding security risks and improving working conditions and the overall system safety level. Zhiqiang Hou and Peng Zhao Copyright © 2016 Zhiqiang Hou and Peng Zhao. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Hormonal and Intrauterine Contraceptive Use among HIV-Infected Men and Women in Lilongwe, Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:45:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2016/5429316/ Background. Understanding the factors associated with the use of hormonal and intrauterine contraception among HIV-infected men and women may lead to interventions that can help reduce high unintended pregnancy rates. Materials and Methods. This study is a subanalysis of a cross-sectional survey of 289 women and 241 men who were sexually active and HIV-infected and were attending HIV care visits in Lilongwe, Malawi. We estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) to evaluate factors associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use for men and women in separate models. Results and Discussion. 39.8% of women and 33.2% of men () reported that they were using hormonal or intrauterine contraception at last intercourse. Having greater than 3 children was the only factor associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use among men. Among women, younger age, not wanting a pregnancy in 2 years, being with their partner for more than 4 years, and being able to make family planning decisions by themselves were associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use. Conclusions. The men and women in our study population differed in the factors associated with hormonal and intrauterine contraceptive use. Understanding these differences may help decrease unmet FP needs among HIV-infected men and women. Jennifer H. Tang, Sam Phiri, Wingston Ng’ambi, Jamie W. Krashin, Linly Mlundira, Thom Chaweza, Bernadette Samala, Hannock Tweya, Mina C. Hosseinipour, and Lisa B. Haddad Copyright © 2016 Jennifer H. Tang et al. All rights reserved. A Finite Volume-Complete Flux Scheme for a Polluted Groundwater Site Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:44:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ana/2016/1945958/ We present a model of a polluted groundwater site. The model consists of a coupled system of advection-diffusion-reaction equations for the groundwater level and the concentration of the pollutant. We use the complete flux scheme for the space discretization in combination with the -method for time integration and we prove a new stability result for the scheme. Numerical results are computed for the Guarani Aquifer in South America and they show good agreement with results in literature. M. F. P. ten Eikelder, J. H. M. ten Thije Boonkkamp, M. P. T. Moonen, and B. V. Rathish Kumar Copyright © 2016 M. F. P. ten Eikelder et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Interrelationship between Insulin Resistance and Interferon Gamma Production: Protective and Therapeutic Effect of Berberine Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:24:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2039897/ This research was conducted to investigate if there is a relation between insulin resistance incidence and inhibition of interferon gamma production or not. Firstly, insulin resistance was induced by high fat diet (HFD) intake for 6 weeks. Secondly, berberine was used as protective/curative compound for insulin resistance. Results revealed that feeding rats HFD for 6 weeks developed features of insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. These features presented in increased body weight, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia (with increased LDL-cholesterol and decreased HDL-cholesterol), and hypertriglyceridemia. Level of antioxidant enzymes in HFD group was higher than in normal one. Also there was an increasing in level of proinflammatory cytokines as interleukin- (IL-) 6 and IL-12 in HFD group. Feeding rats HFD for 6 weeks also decreased level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ). The decreased level of IFN-γ has been shown to predict infection with infectious diseases especially viral infection. Treatment and protection with berberine 50 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks were found to be effective against the features of insulin resistance syndrome, improved levels of insulin resistance parameters, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, and IFN-γ. Mohammad Ahmad Mahmoud, Doaa Ahmad Ghareeb, Heba Abdelghany Sahyoun, Ashraf Abdelhamed Elshehawy, and Mohammad Mohammad Elsayed Copyright © 2016 Mohammad Ahmad Mahmoud et al. All rights reserved. Internal Deformation Monitoring of Slope Based on BOTDR Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:24:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/9496285/ To overcome the shortcomings of conventional slope monitoring methods, this paper presented an in-place inclinometer based on BOTDR (Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) which was used to obtain the long-term internal deformation in the slope. The installation process of optical fiber sensors and its measuring principle were introduced. The result of analysis indicated that the error in the measured displacement was proportional to the square of the inclinometer length and the precision of the BOTDR instrument, while it was inversely proportional to the diameter of the inclinometer tube. An actual field slope deformation monitoring case was also introduced. The results show that the BOTDR based inclinometer has a good consistency with the traditional inclinometer. It can effectively access the internal deformation of the slope and help to find the position of potential sliding surface accurately. This technology shows a high reliability and practicality in engineering application that will promote deeper research of slope in the future. Yijie Sun, Bin Shi, Dan Zhang, Hengjin Tong, Guangqing Wei, and Hongzhong Xu Copyright © 2016 Yijie Sun et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Six Types of Disability among the Older People in Thailand in 2002, 2007, and 2011 Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:16:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jar/2016/6475029/ Background. There is an important need to characterize risk factors for disability in Thailand, in order to inform effective prevention and control strategies. This study investigated factors associated with risk of 6 types of disability in Thailand’s ageing population in 2002, 2007, and 2011. Methods. Data came from the Cross-Sectional National Surveys of Older Persons in Thailand conducted by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in 2002, 2007, and 2011. Stratified two-stage sampling was employed. Interviews of 24,835, 30,427, and 34,173 elderly people aged 60 and above were conducted in the respective study years. Prevalence of disabilities was measured, and factors associated with disability risk were assessed with probability-weighted multiple logistic regression. Results. Disability prevalence decreased slightly over the study period. The characteristics with greatest positive impact on disability prevalence were not working over the past week (average impact: 61.2%), age (53.7% per decade), and suffering from one or more chronic illnesses (46.3%). Conclusions. The strong observed positive impact of not working on disability prevalence suggests that raising the mandatory retirement age might result in some reduction of disability risk. Also, the observed positive impact of living with others (versus alone) on disability risk was somewhat unexpected. Pattaraporn Khongboon, Sathirakorn Pongpanich, and Robert S. Chapman Copyright © 2016 Pattaraporn Khongboon et al. All rights reserved. Role of Epidural Analgesia within an ERAS Program after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Studies Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:06:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srp/2016/7543684/ Introduction. Epidural analgesia has been a cornerstone of any ERAS program for open colorectal surgery. With the improvements in anesthetic and analgesic techniques as well as the introduction of the laparoscopy for colorectal resection, the role of epidural analgesia has been questioned. The aim of the review was to assess through a meta-analysis the impact of epidural analgesia compared to other analgesic techniques for colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS program. Methods. Literature research was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomised clinical trials that reported data on hospital stay, postoperative complications, and readmissions rates within an ERAS program with and without an epidural analgesia after a colorectal laparoscopic resection were included. Results. Five randomised clinical trials were selected and a total of 168 patients submitted to epidural analgesia were compared to 163 patients treated by an alternative analgesic technique. Pooled data show a longer hospital stay in the epidural group with a mean difference of 1.07 (95% CI 0.06–2.08) without any significant differences in postoperative complications and readmissions rates. Conclusion. Epidural analgesia does not seem to offer any additional clinical benefits to patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program. Giuseppe Borzellino, Nader Kamal Francis, Olivier Chapuis, Evguenia Krastinova, Valérie Dyevre, and Michele Genna Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Borzellino et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Fused Optimization Algorithm of Genetic Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization Wed, 24 Aug 2016 13:06:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2167413/ A novel fused algorithm that delivers the benefits of both genetic algorithms (GAs) and ant colony optimization (ACO) is proposed to solve the supplier selection problem. The proposed method combines the evolutionary effect of GAs and the cooperative effect of ACO. A GA with a great global converging rate aims to produce an initial optimum for allocating initial pheromones of ACO. An ACO with great parallelism and effective feedback is then served to obtain the optimal solution. In this paper, the approach has been applied to the supplier selection problem. By conducting a numerical experiment, parameters of ACO are optimized using a traditional method and another hybrid algorithm of a GA and ACO, and the results of the supplier selection problem demonstrate the quality and efficiency improvement of the novel fused method with optimal parameters, verifying its feasibility and effectiveness. Adopting a fused algorithm of a GA and ACO to solve the supplier selection problem is an innovative solution that presents a clear methodological contribution to optimization algorithm research and can serve as a practical approach and management reference for various companies. FuTao Zhao, Zhong Yao, Jing Luan, and Xin Song Copyright © 2016 FuTao Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Primary Investigation for the Mechanism of Biatractylolide from Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma as an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Wed, 24 Aug 2016 12:43:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7481323/ Biatractylolide was isolated from ethyl acetate extract of dried Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma root by multistep chromatographic processing. Structure of biatractylolide was confirmed by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. The IC50 on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was 6.5458 μg/mL when the control IC50 value of huperzine A was 0.0192 μg/mL. Molecular Docking Software (MOE) was used to discover molecular sites of action between biatractylolide and AChE protein by regular molecular docking approaches. Moreover, biatractylolide downregulated the expression of AChE of MEF and 293T cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms of inhibitory activities of biatractylolide on AChE are not only through binding to AChE, but also via reducing AChE expression by inhibiting the activity of GSK3β. Yong-Chao Xie, Ning Ning, Li Zhu, Dan-Ning Li, Xing Feng, and Xiao-Ping Yang Copyright © 2016 Yong-Chao Xie et al. All rights reserved. Chitosan-Alginate Nanoparticle System Efficiently Delivers Doxorubicin to MCF-7 Cells Wed, 24 Aug 2016 12:40:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3178904/ A chitosan-alginate nanoparticle system encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX) was prepared by a novel ionic gelation method using alginate as the crosslinker. These nanoparticles were around 100 nm in size and more stable with higher positive zeta potential and had higher % encapsulation efficiency (95%) than DOX loaded chitosan nanoparticles (DOX Csn NP) crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis revealed successful loading of DOX. In vitro drug release showed an initial release phase followed by slow release phase with higher cumulative release obtained with DOX loaded chitosan-alginate nanoparticles (DOX Csn-Alg NP). The in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX released from the two nanoparticle systems showed a notable difference on comparison with that of free DOX on the MCF-7 cell line. The SRB assay, AO/EB staining, and fluorescence uptake study indicated that free DOX only showed dose dependent cytotoxicity, whereas both dose and time dependency were exhibited by the two sets of NPs. While both systems show sustained release of DOX, from the cell viability plots, DOX Csn-Alg NPs showed their superiority over DOX Csn NPs. The results obtained are useful for developing DOX Csn-Alg NPs as a sustained release carrier system for DOX. Nuwanthi P. Katuwavila, A. D. L. Chandani Perera, Sameera R. Samarakoon, Preethi Soysa, Veranja Karunaratne, Gehan A. J. Amaratunga, and D. Nedra Karunaratne Copyright © 2016 Nuwanthi P. Katuwavila et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Critically Ill Patients” Wed, 24 Aug 2016 12:36:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ccrp/2016/8985161/ Roger Jelliffe Copyright © 2016 Roger Jelliffe. All rights reserved. Thermal and Dielectric Behavior Studies of Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone)s with Sulfonated and Phosphonated Pendants Wed, 24 Aug 2016 11:58:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2016/7271959/ The present paper discusses the aspects of the synthesizing valeric acid based poly(ether sulfone)s with active carboxylic acid pendants (VALPSU) from solution polymerization technique via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation reaction among 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyl sulfone (DCDPS) and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BHPA). The conditions necessary to synthesize and purify the polymer were investigated in some detail. The synthesized poly(ether sulfone)s comprise sulfone and ether linkages in addition to reactive carboxylic acid functionality; these active carboxylic acid functional groups were exploited to hold the phenyl sulphonic acid and phenyl phosphonic acid pendants. The phenyl sulphonic acid pendants in VALPSU were easily constructed by altering active carboxylic acid moieties by sulfanilic acid using N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) mediated mild synthetic route, whereas the latter one was built in two steps. Initially, polyphosphoric acid condensation with VALPSU by 4-bromoaniline and next straightforward palladium catalyzed synthetic route, in both of which acidic pendants are clenched by polymer backbone via amide linkage. Without impairing the primary polymeric backbone modified polymers were prepared by varying the stoichiometric ratios of respective combinations. All the polymers were physicochemically characterized and pressed into tablets; electrical contacts were established to study the dielectric properties. Finally, the influence of the acidic pendants on the dielectric properties was examined. Shimoga D. Ganesh, Vasantakumar K. Pai, Mahadevappa Y. Kariduraganavar, and Madhu B. Jayanna Copyright © 2016 Shimoga D. Ganesh et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Void Reactivity Coefficient for 3D BWR Assembly Model Wed, 24 Aug 2016 11:48:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2016/3427549/ The effect of BWR fuel assembly 3D model on void reactivity coefficient (VRC) estimation is investigated. VRC values were calculated for different BWR assembly models applying deterministic T-NEWT and Monte Carlo KENO-VI functional modules of SCALE 6.1 code package. The difference between deterministic T-NEWT and Monte Carlo KENO-VI simulations is negligible (0.18 pcm/%). The influence of the assumed more detailed coolant density profile was estimated as well. VRC increases with the application of a larger number of coolant density values across fuel assembly height. It was shown that the coolant density profile described by 6 values per height could be considered sufficient from prospect of VRC estimation, as a more detailed density profile has impact below 1% on total assembly void effects. VRC values were decomposed to values for individual nodes and isotopes, since decomposition provides useful insights to describe the overall behaviour of VRC in detail. Andrius Slavickas, Raimondas Pabarčius, Aurimas Tonkūnas, and Eugenijus Ušpuras Copyright © 2016 Andrius Slavickas et al. All rights reserved. A Piecewise Hysteresis Model for a Damper of HIS System Wed, 24 Aug 2016 11:47:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9091783/ A damper of the hydraulically interconnected suspension (HIS) system, as a quarter HIS, is prototyped and its damping characteristic is tested to characterize the damping property. The force-velocity characteristic of the prototype is analyzed based on a set of testing results and accordingly a piecewise hysteresis model for the damper is proposed. The proposed equivalent parametric model consists of two parts: hysteresis model in low speed region and saturation model in high speed region which are used to describe the hysteresis phenomenon in low speed and nonhysteresis phenomenon in high speed, respectively. The parameters of the model are identified based on genetic algorithm by setting the constraints of parameters according to their physical significances and the corresponding testing results. The advantages of the model are highlighted by comparing to the nonhysteresis model and the permanent hysteresis model. The numerical simulation results are compared with the testing results to validate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed model. Finally, to further verify the proposed model’s wide applicability under different excitation conditions, its results are compared to the testing results in three-dimensional space. The research in this paper is significant for the dynamic analysis of the HIS vehicle. Kaidong Tian, Bangji Zhang, Nong Zhang, Xuhui Liu, and Jinchen Ji Copyright © 2016 Kaidong Tian et al. All rights reserved. The Janus-Faced Role of Antioxidants in Cancer Cachexia: New Insights on the Established Concepts Wed, 24 Aug 2016 11:44:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/9579868/ Chronic inflammation and excessive loss of skeletal muscle usually occur during cancer cachexia, leading to functional impairment and delaying the cure of cancer. The release of cytokines by tumor promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn regulate catabolic pathways involved in muscle atrophy. ROS also exert a dual role within tumor itself, as they can either promote proliferation and vascularization or induce senescence and apoptosis. Accordingly, previous studies that used antioxidants to modulate these ROS-dependent mechanisms, in cancer and cancer cachexia, have obtained contradictory results, hence the need to gather the main findings of these studies and draw global conclusions in order to stimulate more oriented research in this field. Based on the literature reviewed in this paper, it appears that antioxidant supplementation is (1) beneficial in cancer cachectic patients with antioxidant deficiencies, (2) most likely harmful in cancer patients with adequate antioxidant status (i.e., lung, gastrointestinal, head and neck, and esophageal), and (3) not recommended when undergoing radiotherapy. At the moment, measuring the blood levels of antioxidants may help to identify patients with systemic deficiencies. This approach is simple to realize but could not be a gold standard method for cachexia, as it does not necessarily reflect the redox state in other organs, like muscle. Mohamad Assi and Amélie Rébillard Copyright © 2016 Mohamad Assi and Amélie Rébillard. All rights reserved. Direct Spinal Ventral Root Repair following Avulsion: Effectiveness of a New Heterologous Fibrin Sealant on Motoneuron Survival and Regeneration Wed, 24 Aug 2016 11:43:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/2932784/ Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4–L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant. The spinal cords were processed to evaluate neuronal survival, synaptic stability, and glial reactivity, 4 and 12 weeks after lesion. Sciatic nerves were processed to investigate Schwann cell activity by expression (4 weeks after surgery) and to count myelinated axons and morphometric evaluation (12 weeks after surgery). Walking track test was used to evaluate gait recovery, up to 12 weeks. The results indicate that both fibrin sealants are similarly efficient. However, the snake-derived fibrin glue is a potentially safer alternative for being a biological and biodegradable product which does not contain human blood derivatives. Therefore, the venom glue can be a useful tool for the scientific community due to its advantages and variety of applications. Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Roberta Barbizan, Rui Seabra Ferreira Jr., Benedito Barraviera, and Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira Copyright © 2016 Mateus Vidigal de Castro et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Estimation of Effective Mechanical Properties for Reinforced Plexiglas in the Two-Dimensional Case Wed, 24 Aug 2016 10:40:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2016/9010576/ The paper describes an algorithm for numerical estimation of effective mechanical properties in two-dimensional case, considering finite strains. The algorithm is based on consecutive application of different boundary conditions to representative surface elements (RSEs) in terms of displacements, solution of elastic boundary value problem for each case, and averaging the stress field obtained. Effective properties are estimated as a quadratic dependence of the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor upon the Green strain tensor. The results of numerical estimation of effective mechanical properties of plexiglas, reinforced with steel wire, are presented at finite strains. Numerical calculations were performed with the help of CAE Fidesys using the finite element method. The dependence of the effective properties of reinforced plexiglas upon the concentration of wires and the shape of wire cross section is investigated. In particular, it was found that the aspect ratio of reinforcing wire cross section has the most significant impact on effective moduli characterizing the material properties in the direction of larger side of the cross section. The obtained results allow one to estimate the influence of nonlinear effects upon the mechanical properties of the composite. Vladimir Levin, Ignatiy Vdovichenko, Anatoly Vershinin, Maksim Yakovlev, and Konstantin Zingerman Copyright © 2016 Vladimir Levin et al. All rights reserved. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis Wed, 24 Aug 2016 10:12:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7367485/ Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16), with significant heterogeneity across the studies (%, ). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted. Gui Yang, Wei Fan, Baohong Luo, Zhigao Xu, Ping Wang, Shihui Tang, Peipei Xu, and Mingxia Yu Copyright © 2016 Gui Yang et al. All rights reserved. Lipid Regulation Effects of Raw and Processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome on Steatotic Hepatocyte L02 Cell Wed, 24 Aug 2016 10:12:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2919034/ Introduction. Raw and processed Notoginseng Radix Et Rhizome (NRR) have been widely used in treatment of metabolic syndromes and related disease, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study was designed to investigate lipid regulation effects of raw and processed NRR in steatotic L02 cell. Materials and Methods. Steatotic L02 cells were obtained after being cultured with 5% fat emulsion-10% FBS-RPMI 1640 medium for 48 h. Contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in steatotic L02 cells were evaluated after treatment. Furthermore, the lipid metabolism regulation mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) and its monomers were evaluated by detecting the expressions of hydroxymethyl glutaric acyl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR), sterol regulating element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α). Results. TG and TC contents were doubled in model group compared to those in normal L02 cells group. Raw NRR and NRR heated with sand (NRR-B) showed much remarkable lipid-lowering effects in steatotic L02 cells. PNS, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rg1, and ginsenoside Rb1 displayed the best TG and TC regulation activity, which could significantly reduce contents of SREBP-2 and HMG-CoAR and increase the content of CYP7α. Conclusions. Our results may support the fact that both raw NRR and NRR-B might have more satisfactory effects in the treatment of NAFLD. Zhu Chen, Chunmei Li, Caixia Yang, Ronghua Zhao, Xiaojian Mao, and Jie Yu Copyright © 2016 Zhu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Wide-Range Enhancement of Spectral Response by Highly Conductive and Transparent μc-SiOx:H Doped Layers in μc-Si:H and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H Thin-Film Solar Cells Wed, 24 Aug 2016 09:58:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8172518/ The enhancement of optical absorption of silicon thin-film solar cells by the p- and n-type μc-SiOx:H as doped and functional layers was presented. The effects of deposition conditions and oxygen content on optical, electrical, and structural properties of μc-SiOx:H films were also discussed. Regarding the doped μc-SiOx:H films, the wide optical band gap () of 2.33 eV while maintaining a high conductivity of 0.2 S/cm could be obtained with oxygen incorporation of 20 at.%. Compared to the conventional μc-Si:H(p) as window layer in μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells, the application of μc-SiOx:H(p) increased the and led to a significant enhancement in the short-wavelength spectral response. Meanwhile, the employment of μc-SiOx:H(n) instead of conventional ITO as back reflecting layer (BRL) enhanced the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of μc-Si:H single-junction cell in the long-wavelength region, leading to a relative efficiency gain of 10%. Compared to the reference cell, the optimized a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem cell by applying p- and n-type μc-SiOx:H films achieved a of 1.37 V, of 10.55 mA/cm2, FF of 73.67%, and efficiency of 10.51%, which was a relative enhancement of 16%. Pei-Ling Chen, Po-Wei Chen, Min-Wen Hsiao, Cheng-Hang Hsu, and Chuang-Chuang Tsai Copyright © 2016 Pei-Ling Chen et al. All rights reserved. The Feedback Control Strategy of the Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Car-Following Model with Two Delays Wed, 24 Aug 2016 09:26:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/4581428/ Considering the driver’s sensing the headway and velocity the different time-varying delays exist, respectively, and the sensitivity of drivers changes with headway and speed. Introducing the fuzzy control theory, a new fuzzy car-following model with two delays is presented, and the feedback control strategy of the new fuzzy car-following model is studied. Based on the Lyapunov function theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, the sufficient condition that the existence of the fuzzy controller is given making the closed-loop system is asymptotic, stable; namely, traffic congestion phenomenon can effectively be suppressed, and the controller gain matrix can be obtained via solving linear matrix inequality. Finally, the simulation examples verify that the method which suppresses traffic congestion and reduces fuel consumption and exhaust emissions is effective. Cong Zhai, Weiming Liu, and Ling Huang Copyright © 2016 Cong Zhai et al. All rights reserved. Study on NO Heterogeneous Reduction Mechanism under Gasification Condition Wed, 24 Aug 2016 09:18:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/1735929/ Chemisorption of NO and successive heterogeneous reduction mechanisms on the well-defined char models under carbon/char-CO2 gasification condition were investigated using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G (d) level of theory. The characteristics of gasification process were concluded and incorporated into the theoretical calculations by establishing three gasification char models and taking into account the presence of CO in ambient gas pool. The results indicate that both the configuration of char model and adsorption mode have significant influence on the NO adsorption energy. Intensive gasification surface is likely to be thermally unfavorable and the O-down mode is regarded as the most inactive approach for NO’s adsorbing. Finally, NO heterogeneous reduction mechanisms on the three char models under gasification are proposed based on detailed analysis on thermodynamic data and atomic bond populations. Xiangyong Huang, Chengbin Zhang, Xiaochuan Li, and Che Huang Copyright © 2016 Xiangyong Huang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome and Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Directly Observed Treatment Strategy in India: A Prospective Study Wed, 24 Aug 2016 09:15:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7273935/ Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB) incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) due to anti-TB treatment. Eligible TB patients underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. Disease presentation, clinical outcome, and ADRs were compared between patients of TB with and without DM. Out of 316 patients, the prevalence of DM was found to be 15.8%, in which 19.4% and 9.6% were PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. DM patients have observed higher sputum positivity (OR 1.247 95% CI; 0.539–2.886) at the end of 2-month treatment and poor outcome (OR 1.176 95% CI; 0.310–4.457) at the completion of treatment compared with non DM patients. Presence of DM was significantly associated (OR 3.578 95% CI; 1.114–11.494, ) with the development of ADRs. DM influences the treatment outcome of PTB patients in our setting and also on the ADR incidence. Ali Nasir Siddiqui, Khalid Umer Khayyam, and Manju Sharma Copyright © 2016 Ali Nasir Siddiqui et al. All rights reserved. Response to: Comment on “Efficacy of 7-Day and 14-Day Triple Therapy Regimens for the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori: A Comparative Study in a Cohort of Romanian Patients” Wed, 24 Aug 2016 09:05:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/4760378/ Davide Giuseppe Ribaldone, Giorgio Saracco, and Rinaldo Pellicano Copyright © 2016 Davide Giuseppe Ribaldone et al. All rights reserved. Cancer Feature Selection and Classification Using a Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:56:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3572705/ This paper focuses on the feature gene selection for cancer classification, which employs an optimization algorithm to select a subset of the genes. We propose a binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (BQPSO) for cancer feature gene selection, coupling support vector machine (SVM) for cancer classification. First, the proposed BQPSO algorithm is described, which is a discretized version of original QPSO for binary 0-1 optimization problems. Then, we present the principle and procedure for cancer feature gene selection and cancer classification based on BQPSO and SVM with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV). Finally, the BQPSO coupling SVM (BQPSO/SVM), binary PSO coupling SVM (BPSO/SVM), and genetic algorithm coupling SVM (GA/SVM) are tested for feature gene selection and cancer classification on five microarray data sets, namely, Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Lung, and Lymphoma. The experimental results show that BQPSO/SVM has significant advantages in accuracy, robustness, and the number of feature genes selected compared with the other two algorithms. Maolong Xi, Jun Sun, Li Liu, Fangyun Fan, and Xiaojun Wu Copyright © 2016 Maolong Xi et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Artificial Colony Algorithm Model for Forecasting Chinese Electricity Consumption and Analyzing Effect Mechanism Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:54:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8496971/ Electricity consumption forecast is perceived to be a growing hot topic in such a situation that China’s economy has entered a period of new normal and the demand of electric power has slowed down. Therefore, exploring Chinese electricity consumption influence mechanism and forecasting electricity consumption are crucial to formulate electrical energy plan scientifically and guarantee the sustainable economic and social development. Research has identified medium and long term electricity consumption forecast as a difficult study influenced by various factors. This paper proposed an improved Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm which combined with multivariate linear regression (MLR) for exploring the influencing mechanism of various factors on Chinese electricity consumption and forecasting electricity consumption in the future. The results indicated that the improved ABC algorithm in view of the various factors is superior to traditional models just considering unilateralism in accuracy and persuasion. The overall findings cast light on this model which provides a new scientific and effective way to forecast the medium and long term electricity consumption. Jingmin Wang, Jian Zhang, and Jing Nie Copyright © 2016 Jingmin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Microwave Ablation Using Four-Tine Antenna: Effects of Blood Flow Velocity, Vessel Location, and Total Displacement on Porous Hepatic Cancer Tissue Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:49:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4846738/ This research is concerned with microwave ablation analyses using a 2.45 GHz four-tine (4T) antenna for hepatic cancer tissue. In the study, three-dimensional finite-element models were utilized to examine the tissue temperature distributions during and after MW ablation. A preliminary study was first carried out with regard to the specific absorption rates along the 4T antenna insertion depths and the temperature distributions inside the solid and porous liver models with either 3 cm-in-diameter tumor or 5 cm-in-diameter tumor. Based on the preliminary results, the porous models were further examined for the effect of varying blood flow velocities (0–200 cm/s) with a 1 cm-in-diameter blood vessel next to the antenna and also for the effect of vessel-antenna locations (0, 0.8, and 1.3 cm) with a constant blood flow velocity of 16.7 cm/s. All scenarios were simulated under temperature-controlled mode (90°C). The findings revealed that the blood flow velocity and vessel location influence the ablation effectiveness and that increased blood flow inhibits heat transfer to the vessel wall. At the nearest and farthest vessel-antenna locations (0 and 1.3 cm), approximately 90.3% and 99.55% of the cancer cells were eradicated except for the areas adjacent to the vessel. In addition, total tissue thermal displacement is 5.9 mm which is 6.59% of the total length of the overall model. Montree Chaichanyut and Supan Tungjitkusolmun Copyright © 2016 Montree Chaichanyut and Supan Tungjitkusolmun. All rights reserved. Conservative Surgical Management for Pulmonary Hydatid Cyst: Analysis and Outcome of 148 Cases Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:46:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2016/8473070/ Background. Hydatid cyst (HC) disease is endemic in many developing countries, like Yemen, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, especially in the rural regions. The disease has a variable clinical courses and even might be asymptomatic for many years. Objectives. In giant and large pulmonary hydatid cysts, pulmonary resection is the usual method of surgical treatment. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the lung conservative surgery in treatment of cases with giant and large hydatid lung cysts, as an effective method of management. Patients and Methods. Between January 2009 and August 2014, a total of 148 patients with pulmonary hydatid cysts were operated and their data was reviewed retrospectively and analyzed. Out of these cases, 52 (35.14%) cysts with more than 10 cm in diameter and 36 (24.32%) cysts with 5–9 cm were regarded as giant and large hydatid lung cysts, respectively. The small cysts less than 5 cm were presented in 8 (5.4%) cases only; other cases had ruptured cysts. Preservation of the lung tissues during surgery by cystotomy and Capitonnage was our conservative surgical methods of choice. Results. Eight patients developed bronchopleural fistula (BPF); of them, 4 BPFs have healed with chest tube and physiotherapy, but in the other 4 patients reoperation was done for the closure of persistent BPF. No mortality was observed in the present study. Conclusion. We conclude that conservative surgical procedure can achieve complete removal of the pulmonary hydatid cyst. Enucleation of the intact huge cysts is safe. Careful and secured closure of the bronchial communication should be done by purse string or figure-of-8 sutures, with or without Teflon pledgets. These simple procedures are safe, reliable, and successful. Mohammed Aldahmashi, Mohamed Alassal, Ibrahim Kasb, and Hany Elrakhawy Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Aldahmashi et al. All rights reserved. Highly Sensitive Micellar Enhanced Spectrofluorimetric Method for Determination of Mirtazapine in Tablets and Human Urine: Application to In Vitro Drug Release and Content Uniformity Test Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:45:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/5097364/ A highly sensitive and simple micelle enhanced spectrofluorimetric method was developed for assaying mirtazapine (MRZ) in REMERON® tablets and spiked human urine directly without the need of derivatizing agent. The basis of the current procedure is the examination of the relative fluorescence intensity (RFI) of MRZ in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) micellar medium. The RFI of MRZ in water was enhanced markedly on addition of SLS. The RFI was measured at 403 nm after excitation at 320 nm. The fluorescence-concentration relationship was linear over the range 1–500 ng/mL, with lower detection limit of 0.399 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of MRZ in dosage form and spiked human urine. Recovery percentages of MRZ utilizing the current method were , , and % for pure powder, pharmaceutical dosage form, and spiked human urine, respectively. The application of the proposed method was extended to test content uniformity and the in vitro drug release of REMERON tablets, according to USP guidelines. Hany W. Darwish, Ahmed H. Bakheit, and Raed M. Alharbi Copyright © 2016 Hany W. Darwish et al. All rights reserved. Preventive Effect of Dihydromyricetin against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:44:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7937385/ Nephrotoxicity is a frequent severe side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy, limiting its clinical use despite being one of the most potent chemotherapy drugs. Dihydromyricetin is a highly abundant compound purified from the leaves of Ampelopsis grossedentata. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of Dihydromyricetin both in vitro and in vivo, but little is known about the effects of Dihydromyricetin on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated its potential renoprotective effect and found that Dihydromyricetin ameliorated the renal functional impairment and structural damage caused by cisplatin. Moreover, Dihydromyricetin markedly attenuated cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, as well as protecting against cisplatin-induced inflammation and apoptotic cell death in mouse kidney tissues. These results collectively highlight the potential of DMY as a rational renoprotective agent against cisplatin. Fei Wu, Yi Li, Haibo Song, Yuan Zhang, Yuzhu Zhang, Miao Jiang, Fang Wang, Qian Mu, Wen Zhang, Liang Li, and Dongqi Tang Copyright © 2016 Fei Wu et al. All rights reserved. Networks Models of Actin Dynamics during Spermatozoa Postejaculatory Life: A Comparison among Human-Made and Text Mining-Based Models Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:20:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9795409/ Here we realized a networks-based model representing the process of actin remodelling that occurs during the acquisition of fertilizing ability of human spermatozoa (HumanMade_ActinSpermNetwork, HM_ASN). Then, we compared it with the networks provided by two different text mining tools: Agilent Literature Search (ALS) and PESCADOR. As a reference, we used the data from the online repository Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), referred to the actin dynamics in a more general biological context. We found that HM_ALS and the networks from KEGG data shared the same scale-free topology following the Barabasi-Albert model, thus suggesting that the information is spread within the network quickly and efficiently. On the contrary, the networks obtained by ALS and PESCADOR have a scale-free hierarchical architecture, which implies a different pattern of information transmission. Also, the hubs identified within the networks are different: HM_ALS and KEGG networks contain as hubs several molecules known to be involved in actin signalling; ALS was unable to find other hubs than “actin,” whereas PESCADOR gave some nonspecific result. This seems to suggest that the human-made information retrieval in the case of a specific event, such as actin dynamics in human spermatozoa, could be a reliable strategy. Nicola Bernabò, Alessandra Ordinelli, Marina Ramal Sanchez, Mauro Mattioli, and Barbara Barboni Copyright © 2016 Nicola Bernabò et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Acid Red 114 Dye Adsorption by Fe3O4 and Fe3O4 Impregnated Rice Husk Ash Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:19:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/6304096/ The removal of Acid Red 114 (AR114) dye by adsorption process, using the magnetic nanoparticle (RHA-MNP) which is produced from rice husk ash burned at 300°C and the magnetic nanoparticle (MNP, Fe3O4), was studied. Batch processes were used under different test parameters: pH (2, 4, 6, and 10) and without pH, initial dye concentration (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg/L), and contact time (0, 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 150 min). Optimum conditions for AR114 removal were found to be at natural pH (pH without correction) for both adsorbents. Freundlich isotherm was found to be more consistent for MNP and Langmuir isotherm was found to be more consistent for RHA-MNP. The maximum adsorption capacities of MNP and RHA-MNP adsorbents for AR114 dye were equal to 111 mg/g. The kinetic experimental data fitted the pseudo-second-order model for both MNP and RHA-MNP. It can be concluded that RHA-MNP which is a waste could be used as low-cost adsorbent to remove AR114 from aqueous solution. Gul Kaykioglu and Elcin Gunes Copyright © 2016 Gul Kaykioglu and Elcin Gunes. All rights reserved. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Propagation of Ion Acoustic Waves through KPB and KP Equations in Weakly Relativistic Plasmas Wed, 24 Aug 2016 08:11:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2016/9352148/ Two-dimensional three-component plasma system consisting of nonextensive electrons, positrons, and relativistic thermal ions is considered. The well-known Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations are derived to study the basic characteristics of small but finite amplitude ion acoustic waves of the plasmas by using the reductive perturbation method. The influences of positron concentration, electron-positron and ion-electron temperature ratios, strength of electron and positrons nonextensivity, and relativistic streaming factor on the propagation of ion acoustic waves in the plasmas are investigated. It is revealed that the electrostatic compressive and rarefactive ion acoustic waves are obtained for superthermal electrons and positrons, but only compressive ion acoustic waves are found and the potential profiles become steeper in case of subthermal positrons and electrons. M. G. Hafez, M. R. Talukder, and M. Hossain Ali Copyright © 2016 M. G. Hafez et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Wed, 24 Aug 2016 07:30:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7869710/ The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples. Erica C. Larson, Christopher D. Pond, Prem P. Rai, Teatulohi K. Matainaho, Pius Piskaut, Michael R. Franklin, and Louis R. Barrows Copyright © 2016 Erica C. Larson et al. All rights reserved. Polymorphism of HDAC9 Gene Is Associated with Increased Risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Chinese Han Population Wed, 24 Aug 2016 07:26:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3746276/ Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have indicated an association of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) genetic variant with large-vessel stroke and coronary artery disease, among the European population. However, whether HDAC9 gene is associated with an increased susceptibility to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Chinese Han population is not known. A total of 472 patients, including patients with ACS (), and those with chest pain syndrome (controls, ) were enrolled. Genotyping for HDAC9 gene was performed using the ligation detection reaction assay. A series of statistical analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between HDAC9 gene SNPs and the susceptibility to ACS. The results revealed a significant association of rs2240419 with ACS risk in which the A allele (P = 0.047) and the A allele carriers (AA + AG) (P = 0.037) were more likely to be in ACS group as compared to those in the control group. None of two other SNPs, rs2389995 and rs2107595, were significantly associated with ACS risk (P > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses further revealed an increased risk for ACS in A allele carrier among rs2240419 genotypes, as compared to those with GG homozygotes (odds ratio: 1.869, 95% CI 1.143, 3.056, P = 0.013). A significant correlation between rs2240419 polymorphism of HDAC9 gene and the susceptibility to ACS in Chinese Han population was observed in this study. Zhenhua Han, Xin Dong, Chaoying Zhang, Yue Wu, Zuyi Yuan, and Xinhong Wang Copyright © 2016 Zhenhua Han et al. All rights reserved. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control for Non-Gaussian Singular Time-Delayed Stochastic Distribution Systems with Disturbance Based on the Rational Square-Root Model Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:59:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/9563481/ For the non-Gaussian singular time-delayed stochastic distribution control (SDC) system with unknown external disturbance where the output probability density function (PDF) is approximated by the rational square-root B-spline basis function, a robust fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control algorithm is presented. A full-order observer is constructed to estimate the exogenous disturbance and an adaptive observer is used to estimate the fault size. A fault tolerant tracking controller is designed using the feedback of distribution tracking error, fault, and disturbance estimation to let the postfault output PDF still track desired distribution. Finally, a simulation example is included to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms and encouraging results have been obtained. Yuancheng Sun and Zhanhong Liang Copyright © 2016 Yuancheng Sun and Zhanhong Liang. All rights reserved. Advances in Electrospun Nanofibers Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:47:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3531725/ Niranjan Patra, Miroslav Cernik, and Marco Salerno Copyright © 2016 Niranjan Patra et al. All rights reserved. Circular RNA-ITCH Suppresses Lung Cancer Proliferation via Inhibiting the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:38:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1579490/ As a special form of noncoding RNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs) played important roles in regulating cancer progression mainly by functioning as miRNA sponge. While the function of circular RNA-ITCH (cir-ITCH) in lung cancer is still less reported, in this study, we firstly detected the expression of cir-ITCH in tumor tissues and paired adjacent noncancer tissues of 78 patients with lung cancer using a TaqMan-based quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the expression of cir-ITCH was significantly decreased in lung cancer tissues. In cellular studies, cir-ITCH was also enhanced in different lung cancer cell lines, A549 and NIC-H460. Ectopic expression of cir-ITCH markedly elevated its parental cancer-suppressive gene, ITCH, expression and inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells. Molecular analysis further revealed that cir-ITCH acted as sponge of oncogenic miR-7 and miR-214 to enhance ITCH expression and thus suppressed the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Altogether, our results suggested that cir-ITCH may play an inhibitory role in lung cancer progression by enhancing its parental gene, ITCH, expression. Li Wan, Lin Zhang, Kai Fan, Zai-Xing Cheng, Quan-Chao Sun, and Jian-Jun Wang Copyright © 2016 Li Wan et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Input Levels on Soil -N Content and Vertical Distribution in Greenhouse Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:26:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/5710915/ The purpose of this study is to investigate the interactions between irrigation and fertilizer treatments on soil -N content and vertical distribution under drip fertigation in greenhouse tomatoes. Randomized block design with three replications and the treatments consisting of three levels of irrigation and three levels of N fertilizer were used. Three irrigation levels were W1 (100%), W2 (75%), and W3 (50%) and fertilizer levels were F1 (N240–P2O5120–K2O150 kg hm−2), F2 (N180–P2O590–K2O112.5 kg hm−2), and F3 (N120–P2O560–K2O75 kg hm−2). The result demonstrates that dynamics of soil -N and its response to drip fertigation and levels of N moved toward the fore soil moist, and the average soil -N content with W3 treatment was 1.23 times higher than that of the W1 treatment in 0–60 cm at 43 days after transplanting. The negative correlation between N use efficiency and levels of fertilizer N and the N recovery efficiency was increased with increases of N fertilizer application. The fertilizer nitrogen rate greatly significantly influenced soil -N content. Avoiding N leaching through controlled matching N fertilizer application and controlled irrigation to tomato N demand is the key to maintain crop yield and improve N use efficiency. Xiukang Wang and Yingying Xing Copyright © 2016 Xiukang Wang and Yingying Xing. All rights reserved. Image Blocking Encryption Algorithm Based on Laser Chaos Synchronization Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:25:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/4138654/ In view of the digital image transmission security, based on laser chaos synchronization and Arnold cat map, a novel image encryption scheme is proposed. Based on pixel values of plain image a parameter is generated to influence the secret key. Sequences of the drive system and response system are pretreated by the same method and make image blocking encryption scheme for plain image. Finally, pixels position are scrambled by general Arnold transformation. In decryption process, the chaotic synchronization accuracy is fully considered and the relationship between the effect of synchronization and decryption is analyzed, which has characteristics of high precision, higher efficiency, simplicity, flexibility, and better controllability. The experimental results show that the encryption algorithm image has high security and good antijamming performance. Shu-Ying Wang, Jian-Feng Zhao, Xian-Feng Li, and Li-Tao Zhang Copyright © 2016 Shu-Ying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Modeling CNS Development and Disease Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:23:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/3241057/ Jason P. Weick, Jason S. Meyer, Julia Ladewig, Weixiang Guo, and Yan Liu Copyright © 2016 Jason P. Weick et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Fecal Calprotectin in Evaluating Intestinal Involvement of Behçet’s Disease Wed, 24 Aug 2016 06:11:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/5423043/ One of the regions of involvement of Behçet’s disease (BD), a systematic inflammatory vasculitis with unknown etiology, is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy are frequently used methods to diagnose the intestinal involvement of BD. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of fecal calprotectin (FC) in the evaluation of intestinal involvement in BD. Material and Method. A total of 30 patients who were diagnosed with BD and had no GI symptoms and 25 individuals in the control group were included in this study. Results. Levels of FC were statistically significantly higher in patients with BD compared to the control group (). The correlation analysis performed including FC and markers of disease activity revealed a positive and statistically significant correlation between FC level and CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (: 0.255, , and : 0.404, , resp.). FC levels in patients who were detected to have ulcers in the terminal ileum and colon in the colonoscopic examination were statistically significantly higher compared to the patients with BD without intestinal involvement (). Conclusion. The measurement of FC levels, in patients with BD who are asymptomatic for GI involvement, may be helpful to detect the possible underlying intestinal involvement. Burak Özşeker, Cem Şahin, Havva Solak Özşeker, S. Cumali Efe, Taylan Kav, and Yusuf Bayraktar Copyright © 2016 Burak Özşeker et al. All rights reserved. Stabilization of Networked Control Systems with Induced Delays and Actuator Saturation Tue, 23 Aug 2016 17:22:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4208712/ The problem of state feedback stabilization is studied for networked control systems (NCSs) subject to actuator saturation and network-induced delays. To facilitate the controller design, the NCSs are modeled as a class of discrete-time systems with bounded delays and input saturation. Based on Lyapunov-Krasovskii theory and free weighting matrix approach, the sufficient condition is derived in terms of linear matrix inequality for the asymptotic stability. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed control approach is proved through numerical examples. Luo Zhang, Mou Chen, Qingxian Wu, and Bei Wu Copyright © 2016 Luo Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Variation of Main Phenophases in Phenological Calendar in East China and Their Response to Climate Change Tue, 23 Aug 2016 17:09:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/9546380/ Based on the phenological data from China Phenological Observation Network, we compiled the phenological calendars of 3 phenological observation stations (Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hefei) in East China for 1987–1996 and 2003–2012 according to the sequences of mean phenophases. We calculated the correlated coefficient and the root mean square error (RMSE) between phenophases and the beginning of meteorological seasons to determine the beginning date of phenological season. By comparing new phenological calendars with the old ones, we discussed the variation of phenophases and their responses to temperature. The conclusions are as follows. (1) The beginning dates of spring and summer advanced, while those of autumn and winter delayed. Thus, summers got longer and winters got shorter. (2) The beginning time of the four phenological seasons was advancing during 1987–1996, while it was delaying during 2003–2012. (3) Most spring and summer phenophases occur earlier and most autumn and winter phenophases occur later in 2003–2012 than in 1987–1996. (4) The beginning time of phenological seasons was significantly correlated with temperature. The phenological sensitivities to temperature ranged from −6.49 to −6.55 days/°C in spring, −3.65 to −5.02 days/°C in summer, 8.13 to 10.27 days/°C in autumn, and 4.76 to 10.00 days/°C in winter. Fengyi Zheng, Zexing Tao, Yachen Liu, Yunjia Xu, Junhu Dai, and Quansheng Ge Copyright © 2016 Fengyi Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Batch and Continuous Flow Adsorption of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Mill Wastewater: A Comparison between Nonionic and Ion Exchange Resins Tue, 23 Aug 2016 17:04:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2016/9349627/ The goals of this work were (i) to compare two anion ion exchange resins (IRA958 Cl and IRA67) and a nonionic resin (XAD16) in terms of phenolic compounds adsorption capacity from olive mill wastewater and (ii) to compare the adsorption capacity of the best resin on columns of different length. The ion exchange resins performed worse than nonionic XAD16 in terms of resin utilization efficiency (20% versus 43%) and phenolic compounds/COD enrichment factor (1.0 versus 2.5). The addition of volatile fatty acids did not hinder phenolic compounds adsorption on either resin, suggesting a noncompetitive adsorption mechanism. A pH increase from 4.9 to 7.2 did not affect the result of this comparison. For the best performing resin (XAD16), an increase in column length from 0.5 to 1.8 m determined an increase in resin utilization efficiency (from 12% to 43%), resin productivity (from 3.4 to 7.6 ), and phenolics/COD enrichment factor (from 1.2 to 2.5). An axial dispersion model with nonequilibrium adsorption accurately interpreted the phenolic compounds and COD experimental curves. Davide Pinelli, Aurora Esther Molina Bacca, Ankita Kaushik, Subhankar Basu, Massimo Nocentini, Lorenzo Bertin, and Dario Frascari Copyright © 2016 Davide Pinelli et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Model-Based Synchronization Approaches for Time Delayed Slaving Data in a Space Launch Vehicle Tracking System Tue, 23 Aug 2016 17:03:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9319282/ Due to the inherent characteristics of the flight mission of a space launch vehicle (SLV), which is required to fly over very large distances and have very high fault tolerances, in general, SLV tracking systems (TSs) comprise multiple heterogeneous sensors such as radars, GPS, INS, and electrooptical targeting systems installed over widespread areas. To track an SLV without interruption and to hand over the measurement coverage between TSs properly, the mission control system (MCS) transfers slaving data to each TS through mission networks. When serious network delays occur, however, the slaving data from the MCS can lead to the failure of the TS. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose multiple model-based synchronization (MMS) approaches, which take advantage of the multiple motion models of an SLV. Cubic spline extrapolation, prediction through an α-β-γ filter, and a single model Kalman filter are presented as benchmark approaches. We demonstrate the synchronization accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed MMS approaches using the Monte Carlo simulation with the nominal trajectory data of Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I. Haryong Song and Yongtae Choi Copyright © 2016 Haryong Song and Yongtae Choi. All rights reserved. Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Recovered from Endotracheal Tube in an Intensive Care Unit Tue, 23 Aug 2016 17:03:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amed/2016/9242031/ Aims. Biofilms formed by Candida species which associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species isolated from endotracheal tubes from ICU patients. Methods. One hundred forty ICU patients with tracheal tubes who were intubated and mechanically ventilated were surveyed for endotracheal tube biofilms. Samples were processed for quantitative microbial culture. Yeast isolates were identified to the species level based on morphological characteristics and their identity was confirmed by PCR-RFLP. Antifungal susceptibility testing was determined according to CLSI document (M27-A3). Results. Ninety-five strains of Candida were obtained from endotracheal tubes of which C. albicans (; 35.7%) was the most frequently isolated species followed by other species which included C. glabrata (; 25.2%), C. parapsilosis (; 16.8%), C. tropicalis (; 12.6%), and C. krusei (; 9.4%). The resulting MIC90 for all Candida species were in increasing order as follows: caspofungin (0.5 μg/mL); amphotericin B (2 μg/mL); voriconazole (8.8 μg/mL); itraconazole (16 μg/mL); and fluconazole (64 μg/mL). Conclusion. Candida species recovered from endotracheal tube are the most susceptible to caspofungin. Elham Baghdadi, Sadegh Khodavaisy, Sassan Rezaie, Sara Abolghasem, Neda Kiasat, Zahra Salehi, Somayeh Sharifynia, and Farzad Aala Copyright © 2016 Elham Baghdadi et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Bone Losses in Revision Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Using Trabecular Metal: Current Literature Tue, 23 Aug 2016 17:02:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/8673974/ Revision Total Knee or Hip Arthroplasty is challenging procedures for surgeons usually characterized by bone loss. There are different options available to treat those bone losses. However, there is still a concern on the stability of bone-implant interface, which is mandatory to achieve good long-term results in prosthetic implants. Recently, porous tantalum has been introduced, with the aim of improving the bone-implant interface fixation and implant primary stability. Different solutions for the treatment of bone defects in both revision Total Knee and Hip Arthroplasty have been proposed. In revision Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) tantalum shells can be used to treat Paprosky type III defects also, because of their mechanical properties. Similarly, trabecular metal has been proposed in revision Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), being considered a viable option to treat severe type 2 or 3 defects. The aim of this paper is to review the mechanical properties and characteristics of tantalum. Furthermore, we will discuss its role in treating bone defects in both revision THA and TKA, as well as the outcome reported in literature. Umberto Cottino, Federica Rosso, Federico Dettoni, Matteo Bruzzone, Davide Edoardo Bonasia, and Roberto Rossi Copyright © 2016 Umberto Cottino et al. All rights reserved. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty Tue, 23 Aug 2016 17:02:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7438913/ Nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP) was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection. Ye Xu and Guohe Huang Copyright © 2016 Ye Xu and Guohe Huang. All rights reserved. Cardiac Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Tue, 23 Aug 2016 16:28:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2016/5091021/ Secondary or metastatic cardiac tumors are much more common than primary benign or malignant cardiac tumors. Any tumor can cause myocardial or pericardial metastasis, although isolated or combined tumor invasion of the pericardium is more common. Types of neoplasia with the highest rates of cardiac or pericardial involvement are melanoma, lung cancer, and breast and mediastinal carcinomas. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. Initial treatment involves chemotherapy followed by consolidation treatment to reduce the risk of relapse. In high-risk patients, the treatment of choice for consolidation is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Relapse of AML is the most common cause of HSCT failure. Extramedullary relapse is rare. The organs most frequently affected, called “sanctuaries,” are the testes, ovaries, and central nervous system. We present a case with extramedullary relapse in the form of a solid cardiac mass. María Facenda-Lorenzo, Ana Sánchez-Quintana, Alejandro Quijada-Fumero, Ana Laynez-Carnicero, Joaquín Breña-Atienza, Francisco J. Poncela-Mireles, Juan M. Llanos-Gómez, Ana I. Cabello-Rodríguez, and María Ramos-López Copyright © 2016 María Facenda-Lorenzo et al. All rights reserved. A Predictive Neural Network-Based Cascade Control for pH Reactors Tue, 23 Aug 2016 16:27:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/5638632/ This paper is concerned with the development of predictive neural network-based cascade control for pH reactors. The cascade structure consists of a master control loop (fuzzy proportional-integral) and a slave one (predictive neural network). The master loop is chosen to be more accurate but slower than the slave one. The strong features found in cascade structure have been added to the inherent features in model predictive neural network. The neural network is used to alleviate modeling difficulties found with pH reactor and to predict its behavior. The parameters of predictive algorithm are determined using an optimization algorithm. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed design have been demonstrated using MatLab. Mujahed AlDhaifallah, Shebel Alsabbah, and Iqbal Mujtaba Copyright © 2016 Mujahed AlDhaifallah et al. All rights reserved.