Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Electrical Switching in Thin Film Structures Based on Molybdenum Oxides Thu, 18 Sep 2014 16:11:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jep/2014/951297/ We report on the experimental study of electrical instabilities in thin film structures on the basis of molybdenum oxides. Thin films of molybdenum oxide are obtained by thermal vacuum evaporation and anodic oxidation. The results of X-ray structural analysis, investigation of optical and electrical properties, are presented. It is shown that the initial vacuum-deposited oxide represents amorphous MoO3. In the MOM (metal-oxide-metal) structures with Mo oxide films obtained by the two methods, the effect of electrical switching with an S-shaped current-voltage characteristic is found. We put forward a hypothesis according to which the switching mechanism is associated with the development of electrical instability caused by the insulator-to-metal transition in Mo8O23. The switching channel, comprising this lower valence oxide, emerges in the initial film during the process of electrical forming of the MOM structure. The obtained results indicate the possibility of application of these structures in oxide micro- and nanoelectronics as electronic switches and other electronic devices. A. L. Pergament, V. P. Malinenko, L. A. Aleshina, E. L. Kazakova, and N. A. Kuldin Copyright © 2014 A. L. Pergament et al. All rights reserved. Breakfast Time Blackouts Thu, 18 Sep 2014 16:11:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/568983/ We present the case of a 16-year-old girl who suffered from repeated episodes of collapse and loss of consciousness which could be provoked by undertaking a stretching manoeuvre comprising a combined breath hold and neck torsion. A review of the literature is provided on other cases of so-called “stretch syncope” which appears to be a rare form of reflex syncope affecting patients in adolescence. Andrew W. Barritt and Bridget K. MacDonald Copyright © 2014 Andrew W. Barritt and Bridget K. MacDonald. All rights reserved. Addressing Obesity in Special Populations Thu, 18 Sep 2014 13:52:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/171208/ Rachel A. Annunziato, Rachel M. Calogero, and Robyn Sysko Copyright © 2014 Rachel A. Annunziato et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of an Anion-Exchange Membrane Based on Imidazolium-Type Ionic Liquids for a Capacitive Energy Extraction Donnan Potential Device Thu, 18 Sep 2014 13:07:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/858541/ Polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) were synthesized via the photocopolymerization of a vinyl imidazolium ionic liquid, with 1-butyl-3-(4-vinylbenzyl)imidazolium chloride ([BVBI][Cl]) as the anion-exchange group and styrene, acrylonitrile, and divinylbenzene as cross-linked agents. The physical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties of the prepared AEMs such as water uptake (%), swelling degree (%), ion-exchange capacity (mmol/g), thermal stability, tensile strength (Mpa), tensile modulus (Mpa), elongation (%), and ionic conductivity (S/cm) were evaluated. The synthesized AEMs were shown to have good physical, mechanical, and electrochemical properties for application of a capacitive energy extraction Donnan potential (CDP) device membrane. The CDP device was fabricated by using the synthesized AEM. The specific capacitance of the CDP device with AEM was determined as 2.53 F/g and 3.44 F/g by galvanostatic charge/discharge and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The synthesized AEM with imidazolium ionic liquid can be applied as the CDP device membrane. Young-Seok Kim and Seong-Ho Choi Copyright © 2014 Young-Seok Kim and Seong-Ho Choi. All rights reserved. Tumor Suppression and Promotion by Autophagy Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:53:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/603980/ Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic process that involves lysosomal degradation of proteins and organelles, mostly mitochondria, for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and reduction of metabolic stress. Problems in the execution of this process are linked to different pathological conditions, such as neurodegeneration, aging, and cancer. Many of the proteins that regulate autophagy are either oncogenes or tumor suppressor proteins. Specifically, tumor suppressor genes that negatively regulate mTOR, such as PTEN, AMPK, LKB1, and TSC1/2 stimulate autophagy while, conversely, oncogenes that activate mTOR, such as class I PI3K, Ras, Rheb, and AKT, inhibit autophagy, suggesting that autophagy is a tumor suppressor mechanism. Consistent with this hypothesis, the inhibition of autophagy promotes oxidative stress, genomic instability, and tumorigenesis. Nevertheless, autophagy also functions as a cytoprotective mechanism under stress conditions, including hypoxia and nutrient starvation, that promotes tumor growth and resistance to chemotherapy in established tumors. Here, in this brief review, we will focus the discussion on this ambiguous role of autophagy in the development and progression of cancer. Yenniffer Ávalos, Jimena Canales, Roberto Bravo-Sagua, Alfredo Criollo, Sergio Lavandero, and Andrew F. G. Quest Copyright © 2014 Yenniffer Ávalos et al. All rights reserved. Reconstruction of Dielectric Constants of Core and Cladding of Optical Fibers Using Propagation Constants Measurements Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:51:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physri/2014/253435/ We present new numerical methods for the solution of inverse spectral problem to determine the dielectric constants of core and cladding in optical fibers. These methods use measurements of propagation constants. Our algorithms are based on approximate solution of a nonlinear nonselfadjoint eigenvalue problem for a system of weakly singular integral equations. We study three inverse problems and prove that they are well posed. Our numerical results indicate good accuracy of new algorithms. E. M. Karchevskii, A. O. Spiridonov, A. I. Repina, and L. Beilina Copyright © 2014 E. M. Karchevskii et al. All rights reserved. The Role of the Blood-Brain Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Senile Plaques in Alzheimer’s Disease Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:49:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijad/2014/191863/ The accumulation of beta-amyloid [Aβ] within senile plaques [SP] is characteristic of these lesions in Alzheimer’s disease. The accumulation of Aβ42, in particular, in the superior temporal [ST] cortex may result from an inability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) to regulate the trans-endothelial transport and clearance of the amyloid. Lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP] and P-glycoprotein [P-gp] facilitate the efflux of Aβ out of the brain, whereas receptor for advanced glycation end products [RAGE] facilitates Aβ influx. Additionally, vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF] and endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] may influence the trans-BBB transport of Aβ. In this study we examined ST samples and compared SP burden of all types with the capillary expression of LRP, p-gp, RAGE, VEGF, and e-NOS in samples from 15 control and 15 Alzheimer brains. LRP, P-gp, RAGE, VEGF, and eNOS positive capillaries and Aβ42 plaques were quantified and statistical analysis of the nonparametric data was performed using the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. In the Alzheimer condition P-gp, VEGF, and eNOS positive capillaries were negatively correlated with SP burden, but LRP and RAGE were positively correlated with SP burden. These results indicate altered BBB function in the pathogenesis of SPs in Alzheimer brains. J. Provias and B. Jeynes Copyright © 2014 J. Provias and B. Jeynes. All rights reserved. CBCT Evaluation of Bony Nasal Pyramid Dimensions in Iranian Population: A Comparative Study with Ethnic Groups Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:41:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/819378/ Background. The aim of the present study was to have normative data of nasal bone thickness for use before reconstructive surgery and nasal augmentation through radiography analysis. Methods and Materials. In this descriptive-analytical study, 74 patients were selected from people referred to Radiology Department of Isfahan University for CBCT examination in 2012. Patients with a history of nasal surgery or facial trauma and known congenital anomaly were excluded from the study. Height of nasal bone and width of pyriform aperture and nasal bone thickness in lateral and medial osteotomy line were measured. All these measurements were repeated by two radiologists; finally one sample -test was performed. Results. The mean thickness of nasal bone on the lateral osteotomy line was 1.92 ± 0.29 mm in females and 1.73 ± 0.32 mm in males ( value = 0.39). The mean thickness of medial osteotomy line was 1.63 ± 0.47 mm in females and 1.94 ± 0.19 mm in males ( value = 0.31). The mean length of nasal bone was 23.5 ± 3.34 mm in females and 25.7 ± 2.96 mm in males ( value = 0.11). The mean width of pyriform aperture was 23.77 ± 2.58 mm in females and 25.67 ± 1.79 mm in males ( value = 0.25). Conclusions. The dimensions of nasal pyramid are known to be significant in choosing suitable osteotome size for reducing surgery side effect. Our results can be used for preoperative estimation of nasal bone dimension of people undergoing reconstructive surgery and augmentation. Asieh Zamani Naser and Mariyya Panahi Boroujeni Copyright © 2014 Asieh Zamani Naser and Mariyya Panahi Boroujeni. All rights reserved. Gender-Dependent Effect of GSTM1 Genotype on Childhood Asthma Associated with Prenatal Tobacco Smoke Exposure Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:38:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/769452/ It remains unclear whether the GSTM1 genotype interacts with tobacco smoke exposure (TSE) in asthma development. This study aimed to investigate the interactions among GSTM1 genotype, gender, and prenatal TSE with regard to childhood asthma development. In a longitudinal birth cohort in Taiwan, 756 newborns completed a 6-year follow-up, and 591 children with DNA samples available for GSTM1 genotyping were included in the study, and the interactive influences of gender-GSTM1 genotyping-prenatal TSE on childhood asthma development were analyzed. Among these 591 children, 138 (23.4%) had physician-diagnosed asthma at 6 years of age, and 347 (58.7%) were null-GSTM1. Prenatal TSE significantly increased the prevalence of childhood asthma in null-GSTM1 children relative to those with positive GSTM1. Further analysis showed that prenatal TSE significantly increased the risk of childhood asthma in girls with null-GSTM1. Furthermore, among the children without prenatal TSE, girls with null-GSTM1 had a significantly lower risk of developing childhood asthma and a lower total IgE level at 6 years of age than those with positive GSTM1. This study demonstrates that the GSTM1 null genotype presents a protective effect against asthma development in girls, but the risk of asthma development increases significantly under prenatal TSE. Chih-Chiang Wu, Chia-Yu Ou, Jen-Chieh Chang, Te-Yao Hsu, Ho-Chang Kuo, Chieh-An Liu, Chih-Lu Wang, Chia-Ju Chuang, Hau Chuang, Hsiu-Mei Liang, and Kuender D. Yang Copyright © 2014 Chih-Chiang Wu et al. All rights reserved. Antiretroviral Therapy Helps HIV-Positive Women Navigate Social Expectations for and Clinical Recommendations against Childbearing in Uganda Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:34:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/art/2014/626120/ Understanding factors that influence pregnancy decision-making and experiences among HIV-positive women is important for developing integrated reproductive health and HIV services. Few studies have examined HIV-positive women’s navigation through the social and clinical factors that shape experiences of pregnancy in the context of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with HIV-positive, pregnant women receiving ART in Mbarara, Uganda in 2011 to explore how access to ART shapes pregnancy experiences. Main themes included: (1) clinical counselling about pregnancy is often dissuasive but focuses on the importance of ART adherence once pregnant; (2) accordingly, women demonstrate knowledge about the role of ART adherence in maintaining maternal health and reducing risks of perinatal HIV transmission; (3) this knowledge contributes to personal optimism about pregnancy and childbearing in the context of HIV; and (4) knowledge about and adherence to ART creates opportunities for HIV-positive women to manage normative community and social expectations of childbearing. Access to ART and knowledge of the accompanying lowered risks of mortality, morbidity, and HIV transmission improved experiences of pregnancy and empowered HIV-positive women to discretely manage conflicting social expectations and clinical recommendations regarding childbearing. Jasmine Kastner, Lynn T. Matthews, Ninsiima Flavia, Francis Bajunirwe, Susan Erikson, Nicole S. Berry, and Angela Kaida Copyright © 2014 Jasmine Kastner et al. All rights reserved. Myristic Acid Produces Anxiolytic-Like Effects in Wistar Rats in the Elevated Plus Maze Thu, 18 Sep 2014 12:23:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/492141/ A mixture of eight fatty acids (linoleic, palmitic, stearic, myristic, elaidic, lauric, oleic, and palmitoleic acids) at similar concentrations identified in human amniotic fluid produces anxiolytic-like effects comparable to diazepam in Wistar rats. However, individual effects of each fatty acid remain unexplored. In Wistar rats, we evaluated the separate action of each fatty acid at the corresponding concentrations previously found in human amniotic fluid on anxiety-like behaviour. Individual effects were compared with vehicle, an artificial mixture of the same eight fatty acids, and a reference anxiolytic drug (diazepam, 2 mg/kg). Myristic acid, the fatty acid mixture, and diazepam increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze and reduced the anxiety index compared with vehicle, without altering general locomotor activity. The other fatty acids had no effect on anxiety-like behaviour, but oleic acid reduced locomotor activity. Additionally, myristic acid produced anxiolytic-like effects only when the concentration corresponded to the one identified in human amniotic fluid (30 𝜇g/mL) but did not alter locomotor activity. We conclude that of the eight fatty acids contained in the fatty acid mixture, only myristic acid produces anxiolytic-like effects when administered individually at a similar concentration detected in human amniotic fluid. Carlos M. Contreras, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa, Rosa Isela García-Ríos, Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo, Gabriel Guillen-Ruiz, and Blandina Bernal-Morales Copyright © 2014 Carlos M. Contreras et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Obesity on Bone Mass and Quality in Ovariectomized Female Zucker Rats Thu, 18 Sep 2014 11:42:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/690123/ Obesity and osteoporosis are two chronic conditions that have been increasing in prevalence. Despite prior data supporting the positive relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD), recent findings show excess body weight to be detrimental to bone mass, strength, and quality. To evaluate whether obesity would further exacerbate the effects of ovariectomy on bone, we examined the tibiae and fourth lumbar (L4) vertebrae from leptin receptor-deficient female () Zucker rats and their heterozygous lean controls () that were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx). BMD of L4 vertebra was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and microcomputed tomography was used to assess the microstructural properties of the tibiae. Ovariectomy significantly () decreased the BMD of L4 vertebrae in lean and obese Zucker rats. Lower trabecular number and greater trabecular separation () were also observed in the tibiae of lean- and obese-Ovx rats when compared to sham rats. However, only the obese-Ovx rats had lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) () than the other groups. These findings demonstrated that ovarian hormone deficiency adversely affected bone mass and quality in lean and obese rats while obesity only affected Tb.Th in Ovx-female Zucker rats. Rafaela G. Feresin, Sarah A. Johnson, Marcus L. Elam, Edward Jo, Bahram H. Arjmandi, and Reza Hakkak Copyright © 2014 Rafaela G. Feresin et al. All rights reserved. Biomarker Analysis Revealed Distinct Profiles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Infants with Ocular Lesions of Congenital Toxoplasmosis Thu, 18 Sep 2014 11:17:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/910621/ Toxoplasma gondii is the main infectious cause of human posterior retinochoroiditis, the most frequent clinical manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. This investigation was performed after neonatal screening to identify biomarkers of immunity associated with immunopathological features of the disease by flow cytometry. The study included infected infants without NRL and with retinochoroidal lesions (ARL, ACRL, and CRL) as well as noninfected individuals (NI). Our data demonstrated that leukocytosis, with increased monocytes and lymphocytes, was a relevant hematological biomarker of ARL. Immunophenotypic analysis also revealed expansion of CD14+CD16+HLA- monocytes and cytotoxic NK-cells in ARL. Moreover, augmented TCRγδ+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were apparently good biomarkers of morbidity. Biomarker network analysis revealed that complex and intricated networks underscored the negative correlation of monocytes with NK- and B-cells in NRL. The remarkable lack of connections involving B-cells and a relevant shift of NK-cell connections from B-cells toward T-cells observed in ARL were outstanding. A tightly connected biomarker network was observed in CRL, with relevant connections of NK- and CD8+ T-cells with a broad range of cell subsets. Our findings add novel elements to the current knowledge on the innate and adaptive immune responses in congenital toxoplasmosis. Anderson Silva Machado, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos Carneiro, Samantha Ribeiro Béla, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz Andrade, Daniel Vitor Vasconcelos-Santos, José Nélio Januário, Jordana G. Coelho-dos-Reis, Eloisa Amália Vieira Ferro, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Ricardo Wagner Almeida Vitor, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, and UFMG Congenital Toxoplasmosis Brazilian Group —UFMG-CTBG Copyright © 2014 Anderson Silva Machado et al. All rights reserved. The Central Role of the Gut Microbiota in Chronic Inflammatory Diseases Thu, 18 Sep 2014 11:09:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/689492/ The commensal microbiota is in constant interaction with the immune system, teaching immune cells to respond to antigens. Studies in mice have demonstrated that manipulation of the intestinal microbiota alters host immune cell homeostasis. Additionally, metagenomic-sequencing analysis has revealed alterations in intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and obesity. Perturbations in the microbiota composition result in a deficient immune response and impaired tolerance to commensal microorganisms. Due to altered microbiota composition which is associated to some inflammatory diseases, several strategies, such as the administration of probiotics, diet, and antibiotic usage, have been utilized to prevent or ameliorate chronic inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this review is to present and discuss recent evidence showing that the gut microbiota controls immune system function and onset, development, and resolution of some common inflammatory diseases. Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira, Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Marco Aurelio Ramirez Vinolo, Fernando A. Oliveira, Rui Curi, and Flaviano dos Santos Martins Copyright © 2014 Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. An Investigation on Shape Morphing by Modulus Variation: Forward Approach Thu, 18 Sep 2014 10:56:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/706830/ Structural shape deformation, in its conventional way, includes applying forces to a fixed-compliance structure to deform it to certain shapes. Rather than addressing shape control in the established way (applying forces to elastically or plastically deform a structure), this work studies the use of shape morphing, which involves combining applied forces and local modulus changes. Specifically in this paper, a simply supported elastic beam that can exhibit variable compliance behavior is selected as the model. This study focuses on the forward approach of morphing, that is, determining possible beam shapes due to the applied force and modulus variability. The goal is to incorporate variable-modulus materials into a structure model and utilize the controllable modulus change to quantify the morphing of the structure with limited actuator numbers, locations, and force levels. The resulting morphed shapes are quantified in terms of various characteristic parameters. The study demonstrates that a larger, and in some cases nonintuitive, space of shapes becomes possible when modulus change is utilized, for the same set of applied forces. Amin Mohaghegh Motlagh and William W. Clark Copyright © 2014 Amin Mohaghegh Motlagh and William W. Clark. All rights reserved. Modular Leech Trees of Order at Most 8 Thu, 18 Sep 2014 10:54:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcom/2014/218086/ In 1975, John Leech asked when can the edges of a tree on vertices be labeled with positive integers such that the sums along the paths are exactly the integers . He found five such trees, and no additional trees have been discovered since. In 2011 Leach and Walsh introduced the idea of labeling trees with elements of the group where and examined the cases for . In this paper we show that no modular Leech trees of order 7 exist, and we find all modular Leech trees of order 8. David Leach Copyright © 2014 David Leach. All rights reserved. Minimally Invasive Resection of an Extradural Far Lateral Lumbar Schwannoma with Zygapophyseal Joint Sparing: Surgical Nuances and Literature Review Thu, 18 Sep 2014 10:51:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/739862/ Introduction. Spinal schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumors. Completely extradural schwannomas of the lumbar spine are extremely rare lesions, accounting for only 0,7–4,2% of all spinal NSTs. Standard open approaches have been used to treat these tumors, requiring extensive muscle dissection, laminectomy, radical foraminotomy, and facetectomy. In this paper the authors present the case of a minimally invasive resection of a completely extradural schwannoma. Operative technique literature review is presented. Material & Methods. A 50-year-old woman presented with progressive complains of chronic right leg pain and paresthesia. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant well-encapsulated dumbbell-shaped extradural lesion at the L3-L4 level. The patient underwent a minimally invasive gross total resection of the tumor using a tubular expandable retractor system. Results. The patient had complete resolution of radiculopathy in the immediate postoperative period and she was discharged home, neurologically intact, on the second postoperative day. Postoperative MRI demonstrated no evidence of residual tumor. At latest follow-up (18 months) the patient remains asymptomatic. Conclusion. Although challenging, this minimally invasive procedure is safe and effective, being an appropriate alternative, with many potential advantages, to the open approach. Vítor M. Gonçalves, Bruno Santiago, Vítor C. Ferreira, and Manuel Cunha e Sá Copyright © 2014 Vítor M. Gonçalves et al. All rights reserved. Obstetric Scar Endometriosis: Retrospective Study on 19 Cases and Review of the Literature Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:14:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/417042/ Endometriosis is defined as the presence of functioning endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. This disease is one of the most common gynecologic disorders in reproductive age women. It generally occurs in pelvic cavity. But extrapelvic location has been defined (such as extremities, central nervous system, lungs, pleurae, liver, umbilicus, pericardium, urinary tract, intestines, and surgical scar tissue). Scar endometriosis is a rare disease and defined as presence of endometriotic lesions on the abdominal (such as cesarean section and hysterectomy) or vaginal (episiotomy) excision line. It is difficult to diagnose due to the extreme variability in presentation. The symptoms are nonspecific, typically involving pain, swelling at the incision site at the time of menstruation. Excision and histopathologic examination are necessary for diagnosis. We present a case series of obstetric scar endometriosis and review of the literature. Mustafa Kaplanoglu, Dilek Kaya Kaplanoğlu, Ceren Dincer Ata, and Selim Buyukkurt Copyright © 2014 Mustafa Kaplanoglu et al. All rights reserved. Computational Insights into Substrate and Site Specificities, Catalytic Mechanism, and Protonation States of the Catalytic Asp Dyad of β-Secretase Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:14:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2014/598728/ In this review, information regarding substrate and site specificities, catalytic mechanism, and protonation states of the catalytic Asp dyad of β-secretase (BACE1) derived from computational studies has been discussed. BACE1 catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the generation of Alzheimer amyloid beta peptide through the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Due to its biological functioning, this enzyme has been considered as one of the most important targets for finding the cure for Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that structural differences in the key regions (inserts A, D, and F and the 10s loop) of the enzyme are responsible for the observed difference in its activities towards the WT- and SW-substrates. The modifications in the flap, third strand, and insert F regions were found to be involved in the alteration in the site specificity of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol bound form of BACE1. Our QM and QM/MM calculations suggested that BACE1 hydrolyzed the SW-substrate more efficiently than the WT-substrate and that cleavage of the peptide bond occurred in the rate-determining step. The results from molecular docking studies showed that the information concerning a single protonation state of the Asp dyad is not enough to run an in silico screening campaign. Arghya Barman and Rajeev Prabhakar Copyright © 2014 Arghya Barman and Rajeev Prabhakar. All rights reserved. Association of Helicobacter pylori and iNOS Production by Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Gastric Mucosa in Chronic Gastritis Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:11:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/762514/ Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic gastritis. With the development of the disease cellular inflammatory infiltrates composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages are formed in epithelium and lamina propria of the stomach. These cells are capable of secreting a number of active substances, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We examined the relationship between H. pylori and secretion of iNOS by cells of inflammatory infiltrates in chronic gastritis by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The data obtained indicate that stimulation of H. pylori immune system cells of the host organism during development of chronic gastritis causes increase in number of macrophages and lymphocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate of the gastric mucosa. This is accompanied with increased expression of inducible NO-synthase with excess free radicals in the tissues, which leads to secondary alterations and exacerbates the inflammation with impaired regeneration processes. Lilia A. Cherdantseva, Oksana V. Potapova, Tatyana V. Sharkova, Yana Yu. Belyaeva, and Vyacheslav A. Shkurupiy Copyright © 2014 Lilia A. Cherdantseva et al. All rights reserved. Parameter Estimation of Turbo Code Encoder Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:10:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aee/2014/282108/ The problem of reconstruction of a channel code consists of finding out its design parameters solely based on its output. This paper investigates the problem of reconstruction of parallel turbo codes. Reconstruction of a turbo code has been addressed in the literature assuming that some of the parameters of the turbo encoder, such as the number of input and output bits of the constituent encoders and puncturing pattern, are known. However in practical noncooperative situations, these parameters are unknown and should be estimated before applying reconstruction process. Considering such practical situations, this paper proposes a novel method to estimate the above-mentioned code parameters. The proposed algorithm increases the efficiency of the reconstruction process significantly by judiciously reducing the size of search space based on an analysis of the observed channel code output. Moreover, simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is highly robust against channel errors when it is fed with noisy observations. Mehdi Teimouri and Ahmadreza Hedayat Copyright © 2014 Mehdi Teimouri and Ahmadreza Hedayat. All rights reserved. Normoxic and Hyperoxic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Congenital Heart Disease Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:08:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/678268/ Cyanotic congenital heart disease comprises a diverse spectrum of anatomical pathologies. Common to all, however, is chronic hypoxia before these lesions are operated upon when cardiopulmonary bypass is initiated. A range of functional and structural adaptations take place in the chronically hypoxic heart, which, whilst protective in the hypoxic state, are deleterious when the availability of oxygen to the myocardium is suddenly improved. Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass delivers hyperoxic perfusion to the myocardium and is associated with cardiac injury and systemic stress, whilst a normoxic perfusate protects against these insults. Amir Mokhtari and Martin Lewis Copyright © 2014 Amir Mokhtari and Martin Lewis. All rights reserved. Increasing the Stability of Metal-Organic Frameworks Thu, 18 Sep 2014 09:03:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ac/2014/182327/ Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new category of advanced porous materials undergoing study by many researchers for their vast variety of both novel structures and potentially useful properties arising from them. Their high porosities, tunable structures, and convenient process of introducing both customizable functional groups and unsaturated metal centers have afforded excellent gas sorption and separation ability, catalytic activity, luminescent properties, and more. However, the robustness and reactivity of a given framework are largely dependent on its metal-ligand interactions, where the metal-containing clusters are often vulnerable to ligand substitution by water or other nucleophiles, meaning that the frameworks may collapse upon exposure even to moist air. Other frameworks may collapse upon thermal or vacuum treatment or simply over time. This instability limits the practical uses of many MOFs. In order to further enhance the stability of the framework, many different approaches, such as the utilization of high-valence metal ions or nitrogen-donor ligands, were recently investigated. This review details the efforts of both our research group and others to synthesize MOFs possessing drastically increased chemical and thermal stability, in addition to exemplary performance for catalysis, gas sorption, and separation. Mathieu Bosch, Muwei Zhang, and Hong-Cai Zhou Copyright © 2014 Mathieu Bosch et al. All rights reserved. No Signs of Inflammation during Knee Surgery with Ischemia: A Study Involving Inhaled Nitric Oxide Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:40:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/620281/ Nitric oxide donors and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) may decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury as reported in animal and human models. We investigated whether the attenuation of reperfusion injury, seen by others, in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty could be reproduced when patients had spinal anesthesia. 45 consecutive patients were randomized into three groups (). Groups 1 and 3 were receiving iNO 80 ppm or placebo (nitrogen, N2) throughout the entire operation, and group 2 only received iNO in the beginning and at the end of the operation. Blood samples were collected before surgery, at the end of the surgery, and 2 hours postoperatively. Muscle biopsies were taken from quadriceps femoris muscle before and after ischemia. There were no increases in plasma levels of soluble adhesion molecules: ICAM, VCAM, P-selectin, E-selectin, or of HMGB1, in any of the groups. There were low numbers of CD68+ macrophages and of endothelial cells expression of ICAM, VCAM, and P-selectin in the muscle analyzed by immunohistochemistry, prior to and after ischemia. No signs of endothelial cell activation or inflammatory response neither systemically nor locally could be detected. The absence of inflammatory response questions this model of ischemia/reperfusion, but may also be related to the choice of anesthetic method EudraCTnr. Lars Hållström, Claes Frostell, Anders Herrlin, Eva Lindroos, Ingrid Lundberg, and Anne Soop Copyright © 2014 Lars Hållström et al. All rights reserved. EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 Screening in Bone Marrow Samples from Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:31:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/548097/ Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in childhood worldwide and Mexico has reported one of the highest incidence rates. An infectious etiology has been suggested and supported by epidemiological evidences; however, the identity of the involved agent(s) is not known. We considered that early transmitted lymphotropic herpes viruses were good candidates, since transforming mechanisms have been described for them and some are already associated with human cancers. In this study we interrogated the direct role of EBV, HCMV, HHV6, and HHV7 human herpes viruses in childhood ALL. Viral genomes were screened in 70 bone marrow samples from ALL patients through standard and a more sensitive nested PCR. Positive samples were detected only by nested PCR indicating a low level of infection. Our result argues that viral genomes were not present in all leukemic cells, and, hence, infection most likely was not part of the initial genetic lesions leading to ALL. The high statistical power of the study suggested that these agents are not involved in the genesis of ALL in Mexican children. Additional analysis showed that detected infections or coinfections were not associated with prognosis. A. Morales-Sánchez, E. N. Pompa-Mera, A. Fajardo-Gutiérrez, F. J. Alvarez-Rodríguez, V. C. Bekker-Méndez, J. de Diego Flores-Chapa, J. Flores-Lujano, E. Jiménez-Hernández, J. G. Peñaloza-González, M. C. Rodríguez-Zepeda, J. R. Torres-Nava, M. M. Velázquez-Aviña, R. Amador-Sánchez, M. Alvarado-Ibarra, N. Reyes-Zepeda, R. M. Espinosa-Elizondo, M. L. Pérez-Saldivar, J. C. Núñez-Enríquez, J. M. Mejía-Aranguré, and E. M. Fuentes-Pananá Copyright © 2014 A. Morales-Sánchez et al. All rights reserved. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Useful Biomarker of AAA Rupture Risk Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:17:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/930738/ Kosmas I. Paraskevas, Dimitri P. Mikhailidis, and Frank J. Veith Copyright © 2014 Kosmas I. Paraskevas et al. All rights reserved. Carborane-Based Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors: Insight into CAII/CAIX Specificity from a High-Resolution Crystal Structure, Modeling, and Quantum Chemical Calculations Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:08:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/389869/ Carborane-based compounds are promising lead structures for development of inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Here, we report structural and computational analysis applicable to structure-based design of carborane compounds with selectivity toward the cancer-specific CAIX isoenzyme. We determined the crystal structure of CAII in complex with 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane at 1.0 Å resolution and used this structure to model the 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane interactions with CAIX. A virtual glycine scan revealed the contributions of individual residues to the energy of binding of 1-methylenesulfamide-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecaborane to CAII and CAIX, respectively. Pavel Mader, Adam Pecina, Petr Cígler, Martin Lepšík, Václav Šícha, Pavel Hobza, Bohumír Grüner, Jindřich Fanfrlík, Jiří Brynda, and Pavlína Řezáčová Copyright © 2014 Pavel Mader et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Leads to Downregulation of PPAR Transcription in Broiler Chickens and Reduction of Adipocyte Cellularity Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:08:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2014/137652/ Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) act as an important ligand for nuclear receptors in adipogenesis and fat deposition in mammals and avian species. This study aimed to determine whether similar effects are plausible on avian abdominal fat adipocyte size, as well as abdominal adipogenic transcriptional level. CLA was supplemented at different levels, namely, (i) basal diet without CLA (5% palm oil) (CON), (ii) basal diet with 2.5% CLA and 2.5% palm oil (LCLA), and (iii) basal diet with 5% CLA (HCLA).The content of cis-9, trans-11 CLA was between 1.69- and 2.3-fold greater () than that of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the abdominal fat of the LCLA and HCLA group. The adipogenic capacity of the abdominal fat depot in LCLA and HCLA fed chicken is associated with a decreased proportion of adipose cells and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The transcriptional level of adipocyte protein (aP2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated by 1.08- to 2.5-fold in CLA supplemented diets, respectively. It was speculated that feeding CLA to broiler chickens reduced adipocyte size and downregulated PPARγ and aP2 that control adipocyte cellularity. Elevation of CLA isomers into their adipose tissue provides a potential CLA-rich source for human consumption. Suriya Kumari Ramiah, Goh Yong Meng, Tan Sheau Wei, Yeap Swee Keong, and Mahdi Ebrahimi Copyright © 2014 Suriya Kumari Ramiah et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Arctic Land Snow Cover Characteristics, Surface Albedo, and Temperature during the Transition Seasons from Regional Climate Model Simulations and Satellite Data Thu, 18 Sep 2014 08:03:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/604157/ This paper evaluates the simulated Arctic land snow cover duration, snow water equivalent, snow cover fraction, surface albedo, and land surface temperature in the regional climate model HIRHAM5 during 2008–2010, compared with various satellite and reanalysis data and one further regional climate model (COSMO-CLM). HIRHAM5 shows a general agreement in the spatial patterns and annual course of these variables, although distinct biases for specific regions and months are obvious. The most prominent biases occur for east Siberian deciduous forest albedo, which is overestimated in the simulation for snow covered conditions in spring. This may be caused by the simplified albedo parameterization (e.g., nonconsideration of different forest types and neglecting the effect of fallen leaves and branches on snow for deciduous tree forest). The land surface temperature biases mirror the albedo biases in their spatial and temporal structures. The snow cover fraction and albedo biases can explain the simulated land surface temperature bias of ca. −3°C over the Siberian forest area in spring. X. Zhou, H. Matthes, A. Rinke, K. Klehmet, B. Heim, W. Dorn, D. Klaus, K. Dethloff, and B. Rockel Copyright © 2014 X. Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Better Understanding in the Differentiation of Thyroid Follicular Adenoma, Follicular Carcinoma, and Follicular Variant of Papillary Carcinoma: A Retrospective Study Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:43:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/321595/ Background. To evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US), US-guided fine-needle aspiration (USFNA) and intraoperative frozen section (FS) in follicular neoplasm. Methods. US features, USFNA cytology, and FS results were compared based on the pathology results of patients with follicular adenoma (FA), follicular carcinoma (FC), and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). Results. FC and FVPTC showed significantly higher rates of suspicious US features () and positive findings on either US or cytology, 80.0% and 90.7%, compared to FA, 64.5% (). Intraoperative FS showed higher malignant rates in FVPTC and FC (81.8% and 75.0%, resp.), compared to FA (3.8%, ). Conclusion. Suspicious US features were more significantly seen in FC and FVPTC compared to FA. Intraoperative FS is useful in the differential diagnosis of these lesions and supplements cytology results of USFNA. Jung Hyun Yoon, Eun-Kyung Kim, Ji Hyun Youk, Hee Jung Moon, and Jin Young Kwak Copyright © 2014 Jung Hyun Yoon et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Fe Nanoparticles Functionalized with Oleic Acid Synthesized by Inert Gas Condensation Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:41:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/643967/ In this work, we study the synthesis of monodispersed Fe nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) in situ functionalized with oleic acid. The nanoparticles were self-assembled by inert gas condensation (IGC) technique by using magnetron-sputtering process. Structural characterization of Fe-NPs was performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Particle size control was carried out through the following parameters: (i) condensation zone length, (ii) magnetron power, and (iii) gas flow (Ar and He). Typically the nanoparticles generated by IGC showed diameters which ranged from ~0.7 to 20 nm. Mass spectroscopy of Fe-NPs in the deposition system allowed the study of in situ nanoparticle formation, through a quadrupole mass filter (QMF) that one can use together with a mass filter. When the deposition system works without quadrupole mass filter, the particle diameter distribution is around +/−20%. When the quadrupole is in line, then the distribution can be reduced to around +/−2%. L. G. Silva, F. Solis-Pomar, C. D. Gutiérrez-Lazos, Manuel F. Meléndrez, E. Martinez, A. Fundora, and E. Pérez-Tijerina Copyright © 2014 L. G. Silva et al. All rights reserved. Purification and Characterization of Alkaline-Thermostable Protease Enzyme from Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Waste: A Potential Low Cost of the Enzyme Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:41:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/259238/ The thermoalkaline protease enzyme from pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) waste was purified by a factor of 221.2 with 71.3% recovery using ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration, and cation exchange chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography together with sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed that the enzyme is monomeric with a molecular weight of 26.7 kDa. The apparent and of the protease were 2.8 mg/mL and 31.20 u/min, respectively. The optimum pH and temperature were 8.0 and 70°C. The enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range (from pH 3.0 to pH 11.0 with the optimum activity at pH 8.0). The protease has broad specificity toward azocasein, casein, hemoglobin, and gelatine. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Fe2+ and Zn2+, while protease activity was increased in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ and Cu2+ by factors of 125%, 110%, and 105%, respectively. The alkaline protease showed extreme stability toward surfactants and oxidizing agent. The purified protease exhibited extreme stability in the presence of organic solvents and inhibitors. In addition, the enzyme was relativity stable toward organic solvents and chelating agents, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The enzyme, derived from pitaya peel, possesses unique characteristics and could be used in various industrial and biotechnological applications. Mehrnoush Amid, Mohd Yazid ABD Manap, and Nor Khanani Zohdi Copyright © 2014 Mehrnoush Amid et al. All rights reserved. Palm Olein as Renewable Raw Materials for Industrial and Pharmaceutical Products Applications: Chemical Characterization and Physicochemical Properties Studies Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:27:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/134063/ Palm olein (P) is widely produced as edible oil in tropical countries. P is considered as renewable raw material for the new industrial and pharmaceutical products synthesis based on its characterization. Palm olein was good on its viscosity index, oxidative stability, and flash and fire point. P contained unsaturated triacylglycerols (TAGs): POO (33.3%); POP (29.6%) which plays an important role in chemical modification process to produce new industrial products. The double bond was detected on 1H-NMR (5.3 ppm) and 13C-NMR (130 ppm) spectra. The chemical compositions of P were tested by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) techniques. This unsaturated oil is potentially to be used as renewable raw materials in chemical modification process to synthesise polyols, polyurethane, and biolubricant for industrial and pharmaceutical products application. Darfizzi Derawi, Bashar Mudhaffar Abdullah, Hasniza Zaman Huri, Rahimi M. Yusop, Jumat Salimon, Nany Hairunisa, and Nadia Salih Copyright © 2014 Darfizzi Derawi et al. All rights reserved. Surface and Wear Analysis of Zinc Phosphate Coated Engine Oil Ring and Cylinder Liner Tested with Commercial Lubricant Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:18:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/150968/ The objective of this study was to evaluate the tribological performance through investigating protective additive layer and friction coefficient and implementing the quantitative wear measurements on the rubbed surface of the sliding pairs. The specimens of oil ring were rubbed against cast iron engine cylinder liner under boundary lubrication conditions. The ring and liner surfaces were examined by optical, scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy. The elemental analysis of surfaces was performed by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Surface observations showed that coating was removed from the ring surface. Higher levels of Ca, Zn, P, and S elemental ratios (0.93%, 0.45%, 1.55%, and 1.60% as atomic percent) were detected on the cylinder liner surface. Wear width, length, and depth measurements were performed by optical and atomic force microscopies on the ring and cylinder liner surface. The results showed that wear widths for oil ring were 1.59 μm and 1.65 μm; wear widths for cylinder liner were 3.20 μm and 3.18 μm; wear depths for oil ring were 100 nm; and wear depths for cylinder liner were 482 nm. Wear data were taken mostly from the additive layer points detected by SEM and X-ray measurements. Doğuş Özkan and Hakan Kaleli Copyright © 2014 Doğuş Özkan and Hakan Kaleli. All rights reserved. Effect of Physician Gender on Demand for Pap Tests Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:09:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecri/2014/647169/ People’s demand for preventive medical care is one type of investment in health. The aim of this paper is to examine women’s demand for secondary prevention in Taiwan, focusing on the role a physician’s gender plays in women’s inclination to undergo Pap tests. Our estimation results show that regional ratio of female doctors has a positive and significant effect on utilization of Pap tests for the full sample and for women aged below 30. In addition, doctor’s gender matters only in utilization of Pap tests not in other types of preventive healthcare services in Taiwan. We suggest that the government may consider liberalizing medical laws to make it legal for trained female nurses or nurse practitioners to perform Pap tests in order to encourage the utilization of Pap tests, especially in rural and mountain areas. The government may also consider subsidizing the use of cervical cancer vaccines to help females prevent cervical cancer. Tsui-Fang Lin and Jennjou Chen Copyright © 2014 Tsui-Fang Lin and Jennjou Chen. All rights reserved. Proliferation and 1/2 Cytokine Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells after Treatment with Cypermethrin and Mancozeb In Vitro Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:07:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2014/308286/ In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) ) and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN-) , interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 6, and 10) formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45–30 µM) of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL) to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method) and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays). Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNF and the 2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFN (1 cytokine) production (at least 2-fold compared to control); mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (2) and stimulated IL-2 (1) production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings. Rajesh Mandarapu, Rajanna Ajumeera, Vijayalakshmi Venkatesan, and Balakrishna Murthy Prakhya Copyright © 2014 Rajesh Mandarapu et al. All rights reserved. Species Diversity, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Virulence Attributes of Candida Colonising the Oral Cavities of Adult Diabetic Patients Thu, 18 Sep 2014 07:06:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmy/2014/395041/ Oral candidiasis is a common occurrence in diabetic patients. Species of Candida isolated from these infections and their virulence pattern undergo changes over time and require periodic assessments. Objective of this study was to determine changes in the spectrum of Candida species colonizing oral cavity, their antifungal susceptibility patterns, and virulence attributes, in adult diabetic patients. Oral swabs were collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and an equal number of healthy controls. Specimens were cultured for Candida and species were identified, according to standard protocols. Of 100 diabetic patients, 42 were colonized by yeasts with C. albicans as the predominant species (51%). Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species accounted for 47% of the specimens, with C. tropicalis being the commonest. Among healthy controls, 23 were colonized by Candida species, of which C. albicans was predominant. Results obtained indicate that C. albicans continues to be the predominant species in oral cavities of diabetic patients. Candidal carriage was significantly associated with duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar levels. Virulence attributes, proteinase and phospholipase secretion, and biofilm formation were significantly higher in DM group. Deepa Anil Kumar, Sumathi Muralidhar, Krishna Biswas, Uma Banerjee, Seemi Farhat Basir, and Luqman Ahmad Khan Copyright © 2014 Deepa Anil Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Frequency in Usage of Terminologia Anatomica Terms by Clinical Anatomists Thu, 18 Sep 2014 06:54:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbe/2014/950898/ Almost 16 years since the publishing of Terminologia Anatomica (TA) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT), there has yet to be a unified adoption of TA-recommended anatomical terms by anatomists. A survey was sent to members of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) to determine the frequency of TA term usage. Most respondents (70.3%) received their terminal degrees in anatomy, with 23.4% in clinical and anthropological areas. Academically ranked, most respondents were professors (38.4%) and most were from North America (81.1%). Almost 40% of respondents were textbook authors. Overall results indicate that the TA preferred term had the highest frequency of usage in only 53% of the anatomical structures/features surveyed. Compliance with TA preferred terms ranged from 98.2% to 3.6% usage. Almost 25% of AACA anatomists were not familiar with the FCAT and over 75% were concerned about synonymity in anatomical terminology. Data demonstrates that clinical anatomists of the AACA are not consistent in how they use anatomical terminology, as well as how they conform to TA terminology. Bradford D. Martin, Donna Thorpe, Vanessa DeLuna, Trish Howard, Josh Hagemeyer, and Nicholas Wilkins Copyright © 2014 Bradford D. Martin et al. All rights reserved. Evolution of Network Biomarkers from Early to Late Stage Bladder Cancer Samples Thu, 18 Sep 2014 06:53:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/159078/ We use a systems biology approach to construct protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) for early and late stage bladder cancer. By comparing the networks of these two stages, we find that both networks showed very significantly different mechanisms. To obtain the differential network structures between cancer and noncancer PPINs, we constructed cancer PPIN and noncancer PPIN network structures for the two bladder cancer stages using microarray data from cancer cells and their adjacent noncancer cells, respectively. With their carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs), we identified 152 and 50 significant proteins and their PPI networks (network markers) for early and late stage bladder cancer by statistical assessment. To investigate the evolution of network biomarkers in the carcinogenesis process, primary pathway analysis showed that the significant pathways of early stage bladder cancer are related to ordinary cancer mechanisms, while the ribosome pathway and spliceosome pathway are most important for late stage bladder cancer. Their only intersection is the ubiquitin mediated proteolysis pathway in the whole stage of bladder cancer. The evolution of network biomarkers from early to late stage can reveal the carcinogenesis of bladder cancer. The findings in this study are new clues specific to this study and give us a direction for targeted cancer therapy, and it should be validated in vivo or in vitro in the future. Yung-Hao Wong, Cheng-Wei Li, and Bor-Sen Chen Copyright © 2014 Yung-Hao Wong et al. All rights reserved. HER2-Positive Metaplastic Spindle Cell Carcinoma Associated with Synchronous Bilateral Apocrine Carcinoma of the Breast Thu, 18 Sep 2014 06:48:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2014/310829/ Apocrine carcinoma, which is strictly defined as over 90% of tumor cells showing apocrine differentiation, is a rare variant of breast cancer. Here we report an uncommon case in which apocrine carcinomas developed concurrently in both breasts; in addition, a sarcomatoid spindle cell lesion was coincident in the right breast. Both apocrine carcinomas were immunohistochemically negative for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), but diffusely positive for androgen receptor (AR), GCDFP-15, and HER2. The presence of intraductal components in bilateral carcinomas and the absence of lymph node metastasis suggested that they were more likely to be individual primary lesions rather than metastatic disease. The spindle cell lesion showed a relatively well-circumscribed nodule contiguous with the apocrine carcinoma. HER2 oncoprotein overexpression was observed not only in the apocrine carcinoma, but also in the spindle cell lesion. Since the spindle cell component was intimately admixed with apocrine carcinoma and had focal cytokeratin expression, we diagnosed it as metaplastic spindle cell carcinoma, which was originated from the apocrine carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with synchronous bilateral apocrine carcinomas coinciding with metaplastic carcinoma. Katsumi Kito, Toshiharu Maeda, Keiko Ninomiya, Atsuro Sugita, Teiri Sagawa, Kinya Matsuoka, Kousei Kinoshita, Naoki Hyodo, Nagisa Morita, and Keizo Furuya Copyright © 2014 Katsumi Kito et al. All rights reserved. Autoimmune Gastrointestinal Paralysis: Failure of Conventional Treatment without Immunomodulation Thu, 18 Sep 2014 06:43:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/180654/ The treatment of the rare enteric nervous system (ENS) manifestations of paraneoplastic syndromes, which are most frequently associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), is poorly understood and described. Patients with neuroendocrine-derived tumors can develop B-cell reactivity towards the tumor with cross-reactivity for neurons located in the submucosal and myenteric ganglia of the ENS. The ensuing autoimmune neuritis causes aperistalsis and severe gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Immune-directed therapy is not the standard of care but may be paramount for patient recovery. Our patient, a 63-year-old man with recent symptoms of esophageal dysmotility and newly diagnosed SCLC was hospitalized with nausea, emesis, and constipation. After an extensive work-up that included laparoscopy and celiotomy with bowel resection, we diagnosed what we refer to as Autoimmune Paraneoplastic Chronic Intestinal Pseudoobstruction (AP-CIPO). Unlike the few clinically similar reports, SCLC and AP-CIPO were diagnosed in our patient within weeks of each other, which presented the dilemma of treating the two processes simultaneously. In this report, we review the relevant literature and describe our patient’s course. We believe standard chemotherapy is not effective treatment for AP-CIPO. Based on evidence discussed herein, we suggest initiating autoimmune-directed therapy before or simultaneous with cancer-directed therapy. Craig Weinkauf, Sean McPhillips, Robert Krouse, and Ira Levine Copyright © 2014 Craig Weinkauf et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Sensor Technology and Applications in Industrial Control System 2014 Thu, 18 Sep 2014 06:14:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/182382/ Tai-hoon Kim, Sabah Mohammed, Ruay-Shiung Chang, and Carlos Ramos Copyright © 2014 Tai-hoon Kim et al. All rights reserved. On the Stream Function-Vorticity Finite Element Formulation for Incompressible Flow in Porous Media Thu, 18 Sep 2014 06:14:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ana/2014/459761/ Stream function-vorticity finite element formulation for incompressible flow in porous media is presented. The model consists of the heat equation, the equation for the concentration, and the equations of motion under the Darcy law. The existence of solution for the discrete problem is established. Optimal a priori error estimates are given. Abdellatif Agouzal, Karam Allali, and Siham Binna Copyright © 2014 Abdellatif Agouzal et al. All rights reserved. Function, Structure, and Evolution of the Major Facilitator Superfamily: The LacY Manifesto Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:57:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ab/2014/523591/ The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is a diverse group of secondary transporters with members found in all kingdoms of life. A paradigm for MFS is the lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli, which couples the stoichiometric translocation of a galactopyranoside and an across the cytoplasmic membrane. LacY has been the test bed for the development of many methods applied for the analysis of transport proteins. X-ray structures of an inward-facing conformation and the most recent structure of an almost occluded conformation confirm many conclusions from previous studies. Although structure models are critical, they are insufficient to explain the catalysis of transport. The clues to understanding transport are based on the principles of enzyme kinetics. Secondary transport is a dynamic process—static snapshots of X-ray crystallography describe it only partially. However, without structural information, the underlying chemistry is virtually impossible to conclude. A large body of biochemical/biophysical data derived from systematic studies of site-directed mutants in LacY suggests residues critically involved in the catalysis, and a working model for the symport mechanism that involves alternating access of the binding site is presented. The general concepts derived from the bacterial LacY are examined for their relevance to other MFS transporters. M. Gregor Madej Copyright © 2014 M. Gregor Madej. All rights reserved. Password-Only Authenticated Three-Party Key Exchange Proven Secure against Insider Dictionary Attacks Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:56:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/802359/ While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol. Junghyun Nam, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Juryon Paik, and Dongho Won Copyright © 2014 Junghyun Nam et al. All rights reserved. A Personal Reflection of Greenlight 532 nm Laser for BPH Treatment Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:39:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aandrol/2014/207901/ Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia are a bothersome symptom set that affect approximately one in every four males above the age of 50. First line treatment is typically medication, but when medications fail surgical therapy is the next option. Technological advances have made surgical therapy safer and more effective. One area that our group has particular interest and focus in is the application of the 532 nm laser in surgical therapy. The high power 532 nm laser is used to remove obstructive prostatic tissue and the laser energy is selectively absorbed by hemoglobin in the prostate tissue, resulting in effective tissue vaporization and removal. We review our experience with Greenlight laser system and its evolution from the original 60-watt laser to the most recent 180-watt Greenlight system with MoXy fiber. Bilal Chughtai, Claire Dunphy, and Alexis Te Copyright © 2014 Bilal Chughtai et al. All rights reserved. Full Symmetry Groups and Exact Solutions to BKP and GKP Equations Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:34:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physri/2014/786965/ We investigate the (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear BKP and GKP equations with the modified direct CK’s method. Then, we get its Lie point groups and the full symmetry group, and a relationship is constructed between the new solutions and the old one. Based on the relationship, the new solutions can be obtained by using a given solution of the equations. Bo Ren and Jian-Yong Wang Copyright © 2014 Bo Ren and Jian-Yong Wang. All rights reserved. Sound Scattering and Its Reduction by a Janus Sphere Type Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:31:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aav/2014/392138/ Sound scattering by a Janus sphere type is considered. The sphere has two surface zones: a soft surface of zero acoustic impedance and a hard surface of infinite acoustic impedance. The zones are arranged such that axisymmetry of the sound field is preserved. The equivalent source method is used to compute the sound field. It is shown that, by varying the sizes of the soft and hard zones on the sphere, a significant reduction can be achieved in the scattered acoustic power and upstream directivity when the sphere is near a free surface and its soft zone faces the incoming wave and vice versa for a hard ground. In both cases the size of the sphere’s hard zone is much larger than that of its soft zone. The boundary location between the two zones coincides with the location of a zero pressure line of the incoming standing sound wave, thus masking the sphere within the sound field reflected by the free surface or the hard ground. The reduction in the scattered acoustic power diminishes when the sphere is placed in free space. Variations of the scattered acoustic power and directivity with the sound frequency are also given and discussed. Delyia Kim, Eldad Jitzhak Avital, and Touvia Miloh Copyright © 2014 Delyia Kim et al. All rights reserved. 18FDG, [18F]FLT, [18F]FAZA, and 11C-Methionine Are Suitable Tracers for the Diagnosis and In Vivo Follow-Up of the Efficacy of Chemotherapy by miniPET in Both Multidrug Resistant and Sensitive Human Gynecologic Tumor Xenografts Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:25:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/787365/ Expression of multidrug pumps including P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) in the plasma membrane of tumor cells often results in decreased intracellular accumulation of anticancer drugs causing serious impediment to successful chemotherapy. It has been shown earlier that combined treatment with UIC2 anti-Pgp monoclonal antibody (mAb) and cyclosporine A (CSA) is an effective way of blocking Pgp function. In the present work we investigated the suitability of four PET tumor diagnostic radiotracers including 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG), 11C-methionine, 3′-deoxy-3′-[18F]fluorothymidine (18F-FLT), and [18F]fluoroazomycin-arabinofuranoside (18FAZA) for in vivo follow-up of the efficacy of chemotherapy in both Pgp positive (Pgp+) and negative (Pgp−) human tumor xenograft pairs raised in CB-17 SCID mice. Pgp+ and Pgp− A2780AD/A2780 human ovarian carcinoma and KB-V1/KB-3-1 human epidermoid adenocarcinoma tumor xenografts were used to study the effect of the treatment with an anticancer drug doxorubicin combined with UIC2 and CSA. The combined treatment resulted in a significant decrease of both the tumor size and the accumulation of the tumor diagnostic tracers in the Pgp+ tumors. Our results demonstrate that 18FDG, 18F-FLT, 18FAZA, and 11C-methionine are suitable PET tracers for the diagnosis and in vivo follow-up of the efficacy of tumor chemotherapy in both Pgp+ and Pgp− human tumor xenografts by miniPET. György Trencsényi, Teréz Márián, Imre Lajtos, Zoltán Krasznai, László Balkay, Miklós Emri, Pál Mikecz, Katalin Goda, Gábor Szalóki, István Juhász, Enikő Németh, Tünde Miklovicz, Gábor Szabó, and Zoárd T. Krasznai Copyright © 2014 György Trencsényi et al. All rights reserved. Epigenetic Dynamics: Role of Epimarks and Underlying Machinery in Plants Exposed to Abiotic Stress Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:23:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/187146/ Abiotic stress induces several changes in plants at physiological and molecular level. Plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms guided towards establishment of stress tolerance in which epigenetic modifications play a pivotal role. We provide examples of gene expression changes that are brought about by conversion of active chromatin to silent heterochromatin and vice versa. Methylation of CG sites and specific modification of histone tail determine whether a particular locus is transcriptionally active or silent. We present a lucid review of epigenetic machinery and epigenetic alterations involving DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and RNA directed epigenetic changes. Manoj Kumar Dhar, Parivartan Vishal, Rahul Sharma, and Sanjana Kaul Copyright © 2014 Manoj Kumar Dhar et al. All rights reserved. Uncertainty Analysis of Method-Based Operating Event Groups Ranking Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2014/324710/ Safe operation and industrial improvements are coming from the technology development and operational experience (OE) feedback. A long life span for many industrial facilities makes OE very important. Proper assessment and understanding of OE remains a challenge because of organization system relations, complexity, and number of OE events acquired. One way to improve OE events understanding is to focus their investigation and analyze in detail the most important. The OE ranking method is developed to select the most important events based on the basic event parameters and the analytical hierarchy process applied at the level of event groups. This paper investigates further how uncertainty in the model affects ranking results. An analysis was performed on the set of the two databases from the 20 years of nuclear power plants in France and Germany. From all uncertainties the presented analysis selected ranking indexes as the most relevant for consideration. Here the presented analysis of uncertainty clearly shows that considering uncertainty is important for all results, especially for event groups ranked closely and next to the most important one. Together with the previously performed sensitivity analysis, uncertainty assessment provides additional insights and a better judgment of the event groups’ importance in further detailed investigation. Zdenko Šimić, Benoit Zerger, and Reni Banov Copyright © 2014 Zdenko Šimić et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Complexes Synthesized Using Schiff Base Ligands and Their Screening for Toxicity Two Fungal and One Bacterial Species on Rice Pathogens Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijic/2014/736538/ Coordination complexes with metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Cr(III), and VO(II) with six ligands formed by condensation products using azides and aldehydes or ketones are characterized. Both the ligands and the complexes synthesized are characterized by C, H, N, Cl and metal analyses, IR, UV-Vis, TGA, and magnetic susceptibility for tentative structure proposal. Several of them are screened for their toxicity (i.e., physiological activity) against fungal species Rhizoctonia solani and Acrocylindrium oryzae and a bacterium, Xanthomonas oryzae on rice pathogens. The study shows that the observed physiological activity is enhanced for the metal complexes as compared to the simple metal salts or ligands, except in the case of L3 or HAEP ligand, where the free –OH and –NH2 groups on the ligand seemed to have inhibited the activity. It is also observed that the order of activity has a dependence on the increased atomic weight of the metal ion in use. In some cases, especially the VO(II) complexes, they are found to be better than the standards in use, both for the fungicides and for the bactericide. T. Mangamamba, M. C. Ganorkar, and G. Swarnabala Copyright © 2014 T. Mangamamba et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Cause of Cardiac Tamponade during Cardiac Catheterization Study Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2014/652592/ Introduction. Catheter-based diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are rapidly advancing. However, catheter related complications sometimes become life threatening. Cardiac tamponade is a rare but serious complication of this procedure. We have summarized one cardiac tamponade pejoration due to secondary coronary vessels laceration by the implanted pericardial drainage. Case report. A 4-year-old baby having Tetralogy of Fallot was posted for diagnostic catheterization study. Patient was induced with sevoflurane and spontaneous respiration was maintained. After catheter insertion to RV, dye was injected through the catheter which rapidly spread into the pericardial cavity indicating right ventricle perforation. Immediately, blood was aspirated under transthoracic echocardiographic guidance and hemodynamics started improving. For the provision of quick access to aspirate further collection, an intrapericardial sheath was inserted after multiple attempts. Patient’s condition started deteriorating again. TTE revealed again some collection and it was increasing gradually. On exploration, it was found that there was continuous bleeding from a lacerated epicardial vessel which contributed to the pericardial collection leading to further tamponade effect. This second iatrogenic injury complicated the management of the first iatrogenic cardiac perforation and, thereby, created a life-threatening situation which needed immediate surgical exploration. Discussion. Usual cause of tamponade after right ventricular perforation is bleeding from the RV, but in our case the second tamponade was not due to bleeding from the RV, but was rather from new laceration injury of epicardial vessels which was remained undiagnosed till exploration. Deepanwita Das, Monalisa Datta, Somnath Dey, Jyotiranjan Parida, Rupesh Kumar, and Arindam Pande Copyright © 2014 Deepanwita Das et al. All rights reserved. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/428425/ Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief. Aaron McMurtray, Ben Tseng, Natalie Diaz, Julia Chung, Bijal Mehta, and Erin Saito Copyright © 2014 Aaron McMurtray et al. All rights reserved. A New Iterative Procedure for Deconvolution of Seismic Ground Motion in Dam-Reservoir-Foundation Systems Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/287605/ The concrete gravity dams are designed to perform satisfactorily during an earthquake since the consequence of failure is catastrophic to the downstream communities. The foundation in a dam is usually modeled by a substructuring approach for the purpose of seismic response analysis. However, the substructuring cannot be used for solving nonlinear dynamic problems that may be encountered in dam-reservoir-foundation systems. For that reason, the time domain approach is preferred for such systems. The deconvolved earthquake input model is preferred as it can remove the seismic scattering effects due to artificial boundaries of the semi-infinite foundation domain. Deconvolution is a mathematical process that allows the adjustment of the amplitude and frequency contents of a seismic ground motion applied at the base of the foundation in order to get the desired output at the dam-foundation interface. It is observed that the existing procedures of deconvolution are not effective for all types of earthquake records. A modified procedure has been proposed here for efficient deconvolution of all types of earthquake records including high-frequency and low-frequency ground motions. Gurinderbir S. Sooch and Ashutosh Bagchi Copyright © 2014 Gurinderbir S. Sooch and Ashutosh Bagchi. All rights reserved. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans in the Nervous System: Inhibitors to Repair Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/845323/ Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are widely expressed in the normal central nervous system, serving as guidance cues during development and modulating synaptic connections in the adult. With injury or disease, an increase in CSPG expression is commonly observed close to lesioned areas. However, these CSPG deposits form a substantial barrier to regeneration and are largely responsible for the inability to repair damage in the brain and spinal cord. This review discusses the role of CSPGs as inhibitors, the role of inflammation in stimulating CSPG expression near site of injury, and therapeutic strategies for overcoming the inhibitory effects of CSPGs and creating an environment conducive to nerve regeneration. Justin R. Siebert, Amanda Conta Steencken, and Donna J. Osterhout Copyright © 2014 Justin R. Siebert et al. All rights reserved. Counting Irreducible Polynomials of Degree over and Generating Goppa Codes Using the Lattice of Subfields of Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdm/2014/263179/ The problem of finding the number of irreducible monic polynomials of degree over is considered in this paper. By considering the fact that an irreducible polynomial of degree over has a root in a subfield of if and only if , we show that Gauss’s formula for the number of monic irreducible polynomials can be derived by merely considering the lattice of subfields of . We also use the lattice of subfields of to determine if it is possible to generate a Goppa code using an element lying in a proper subfield of . Kondwani Magamba and John A. Ryan Copyright © 2014 Kondwani Magamba and John A. Ryan. All rights reserved. Comparative Diagnostic Accuracy of Ganglion Cell-Inner Plexiform and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Measures by Cirrus and Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/128517/ Objective. To estimate sensitivity and specificity of several optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements for detecting retinal thickness changes in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), such as macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness measured with Cirrus (OCT) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness measured with Cirrus and Spectralis OCT. Methods. Seventy patients (140 eyes) with RRMS and seventy matched healthy subjects underwent pRNFL and GCIPL thickness analysis using Cirrus OCT and pRNFL using Spectralis OCT. A prospective, cross-sectional evaluation of sensitivities and specificities was performed using latent class analysis due to the absence of a gold standard. Results. GCIPL measures had higher sensitivity and specificity than temporal pRNFL measures obtained with both OCT devices. Average GCIPL thickness was significantly more sensitive than temporal pRNFL by Cirrus (96.34% versus 58.41%) and minimum GCIPL thickness was significantly more sensitive than temporal pRNFL by Spectralis (96.41% versus 69.69%). Generalised estimating equation analysis revealed that age (), optic neuritis antecedent (), and disease duration () were significantly associated with abnormal results in average GCIPL thickness. Conclusion. Average and minimum GCIPL measurements had significantly better sensitivity to detect retinal thickness changes in RRMS than temporal pRNFL thickness measured by Cirrus and Spectralis OCT, respectively. Julio J. González-López, Gema Rebolleda, Marina Leal, Noelia Oblanca, Francisco J. Muñoz-Negrete, Lucienne Costa-Frossard, and José C. Álvarez-Cermeño Copyright © 2014 Julio J. González-López et al. All rights reserved. Endogenous Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 as a Potential Mediator of the Resolution of Diabetic Kidney Disease following Roux en Y Gastric Bypass: Evidence and Perspectives Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aen/2014/503846/ Diabetic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes strongly correlates with the incidence of major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Pharmacological and lifestyle based management focusing on glycaemic, lipid, and blood pressure control is the mainstay of treatment but efficacy remains limited. Roux en Y gastric bypass is an efficacious intervention in diabetes. Emerging evidence also supports a role for bypass as an intervention for early diabetic kidney disease. This paper firstly presents level 1 evidence of the effects of bypass on hyperglycaemia and hypertension and then summarises emerging data on its effects on diabetic kidney disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is implicated as a central mediator of diabetes resolution following bypass through the incretin effect. It has been ascribed vasodilatory, pronatriuretic, and antioxidant properties and its exogenous administration or optimisation of its endogenous levels via dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition results in antioxidant and antiproteinuric effects in preclinical models of DKD. Some evidence is emerging of translation of coherent effects in the clinical setting. These findings raise the question of whether pharmacotherapy targeted at optimising circulating hormone levels may be capable of recapitulating some of the effects of bypass surgery on renal injury. Neil G. Docherty and Carel W. Le Roux Copyright © 2014 Neil G. Docherty and Carel W. Le Roux. All rights reserved. The Registration of the Mid-Paleocene Biotic Event (MPBE) in Tunisia Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/paleontology/2014/760436/ In Tunisia, the Paleocene biomarkers are identified within the El Haria Formation shales. The Selandian is absent in most of the Paleocene outcrops and the Thanetian is unconformable to different stages of the Cretaceous. In the middle of Selandian, with the beginning of the Globanomalina pseudomenardii (P4) zone, we note that the assemblage of planktonic foraminifera becomes very poorly preserved and much less abundant than at the base. It is represented by rare species and there has been a start of the microfauna dissolution tests and an enrichment in iron oxides, silica, and gypsum crystals. The dissolution process is increasing more and more and a drop in the content of carbonates is clearly recorded at the top of Selandian. However, we note that some small benthic foraminifera belonging to the genera Lenticulina and Anomalina escape the dissolution and very few planktonic foraminifera belonging to the genera Subbotina are preserved. This dramatic and abnormal dissolution extends over a considerable thickness. These features could be an expression of the mid-Paleocene biotic event (MPBE), registered for the first time in Tunisia. This intense dissolution is caused probably by the change in the solubility of carbonates, which may be related to the changes in the deep-water circulation or to the change in the productivity of the surface waters. Narjess Karoui-Yaakoub, Moncef Saïd Mtimet, Mohamed Hédi Negra, Chaima Grira, and Wafa Gusemi Copyright © 2014 Narjess Karoui-Yaakoub et al. All rights reserved. Obesity Related Alterations in Plasma Cytokines and Metabolic Hormones in Chimpanzees Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/iji/2014/856749/ Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3–36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies. Pramod Nehete, Elizabeth R. Magden, Bharti Nehete, Patrick W. Hanley, and Christian R. Abee Copyright © 2014 Pramod Nehete et al. All rights reserved. Serial Changes of Neointimal Tissue after Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation in Porcine Coronary Artery: An Optical Coherence Tomography Analysis Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/851676/ Purposes. The serial changes in neointimal tissues were compared between everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and bare-metal stent (BMS) in the porcine coronary artery using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods. Serial (1, 3, and 6 month follow-up after stent implantation) OCT examinations were performed in 15 swine with 15 BMS- and 15 EES-treated lesions in porcine coronary arteries. Results. In BMS-implanted lesions, neointimal volume decreased from 7.3 mm3 to 6.9 mm3 and 6.4 mm3 at 1, 3, and 6 months follow-up without statistical significance (). At the time points of 1, 3, and 6 months, neointimal tissue appearance was mainly a homogeneous pattern (80.0%, 93.3%, and 100%, resp.), while the other pattern was layered. In contrast, in EES-implanted lesions, neointimal volume significantly increased from 4.8 mm3 to 9.8 mm3 between 1 and 3 months but significantly decreased to 8.6 mm3 between 3 and 6 months (). Between 1 and 3 months, the layered pattern of neointimal tissue increased from 26.7% to 66.7% but decreased to 20.0% between 3 and 6 months. Conclusions. EES had a biphasic pattern of neointimal amounts that correlated with changes in neointimal morphology. Hoyoun Won, Jung-Sun Kim, Dong-Ho Shin, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Yangsoo Jang, and Myeong-Ki Hong Copyright © 2014 Hoyoun Won et al. All rights reserved. Congenital Insensitivity to Pain: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/141953/ Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in the SCN9A gene. We report a patient with the clinical features consistent with CIP in whom we detected a novel homozygous G2755T mutation in exon 15 of this gene. Routine electrophysiological studies are typically normal in patients with CIP. In our patient, these studies were abnormal and could represent the consequences of secondary complications of cervical and lumbosacral spine disease and associated severe Charcot’s joints. Leema Reddy Peddareddygari, Kinsi Oberoi, and Raji P. Grewal Copyright © 2014 Leema Reddy Peddareddygari et al. All rights reserved. Cooperation-Controlled Learning for Explicit Class Structure in Self-Organizing Maps Thu, 18 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/397927/ We attempt to demonstrate the effectiveness of multiple points of view toward neural networks. By restricting ourselves to two points of view of a neuron, we propose a new type of information-theoretic method called “cooperation-controlled learning.” In this method, individual and collective neurons are distinguished from one another, and we suppose that the characteristics of individual and collective neurons are different. To implement individual and collective neurons, we prepare two networks, namely, cooperative and uncooperative networks. The roles of these networks and the roles of individual and collective neurons are controlled by the cooperation parameter. As the parameter is increased, the role of cooperative networks becomes more important in learning, and the characteristics of collective neurons become more dominant. On the other hand, when the parameter is small, individual neurons play a more important role. We applied the method to the automobile and housing data from the machine learning database and examined whether explicit class boundaries could be obtained. Experimental results showed that cooperation-controlled learning, in particular taking into account information on input units, could be used to produce clearer class structure than conventional self-organizing maps. Ryotaro Kamimura Copyright © 2014 Ryotaro Kamimura. All rights reserved. Correlation between Global Rating Scale and Specific Checklist Scores for Professional Behaviour of Physical Therapy Students in Practical Examinations Wed, 17 Sep 2014 13:08:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2014/219512/ The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the specific item checklist (checklist) and global rating scale (GRS) scores are correlated in practical skills examinations (PSEs). Professional behaviour was evaluated using both the checklist and GRS scores for 183 students in three PSEs. Mean, standard deviation, and correlation for checklist and GRS scores were calculated for each station, within each PSE. Pass rate for checklist and GRS was determined for each PSE, as well as for each individual checklist item within each PSE. Overall, pass rate was high for both checklist and GRS evaluations of professional behaviour in all PSEs. Generally, mean scores for the checklist and GRS were high, with low standard deviations, resulting in low data variability. Spearman correlation between total checklist and GRS scores was statistically significant for two out of five stations in PSE 1, five out of six stations in PSE 2, and three out of four stations in PSE 3. The GRS is comparable to the checklist for evaluation of professional behaviour in physical therapy (PT) students. The correlation between the checklist and GRS appears to become stronger in the assessment of more advanced students. Kaitlin Turner, Maegan Bell, Lindsay Bays, Carmen Lau, Clara Lai, Tetyana Kendzerska, Cathy Evans, and Robyn Davies Copyright © 2014 Kaitlin Turner et al. All rights reserved. Industrial Waste-Derived Nanoparticles and Microspheres Can Be Potent Antimicrobial and Functional Ingredients Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jac/2014/171427/ Rapeseed oilcake or press-cake is generated as bulk waste during oil extraction from oilseeds. Owing to its high protein content, further processing of oilcakes into vegetable protein generates large quantities of fibrous residue (“oil-and-protein” spent meal) as by-product, which currently has very limited practical utility. Here, we report hydrothermal carbonization of this industrial waste to convert it into carbon nanoparticles, bestowed with multitude of functionalities. We demonstrate that these nanoparticles can be assembled into micrometer-sized spheres when precipitated from water by acetone. These microspheres, with their added feature of hemocompatibility, can be potentially utilized as an encapsulation vehicle for the protection of thermolabile compounds (such as protein); however, the secondary and tertiary features of the protein were marginally perturbed by the encapsulation process. The synthesized carbon nanoparticle was found to be an effective biocidal agent, exhibiting bacterial cellular damage and complex formation with the bacterial plasmid (evident from ethidium bromide exclusion assay), which are critical for cell survival. The results show the ability to convert industrial biowaste into useful nanomaterials for use in food industries and also suggest new scalable and simple approaches to improve environmental sustainability in industrial processes. Manashi Das Purkayastha, Ajay Kumar Manhar, Manabendra Mandal, and Charu Lata Mahanta Copyright © 2014 Manashi Das Purkayastha et al. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Three-Component “Catalyst and Solvent-Free” Green Protocol: A Highly Efficient and Clean One-Pot Synthesis of Tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyrans Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:26:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/oci/2014/851924/ A green and highly efficient method has been developed for the one-pot synthesis of tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyrans via a three-component condensation of aldehydes, 1,3-cyclic diketones, and malononitrile under MW irradiation without using any catalyst and solvent. This transformation presumably occurs by a sequential Knoevenagel condensation, Michael addition, and intramolecular cyclization. Operational simplicity, solvent and catalyst-free conditions, the compatibility with various functional groups, nonchromatographic purification technique, and high yields are the notable advantages of this procedure. Sougata Santra, Matiur Rahman, Anupam Roy, Adinath Majee, and Alakananda Hajra Copyright © 2014 Sougata Santra et al. All rights reserved. A Filter-Mediated Communication Model for Design Collaboration in Building Construction Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:17:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/808613/ Multidisciplinary collaboration is an important aspect of modern engineering activities, arising from the growing complexity of artifacts whose design and construction require knowledge and skills that exceed the capacities of any one professional. However, current collaboration in the architecture, engineering, and construction industries often fails due to lack of shared understanding between different participants and limitations of their supporting tools. To achieve a high level of shared understanding, this study proposes a filter-mediated communication model. In the proposed model, participants retain their own data in the form most appropriate for their needs with domain-specific filters that transform the neutral representations into semantically rich ones, as needed by the participants. Conversely, the filters can translate semantically rich, domain-specific data into a neutral representation that can be accessed by other domain-specific filters. To validate the feasibility of the proposed model, we computationally implement the filter mechanism and apply it to a hypothetical test case. The result acknowledges that the filter mechanism can let the participants know ahead of time what will be the implications of their proposed actions, as seen from other participants’ points of view. Jaewook Lee, Yongwook Jeong, Minho Oh, and Seung Wan Hong Copyright © 2014 Jaewook Lee et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/612787/ This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh, Naomie Salim, Amjad Rehman, Mohammed Hazim Alkawaz, Tanzila Saba, Mznah Al-Rodhaan, and Abdullah Al-Dhelaan Copyright © 2014 Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh et al. All rights reserved. Averrhoa carambola: A Renewable Source of Oxalic Acid for the Facile and Green Synthesis of Divalent Metal (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, and Cu) Oxalates and Oxide Nanoparticles Wed, 17 Sep 2014 12:12:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jac/2014/767695/ A green, simple, and environmentally benign synthetic approach has been utilised to obtain some bivalent metal oxalates from Averrhoa carambola juice extract, without any purification or special treatment of the juice. The main acid components (oxalic acid and ascorbic acid) of the juice were identified by HPLC technique. The effect of temperature on the purity of the product has been investigated. The as-synthesized metal oxalates were thermally decomposed at low temperatures to their respective metal oxide nanoparticles. The metal oxalates and their respective thermal decomposition products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetry. Nguimezong Nguefack Marius Borel, Josepha Foba-Tendo, Divine Mbom Yufanyi, Ekane Peter Etape, Jude Namanga Eko, and Lambi John Ngolui Copyright © 2014 Nguimezong Nguefack Marius Borel et al. All rights reserved. Lenalidomide Induces Immunomodulation in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Enhances Antitumor Immune Responses Mediated by NK and CD4 T Cells Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:59:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/265840/ Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug with therapeutic activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, it has pleiotropic effects, and the mechanism of action responsible for its therapeutic activity has not been well defined yet. Herein, we show that lenalidomide treatment does not have an effect on the proliferation of leukemia cells, but it increases the proliferation of B cells from healthy donors. Lenalidomide did not exert a direct effect on the apoptosis of leukemia cells obtained from CLL patients, although it indirectly induced their apoptosis through the activation of nonmalignant immune cells. Thus, lenalidomide markedly increased the proliferation of NK and CD4 T cells. The effect of lenalidomide on NK cells was secondary to the induction of IL-2 production by CD4 T cells. Accordingly, depletion of T cells or blockade of IL-2 activity completely abrogated the proliferation of NK cells. Additionally, lenalidomide enhanced NK and NKT-like cell-mediated natural cytotoxicity against leukemia cells from CLL patients. Lenalidomide also upregulated CD20 expression on leukemia cells and, accordingly, it had a synergistic effect with rituximab on promoting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against primary leukemia cells. Overall, these observations provide a support for combining lenalidomide with rituximab as a treatment in CLL. Andrea Acebes-Huerta, Leticia Huergo-Zapico, Ana Pilar Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Azahara Fernandez-Guizan, Angel R. Payer, Alejandro López-Soto, and Segundo Gonzalez Copyright © 2014 Andrea Acebes-Huerta et al. All rights reserved. Pentachlorophenol Degradation by Janibacter sp., a New Actinobacterium Isolated from Saline Sediment of Arid Land Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:48:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/296472/ Many pentachlorophenol- (PCP-) contaminated environments are characterized by low or elevated temperatures, acidic or alkaline pH, and high salt concentrations. PCP-degrading microorganisms, adapted to grow and prosper in these environments, play an important role in the biological treatment of polluted extreme habitats. A PCP-degrading bacterium was isolated and characterized from arid and saline soil in southern Tunisia and was enriched in mineral salts medium supplemented with PCP as source of carbon and energy. Based on 16S rRNA coding gene sequence analysis, the strain FAS23 was identified as Janibacter sp. As revealed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, FAS23 strain was found to be efficient for PCP removal in the presence of 1% of glucose. The conditions of growth and PCP removal by FAS23 strain were found to be optimal in neutral pH and at a temperature of 30°C. Moreover, this strain was found to be halotolerant at a range of 1–10% of NaCl and able to degrade PCP at a concentration up to 300 mg/L, while the addition of nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) enhanced the PCP removal capacity. Amel Khessairi, Imene Fhoula, Atef Jaouani, Yousra Turki, Ameur Cherif, Abdellatif Boudabous, Abdennaceur Hassen, and Hadda Ouzari Copyright © 2014 Amel Khessairi et al. All rights reserved. Thermal Analysis of ZPPR High Pu Content Stored Fuel Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:36:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijne/2014/402351/ The Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) operated from April 18, 1969, until 1990. ZPPR operated at low power for testing nuclear reactor designs. This paper examines the temperature of Pu content ZPPR fuel while it is in storage. Heat is generated in the fuel due to Pu and Am decay and is a concern for possible cladding damage. Damage to the cladding could lead to fuel hydriding and oxidizing. A series of computer simulations were made to determine the range of temperatures potentially occuring in the ZPPR fuel. The maximum calculated fuel temperature is 292°C (558°F). Conservative assumptions in the model intentionally overestimate temperatures. The stored fuel temperatures are dependent on the distribution of fuel in the surrounding storage compartments, the heat generation rate of the fuel, and the orientation of fuel. Direct fuel temperatures could not be measured but storage bin doors, storage sleeve doors, and storage canister temperatures were measured. Comparison of these three temperatures to the calculations indicates that the temperatures calculated with conservative assumptions are, as expected, higher than the actual temperatures. The maximum calculated fuel temperature with the most conservative assumptions is significantly below the fuel failure criterion of 600°C (1,112°F). Charles W. Solbrig, Chad L. Pope, and Jason P. Andrus Copyright © 2014 Charles W. Solbrig et al. All rights reserved. Toll-Like Receptor 2 as a Regulator of Oral Tolerance in the Gastrointestinal Tract Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:35:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/606383/ Food allergy, other adverse immune responses to foods, inflammatory bowel disease, and eosinophilic esophagitis have become increasingly common in the last 30 years. It has been proposed in the “hygiene hypothesis” that dysregulated immune responses to environmental microbial stimuli may modify the balance between tolerance and sensitization in some patients. Of the pattern recognition receptors that respond to microbial signals, toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent the most investigated group. The relationship between allergy and TLR activation is currently at the frontier of immunology research. Although TLR2 is abundant in the mucosal environment, little is known about the complex relationship between bystander TLR2 activation by the commensal microflora and the processing of oral antigens. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of the relationship between TLR2 and oral tolerance, with an emphasis on regulatory T cells, eosinophils, B cells, IgA, intestinal regulation, and commensal microbes. Matthew C. Tunis and Jean S. Marshall Copyright © 2014 Matthew C. Tunis and Jean S. Marshall. All rights reserved. Adipose Tissue and Adipokines: The Association with and Application of Adipokines in Obesity Wed, 17 Sep 2014 11:28:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2014/328592/ 2014 marks the 20th anniversary of adipokines. Through the identification of leptin, our perceived understanding of adipose tissue was changed instantaneously. From a simple dormant site of energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as an integral hub of various hormones known as adipokines. Although great strides have been made in characterizing these hormones in health, research also shows they are significantly implicated in a series of pathologies. One such condition is obesity. Defined as an excess of adipose tissue, obesity remains one of the greatest healthcare epidemics of the 21st century. With no definitive treatment, attention has shifted to understanding the role of adipokines in obesity. This review provides an introduction to the salient obesity-related adipokines and their possible application as a treatment for obesity. Muhammad Khan and Frank Joseph Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Khan and Frank Joseph. All rights reserved. Novel Low Spin Mixed Ligand Thiohydrazide Complexes of Iron(III): Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and Antibacterial Activity Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:56:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijic/2014/580232/ Mixed ligand complexes of Fe(III) with aromatic thiohydrazides of general composition [Fe(acac)(L)2] have been synthesized and characterized (acac-acetylacetonate, L = bidentate uninegative aromatic thiohydrazide ligand, for example, thiobenzhydrazide, 2-hydroxythiobenzhydrazide, furan-2-thiohydrazide, and thiophen-2-thiohydrazide). The magnetic susceptibility data and the EPR spectra of these complexes suggested the formation of rhombically distorted low spin iron center (d5) in octahedral environment, which was also supported by the UV-vis spectral data of the complexes. Biological studies of these complexes also indicated that the iron-thiohydrazido complexes have superior antibacterial properties compared to the corresponding ligands. Dolan Sengupta, Snigdha Gangopadhyay, Sanchita Goswami, Arnab Dutta, Vikash Kumar, Sudipta De, and Pijush Kanti Gangopadhyay Copyright © 2014 Dolan Sengupta et al. All rights reserved. Wall-to-Bed Heat Transfer at Minimum Gas-Solid Fluidization Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:52:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpt/2014/163469/ The heat transfer from a fluidized bed to the cooling jacket of the vessel has been studied for various powders at minimum fluidization conditions, by both convection and conduction approaches. These heat transfer characteristics are important as the point of transition between packed and fluidized bed operations and are needed in designing heat transfer operations where bubble-flow is not permitted. The effective thermal conductivity of the emulsion moreover determines the contact resistance at the heating or cooling surface, as used in packet renewal models to predict the wall-to-bed heat transfer. In expressing the overall heat transfer phenomenon as a convective heat transfer coefficient, it was found that the results could be fitted by . Huili Zhang, Jan Degrève, Jan Baeyens, and Raf Dewil Copyright © 2014 Huili Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis and Characterization of Certain Oximes, Hydrazones, and Olefins Derived from β-Keto Sulfones Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:47:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/532467/ A new series of β-keto sulfone derivatives containing oximes 4a–e, hydrazones 5a, b, and chalcones 7a–d were prepared using microwave irradiation (MWI) by the reaction of β-keto sulfones 3 with hydroxyl amine, hydrazines, and aromatic aldehydes, respectively. The comparative study between microwave irradiation and conventional syntheses showed that MWI is effective in the synthesis of the title compounds through shortening of the reaction time and improvements in their yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established under the basis of their spectral data and X-ray single crystal analysis of compound 5a. The crystal of 5a belongs to triclinic space group P-1, with  Å,  Å,  Å, °, °, °,  Å3,  Mg m−3,  mm−1, , , and for 2690 observed reflections with . Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz, Hazem A. Ghabbour, Mashooq A. Bhat, and Hoong-Kun Fun Copyright © 2014 Hatem A. Abdel-Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography: Brief History and Recent Developments in Its Application to Continuous Casting Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:46:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2014/739161/ The contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) aims at reconstructing the velocity field of electrically conducting fluids, with special focus on applications in metallurgy and crystal growth technologies. The method relies on the induction of secondary magnetic fields if the moving fluid is exposed to a primary magnetic field. The theoretical foundation of the method is delineated, and some early experiments on the reconstruction of the three-dimensional flow in a cylinder are sketched. Then, the recent efforts to apply CIFT to various model problems in connection with the continuous casting of steel are summarized. Matthias Ratajczak, Thomas Gundrum, Frank Stefani, and Thomas Wondrak Copyright © 2014 Matthias Ratajczak et al. All rights reserved. Kikuchi-Fujimoto Disease Associated with Symptomatic CD4 Lymphocytopenia Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:34:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/768321/ Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare benign condition of necrotising histiocytic lymphadenitis with unknown aetiology. We describe here a 30-year-old African American female who presented with fever, generalized rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, and oral candidiasis and was found to have Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease on lymph node biopsy with low CD4 count. The initial presentation was concerning for acute retroviral infection. Her HIV serology and HIV RNA PCR were negative however she had low CD4 count with reversal of CD4/CD8 ratio. Although low CD4 count has been associated with autoimmune disease, it has not been described with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. We report the first case of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease associated with symptomatic CD4 lymphocytopenia. Meera Yogarajah and Bhradeev Sivasambu Copyright © 2014 Meera Yogarajah and Bhradeev Sivasambu. All rights reserved. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:34:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfs/2014/752047/ The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter value decreased significantly () during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C. Tanushree Maity, A. S. Bawa, and P. S. Raju Copyright © 2014 Tanushree Maity et al. All rights reserved. Model Based Adaptive Piecewise Linear Controller for Complicated Control Systems Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:07:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/120419/ A model based adaptive piecewise linear control scheme for industry processes with specifications on peak overshoots and rise times is proposed. It is a gain stabilized control technique. Large gain is used for large tracking error to get fast response. Small gain is used between large and small tracking error for good performance. Large gain is used again for small tracking error to cope with large disturbance. Parameters of the three-segment piecewise linear controller are found by an automatic regulating time series which is function of output characteristics of the plant and reference model. The time series will be converged to steady values after the time response of the considered system matching that of the reference model. The proposed control scheme is applied to four numerical examples which have been compensated by PID controllers. Parameters of PID controllers are found by optimization method. It gives an almost command independent response and gives significant improvements for response time and performance. Tain-Sou Tsay Copyright © 2014 Tain-Sou Tsay. All rights reserved. Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:59:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/btri/2014/698587/ The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium. Saoussen Ben Khedher, Samir Jaoua, and Nabil Zouari Copyright © 2014 Saoussen Ben Khedher et al. All rights reserved. Towards Internet QoS Provisioning Based on Generic Distributed QoS Adaptive Routing Engine Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:56:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/694847/ Increasing efficiency and quality demands of modern Internet technologies drive today’s network engineers to seek to provide quality of service (QoS). Internet QoS provisioning gives rise to several challenging issues. This paper introduces a generic distributed QoS adaptive routing engine (DQARE) architecture based on OSPFxQoS. The innovation of the proposed work in this paper is its undependability on the used QoS architectures and, moreover, splitting of the control strategy from data forwarding mechanisms, so we guarantee a set of absolute stable mechanisms on top of which Internet QoS can be built. DQARE architecture is furnished with three relevant traffic control schemes, namely, service differentiation, QoS routing, and traffic engineering. The main objective of this paper is to (i) provide a general configuration guideline for service differentiation, (ii) formalize the theoretical properties of different QoS routing algorithms and then introduce a QoS routing algorithm (QOPRA) based on dynamic programming technique, and (iii) propose QoS multipath forwarding (QMPF) model for paths diversity exploitation. NS2-based simulations proved the DQARE superiority in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput, and control overhead. Moreover, extensive simulations are used to compare the proposed QOPRA algorithm and QMPF model with their counterparts in the literature. Amira Y. Haikal, M. Badawy, and Hesham A. Ali Copyright © 2014 Amira Y. Haikal et al. All rights reserved. Augmented β-Cell Function and Mass in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rodents Are Associated with Increased Islet Ir-β/AKT/mTOR and Decreased AMPK/ACC and AS160 Signaling Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:37:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/983453/ Glucocorticoid (GC) therapies may adversely cause insulin resistance (IR) that lead to a compensatory hyperinsulinemia due to insulin hypersecretion. The increased β-cell function is associated with increased insulin signaling that has the protein kinase B (AKT) substrate with 160 kDa (AS160) as an important downstream AKT effector. In muscle, both insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling phosphorylate and inactivate AS160, which favors the glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 translocation to plasma membrane. Whether AS160 phosphorylation is modulated in islets from GC-treated subjects is unknown. For this, two animal models, Swiss mice and Wistar rats, were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) (1 mg/kg body weight) for 5 consecutive days. DEX treatment induced IR, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia in both species, but glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia only in rats. DEX treatment caused increased insulin secretion in response to glucose and augmented β-cell mass in both species that were associated with increased islet content and increased phosphorylation of the AS160 protein. Protein AKT phosphorylation, but not AMPK phosphorylation, was found significantly enhanced in islets from DEX-treated animals. We conclude that the augmented β-cell function developed in response to the GC-induced IR involves inhibition of the islet AS160 protein activity. André O. P. Protzek, José M. Costa-Júnior, Luiz F. Rezende, Gustavo J. Santos, Tiago Gomes Araújo, Jean F. Vettorazzi, Fernanda Ortis, Everardo M. Carneiro, Alex Rafacho, and Antonio C. Boschero Copyright © 2014 André O. P. Protzek et al. All rights reserved. Preventive Effects of Chitosan Coacervate Whey Protein on Body Composition and Immunometabolic Aspect in Obese Mice Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:33:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/281097/ Functional foods containing bioactive compounds of whey may play an important role in prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospects of the biotechnological process of coacervation of whey proteins (CWP) in chitosan and test its antiobesogenic potential. Methods. CWP (100 mg·kg·day) was administered in mice with diet-induced obesity for 8 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups: control normocaloric diet gavage with water (C) or coacervate (C-CWP), and high fat diet gavage with water (HF) or coacervate (HF-CWP). Results. HF-CWP reduced weight gain and serum lipid fractions and displayed reduced adiposity and insulin. Adiponectin was significantly higher in HF-CWP group when compared to the HF. The level of LPS in HF-W group was significantly higher when compared to HF-CWP. The IL-10 showed an inverse correlation between the levels of insulin and glucose in the mesenteric adipose tissue in the HF-CWP group. CWP promoted an increase in both phosphorylation AMPK and the amount of ATGL in the mesenteric adipose tissue in HF-CWP group. Conclusion. CWP was able to modulate effects, possibly due to its high biological value of proteins. We observed a protective effect against obesity and improved the inflammatory milieu of white adipose tissue. Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza, Aline Boveto Santamarina, Aline Alves de Santana, Fábio Santos Lira, Rachel de Laquila, Mayara Franzoi Moreno, Eliane Beraldi Ribeiro, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller do Nascimento, Bruno Rodrigues, Elisa Esposito, and Lila Missae Oyama Copyright © 2014 Gabriel Inácio de Morais Honorato de Souza et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Odorous Compounds (VOC and Carbonyl Compounds) in the Ambient Air of Yeosu and Gwangyang, Large Industrial Areas of South Korea Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:25:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/824301/ Odorous compounds play an important role in air pollution in industrial areas and the residential areas surrounding them. This study measured the odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbonyl compounds at Yeosu and Gwangyang, two large industrial areas of South Korea, during four seasons of 2008-2009. Along with these two cities, the same odorous compounds were measured at Suncheon, which was selected as a control site. The concentrations of VOC and carbonyl compounds that were listed as odorous air pollutants by the Ministry of Environment of South Korea are discussed. Benzene and formaldehyde were included in the target analytes because of their carcinogenic nature. Most researchers only examined the concentration of odorous compounds in ambient air but the present study evaluated the odor intensity, which is a new parameter that will help better understand the precise odor perceived by people. This paper describes the seasonal variations and spatial distribution of the above-mentioned odorous compounds at the specified sites. Pearson correlation coefficients between the odorous compounds and other air pollutants, such as ozone, CO, SO2, NO2, and PM10, and meteorological conditions, such as temperature and wind speed, provide the source information of odorous VOC and carbonyl compounds. Young-Kyo Seo, Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu, and Sung-Ok Baek Copyright © 2014 Young-Kyo Seo et al. All rights reserved. Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom Generalized Transport Model for Nanoelectronics Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:25:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jns/2014/725420/ The Landauer-Datta-Lundstrom electron transport model is briefly summarized. If a band structure is given, the number of conduction modes can be evaluated and if a model for a mean-free-path for backscattering can be established, then the near-equilibrium thermoelectric transport coefficients can be calculated using the final expressions listed below for 1D, 2D, and 3D resistors in ballistic, quasiballistic, and diffusive linear response regimes when there are differences in both voltage and temperature across the device. The final expressions of thermoelectric transport coefficients through the Fermi-Dirac integrals are collected for 1D, 2D, and 3D semiconductors with parabolic band structure and for 2D graphene linear dispersion in ballistic and diffusive regimes with the power law scattering. Yuriy Kruglyak Copyright © 2014 Yuriy Kruglyak. All rights reserved. Self-Similarity in Transverse Intensity Distributions in the Farfield Diffraction Pattern of Radial Walsh Filters Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:24:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ao/2014/352316/ In a recent communication we reported the self-similarity in radial Walsh filters. The set of radial Walsh filters have been classified into distinct self-similar groups, where members of each group possess self-similar structures or phase sequences. It has been observed that, the axial intensity distributions in the farfield diffraction pattern of these self-similar radial Walsh filters are also self-similar. In this paper we report the self-similarity in the intensity distributions on a transverse plane in the farfield diffraction patterns of the self-similar radial Walsh filters. P. Mukherjee and L. N. Hazra Copyright © 2014 P. Mukherjee and L. N. Hazra. All rights reserved. Asymptomatic Malaria and Associated Risk Factors among School Children in Sanja Town, Northwest Ethiopia Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:23:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/303269/ Introduction. Asymptomatic malaria is prevalent in highly endemic areas of Africa and is new challenge for malaria prevention and control strategies. Objective. To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria and associated risk factors among school children in Sanja Town, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2013, on 385 school children selected using stratified proportionate systematic sampling technique. Pretested questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data and associated risk factors. Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films were examined for detection, identification, and quantification of malaria parasites. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20.0 statistical software. Multivariate logistic regression was done for assessing associated risk factors and proportions for categorical variables were compared using chi-square test. values less than 0.05 were taken as statistically significant. Results. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was 6.8% (). The majority of parasitemic study participants had low parasite density 65.5% (17/26). Level of grade, age, bed net usage, and frequent exposure to malaria infection were associated with risk of asymptomatic malaria. Conclusion. Asymptomatic malaria was low in this study area and is associated with level of grade, age, bed net usage, and frequent exposure to malaria infection. Ligabaw Worku, Demekech Damtie, Mengistu Endris, Sisay Getie, and Mulugeta Aemero Copyright © 2014 Ligabaw Worku et al. All rights reserved. Biological and Molecular Effects of Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors on Low-Passage Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:19:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/568693/ Low-passage cancer cell lines are versatile tools to study tumor cell biology. Here, we have employed four such cell lines, established from primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, to evaluate effects of the small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI) vemurafenib, trametinib, perifosine, and regorafenib in an in vitro setting. The mutant BRAF (V600E/V600K) inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib efficiently inhibited DNA synthesis, signaling through ERK1/2 and expression of genes downstream of ERK1/2 in BRAF mutant cells only. In case of the AKT inhibitor perifosine, three cell lines showed a high or intermediate responsiveness to the drug while one cell line was resistant. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib inhibited proliferation of all CRC lines with similar efficiency and independent of the presence or absence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations. Regorafenib action was associated with broad-range inhibitory effects at the level of gene expression but not with a general inhibition of AKT or MEK/ERK signaling. In vemurafenib-sensitive cells, the antiproliferative effect of vemurafenib was enhanced by the other SMI. Together, our results provide insights into the determinants of SMI efficiencies in CRC cells and encourage the further use of low-passage CRC cell lines as preclinical models. Falko Lange, Benjamin Franz, Claudia Maletzki, Michael Linnebacher, Maja Hühns, and Robert Jaster Copyright © 2014 Falko Lange et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survival Patterns by Age at Diagnosis Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:13:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jce/2014/865979/ Age at diagnosis is a key prognostic factor in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivorship. However, literature providing adequate assessment of the survival variability by age at diagnosis is scarce. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of this prognostic factor in pediatric ALL survival. We estimated incidence rate of mortality, 5-year survival rate, Kaplan-Meier survival function, and hazard ratio using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data during 1973–2009. There was significant variability in pediatric ALL survival by age at diagnosis. Survival peaked among children diagnosed at 1–4 years and steadily declined among those diagnosed at older ages. Infants (<1 year) had the lowest survivorship. In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model stratified by year of diagnosis, those diagnosed in age groups 1–4, 5–9, 10–14, and 15–19 years were 82%, 75%, 57%, and 32% less likely to die compared to children diagnosed in infancy, respectively. Age at diagnosis remained to be a crucial determinant of the survival variability of pediatric ALL patients, after adjusting for sex, race, radiation therapy, primary tumor sites, immunophenotype, and year of diagnosis. Further research is warranted to disentangle the effects of age-dependent biological and environmental processes on this association. Md Jobayer Hossain, Li Xie, and Suzanne M. McCahan Copyright © 2014 Md Jobayer Hossain et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Perforation on the Dynamics of a Flexible Panel Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:10:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aav/2014/526045/ Introduction of holes into plate-like structures is commonly found as one of the practical noise control measures to reduce sound radiation. However, perforation also reduces the panel stiffness and hence increases its vibration. The discussion on this effect is lacking and hence this paper discusses the dynamics of a perforated panel from the results obtained from Finite Element (FE) model. Different hole geometries and arrangement are simulated to investigate their effect on the plate mobility. In general, it is found that increasing the perforation ratio increases the plate mobility. For a fixed perforation ratio, the mobility increases at high frequency (above 1 kHz) for a smaller hole density in the plate. The plate with holes concentrated at the middle shows the largest increase of vibration around the plate centre compared to those uniformly distributed or away from the middle and concentrated at the plate edges. This is because as the hole separation becomes smaller, the reduction of the global stiffness around the mid area of the plate becomes greater. This also corresponds to the finding here that the mobility is greater at the vicinity of the hole. Different conditions of the plate edges are found to give consistent trend of the effect of perforation. A. Putra, Y. M. Cheah, N. Muhammad, A. Rivai, and C. M. Wai Copyright © 2014 A. Putra et al. All rights reserved. A Modular Neural Network Scheme Applied to Fault Diagnosis in Electric Power Systems Wed, 17 Sep 2014 09:06:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/176463/ This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system. Agustín Flores, Eduardo Quiles, Emilio García, Francisco Morant, and Antonio Correcher Copyright © 2014 Agustín Flores et al. All rights reserved. Emerging Rapid Resistance Testing Methods for Clinical Microbiology Laboratories and Their Potential Impact on Patient Management Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:57:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/375681/ Atypical and multidrug resistance, especially ESBL and carbapenemase expressing Enterobacteriaceae, is globally spreading. Therefore, it becomes increasingly difficult to achieve therapeutic success by calculated antibiotic therapy. Consequently, rapid antibiotic resistance testing is essential. Various molecular and mass spectrometry-based approaches have been introduced in diagnostic microbiology to speed up the providing of reliable resistance data. PCR- and sequencing-based approaches are the most expensive but the most frequently applied modes of testing, suitable for the detection of resistance genes even from primary material. Next generation sequencing, based either on assessment of allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms or on the detection of nonubiquitous resistance mechanisms might allow for sequence-based bacterial resistance testing comparable to viral resistance testing on the long term. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), based on specific binding of fluorescence-labeled oligonucleotide probes, provides a less expensive molecular bridging technique. It is particularly useful for detection of resistance mechanisms based on mutations in ribosomal RNA. Approaches based on MALDI-TOF-MS, alone or in combination with molecular techniques, like PCR/electrospray ionization MS or minisequencing provide the fastest resistance results from pure colonies or even primary samples with a growing number of protocols. This review details the various approaches of rapid resistance testing, their pros and cons, and their potential use for the diagnostic laboratory. Hagen Frickmann, Wycliffe Omurwa Masanta, and Andreas E. Zautner Copyright © 2014 Hagen Frickmann et al. All rights reserved. Solving Nonstiff Higher-Order Ordinary Differential Equations Using 2-Point Block Method Directly Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:52:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/867095/ We describe the development of a 2-point block backward difference method (2PBBD) for solving system of nonstiff higher-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) directly. The method computes the approximate solutions at two points simultaneously within an equidistant block. The integration coefficients that are used in the method are obtained only once at the start of the integration. Numerical results are presented to compare the performances of the method developed with 1-point backward difference method (1PBD) and 2-point block divided difference method (2PBDD). The result indicated that, for finer step sizes, this method performs better than the other two methods, that is, 1PBD and 2PBDD. Hazizah Mohd Ijam, Mohamed Suleiman, Ahmad Fadly Nurullah Rasedee, Norazak Senu, Ali Ahmadian, and Soheil Salahshour Copyright © 2014 Hazizah Mohd Ijam et al. All rights reserved. Fibre Diffraction Analysis of Skin Offers a Very Early and Extremely Accurate Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:51:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcr/2014/179608/ Double blind analysis of a batch of thirty skin tissue samples from potential prostate cancer sufferers correctly identified all “control” patients, patients with high and low grade prostate cancers, the presence of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), perineural invasions, and the one lymphatic invasion. Identification was by analysis of fibre diffraction patterns interpreted using a schema developed from observations in nine previous studies. The method, schema, and specific experiment results are reported in this paper, with some implications then drawn. Veronica J. James and Judith M. O’Malley Ford Copyright © 2014 Veronica J. James and Judith M. O’Malley Ford. All rights reserved. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles against Foodborne Pathogens Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:49:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2014/581890/ Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Planomicrobium sp. and to explore the antibacterial activity against food borne pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, (3053) Klebsiella planticola (2727) Klebsiella pneumoniae (MAA) Serratia nematodiphila (CAA) and Escherichia coli. In the current studies, 1 mM of silver nitrate was added into 100 mL of Planomicrobium sp. culture supernatant. The bioreduction of pure AgNO3 was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive analysis (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the presence of an absorption peak at 400 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The morphology and size of the silver nanoparticles was monitored by TEM and SEM. Crystal structure was obtained by carrying out X-ray diffraction studies and it showed face centered cubic (FCC) structure. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles was compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in well method. Bacterial sensitivity to nanoparticles a key factor in manufacture the suitable for long life application in food packaging and food safety. Food safety is a worldwide health goal and the food borne diseases get a main disaster on health. Therefore, controlling of bacterial pathogens in food is credit of harms associated to health and safety. S. Rajeshkumar and C. Malarkodi Copyright © 2014 S. Rajeshkumar and C. Malarkodi. All rights reserved. A Descriptive Study of Nosocomial Infections in an Adult Intensive Care Unit in Fiji: 2011-12 Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:42:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2014/545160/ Nosocomial infections in an intensive care unit (ICU) are common and associated with a high mortality but there are no published data from the Oceania region. A retrospective study in Fiji’s largest ICU (2011-12) reported that 114 of a total 663 adult ICU admissions had bacteriological culture-confirmed nosocomial infection. The commonest sites of infection were respiratory and bloodstream. Gram negative bacteria were the commonest pathogens isolated, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae (extended-spectrum β-Lactamase-producing), Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas species. Mortality for those with a known outcome was 33%. Improved surveillance and implementation of effective preventive interventions are needed. Keshni Naidu, Ilisapeci Nabose, Sharan Ram, Kerri Viney, Stephen M. Graham, and Karen Bissell Copyright © 2014 Keshni Naidu et al. All rights reserved. Transcriptome of the Deep-Sea Black Scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo (Perciformes: Trichiuridae): Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns and Candidate Genes Associated to Depth Adaptation Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:40:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/267482/ Deep-sea fishes provide a unique opportunity to study the physiology and evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments. We carried out a high throughput sequencing analysis on a 454 GS-FLX titanium plate using unnormalized cDNA libraries from six tissues of A. carbo. Assemblage and annotations were performed by Newbler and InterPro/Pfam analyses, respectively. The assembly of 544,491 high quality reads provided 8,319 contigs, 55.6% of which retrieved blast hits against the NCBI nonredundant database or were annotated with ESTscan. Comparison of functional genes at both the protein sequences and protein stability levels, associated with adaptations to depth, revealed similarities between A. carbo and other bathypelagic fishes. A selection of putative genes was standardized to evaluate the correlation between number of contigs and their normalized expression, as determined by qPCR amplification. The screening of the libraries contributed to the identification of new EST simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to the design of primer pairs suitable for population genetic studies as well as for tagging and mapping of genes. The characterization of the deep-sea fish A. carbo first transcriptome is expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies of this species and the basis for further investigation of depth-related adaptation processes in fishes. Sergio Stefanni, Raul Bettencourt, Miguel Pinheiro, Gianluca De Moro, Lucia Bongiorni, and Alberto Pallavicini Copyright © 2014 Sergio Stefanni et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Larval Control Practices in a Dengue Outbreak Prone Area Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:27:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2014/459173/ In order to reduce the risk of dengue outbreak recurrence in a dengue outbreak prone area, the members of the community need to sustain certain behavior to prevent mosquito from breeding. Our study aims to identify the factors associated with larval control practices in this particular community. A cross-sectional study involves 322 respondents living in a dengue outbreak prone area who were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The level of knowledge about Aedes mosquitoes, dengue transmission, its symptoms, and personal preventive measures ranges from fair to good. The level of attitude towards preventive measures was high. However, reported level of personal larval control practices was low (33.2%). Our multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only those with a good level of attitude towards personal preventive measure and frequent attendance to health campaigns were significantly associated with the good larval control practices. We conclude that, in a dengue outbreak prone area, having a good attitude towards preventive measures and frequent participation in health campaigns are important factors to sustain practices on larval control. Mariam Mohamad, Mohamad Ikhsan Selamat, and Zaliha Ismail Copyright © 2014 Mariam Mohamad et al. All rights reserved. Statistical Pattern-Based Assessment of Structural Health Monitoring Data Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:27:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/926079/ In structural health monitoring (SHM), various sensors are installed at critical locations of a structure. The signals from sensors are either continuously or periodically analyzed to determine the state and performance of the structure. An objective comparison of the sensor data at different time ranges is essential for assessing the structural condition or excessive load experienced by the structure which leads to potential damage in the structure. The objectives of the current study are to establish a relationship between the data from various sensors to estimate the reliability of the data and potential damage using the statistical pattern matching techniques. In order to achieve these goals, new methodologies based on statistical pattern recognition techniques have been developed. The proposed methodologies have been developed and validated using sensor data obtained from an instrumented bridge and road test data from heavy vehicles. The application of statistical pattern matching techniques are relatively new in SHM data interpretation and current research demonstrates that it has high potential in assessing structural conditions, especially when the data are noisy and susceptible to environmental disturbances. Mohammad S. Islam and Ashutosh Bagchi Copyright © 2014 Mohammad S. Islam and Ashutosh Bagchi. All rights reserved. Microwave Absorption Properties of Double-Layer RADAR Absorbing Materials Based on Doped Barium Hexaferrite/TiO2/Conducting Carbon Black Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:23:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/468313/ In this report, we demonstrate microwave absorption properties of barium hexaferrite, doped barium hexaferrite, titanium dioxide and conducting carbon black based RADAR absorbing material for stealth application. Double-layer absorbers are prepared with a top layer consisting of 30% hexaferrite and 10% titanium dioxide while the bottom layer composed of 30% hexaferrite and 10% conducting carbon black, embedded in chloroprene matrix. The top and bottom layers are prepared as impedance matching layer and conducting layer, respectively, with a total thickness of 2 mm. Microwave absorption properties of all the composites were analyzed in X-band region. Maximum reflection loss of −32 dB at 10.64 GHz was observed for barium hexaferrite based double-layer absorber whereas for doped barium hexaferrite based absorber the reflection loss was found to be −29.56 dB at 11.7 GHz. A consistence reflection loss value (>−24 dB) was observed for doped barium hexaferrite based RADAR absorbing materials within the entire bandwidth. Sukanta Das, G. C. Nayak, S. K. Sahu, P. C. Routray, A. K. Roy, and H. Baskey Copyright © 2014 Sukanta Das et al. All rights reserved. p38δ MAPK: Emerging Roles of a Neglected Isoform Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:52:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcb/2014/272689/ p38δ mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a unique stress responsive protein kinase. While the p38 MAPK family as a whole has been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes, a specific role for p38δ MAPK in cellular signalling and its contribution to both physiological and pathological conditions are presently lacking. Recent emerging evidence, however, provides some insights into specific p38δ MAPK signalling. Importantly, these studies have helped to highlight functional similarities as well as differences between p38δ MAPK and the other members of the p38 MAPK family of kinases. In this review we discuss the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying p38δ MAPK activity. We outline a role for p38δ MAPK in important cellular processes such as differentiation and apoptosis as well as pathological conditions such as neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and inflammatory disease. Interestingly, disparate roles for p38δ MAPK in tumour development have also recently been reported. Thus, we consider evidence which characterises p38δ MAPK as both a tumour promoter and a tumour suppressor. In summary, while our knowledge of p38δ MAPK has progressed somewhat since its identification in 1997, our understanding of this particular isoform in many cellular processes still strikingly lags behind that of its counterparts. Carol O’Callaghan, Liam J. Fanning, and Orla P. Barry Copyright © 2014 Carol O’Callaghan et al. All rights reserved. Autopsy Report with Clinical and Pathophysiologic Discussion of Autosomal Dominant Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:35:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2014/727580/ The average weight of a kidney is approximately 135 gm, measuring on average 10 × 6 × 4 cm. In hereditary conditions, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, the shape, size, and the weight can be significantly abnormal, causing progressive renal failure, often necessitating dialysis or renal transplant for survival. We report a case of adult polycystic kidney disease in a 50-year-old female without a family history, who died of complications of the disease which included accelerated hypertension, and renal and cardiac failure. Anup Hazra, Richard Siderits, Cheryl Rimmer, and Noah Rolleri Copyright © 2014 Anup Hazra et al. All rights reserved. Accumulation Studies at a High Elevation Glacier Site in Central Karakoram Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:24:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/215162/ The precipitation conditions in central Karakoram are investigated on the basis of snow samples from high elevated snow pits at Urdok glacier from 2006 and the analysis of atmospheric transport trajectories in combination with the general, large scale pressure distribution. Our analysis shows that accumulation at the high elevated regions of the central Karakoram is dominated by the west wind circulation (WWC). Incursions of the South Asian monsoon (SAM) occur sometimes during the summer months accompanied by strong precipitation but play a minor role for the total accumulation amount. Dust layers found in the snow pits show a rare earth elements signature which indicates that the dust very likely originates from the arid regions of western China and Central Asia. Our trajectory calculations based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data confirm that especially during late spring and early summer the westerly flow is redirected over the Tarim basin to reach central Karakoram from an East/Southeast direction. The preservation of the layer structure and the clear seasonal signals in the snow pits indicate that locations above 5200 m in central Karakoram will be suitable places for retrieving longer climate records from ice cores. Christoph Mayer, Astrid Lambrecht, Hans Oerter, Margit Schwikowski, Elisa Vuillermoz, Nicola Frank, and Guglielmina Diolaiuti Copyright © 2014 Christoph Mayer et al. All rights reserved. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Abatacept Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:16:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/835050/ Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial membrane inflammation and joint cartilage destruction. Abatacept is a biologic agent that blocks the costimulation signals, preventing antigen presentation and proliferation of T lymphocytes. It is approved for the treatment of patients with RA. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an infectious disease complicating several immunosuppressive drugs. PJP associated with abatacept has not been reported yet in the medical literature. Various factors, such as the mechanism of action of abatacept, may contribute to predisposing to  Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. In this paper, we report a patient with RA who developed PJP under abatacept treatment. Fabio E. Ospina, Andrés Agualimpia, Fabio Bonilla-Abadía, Carlos A. Cañas, and Gabriel J. Tobón Copyright © 2014 Fabio E. Ospina et al. All rights reserved. Proinflammatory Cytokines Correlate with Depression and Anxiety in Colorectal Cancer Patients Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:15:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/739650/ The objective of this study was to investigate whether serum cytokine levels correlate with depression and anxiety in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Twenty patients hospitalized for surgical resection of CRC were included in the study group and twenty healthy volunteers comprised the control group. Depression and anxiety were analyzed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α, and TGF-β were measured by Cytometric Bead Array. We found that more than half of CRC patients presented clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression, and 65% of them manifested a combination of severe anxiety and depression. CRC patients had increased serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α but lower IL-10 concentrations. Correlation analysis between HADS score and cytokine levels revealed a positive association of anxiety and/or depression with IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α and a negative correlation with IL-10. These results indicate that circulating proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression in CRC patients. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these psychological disorders will allow the design of therapeutic interventions that lead to an improved quality of life and overall survival of CRC patients. Diego Oliveira Miranda, Taís Aparecida Soares de Lima, Lucas Ribeiro Azevedo, Omar Feres, José Joaquim Ribeiro da Rocha, and Gabriela Pereira-da-Silva Copyright © 2014 Diego Oliveira Miranda et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:13:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aanat/2014/798425/ A Mobile phone in operation emits a pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field which is absorbed into the user’s body particularly the head region. Contradictory scientific reports on the health effect of nonionizing radiations on biological tissues have prompted to undertake the present study to evaluate the damage in the developing lens of a chick embryo following exposure to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in two groups in a standard egg incubator. The experiment group was exposed to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies. The 9th to 12th day chick embryo eyes were processed for assessment of DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay technique. The lens thickness and the equatorial diameter were measured using oculometer and statistically compared for both groups. In the present study, the exposure of chick embryos to a 2G cell phone caused structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of posterior aberrant nuclear layer. The DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant. Mary Hydrina D'Silva, Rijied Thompson Swer, J. Anbalagan, and Rajesh Bhargavan Copyright © 2014 Mary Hydrina D'Silva et al. All rights reserved. ECG Beats Classification Using Mixture of Features Wed, 17 Sep 2014 07:11:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/178436/ Classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals plays an important role in clinical diagnosis of heart disease. This paper proposes the design of an efficient system for classification of the normal beat (N), ventricular ectopic beat (V), supraventricular ectopic beat (S), fusion beat (F), and unknown beat (Q) using a mixture of features. In this paper, two different feature extraction methods are proposed for classification of ECG beats: (i) S-transform based features along with temporal features and (ii) mixture of ST and WT based features along with temporal features. The extracted feature set is independently classified using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN). The performances are evaluated on several normal and abnormal ECG signals from 44 recordings of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. In this work, the performances of three feature extraction techniques with MLP-NN classifier are compared using five classes of ECG beat recommended by AAMI (Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation) standards. The average sensitivity performances of the proposed feature extraction technique for N, S, F, V, and Q are 95.70%, 78.05%, 49.60%, 89.68%, and 33.89%, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed feature extraction techniques show better performances compared to other existing features extraction techniques. Manab Kumar Das and Samit Ari Copyright © 2014 Manab Kumar Das and Samit Ari. All rights reserved. Image Analysis to Estimate Mulch Residue in Soil Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:46:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/617408/ Mulching is used to improve the condition of agricultural soils by covering the soil with different materials, mainly black polyethylene (PE). However, problems derived from its use are how to remove it from the field and, in the case of it remaining in the soil, the possible effects on it. One possible solution is to use biodegradable plastic (BD) or paper (PP), as mulch, which could present an alternative, reducing nonrecyclable waste and decreasing the environmental pollution associated with it. Determination of mulch residues in the ground is one of the basic requirements to estimate the potential of each material to degrade. This study has the goal of evaluating the residue of several mulch materials over a crop campaign in Central Spain through image analysis. Color images were acquired under similar lighting conditions at the experimental field. Different thresholding methods were applied to binarize the histogram values of the image saturation plane in order to show the best contrast between soil and mulch. Then the percentage of white pixels (i.e., soil area) was used to calculate the mulch deterioration. A comparison of thresholding methods and the different mulch materials based on percentage of bare soil area obtained is shown. Carmen Moreno, Ignacio Mancebo, Antonio Saa, and Marta M. Moreno Copyright © 2014 Carmen Moreno et al. All rights reserved. Planarians Sense Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:44:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/679672/ Planarians are flatworms, which belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes. They have been a classical subject of study due to their amazing regenerative ability, which relies on the existence of adult totipotent stem cells. Nowadays they are an emerging model system in the field of developmental, regenerative, and stem cell biology. In this study we analyze the effect of a simulated microgravity and a hypergravity environment during the process of planarian regeneration and embryogenesis. We demonstrate that simulated microgravity by means of the random positioning machine (RPM) set at a speed of 60 °/s but not at 10 °/s produces the dead of planarians. Under hypergravity of 3 g and 4 g in a large diameter centrifuge (LDC) planarians can regenerate missing tissues, although a decrease in the proliferation rate is observed. Under 8 g hypergravity small planarian fragments are not able to regenerate. Moreover, we found an effect of gravity alterations in the rate of planarian scission, which is its asexual mode of reproduction. No apparent effects of altered gravity were found during the embryonic development. Teresa Adell, Emili Saló, Jack J. W. A. van Loon, and Gennaro Auletta Copyright © 2014 Teresa Adell et al. All rights reserved. Dendritic Cell Profile Induced by Schistosoma mansoni Antigen in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:41:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/743069/ The inflammatory response in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), although responsible for controlling the infection, is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Conversely, the immune response induced by S. mansoni antigens is able to prevent immune-mediated diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the S. mansoni Sm29 antigen to change the profile of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) from subjects with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in vitro. Monocytes derived from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of twelve patients were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for differentiation into dendritic cells and then stimulated with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) in the presence or absence of Sm29 antigen. The expression of surface molecules associated with maturation and activation (HLA-DR, CD40, CD83, CD80, and CD86), inflammation (IL-12, TNF), and downregulation (IL-10, IL-10R) was evaluated using flow cytometry. We observed that the frequencies of HLA-DR, CD83, CD80, and CD86 as well as of IL-10 and IL-10R on MoDCs were higher in cultures stimulated with Sm29, compared to the unstimulated cell cultures. Our results indicate that the Sm29 antigen is able to activate regulatory MoDCs in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. It might be useful to control the inflammatory process associated with this disease. Diego Mota Lopes, Jamille Souza Fernandes, Thiago Marconi de Souza Cardoso, Aline Michele Barbosa Bafica, Sérgio Costa Oliveira, Edgar M. Carvalho, Maria Ilma Araujo, and Luciana Santos Cardoso Copyright © 2014 Diego Mota Lopes et al. All rights reserved. Translating Building Information Modeling to Building Energy Modeling Using Model View Definition Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:36:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/638276/ This paper presents a new approach to translate between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Building Energy Modeling (BEM) that uses Modelica, an object-oriented declarative, equation-based simulation environment. The approach (BIM2BEM) has been developed using a data modeling method to enable seamless model translations of building geometry, materials, and topology. Using data modeling, we created a Model View Definition (MVD) consisting of a process model and a class diagram. The process model demonstrates object-mapping between BIM and Modelica-based BEM (ModelicaBEM) and facilitates the definition of required information during model translations. The class diagram represents the information and object relationships to produce a class package intermediate between the BIM and BEM. The implementation of the intermediate class package enables system interface (Revit2Modelica) development for automatic BIM data translation into ModelicaBEM. In order to demonstrate and validate our approach, simulation result comparisons have been conducted via three test cases using (1) the BIM-based Modelica models generated from Revit2Modelica and (2) BEM models manually created using LBNL Modelica Buildings library. Our implementation shows that BIM2BEM (1) enables BIM models to be translated into ModelicaBEM models, (2) enables system interface development based on the MVD for thermal simulation, and (3) facilitates the reuse of original BIM data into building energy simulation without an import/export process. WoonSeong Jeong, Jong Bum Kim, Mark J. Clayton, Jeff S. Haberl, and Wei Yan Copyright © 2014 WoonSeong Jeong et al. All rights reserved. On a Boat: A Case in Australia of Endophthalmitis and Pyogenic Liver, Prostatic, and Lung Abscesses in a Previously Well Patient due to Klebsiella pneumoniae Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:17:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2014/137248/ This is a case report about a patient who arrived in our emergency department in Western Australia to the care of the urologists having just gotten off a ship with a bacterial infection that would result in a 44-day stay in hospital and have quite devastating lasting effects for the young male. His story was in fact reflective of an emerging global phenomenon. Once thought to generally be a bacterium of threat only to the elderly and alcoholics, causing pneumonia and urinary tract infections, this case report describes the potentially devastating consequences of what is now becoming recognized as a hypervirulent form of Klebsiella pneumoniae with the potential to spread throughout the system rapidly seeding abscesses and causing significant morbidity in nonimmunocompromised patients. Initially noticed in Asia increasingly case reports are emerging in Western countries suggesting a global spread. Alecia Vandevelde and Bojana Stepanovic Copyright © 2014 Alecia Vandevelde and Bojana Stepanovic. All rights reserved. Computational Model for the Neutronic Simulation of Pebble Bed Reactor’s Core Using MCNPX Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:17:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijne/2014/279073/ Very high temperature reactor (VHTR) designs offer promising performance characteristics; they can provide sustainable energy, improved proliferation resistance, inherent safety, and high temperature heat supply. These designs also promise operation to high burnup and large margins to fuel failure with excellent fission product retention via the TRISO fuel design. The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a design of gas cooled high temperature reactor, candidate for Generation IV of Nuclear Energy Systems. This paper describes the features of a detailed geometric computational model for PBR whole core analysis using the MCNPX code. The validation of the model was carried out using the HTR-10 benchmark. Results were compared with experimental data and calculations of other authors. In addition, sensitivity analysis of several parameters that could have influenced the results and the accuracy of model was made. J. Rosales, A. Muñoz, C. García, L. García, C. Brayner, J. Pérez, and A. Abánades Copyright © 2014 J. Rosales et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Tannins of Three Common Acacia Species of Sudan Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:13:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ac/2014/192708/ The objective of this study is to analyze and compare tannins of three common Acacia species of Sudan, since vegetable tannins are important in leather industry. Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal samples were collected from Sunt Forest in Khartoum State, while Acacia senegal samples were collected from the Debabat Forest in South Kordofan State. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with boiled deionized water. The amount of tannins present in these bulk samples was determined by Folin-Denis method for total phenolic materials, followed by precipitation with hide-powder. The difference between the amount of phenolic materials present before and after addition of hide-powder represents the amount of tannins present. The percentage of tannins in the leaves, bark, and mature and immature fruits of collections of individuals of Acacia species was estimated; mature and immature fruits of Acacia nilotica contain tannins (22.15% and 22.10%, resp.). The leaves of Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal contain tannins (11.80% and 6.30%, resp.). The barks of Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, and Acacia senegal contain tannins (12.15%, 10.47%, and 3.49%, resp.). Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani and Christina Yacoub Ishak Copyright © 2014 Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani and Christina Yacoub Ishak. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Hemosiderosis in Children with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:06:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2014/876195/ We describe a possible association between pulmonary hemosiderosis (PH) and a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Both patients were born at 28-week gestation and presented with PH at ages 22 months and 6 years, respectively. Both initially presented with cough and tachypnea, and bronchoalveolar lavage showed evidence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Initial hemoglobin levels were < 4 g/dL and chest radiographs showed diffuse infiltrates that cleared dramatically within days after initiation of intravenous corticosteroids. In the first case, frank pulmonary blood was observed upon initial intubation, prompting the need for high frequency ventilation, immediate corticosteroids, and antibiotics. The mechanical ventilation wean was made possible by the addition of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and hydroxychloroquine. Slow tapering off of medications was accomplished over 6 years. These cases represent a possible correlation between prematurity-associated BPD and PH. We present a review of the literature regarding this possible association. In addition, MMF proved to be life-saving in one of the PH cases, as it has been in pulmonary hemorrhage related to systemic lupus erythematosus. Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible association between PH and prematurity-related BPD, as well as the use of MMF in the treatment of PH. David Kurahara, Marina Morie, Maya Yamane, Sarah Lam, Wallace Matthews, Keolamau Yee, and Kara Yamamoto Copyright © 2014 David Kurahara et al. All rights reserved. P-LEACH: An Efficient Cluster-Based Technique to Track Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:04:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/803656/ For a wireless sensor network (WSN) with a large number of inexpensive sensor nodes, energy efficiency is the major concern in designing network structure and related algorithms. If network collects sensor data using mobile sinks, object tracking mechanism must consider the energy efficiency of sensor nodes in the networks as a whole. Recently research works on WSNs with mobile sinks apply prediction techniques for sink tracking in order to improve tracking precision while keeping the number of active nodes to the minimum. In this paper, we analyze existing works for sink tracking in WSN and propose P-LEACH that is cluster-based prediction technique for WSN with mobile sinks. Simulation results show that P-LEACH performs better than previous techniques in terms of energy saving of sensor nodes and data transmission performance. Sungchol Cho, Li Han, Bokgyu Joo, and Sunyoung Han Copyright © 2014 Sungchol Cho et al. All rights reserved. Collagen-Glycosaminoglycan Matrix Implantation Promotes Angiogenesis following Surgical Brain Trauma Wed, 17 Sep 2014 06:02:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/672409/ Surgical brain injury (SBI) is unavoidable during many neurosurgical procedures intrinsically linked to postoperative neurological deficits. We have previously demonstrated that implantation of collagen glycosaminoglycan (CG) following surgical brain injury could significantly promote functional recovery and neurogenesis. In this study we further hypothesized that this scaffold may provide a microenvironment by promoting angiogenesis to favor neurogenesis and subsequent functional recovery. Using the rodent model of surgical brain injury as we previously established, we divided Sprague-Dawley male rats (weighting 300–350 g) into three groups: (1) sham (2) surgical injury with a lesion (L), and (3) L with CG matrix implantation (L + CG). Our results demonstrated that L + CG group showed a statistically significant increase in the density of vascular endothelial cells and blood vessels over time. In addition, tissue concentrations of angiogenic growth factors (such as VEGF, FGF2, and PDGF) significantly increased in L + CG group. These results suggest that implantation of a CG scaffold can promote vascularization accompanied by neurogenesis. This opens prospects for use of CG scaffolds in conditions such as brain injury including trauma and ischemia. Kuo-Feng Huang, Wei-Cherng Hsu, Jong-Kai Hsiao, Gunng-Shinng Chen, and Jia-Yi Wang Copyright © 2014 Kuo-Feng Huang et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Influence of Microcellular Injection Molding on the Environmental Impact of an Industrial Component Wed, 17 Sep 2014 05:47:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/793269/ Microcellular injection molding is a process that offers numerous benefits due to the internal structure generated; thus, many applications are currently being developed in different fields, especially home appliances. In spite of the advantages, when changing the manufacturing process from conventional to microcellular injection molding, it is necessary to analyze its new mechanical properties and the environmental impact of the component. This paper presents a deep study of the environmental behavior of a manufactured component by both conventional and microcellular injection molding. Environmental impact will be evaluated performing a life cycle assessment. Functionality of the component will be also evaluated with samples obtained from manufactured components, to make sure that the mechanical requirements are fulfilled when using microcellular injection molding. For this purpose a special device has been developed to measure the flexural modulus. With a 16% weight reduction, the variation of flexural properties in the microcellular injected components is only 6.8%. Although the energy consumption of the microcellular injection process slightly increases, there is an overall reduction of the environmental burden of 14.9% in ReCiPe and 15% in carbon footprint. Therefore, MuCell technology can be considered as a green manufacturing technology for components working mainly under flexural load. Daniel Elduque, Isabel Clavería, Ángel Fernández, Carlos Javierre, Carmelo Pina, and Jorge Santolaria Copyright © 2014 Daniel Elduque et al. All rights reserved. The Importance of Autophagy Regulation in Breast Cancer Development and Treatment Wed, 17 Sep 2014 05:11:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/710345/ Breast cancer (BC) is a potentially life-threatening malignant tumor that still causes high mortality among women. One of the mechanisms through which cancer development could be controlled is autophagy. This process exerts different effects during the stages of cancer initiation and progression due to the occurring superimposition of signaling pathways of autophagy and carcinogenesis. Chronic inhibition of autophagy or autophagy deficiency promotes cancer, due to instability of the genome and defective cell growth and as a result of cell stress. However, increased induction of autophagy can become a mechanism which allows tumor cells to survive the conditions of hypoxia, acidosis, or chemotherapy. Therefore, in the development of cancer, autophagy is regarded as a double-edged sword. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying autophagy regulation and its role in tumorigenesis is an essential component of modern anticancer strategies. Results of scientific studies show that inhibition of autophagy may enhance the effectiveness of currently used anticancer drugs and other therapies (like radiotherapy). However, in some cases, the promotion of autophagy can induce death and, hence, elimination of the cancer cells and reduction of tumor size. This review summarizes the current knowledge on autophagy regulation in BC and up-to-date anticancer strategies correlated with autophagy. Joanna Magdalena Zarzynska Copyright © 2014 Joanna Magdalena Zarzynska. All rights reserved. Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer Wed, 17 Sep 2014 05:07:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/njos/2014/390618/ Around 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive and hence their development is highly dependent on estradiol. While the invention of endocrine therapies has revolusioned the treatment of the disease, resistance to therapy eventually occurs in a large number of patients. This paper seeks to illustrate and discuss the complexity and heterogeneity of the mechanisms which underlie resistance and the approaches proposed to combat them. It will also focus on the use and development of methods for predicting which patients are likely to develop resistance. J. M. Dixon Copyright © 2014 J. M. Dixon. All rights reserved. Fall-Detection Algorithm Using 3-Axis Acceleration: Combination with Simple Threshold and Hidden Markov Model Wed, 17 Sep 2014 05:06:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/896030/ Falls are a serious medical and social problem among the elderly. This has led to the development of automatic fall-detection systems. To detect falls, a fall-detection algorithm that combines a simple threshold method and hidden Markov model (HMM) using 3-axis acceleration is proposed. To apply the proposed fall-detection algorithm and detect falls, a wearable fall-detection device has been designed and produced. Several fall-feature parameters of 3-axis acceleration are introduced and applied to a simple threshold method. Possible falls are chosen through the simple threshold and are applied to two types of HMM to distinguish between a fall and an activity of daily living (ADL). The results using the simple threshold, HMM, and combination of the simple method and HMM were compared and analyzed. The combination of the simple threshold method and HMM reduced the complexity of the hardware and the proposed algorithm exhibited higher accuracy than that of the simple threshold method. Dongha Lim, Chulho Park, Nam Ho Kim, Sang-Hoon Kim, and Yun Seop Yu Copyright © 2014 Dongha Lim et al. All rights reserved. Shock Waves in the Treatment of Muscle Hypertonia and Dystonia Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/637450/ Since 1997, focused shock waves therapy (FSWT) has been reported to be useful in the treatment of muscle hypertonia and dystonia. More recently, also radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) has been successfully used to treat muscle hypertonia. The studies where FSWT and RSWT have been used to treat muscle hypertonia and dystonia are reviewed in this paper. The more consistent and long lasting results were obtained in the lower limb muscles of patients affected by cerebral palsy with both FSWT and RSWT and in the distal upper limb muscles of adult stroke patients using FSWT. The most probable mechanism of action is a direct effect of shock waves on muscle fibrosis and other nonreflex components of muscle hypertonia. However, we believe that up to now the biological effects of shock waves on muscle hypertonia and dystonia cannot be clearly separated from a placebo effect. Laura Mori, Lucio Marinelli, Elisa Pelosin, Antonio Currà, Luigi Molfetta, Giovanni Abbruzzese, and Carlo Trompetto Copyright © 2014 Laura Mori et al. All rights reserved. HELLP Syndrome and Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Associated with Factor V Leiden Mutation during Pregnancy Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2014/582890/ Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The neurological complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia are responsible for a major proportion of the morbidity and mortality for women and their infants alike. Hormonal changes during pregnancy and the puerperium carry an increased risk of venous thromboembolism including cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). Factor 5 leiden (FVL) is a procoagulant mutation associated primarily with venous thrombosis and pregnancy complications. We report a patient with FVL mutation who presented with CVST at 24th week of pregnancy and was diagnosed as HELLP syndrome at 34th week of pregnancy. Zeynep Ozcan Dag, Yuksel Işik, Yavuz Simsek, Ozlem Banu Tulmac, and Demet Demiray Copyright © 2014 Zeynep Ozcan Dag et al. All rights reserved. Hyperacute Rejection of a Living Unrelated Kidney Graft Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/613641/ We present a case report of a 59-year-old man, who received a blood group identical living unrelated kidney graft. This was his second kidney transplantation. Pretransplant T-cell crossmatch resulted negative. B-cell crossmatch, which is not considered a strict contraindication for transplantation, resulted positive. During surgery no abnormalities occurred. Four hours after the transplantation diuresis suddenly decreased. In an immediately performed relaparotomy the transplanted kidney showed signs of hyperacute rejection and had to be removed. Pathological examination was consistent with hyperacute rejection. Depositions of IgM or IgG antibodies were not present in pathologic evaluation of the rejected kidney, suggesting that no irregular endothelial specific antibodies had been involved in the rejection. We recommend examining more closely recipients of second allografts, considering not only a positive T-cell crossmatch but also a positive B-cell crossmatch as exclusion criteria for transplantation. Dietlind Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dirk Bausch, Oliver Drognitz, Heike Goebel, Christian Schulz-Huotari, Albrecht Kramer-Zucker, Ulrich Theodor Hopt, and Przemyslaw Pisarski Copyright © 2014 Dietlind Tittelbach-Helmrich et al. All rights reserved. Simulation for Supporting Scale-Up of a Fluidized Bed Reactor for Advanced Water Oxidation Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/348974/ Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP). The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure) in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe3+ and Fe2+ mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40–90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment. Farhana Tisa, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman, and Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud Copyright © 2014 Farhana Tisa et al. All rights reserved. Visualizing Exact and Approximated 3D Empirical Attainment Functions Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/569346/ Most real-world engineering optimization problems are inherently multiobjective, for example, searching for trade-off solutions of high quality and low cost. As no single optimal solution exists for such problems, multiobjective optimizers provide sets of optimal (or near-optimal) trade-off solutions to choose from. The empirical attainment function (EAF) is a powerful tool that can be used to analyze and compare the performance of these optimizers. While the visualization of EAFs is rather straightforward in two objectives, the three-objective case presents a great challenge as we need to visualize a large number of 3D cuboids. This paper addresses the visualization of exact as well as approximated 3D EAF values and differences in these values provided by two competing multiobjective optimizers. We show that the exact EAFs can be visualized using slicing and maximum intensity projection (MIP), while the approximated EAFs can be visualized using slicing, MIP, and direct volume rendering. In addition, the paper demonstrates the use of the proposed visualization techniques on a steel casting optimization problem. Tea Tušar and Bogdan Filipič Copyright © 2014 Tea Tušar and Bogdan Filipič. All rights reserved. Sinc Collocation Method for Finding Numerical Solution of Integrodifferential Model Arisen in Continuous Mixed Strategy Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcengi/2014/320420/ One of the new techniques is used to solve numerical problems involving integral equations and ordinary differential equations known as Sinc collocation methods. This method has been shown to be an efficient numerical tool for finding solution. The construction mixed strategies evolutionary game can be transformed to an integrodifferential problem. Properties of the sinc procedure are utilized to reduce the computation of this integrodifferential to some algebraic equations. The method is applied to a few test examples to illustrate the accuracy and implementation of the method. F. Hosseini Shekarabi Copyright © 2014 F. Hosseini Shekarabi. All rights reserved. Heart Disease Diagnosis Utilizing Hybrid Fuzzy Wavelet Neural Network and Teaching Learning Based Optimization Algorithm Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aans/2014/796323/ Among the various diseases that threaten human life is heart disease. This disease is considered to be one of the leading causes of death in the world. Actually, the medical diagnosis of heart disease is a complex task and must be made in an accurate manner. Therefore, a software has been developed based on advanced computer technologies to assist doctors in the diagnostic process. This paper intends to use the hybrid teaching learning based optimization (TLBO) algorithm and fuzzy wavelet neural network (FWNN) for heart disease diagnosis. The TLBO algorithm is applied to enhance performance of the FWNN. The hybrid TLBO algorithm with FWNN is used to classify the Cleveland heart disease dataset obtained from the University of California at Irvine (UCI) machine learning repository. The performance of the proposed method (TLBO_FWNN) is estimated using -fold cross validation based on mean square error (MSE), classification accuracy, and the execution time. The experimental results show that TLBO_FWNN has an effective performance for diagnosing heart disease with 90.29% accuracy and superior performance compared to other methods in the literature. Jamal Salahaldeen Majeed Alneamy and Rahma Abdulwahid Hameed Alnaish Copyright © 2014 Jamal Salahaldeen Majeed Alneamy and Rahma Abdulwahid Hameed Alnaish. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Definitions of “High-Risk” Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging Criteria and National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jsc/2014/154340/ Recent guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) have been proposed for the assessment of “high-risk” cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs). Though different in perspective, both guidelines share the common goals of trying to identify “high-risk” cSCCs and improving patient outcomes. Thus, in theory, both definitions should identify a similar proportion of “high-risk” tumors. We sought to evaluate the AJCC and NCCN definitions of “high-risk” cSCCs and to assess their concordance. Methods. A retrospective review of head and neck cSCCs seen by an academic dermatology department from July 2010 to November 2011 was performed. Results. By AJCC criteria, most tumors (%) were of Stage 1; 46 tumors (13.9%) were of Stage 2. Almost all were of Stage 2 due to size alone (≥2 cm); one tumor was “upstaged” due to “high-risk features.” Using the NCCN taxonomy, 231 (87%) of tumors were “high-risk.” Discussion. This analysis demonstrates discordance between AJCC and NCCN definitions of “high-risk” cSCC. Few cSCCs are of Stage 2 by AJCC criteria, while most are “high-risk” by the NCCN guidelines. While the current guidelines represent significant progress, further studies are needed to generate a unified definition of “high-risk” cSCC to optimize management. Melinda B. Chu, Jordan B. Slutsky, Maulik M. Dhandha, Brandon T. Beal, Eric S. Armbrecht, Ronald J. Walker, Mark A. Varvares, and Scott W. Fosko Copyright © 2014 Melinda B. Chu et al. All rights reserved. Differentially Expressed Genes of Virulent and Nonvirulent Entamoeba histolytica Strains Identified by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/285607/ Entamoeba histolytica is a parasite which presents capacity to degrade tissues and therefore has a pathogenic behavior. As this behavior is not shown by all strains, there have been several studies investigating molecular basis of the cytotoxicity process. Using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique, differential gene expressions of two E. histolytica strains, one virulent (EGG) and one nonvirulent (452), have been analyzed with the purpose of isolating genes which may be involved with amoebic virulence. Nine cDNA fragments presenting high homology with E. histolytica previously sequenced genes were subtracted. Of these, four genes were confirmed by RT-PCR. Two coding for hypothetical proteins, one for a cysteine-rich protein, expressed only in the virulent strain, EGG and another one, coding for grainin 2 protein, exclusive from 452 strain. This study provided new insight into the proteins differences in the virulent and nonvirulent E. histolytica strains. We believe that further studies with these proteins may prove association of them with tissue damage, providing new perceptions to improve treatment or diagnosis of the invasive disease. Michelle A. R. Freitas, Ângela C. Alvarenga, Helen C. Fernandes, Frederico F. Gil, Maria N. Melo, Jorge L. Pesquero, and Maria A. Gomes Copyright © 2014 Michelle A. R. Freitas et al. All rights reserved. A Probabilistic Approach to Control of Complex Systems and Its Application to Real-Time Pricing Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/906717/ Control of complex systems is one of the fundamental problems in control theory. In this paper, a control method for complex systems modeled by a probabilistic Boolean network (PBN) is studied. A PBN is widely used as a model of complex systems such as gene regulatory networks. For a PBN, the structural control problem is newly formulated. In this problem, a discrete probability distribution appeared in a PBN is controlled by the continuous-valued input. For this problem, an approximate solution method using a matrix-based representation for a PBN is proposed. Then, the problem is approximated by a linear programming problem. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to design of real-time pricing systems of electricity. Electricity conservation is achieved by appropriately determining the electricity price over time. The effectiveness of the proposed method is presented by a numerical example on real-time pricing systems. Koichi Kobayashi and Kunihiko Hiraishi Copyright © 2014 Koichi Kobayashi and Kunihiko Hiraishi. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Nek2 by Small Molecules Affects Proteasome Activity Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/273180/ Background. Nek2 is a serine/threonine kinase localized to the centrosome. It promotes cell cycle progression from G2 to M by inducing centrosome separation. Recent studies have shown that high Nek2 expression is correlated with drug resistance in multiple myeloma patients. Materials and Methods. To investigate the role of Nek2 in bortezomib resistance, we ectopically overexpressed Nek2 in several cancer cell lines, including multiple myeloma lines. Small-molecule inhibitors of Nek2 were discovered using an in-house library of compounds. We tested the inhibitors on proteasome and cell cycle activity in several cell lines. Results. Proteasome activity was elevated in Nek2-overexpressing cell lines. The Nek2 inhibitors inhibited proteasome activity in these cancer cell lines. Treatment with these inhibitors resulted in inhibition of proteasome-mediated degradation of several cell cycle regulators in HeLa cells, leaving them arrested in G2/M. Combining these Nek2 inhibitors with bortezomib increased the efficacy of bortezomib in decreasing proteasome activity in vitro. Treatment with these novel Nek2 inhibitors successfully mitigated drug resistance in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. Conclusion. Nek2 plays a central role in proteasome-mediated cell cycle regulation and in conferring resistance to bortezomib in cancer cells. Taken together, our results introduce Nek2 as a therapeutic target in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma. Lingyao Meng, Kent Carpenter, Alexis Mollard, Hariprasad Vankayalapati, Steven L. Warner, Sunil Sharma, Guido Tricot, Fenghuang Zhan, and David J. Bearss Copyright © 2014 Lingyao Meng et al. All rights reserved. Yokukansan, a Traditional Japanese Medicine, Adjusts Glutamate Signaling in Cultured Keratinocytes Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/364092/ Glutamate plays an important role in skin barrier signaling. In our previous study, Yokukansan (YKS) affected glutamate receptors in NC/Nga mice and was ameliorated in atopic dermatitis lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of YKS on skin and cultured human keratinocytes. Glutamate concentrations in skin of YKS-treated and nontreated NC/Nga mice were measured. Then, glutamate release from cultured keratinocytes was measured, and extracellular glutamate concentrations in YKS-stimulated cultured human keratinocytes were determined. The mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor 2D (NMDAR2D) and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) were also determined in YKS-stimulated cultured keratinocytes. The glutamate concentrations and dermatitis scores increased in conventional mice, whereas they decreased in YKS-treated mice. Glutamate concentrations in cell supernatants of cultured keratinocytes increased proportionally to the cell density. However, they decreased dose-dependently with YKS. YKS stimulation increased NMDAR2D in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, GLAST decreased in response to YKS. Our findings indicate that YKS affects peripheral glutamate signaling in keratinocytes. Glutamine is essential as a transmitter, and dermatitis lesions might produce and release excess glutamate. This study suggests that, in keratinocytes, YKS controls extracellular glutamate concentrations, suppresses N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and activates glutamate transport. Maki Wakabayashi, Toshio Hasegawa, Takuji Yamaguchi, Naoko Funakushi, Hajime Suto, Rie Ueki, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Hideoki Ogawa, and Shigaku Ikeda Copyright © 2014 Maki Wakabayashi et al. All rights reserved. Markers of Inflammation and Fibrosis in the Orbital Fat/Connective Tissue of Patients with Graves’ Orbitopathy: Clinical Implications Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/412158/ Purpose. To assess FGF-, TGF-, and COX2 expression and immunocompetent cells in the orbital tissue of patients with severe and mild Graves’ orbitopathy. Patients and Methods. Orbital tissue was taken from 27 patients with GO: (1) severe GO (), the mean clinical activity score (CAS) being 8.5 (SD 2.5); and (2) mild GO (), the mean CAS being 2.2 (SD 0.8), and from 10 individuals undergoing blepharoplasty. The expression of CD4+, CD8+, CD20+, and CD68 and FGF-, TGF-, and COX2 in the orbital tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical methods. Results. We demonstrated predominant CD4+ T cells in severe GO. CD68 expression was observed in the fibrous connective area of mild GO and was robust in severe GO, while the prominent TGF- expression was seen in all GO. Increased FGF- expression was observed in the fibroblasts and adipocytes of severe GO. No expression of COX2 was found in patients with GO. Conclusions. Macrophages and CD4 T lymphocytes are both engaged in the active/severe and long stage of inflammation in the orbital tissue. FGF- and TGF- expression may contribute to tissue remodeling, fibrosis, and perpetuation of inflammation in the orbital tissue of GO especially in severe GO. Przemyslaw Pawlowski, Joanna Reszec, Anja Eckstein, Kristian Johnson, Andrzej Grzybowski, Lech Chyczewski, and Janusz Mysliwiec Copyright © 2014 Przemyslaw Pawlowski et al. All rights reserved. Is Mean Platelet Volume Really a Severity Marker for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome without Comorbidities? Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2014/754839/ Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder that can lead to significant cardiovascular complications. Several studies have reported increased platelet activation and aggregation in patients with OSAS. In this study we aimed to show a correlation between mean platelet volume (MPV) and severity of OSAS in patients with OSAS without any overt cardiac disease or diabetes. The polysomnography recordings of 556 consecutive patients admitted to the sleep laboratory between January 2012 and July 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The relationship between polysomnographic parameters and biochemical parameters was assessed. Polysomnographic results of 200 patients (154 males [77%]; mean age, 44.5 ± 11.4 years) were included. No correlation was observed between MPV and the average oxygen saturation index, the minimum desaturation index, or the oxygen desaturation index in the study population as well as in severe OSAS group (AHI > 30). The only correlation was found between MPV and AHI in the severe OSAS group . MPV was not correlated with OSAS severity in patients without any overt cardiac disease or diabetes. These findings raise doubts about the suggestion that MPV might be a marker for OSAS severity, as recommended in earlier studies. Thus, further prospective data are needed. Sinem Nedime Sökücü, Cengiz Özdemir, Levent Dalar, Levent Karasulu, Şenay Aydın, and Sedat Altın Copyright © 2014 Sinem Nedime Sökücü et al. All rights reserved. Musical Rhythms Affect Heart Rate Variability: Algorithm and Models Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aee/2014/851796/ There were a lot of psychological music experiments and models but there were few psychological rhythm experiments and models. There were a lot of physiological music experiments but there were few physiological music models. There were few physiological rhythm experiments but there was no physiological rhythm model. We proposed a physiological rhythm model to fill this gap. Twenty-two participants, 4 drum loops as stimuli, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were employed in this work. We designed an algorithm to map tempo, complexity, and energy into two heart rate variability (HRV) measures, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal heartbeats (SDNN) and the ratio of low- and high-frequency powers (LF/HF); these two measures form the physiological valence/arousal plane. There were four major findings. Initially, simple and loud rhythms enhanced arousal. Secondly, the removal of fast and loud rhythms decreased arousal. Thirdly, fast rhythms increased valence. Finally, the removal of fast and quiet rhythms increased valence. Our work extended the psychological model to the physiological model and deepened the musical model into the rhythmic model. Moreover, this model could be the rules of automatic music generating systems. Hui-Min Wang and Sheng-Chieh Huang Copyright © 2014 Hui-Min Wang and Sheng-Chieh Huang. All rights reserved. Kolaviron and L-Ascorbic Acid Attenuate Chlorambucil-Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress in Rats Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2014/587015/ Chlorambucil (4-[4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)amino]phenyl]butanoic acid) is an alkylating agent, indicated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola, and L-ascorbic acid (AA) are known to protect against oxidative damage in vivo. This study evaluates the protective capacity of KV and AA on chlorambucil-induced oxidative stress in the testes of rat. Twenty male Wistar rats (180–200 g) were randomized into four groups: I: control, II: chlorambucil (0.2 mg/kg b.w.), III: 0.2 mg/kg chlorambucil and 100 mg/kg KV, and IV: 0.2 mg/kg chlorambucil and 100 mg/kg AA. After 14 days of treatments, results indicated that chlorambucil caused significant reduction () in testicular vitamin C and glutathione by 32% and 39%, respectively, relative to control. Similarly, activities of testicular GST, SOD, and CAT reduced significantly by 48%, 47%, and 49%, respectively, in chlorambucil-treated rats relative to control. Testicular MDA and activities of ALP, LDH, and ACP were increased significantly by 53%, 51%, 64%, and 70%, respectively, in the chlorambucil-treated rat. However, cotreatment with KV and AA offered protection and restored the levels of vitamin C, GSH, and MDA as well as SOD, CAT, GST, ACP, ALP, and LDH activities. Overall, kolaviron and L-ascorbic acid protected against chlorambucil-induced damage in the testes of the rat. Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka and Ayokanmi Ore Copyright © 2014 Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka and Ayokanmi Ore. All rights reserved. Seismic Performance of RC Beam-Column Connections with Continuous Rectangular Spiral Transverse Reinforcements for Low Ductility Classes Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/802605/ The seismic performance of RC columns could be significantly improved by continuous spiral reinforcement as a result of its adequate ductility and energy dissipation capacity. Due to post-earthquake brittle failure observations in beam-column connections, the seismic behaviour of such connections could greatly be improved by simultaneous application of this method in both beams and columns. In this study, a new proposed detail for beam to column connection introduced as “twisted opposing rectangular spiral” was experimentally and numerically investigated and its seismic performance was compared against normal rectangular spiral and conventional shear reinforcement systems. In this study, three full scale beam to column connections were first designed in conformance with Eurocode (EC2-04) for low ductility class connections and then tested by quasistatic cyclic loading recommended by ACI Building Code (ACI 318-02). Next, the experimental results were validated by numerical methods. Finally, the results revealed that the new proposed connection could improve the ultimate lateral resistance, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity. Mohammadamin Azimi, Azlan Bin Adnan, Abdul Rahman Bin Mohd Sam, Mahmood Md Tahir, Iman Faridmehr, and Reza Hodjati Copyright © 2014 Mohammadamin Azimi et al. All rights reserved. The Application of Genomic Technologies to Investigate the Inheritance of Economically Important Traits in Goats Wed, 17 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ab/2014/904281/ Goat genomics has evolved at a low pace because of a lack of molecular tools and sufficient investment. Whilst thousands and hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in cattle and sheep, respectively, about nine genome scans have been performed in goats dealing with traits as conformation, growth, fiber quality, resistance to nematodes, and milk yield and composition. In contrast, a great effort has been devoted to the characterization of candidate genes and their association with milk, meat, and reproduction phenotypes. In this regard, causal mutations have been identified in the -casein gene that has a strong effect on milk composition and the PIS locus that is linked to intersexuality and polledness. In recent times, the development of massive parallel sequencing technologies has allowed to build a reference genome for goats as well as to monitor the expression of mRNAs and microRNAs in a broad array of tissues and experimental conditions. Besides, the recent design of a 52K SNP chip is expected to have a broad impact in the analysis of the genetic architecture of traits of economic interest as well as in the study of the population structure of goats at a worldwide scale. Marcel Amills Copyright © 2014 Marcel Amills. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Use of MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:41:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/756975/ Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Although the molecular pathways of lung cancer have been partly known, the high mortality rate is not markedly changed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that actively modulate cell physiological processes as apoptosis, cell-cycle control, cell proliferation, DNA repair, and metabolism. Several studies demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of lung diseases including lung cancer and they negatively regulate gene and protein expression by acting as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs and their target genes in lung tumorigenesis and evaluate their potential use as therapeutic agents in lung cancer. In particular, we describe methodological approaches such as inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs or replacement of tumor suppressor miRNAs, both in in vitro and in vivo assays. Furthermore we discuss new strategies to achieve in vivo tissue specific delivery, potential off-target effects, and safety of miRNAs systemic delivery. Orazio Fortunato, Mattia Boeri, Carla Verri, Massimo Moro, and Gabriella Sozzi Copyright © 2014 Orazio Fortunato et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Herbal Drug Guilu Erxian Jiao on Muscle Strength, Articular Pain, and Disability in Elderly Men with Knee Osteoarthritis Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:40:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/297458/ Background. Guilu Erxian Jiao (GEJ) is a widely used Chinese herbal remedy for knee osteoarthritis, but its clinical efficacy is unknown. Methods. We enrolled 42 elderly male patients with knee OA, including 21 patients who received the herbal drug GEJ as the case group and 21 patients who did not receive GEJ as the control group. The effects of 12 weeks of GEJ treatment on muscle strength of lower limbs were measured by a Biodex dynamometer, with disability evaluated on the Lequesne index and articular pain measured on the visual analog scale (VAS) between the two groups on the baseline and after treatment. Results. There were significant increases in the levels of muscle strength of TQ/BW-ext-dominant and TQ/BW-flex-dominant between the two groups after treatment (). There were also significant increases in muscle strength of knee extensor muscles in the GEJ-treated group () self-controlled before and after 12 weeks of treatment (all ). There were significant decreases in articular pain () and Lequesne index scores () in the GEJ-treated group when compared to the non-GEJ-treated group. Conclusions. Our results showed that GEJ is effective and is tolerated well in elderly men with knee OA. Chen-Chen Tsai, Yin-Yi Chou, Yi-Ming Chen, Yih-Jing Tang, Hui-Ching Ho, and Der-Yuan Chen Copyright © 2014 Chen-Chen Tsai et al. All rights reserved. Accuracy of Dose Delivery in Multiple Breath-Hold Segmented Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy: A Static Phantom Study Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:38:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jra/2014/743150/ Purpose. Accuracy of dose delivery in multiple breath-hold segmented volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was evaluated in comparison to noninterrupted VMAT using a static phantom. Material and Methods. Five VMAT plans were evaluated. A Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) was employed. A VMAT delivery sequence was divided into multiple segments according to each of the predefined breath-hold periods (10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 seconds). The segmented VMAT delivery was compared to noninterrupted VMAT delivery in terms of the isocenter dose and pass rates of a dose difference of 1% with a dose threshold of 10% of the maximum dose on a central coronal plane using a two-dimensional dosimeter, MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry, Schwarzenbruck, Germany). Results. Means of the isocenter dose differences were 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.2%, 0.0%, and 0.0% for the beam-on-times between interrupts of 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 seconds, respectively. Means of the pass rates were 85%, 99.9%, 100%, 100%, and 100% in the same order as the above. Conclusion. Our static phantom study indicated that the multiple breath-hold segmented VMAT maintains stable and accurate dose delivery when the beam-on-time between interrupts is 15 seconds or greater. Kimiya Noto, Shinichi Ueda, Hironori Kojima, Naoki Isomura, Akihiro Takemura, Shigeyuki Takamatsu, Tomoyasu Kumano, and Tsuyoshi Takanaka Copyright © 2014 Kimiya Noto et al. All rights reserved. Axillary Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma with Ipsilateral Pectoral Invasive Ductal Carcinoma: An Unusual Presentation Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:33:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2014/938509/ We report a case of axillary metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) with triple negative (ER−/PR−/Her2−) phenotype, concurrent with multifocal invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of ipsilateral pectoral breast (ER+/PR+/Her2−) in a 60-year-old woman. The two tumors demonstrate different morphology, immunophenotype, and opposite response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of paclitaxol, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide. Methylation analysis of human androgen receptor (HUMARA) on X-chromosome identified monoclonal pattern of X-chromosome inactivation in MBC and mosaic pattern in the IDC. Stem cell origin of MBC is suggested in this case. Clinicopathological features, imaging findings, biological markers, chemoradiation management, and prognosis of MBC are reviewed in comparison to invasive ductal carcinoma. Our case and literature review suggest that traditional chemotherapy applicable to IDC is less effective towards MBC. However, new chemotherapy protocols targeting stem cell and multimodality management of MBC are promising. Recognition of unusual presentation of MBC will help tailor therapy towards tumor with worse prognosis. Lei Zhang, Sabahattin Comertpay, David Shimizu, Richard M. DeMay, Michele Carbone, Stacey A. Honda, and Jodi M. Matsuura Eaves Copyright © 2014 Lei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Intestinal Parasites Coinfection Does Not Alter Plasma Cytokines Profile Elicited in Acute Malaria in Subjects from Endemic Area of Brazil Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:06:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/857245/ In Brazil, malaria is prevalent in the Amazon region and these regions coincide with high prevalence of intestinal parasites but few studies explore the interaction between malaria and other parasites. Therefore, the present study evaluates changes in cytokine, chemokine, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in 264 individuals, comparing plasma from infected individuals with concurrent malaria and intestinal parasites to individuals with either malaria infection alone and uninfected. In the studied population 24% of the individuals were infected with Plasmodium and 18% coinfected with intestinal parasites. Protozoan parasites comprised the bulk of the intestinal parasites infections and subjects infected with intestinal parasites were more likely to have malaria. The use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis associated increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and CRP and low levels of IL-17A predominantly with individuals with malaria alone and coinfected individuals. In contrast, low levels of almost all inflammatory mediators were associated predominantly with individuals uninfected while increased levels of IL-17A were associated predominantly with individuals with intestinal parasites only. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in our population, the infection with intestinal parasites (mainly protozoan) does not modify the pattern of cytokine production in individuals infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax. Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila, Daiana de Souza Perce-da-Silva, Mariana Pinheiro Alves Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva, Virginia Araujo Pereira, Cesarino Junior Lima Aprígio, Cleoni Alves Mendes Lima, Bruna de Paula Fonseca e Fonseca, Dalma Maria Banic, Josué da Costa Lima-Junior, and Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila et al. All rights reserved. Trypanosomosis, Its Risk Factors, and Anaemia in Cattle Population of Dale Wabera District of Kellem Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:02:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jvm/2014/374191/ Cross-sectional study was conducted in Dale Wabera district of Kellem Wollega zone, Western Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and to evaluate association of bovine trypanosomosis to anaemia. Blood samples collected from 384 randomly selected cattle were subjected to parasitological and haematological analysis. For the parasitological survey, blood samples were examined using a buffy coat technique. The packed cell volume (PCV) value of each animal was also measured using hematocrit reader. The overall prevalence of trypanosomosis was 2.86%. The most common trypanosome species identified were Trypanosoma congolense (63.64%) followed by T. vivax (27.27%) and T. brucei (9%). The prevalence showed no significant difference in susceptibility between sex categories, age groups, and different body conditioned animals. The overall anaemia prevalence in the area was 19.27%. The anaemia prevalence was significantly higher in trypanosome positive cattle (54.54%) than in noninfected animals (18.23%) (). The mean PCV value of the infected animals was lower () compared to noninfected animals (). There was statistically significant difference () in the PCV values of infected and noninfected animals. In conclusion, this study confirmed that trypanosomosis poses a threat to cattle production in the area and also contributed to the occurrence of anaemia. Habtamu Biyazen, Reta Duguma, and Mebratu Asaye Copyright © 2014 Habtamu Biyazen et al. All rights reserved. Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia in a Black Kenyan Population Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:01:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/934510/ This study examined the characteristics of vertebral artery hypoplasia in 346 arteries of adult black Kenyans. The circumference was measured on haematoxylin/eosin stained microscopic sections of the distal one-third of the intracranial vertebral arteries using scion image analyser. Internal diameter was calculated in millimetre. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Vertebral artery hypoplasia (diameter < 2.0 mm) occurred in 100 (28.9%) arteries. Sixty of these (17.3%) were on the left and 40 (11.6%) on the right. Sixty (17.3%) were in females while 40 (11.6%) were in males. The side and gender differences were statistically significant at confidence interval of 95%. Frequency of vertebral artery hypoplasia was higher than in most other populations studied. The condition differs from that in other populations because it is more common on the left side and in females. We recommend ultrasound, angio-CT, or angio-MRI evaluation of vertebral arterial system before diagnostic or interventional procedures on posterior circulation. Julius Ogeng’o, Beda Olabu, Rankeet Sinkeet, Nafula M. Ogeng’o, and Hemedi Elbusaid Copyright © 2014 Julius Ogeng’o et al. All rights reserved. The Role of the Dominant Modes of Precipitation Variability over Eastern Africa in Modulating the Hydrology of Lake Victoria Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:44:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/516762/ Previous water budget studies over Lake Victoria basin have shown that there is near balance between rainfall and evaporation and that the variability of Lake Victoria levels is determined virtually entirely by changes in rainfall since evaporation is nearly constant. The variability of rainfall over East Africa is dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO); however, the second and third most dominant rainfall climate modes also account for significant variability across the region. The relationship between ENSO and other significant modes of precipitation variability with Lake Victoria levels is nonlinear. This relationship should be studied to determine which modes need to be accurately modeled in order to accurately model Lake Victoria levels, which are important to the hydroelectric industry in East Africa. The objective of this analysis is to estimate the relative contributions of the dominant modes of annual precipitation variability to the modulation of Lake Victoria levels for the present day (1950–2012). The first mode of annual rainfall variability accounts for most of the variability in Lake Victoria levels, while the effects of the second and third modes are negligible even though these modes are also significant over the region. Kara A. Smith and Fredrick H. M. Semazzi Copyright © 2014 Kara A. Smith and Fredrick H. M. Semazzi. All rights reserved. Design of High-Gain and Beam Steering Antennas Using a New Planar Folded-Line Metamaterial Structure Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:42:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/302580/ In the last few years, there has been growing interest in employing metamaterials (MTMs) to enhance antenna gain. In this paper we proposed a novel structure of planar folded-line left-handed metamaterial (FL-LHM) and applied it to improve the gain of three 5.8 GHz microstrip antenna types: a circularly polarized patch antenna, an antenna array, and a beam steering antenna. The planar FL-LHM structure was designed based on transmission line analysis. Their scattering parameters were obtained using a numerical model; the negative effective permittivity and permeability were then calculated from these parameters for the assessment of negative refraction index region. The S11 and radiation patterns of three fabricated antennas were measured; these results matched well with the simulation. We observed that the gain was increased up to 3 dBi for all the antennas. In addition, we were also able to maintain the circular polarization as well as the steering of the antenna without changing its dimensions. Minh Thuy Le, Quoc Cuong Nguyen, and Tan Phu Vuong Copyright © 2014 Minh Thuy Le et al. All rights reserved. Fragility Fractures in Chronic Kidney Disease: Assessment and Pharmacologic Management Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:36:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/an/2014/727135/ Fractures are common in all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Both CKD and osteoporosis often coexist as they both are strongly age associated. However, the management of fragility fractures in CKD poses many dilemmas. These include diagnosing the aetiology of fractures and choosing appropriate treatment. This paper reviews the current evidence for the assessment and pharmacologic management of fragility fractures in CKD. Mahesan Anpalahan, Sudharsan Venkatesan, and Aksharaa Anpalahan Copyright © 2014 Mahesan Anpalahan et al. All rights reserved. Modified Electroconvulsive Therapy in a Patient with Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Metastases to Bone and Liver Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:25:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2014/203910/ Background. In addition to general anesthesia, muscle relaxants are given prior to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in order to prevent musculoskeletal injury. Higher doses of muscle relaxants have been suggested for patients at high risk for bone fractures; however, there are adverse side effects associated with these higher doses. Aims. We present a successful case of ECT to treat chronic major depressive disorder in a 62-year-old woman at high risk of bone fracture due to gastric adenocarcinoma with metastases to bone and liver. Case. Increasing doses of the muscle relaxant succinylcholine (0.45–0.74 mg/kg) were sufficient to prevent musculoskeletal complications throughout the course of 9 bifrontal ECT treatments. Following treatment, the patient reported and demonstrated markedly improved mood and functionality, enabling her transfer to a palliative care facility. Conclusion. Standard doses of succinylcholine were sufficient to mitigate the risk of pathological fractures in this patient with metastatic bone lesions. As there are established risks to using high doses of succinylcholine, with no evidence that higher doses reduce the incidence of fractures in high-risk populations, we suggest taking a conservative approach, using clinical observation and periodic plain radiography to dictate succinylcholine dose titration in such high-risk patients. Gennie Wang, Brian Milne, Rachel Rooney, and Tarit Saha Copyright © 2014 Gennie Wang et al. All rights reserved. An EOQ Model for Phase Inventory with Induced Demand and Periodic Cycle Time Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:19:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jie/2014/605178/ This paper deals with a stock flow of an inventory problem over induced demand. The inventory is consumed through “core customer” or chain marketing system in an induced environment (inductance) to exhaust all the items of the stock inventory in an indefinite time. The demand rate is depicted due to induced factor which is generated from the same inventory presented nearby. The inventory cycle time is split into several periodic times due to oscillatory feature of the inventory which is called phase inventory. Considering uniform demand, this cycle time splits into two basic parts, namely, “first shift” (phase) and “second shift” (phase). Since the process dampens over time, so the whole inventory will exhaust after few periods. A cost function consisted of inventory cost, setup cost, and loss for induced items is minimized to obtain optimal order quantity and replenishment time. The multivariate lagrange interpolation (MLI) over the average values of the postsensitivity analysis is developed here. Finally, graphical illustrations are made to justify the model. Sujit Kumar De, Shib Sankar Sana, and Adrijit Goswami Copyright © 2014 Sujit Kumar De et al. All rights reserved. Detection and Measurement of the Intracellular Calcium Variation in Follicular Cells Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:16:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/484656/ This work presents a new method for measuring the variation of intracellular calcium in follicular cells. The proposal consists in two stages: (i) the detection of the cell’s nuclei and (ii) the analysis of the fluorescence variations. The first stage is performed via watershed modified transformation, where the process of labeling is controlled. The detection process uses the contours of the cells as descriptors, where they are enhanced with a morphological filter that homogenizes the luminance variation of the image. In the second stage, the fluorescence variations are modeled as an exponential decreasing function, where the fluorescence variations are highly correlated with the changes of intracellular free Ca2+. Additionally, it is introduced a new morphological called medium reconstruction process, which helps to enhance the data for the modeling process. This filter exploits the undermodeling and overmodeling properties of reconstruction operators, such that it preserves the structure of the original signal. Finally, an experimental process shows evidence of the capabilities of the proposal. Ana M. Herrera-Navarro, Iván R. Terol-Villalobos, Hugo Jiménez-Hernández, Hayde Peregrina-Barreto, and José-Joel Gonzalez-Barboza Copyright © 2014 Ana M. Herrera-Navarro et al. All rights reserved. Climate Change Scenarios of Precipitation Extremes in the Carpathian Region Based on an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models Tue, 16 Sep 2014 11:04:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/943487/ The study examines projected changes in precipitation extremes, aggregated on several time scales (1 hour, 1 day, and 5 days), in simulations of 12 regional climate models (RCMs) with high spatial resolution (~25 km). The study area is the Carpathian Basin (Central and Southeastern Europe) which has a complex topography and encompasses the whole territory of Slovakia and Hungary as well as major parts of Romania and western Ukraine. We focus on changes in mean seasonal maxima and high quantiles (50-year return values) projected for the late 21st century (time slice 2070–2099) in comparison to the control period (time slice 1961–1990), for summer and winter. The 50-year return values are estimated by means of a regional frequency analysis based on the region-of-influence method, which reduces random variability and leads to more reliable estimates of high quantiles. In winter, all examined characteristics of precipitation (seasonal totals, mean seasonal maxima, and 50-year return values for both short-term and multi-day aggregations) show similar patterns of projected increases for the late 21st century. In summer, by contrast, drying is projected for seasonal totals in all RCMs while increases clearly prevail for the 50-year return values. The projected increases are larger for short-term (hourly) extremes that are more directly related to convective activity than multiday extremes. This suggests that the probability of occurrence of flash floods may increase more than that of large-scale floods in a warmer climate. The within-ensemble variability (and associated uncertainty) is, nevertheless, much larger in summer than in winter. Ladislav Gaál, Romana Beranová, Kamila Hlavčová, and Jan Kyselý Copyright © 2014 Ladislav Gaál et al. All rights reserved. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors in Children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Tue, 16 Sep 2014 10:51:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2014/843749/ Purpose. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare in children and account for approximately 5–10% of all soft tissue sarcomas in adults. MPNSTs may occur independently but individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have a significantly increased risk. Our aim is to present patients with MPNST treated in our department. Cases and Results. In this report we present 4 cases of MPNSTs (3 females: 13, 12, and 13 years old and 1 male: 10 years old) arising in patients with NF1. All of them presented with an enlarging mass and pain at diagnosis. Tumor was located in the buttock, the spinal cord, the trunk, and the left leg proximal to the heel. Wide excision of the tumor and radiotherapy were applied to all and adjuvant chemotherapy was given to three of them after the disease was progressed. All four died 32, 18, 10, and 22 months after diagnosis with progressive disease locally and pulmonary metastases in two of them. Conclusions. In conclusion, MPNSTs arising in patients with NF1 are high grade sarcomas with short survival. Individuals with NF1 should be followed closely in order to identify early the development of MPNSTs. Aggressive surgery and complete excision significantly improves disease-free survival. The usefulness of radiation therapy in MPNSTs is not determined although all patients will receive radiation therapy at some stage of the disease. The role of chemotherapy is unclear. Apostolos Pourtsidis, Dimitrios Doganis, Margarita Baka, Despina Bouhoutsou, Maria Varvoutsi, Maria Synodinou, Panagiota Giamarelou, and Helen Kosmidis Copyright © 2014 Apostolos Pourtsidis et al. All rights reserved. HPLC-UV Method Development and Validation of Potato Sprout Inhibitor 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene Using Different Systems Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:59:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cri/2014/467485/ 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene (1,4-DMN) is effective sprout suppressant used in potato stores in many countries in the world. High residue levels of this compound on the potatoes and in other environmental samples are considered for human health and environmental risks. Determination of the residue requires specific analytical methods to be developed and validated. In this study, HPLC-UV was selected for validating a separation method based on reversed phase for the analysis of 1,4-DMN using 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MeN) as internal standard testing three HPLC systems. Under the same chromatographic conditions, all three systems achieved good separation on a Jones column (Hypersil ODS 5 μm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm) at ambient temperature isocratically using 70% acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1, 20 μL injection volume, a run time of 10 min, and a detection wavelength of 228 nm. All three systems showed high precision, good linearity, and low limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ); particularly, the SpectraSERIES UV100-autosampler system offered lower values of LOD (0.001–0.004 μg mL−1) and LOQ (0.002–0.013 μg mL−1) for both compounds. This system can be used for the quantitative determination of 1,4-DMN residue in potato and environmental samples. Nidhal S. Mohammed, T. H. Flowers, and H. J. Duncan Copyright © 2014 Nidhal S. Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:46:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aanat/2014/858539/ The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx). One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7): to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle. Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal, Juliana Ruiz Fernandes, Cristiane Regina Ruiz, Osmar Clayton Person, and Sergio Ricardo Rios Nascimento Copyright © 2014 Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Kidney Disease: Evolution of Healthcare Costs and Resource Consumption from Predialysis to Dialysis in Piedmont Region, Italy Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:33:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/an/2014/680737/ This study aims at assessing the evolution in healthcare costs for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients through the analysis of administrative databases of Piedmont region, Italy. This is a retrospective, observational study, for which patients undergoing at least one dialysis for CKD in the period of June 1, 2010–May 31, 2011 were selected. Two subpopulations were evaluated: patients incident-to-dialysis observed for the 12 months preceding dialysis entrance (PreD) and “established” dialysis patients (at least 120 dialyses/year) observed for 12 months (EstD). Overall, 1,059 PreD and 2,018 EstD patients were selected. The average yearly cost per PreD patient accounted for 11,123€ ± 15,095€ (75% hospitalizations, 17% drugs, and 8% diagnostic/therapeutic procedures). The average yearly cost per EstD patient accounted for 53,764€ ± 14,685€ (59% dialysis, 21% diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, 13% hospitalizations, and 6.7% drugs). Among EstD population, hemodialysis patients cost 56,049€ ± 13,473€ per year, whereas peritoneal dialysis patients cost 34,978€ ± 10,847€ per year. The significant difference in expenditure between predialysis and dialysis suggests that prevention, early diagnosis, and the consequent possible delay of dialysis entrance could lead to important savings for healthcare services, as well as a better global health status for patients. Daniela Paola Roggeri, Alessandro Roggeri, and Mario Salomone Copyright © 2014 Daniela Paola Roggeri et al. All rights reserved. Regge Poles in Neutron Scattering by a Cylinder Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:23:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2014/124592/ We establish asymptotic expressions for the positions of Regge poles for cold neutron scattering on mesoscopic cylinder mirror as well as for the -matrix residuals. We outline the correspondence between Regge poles and near-surface quasi-stationary neutron states. Such states are of practical importance for studying subtle effects of neutron-surface interaction. K. V. Protasov and A. Y. Voronin Copyright © 2014 K. V. Protasov and A. Y. Voronin. All rights reserved. A Lightweight Classification Algorithm for External Sources of Interference in IEEE 802.15.4-Based Wireless Sensor Networks Operating at the 2.4 GHz Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:23:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/265286/ IEEE 802.15.4 is the technology behind wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and ZigBee. Most of the IEEE 802.15.4 radios operate in the crowded 2.4 GHz frequency band, which is used by many technologies. Since IEEE 802.15.4 is a low power technology, the avoidance of interference is vital to conserve energy and to extend the lifetime of devices. A lightweight classification algorithm is presented to detect the common external sources of interference in the 2.4 GHz frequency band, namely, IEEE 802.11-based wireless local area networks (WLANs), Bluetooth, and microwave ovens. This lightweight algorithm uses the energy detection (ED) feature (the feature behind received signal strength indication (RSSI)) of an IEEE 802.15.4-compliant radio. Therefore, it classifies the interferers without demodulation of their signals. As it relies on time patterns instead of spectral features, the algorithm has no need to change the channel. Thus, it allows the radio both to stay connected to the channel and to receive while scanning. Furthermore, it has a maximum runtime of merely one second. The algorithm is extensively tested in a radio frequency anechoic chamber and in real world scenarios. These results are presented here. Sven Zacharias, Thomas Newe, Sinead O’Keeffe, and Elfed Lewis Copyright © 2014 Sven Zacharias et al. All rights reserved. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:15:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/498410/ Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS. Francis Sahngun Nahm, Zee-Yong Park, Sang-Soep Nahm, Yong Chul Kim, and Pyung Bok Lee Copyright © 2014 Francis Sahngun Nahm et al. All rights reserved. Posttraumatic Orbital Emphysema: A Numerical Model Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:07:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/231436/ Orbital emphysema is a common symptom accompanying orbital fracture. The pathomechanism is still not recognized and the usually assumed cause, elevated pressure in the upper airways connected with sneezing or coughing, does not always contribute to the occurrence of this type of fracture. Observations based on the finite model (simulating blowout type fracture) of the deformations of the inferior orbital wall after a strike in its lower rim. Authors created a computer numeric model of the orbit with specified features—thickness and resilience modulus. During simulation an evenly spread 14400 N force was applied to the nodular points in the inferior rim (the maximal value not causing cracking of the outer rim, but only ruptures in the inferior wall). The observation was made from to second after a strike. Right after a strike dislocations of the inferior orbital wall toward the maxillary sinus were observed. Afterwards a retrograde wave of the dislocation of the inferior wall toward the orbit was noticed. Overall dislocation amplitude reached about 6 mm. Based on a numeric model of the orbit submitted to a strike in the inferior wall an existence of a retrograde shock wave causing orbital emphysema has been found. Andrzej Skorek, Paweł Kłosowski, Łukasz Plichta, Dorota Raczyńska, Marcin Zmuda Trzebiatowski, and Paweł Lemski Copyright © 2014 Andrzej Skorek et al. All rights reserved. Mode of Action of Lactoperoxidase as Related to Its Antimicrobial Activity: A Review Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:03:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/er/2014/517164/ Lactoperoxidase is a member of the family of the mammalian heme peroxidases which have a broad spectrum of activity. Their best known effect is their antimicrobial activity that arouses much interest in in vivo and in vitro applications. In this context, the proper use of lactoperoxidase needs a good understanding of its mode of action, of the factors that favor or limit its activity, and of the features and properties of the active molecules. The first part of this review describes briefly the classification of mammalian peroxidases and their role in the human immune system and in host cell damage. The second part summarizes present knowledge on the mode of action of lactoperoxidase, with special focus on the characteristics to be taken into account for in vitro or in vivo antimicrobial use. The last part looks upon the characteristics of the active molecule produced by lactoperoxidase in the presence of thiocyanate and/or iodide with implication(s) on its antimicrobial activity. F. Bafort, O. Parisi, J.-P. Perraudin, and M. H. Jijakli Copyright © 2014 F. Bafort et al. All rights reserved. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy during the Verbal Fluency Task before and after Treatment with Image Exposure and SSRI Therapy in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Tue, 16 Sep 2014 09:00:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2014/591023/ Drug therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been used as a treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present case report, exposure therapy was used in addition to escitalopram (20 mg) to treat a 28-year-old female patient with OCD for 6 months. Her obsessive-compulsive symptoms comprised thoughts of words such as rape, crematorium, neck hanging, unhappy, death, die, and kill and images such as a shelf of gods, a shrine, a Buddhist altar, the sun, the sky, and the faces of her parents, siblings, and relatives. As exposure therapy, she was asked to view the images associated with these symptoms three times a day along with drug therapy. With the combination of drug and exposure therapies, her obsessive-compulsive symptoms improved within 6 months, with no interference in her daily life. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) showed improvement of brain function in the temporal and frontal lobes after treatment. These results suggest that NIRS can be used as an indicator of brain function improvement in patients with OCD. Mari Nakanishi, Harumi Oshita, Yoshihiro Tanaka, Ayako Inoue, Chiwa Kawashima, Kana Okamoto, Shunsuke Kobayashi, Yoshinobu Ishitobi, Taiga Ninomiya, and Jotaro Akiyoshi Copyright © 2014 Mari Nakanishi et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA Expression Profiling Altered by Variant Dosage of Radiation Exposure Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:57:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/456323/ Various biological effects are associated with radiation exposure. Irradiated cells may elevate the risk for genetic instability, mutation, and cancer under low levels of radiation exposure, in addition to being able to extend the postradiation side effects in normal tissues. Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is the focus of rigorous research as it may promote the development of cancer even at low radiation doses. Alterations in the DNA sequence could not explain these biological effects of radiation and it is thought that epigenetics factors may be involved. Indeed, some microRNAs (or miRNAs) have been found to correlate radiation-induced damages and may be potential biomarkers for the various biological effects caused by different levels of radiation exposure. However, the regulatory role that miRNA plays in this aspect remains elusive. In this study, we profiled the expression changes in miRNA under fractionated radiation exposure in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By utilizing publicly available microRNA knowledge bases and performing cross validations with our previous gene expression profiling under the same radiation condition, we identified various miRNA-gene interactions specific to different doses of radiation treatment, providing new insights for the molecular underpinnings of radiation injury. Kuei-Fang Lee, Yi-Cheng Chen, Paul Wei-Che Hsu, Ingrid Y. Liu, and Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu Copyright © 2014 Kuei-Fang Lee et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Treatment with Ang-(1-7) Reverses Abnormal Reactivity in the Corpus Cavernosum and Normalizes Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Protein Levels of ACE, ACE2, ROCK1, ROCK2 and Omega-Hydroxylase in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:46:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2014/142154/ Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] may have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMIED) but its molecular actions in the diabetic corpus cavernosum (CC) are not known. We characterized the effects of diabetes and/or chronic in vivo administration of Ang-(1-7) on vascular reactivity in the rat corpus cavernosum (CC) and on protein expression levels of potential downstream effectors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, Rho kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2), and omega-hydroxylase, the cytochrome-P450 enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid to form the vasoconstrictor, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Streptozotocin-treated rats were chronicically administered Ang-(1-7) with or without A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, during weeks 4 to 6 of diabetes. Ang-(1-7) reversed diabetes-induced abnormal reactivity to vasoactive agents (endothelin-1, phenylepherine, and carbachol) in the CC without correcting hyperglycemia. Six weeks of diabetes led to elevated ACE, ROCK1, ROCK 2, and omega-hydroxylase and a concomitant decrease in ACE2 protein expression levels that were normalized by Ang-(1-7) treatment but not upon coadministration of A779. These data are supportive of the notion that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7) in DMIED involve counterregulation of diabetes-induced changes in ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases, and omega-hydroxylase proteins in the diabetic CC via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism. Mariam H. M. Yousif, Batoul Makki, Ahmed Z. El-Hashim, Saghir Akhtar, and Ibrahim F. Benter Copyright © 2014 Mariam H. M. Yousif et al. All rights reserved. A Three-Step Approach with Adaptive Additive Magnitude Selection for the Sharpening of Images Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:45:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/528696/ Aimed to find the additive magnitude automatically and adaptively, we propose a three-step and model-based approach for the sharpening of images in this paper. In the first pass, a Grey prediction model is applied to find a global maximal additive magnitude so that the condition of oversharpening in images to be sharpened can be avoided. During the second pass, edge pixels are picked out with our previously proposed edge detection mechanism. In this pass, a low-pass filter is also applied so that isolated pixels will not be regarded as around an edge. In the final pass, those pixels detected as around an edge are adjusted adaptively based on the local statistics, and those nonedge pixels are kept unaltered. Extensive experiments on natural images as well as medical images with subjective and objective evaluations will be given to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach. Lih-Jen Kau and Tien-Lin Lee Copyright © 2014 Lih-Jen Kau and Tien-Lin Lee. All rights reserved. Early Changes in Costameric and Mitochondrial Protein Expression with Unloading Are Muscle Specific Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:39:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/519310/ We hypothesised that load-sensitive expression of costameric proteins, which hold the sarcomere in place and position the mitochondria, contributes to the early adaptations of antigravity muscle to unloading and would depend on muscle fibre composition and chymotrypsin activity of the proteasome. Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis (VL) and soleus (SOL) muscles of eight men before and after 3 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) and subjected to fibre typing and measures for costameric (FAK and FRNK), mitochondrial (NDUFA9, SDHA, UQCRC1, UCP3, and ATP5A1), and MHCI protein and RNA content. Mean cross-sectional area (MCSA) of types I and II muscle fibres in VL and type I fibres in SOL demonstrated a trend for a reduction after ULLS (). FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine 397 showed a 20% reduction in VL muscle (). SOL muscle demonstrated a specific reduction in UCP3 content (%; ). Muscle-specific effects of ULLS were identified for linear relationships between measured proteins, chymotrypsin activity and fibre MCSA. The molecular modifications in costamere turnover and energy homoeostasis identify that aspects of atrophy and fibre transformation are detectable at the protein level in weight-bearing muscles within 3 days of unloading. Martin Flück, Ruowei Li, Paola Valdivieso, Richard M. Linnehan, Josiane Castells, Per Tesch, and Thomas Gustafsson Copyright © 2014 Martin Flück et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA as New Tools for Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment and Therapeutic Intervention: Results from Clinical Data Set and Patients’ Samples Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:37:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/146170/ Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in men. Despite considerable advances in prostate cancer early detection and clinical management, validation of new biomarkers able to predict the natural history of tumor progression is still necessary in order to reduce overtreatment and to guide therapeutic decisions. MicroRNAs are endogenous noncoding RNAs which offer a fast fine-tuning and energy-saving mechanism for posttranscriptional control of protein expression. Growing evidence indicate that these RNAs are able to regulate basic cell functions and their aberrant expression has been significantly correlated with cancer development. Therefore, detection of microRNAs in tumor tissues and body fluids represents a new tool for early diagnosis and patient prognosis prediction. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about microRNA deregulation in prostate cancer mainly focusing on the different clinical aspects of the disease. We also highlight the potential roles of microRNAs in PCa management, while also discussing several current challenges and needed future research. Alessio Cannistraci, Anna Laura Di Pace, Ruggero De Maria, and Désirée Bonci Copyright © 2014 Alessio Cannistraci et al. All rights reserved. Structuring Effects of Deer in Boreal Forest Ecosystems Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:34:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ae/2014/917834/ Many deer populations have recently increased worldwide leading to strong direct and indirect ecological and socioeconomical impacts on the composition, dynamic, and functions of forest ecosystems. Deer directly modify the composition and structure of vegetation communities, but they also indirectly affect other species of the ecosystem by modifying the structure of the vegetation. Here we review the results of a research program on overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the boreal forest of Anticosti Island (Québec, Canada) aimed at identifying deer densities compatible with forest regeneration. Various silvicultural systems and treatments failed to regenerate deer habitat at high deer densities, but planting size-adapted seedlings could be effective at moderate densities. Using a controlled deer density experiment, we found vegetation recovery at deer densities ≤ 15 deer/km2. The same experiment revealed that other groups of organisms such as insects and birds responded favorably to a reduction of deer density. We also found that alternative successional trajectories may occur after a certain period of heavy browsing during early succession. We conclude that one of the most important remaining research gaps is the need to identify habitat-specific threshold densities at which deer impacts occur and then to design effective wildlife and forest management strategies to limit deer impacts and sustain ecosystem integrity. Steeve D. Côté, Julien Beguin, Sonia de Bellefeuille, Emilie Champagne, Nelson Thiffault, and Jean-Pierre Tremblay Copyright © 2014 Steeve D. Côté et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of “Omic” and Imaging Technologies on Assessing the Host Immune Response to Biodefence Agents Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:33:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/237043/ Understanding the interactions between host and pathogen is important for the development and assessment of medical countermeasures to infectious agents, including potential biodefence pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, Ebola virus, and Francisella tularensis. This review focuses on technological advances which allow this interaction to be studied in much greater detail. Namely, the use of “omic” technologies (next generation sequencing, DNA, and protein microarrays) for dissecting the underlying host response to infection at the molecular level; optical imaging techniques (flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy) for assessing cellular responses to infection; and biophotonic imaging for visualising the infectious disease process. All of these technologies hold great promise for important breakthroughs in the rational development of vaccines and therapeutics for biodefence agents. Julia A. Tree, Helen Flick-Smith, Michael J. Elmore, and Caroline A. Rowland Copyright © 2014 All rights reserved. Preparation of Cerium Orthophosphate Nanosphere by Coprecipitation Route and Its Structural, Thermal, Optical, and Electrical Characterization Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:27:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnp/2014/125360/ Cerium orthophosphate (CePO4) nanoparticles were synthesized via wet chemical coprecipitation technique using cerium nitrate hexahydrate for Ce3+ ion and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for ion source. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggests that the material belongs to monoclinic crystal system with crystallite size of 49.3 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveal the surface morphology of the prepared nanoparticles as nanospheres having grain size in the range of 30–50 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) gives elemental composition present in the grown nanomaterial. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests that the structural phase transition is above 800°C. The optical properties include UV-VIS-NIR absorption and the photoluminescence spectrum shows the absorption and emission peaks in the ultraviolet region. The dielectric constant and ac conductivity properties were investigated with regard to change in temperature (40 to 500°C) and frequency (5 kHz to 1 MHz). The dielectric measurement indicates that the transition is diffused and the activation energy values decrease suggesting that the conduction mechanism is due to hopping of the charge carriers from one site to another. Seema Verma and K. K. Bamzai Copyright © 2014 Seema Verma and K. K. Bamzai. All rights reserved. Qualitative Analysis of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Fungi in Cowshed Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:11:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmy/2014/985921/ Air pollution is one of the most serious problems to human health. Fungi are the causal agents for different diseases in animals, plants, and human beings. Otomycosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, allergy, and systemic mycosis are among the fungal diseases caused. The present study was conducted to analyze the monthly incidence of airborne fungi, seasonal variation, and influence of meteorological parameters in indoor and outdoor fungi of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village, Bangalore. An aeromycological survey of indoor and outdoor area of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village in Bangalore city was carried out using the Andersen two-stage sampler onto a petri dish containing malt extract agar from January 2011 to December 2011. Altogether, 29 species belonging to 13 genera from indoor and 26 species belonging to 12 genera were recorded from outdoor environment of the cowshed; the dominant fungal species identified were Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Alternaria alternata. Seasonal occurrence of fungal spores in both indoor and outdoor of the cowshed revealed that maximum spores were recorded in summer season followed by winter and rainy season. R. Pavan and K. Manjunath Copyright © 2014 R. Pavan and K. Manjunath. All rights reserved. Structural Differences Observed in Arboviruses of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus Genera Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:08:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/av/2014/259382/ Arthropod borne viruses have developed a complex life cycle adapted to alternate between insect and vertebrate hosts. These arthropod-borne viruses belong mainly to the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae. This group of viruses contains many pathogens that cause febrile, hemorrhagic, and encephalitic disease or arthritic symptoms which can be persistent. It has been appreciated for many years that these viruses were evolutionarily adapted to function in the highly divergent cellular environments of both insect and mammalian phyla. These viruses are hybrid in nature, containing viral-encoded RNA and proteins which are glycosylated by the host and encapsulate viral nucleocapsids in the context of a host-derived membrane. From a structural perspective, these virus particles are macromolecular machines adapted in design to assemble into a packaging and delivery system for the virus genome and, only when associated with the conditions appropriate for a productive infection, to disassemble and deliver the RNA cargo. It was initially assumed that the structures of the virus from both hosts were equivalent. New evidence that alphaviruses and flaviviruses can exist in more than one conformation postenvelopment will be discussed in this review. The data are limited but should refocus the field of structural biology on the metastable nature of these viruses. Raquel Hernandez, Dennis T. Brown, and Angel Paredes Copyright © 2014 Raquel Hernandez et al. All rights reserved. Thermoeconomic Analysis and Multiobjective Optimization of a Solar Desalination Plant Tue, 16 Sep 2014 08:00:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jse/2014/892348/ A solar desalination plant consisting of solar parabolic collectors, steam generators, and MED unit was simulated technoeconomically and optimized using multiobjective genetic algorithm. A simulation code was developed using MATLAB language programming. Indirect steam generation using different thermal oils including THERMINOL VP1, THERMINOL66, and THERMINOL59 was also investigated. Objective function consisted of 17 essential parameters such as diameter of heat collector element, collector width, steam generator pinch, approach temperatures, and MED number of effects. Simulation results showed that THERMINOL VP1 had superior properties and produced more desalinated water than other heat transfer fluids. Performance of the plant was analyzed on four characteristic days of the year to show that multiobjective optimization technique can be used to obtain an optimized solution, in which the product flow rate increased, while total investment and O&M costs decreased compared to the base case. Hamid Mokhtari, Mokhtar Bidi, and Mahdi Gholinejad Copyright © 2014 Hamid Mokhtari et al. All rights reserved. Coating of Mesh Grafts for Prolapse and Urinary Incontinence Repair with Autologous Plasma: Exploration Stage of a Surgical Innovation Tue, 16 Sep 2014 07:57:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/296498/ Purpose. Optimized biocompatibility is a major requirement for alloplastic materials currently applied for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair. In the preliminary studies the mesh modification by coating with autologous plasma resulted in the increased adherence score in vitro and improved biocompatibility in an animal model. The first use of plasma coated meshes in human is presented. Materials and Methods. Between 04/2013 and 05/2014, 20 patients with the indication for SUI and POP repair were selected in a single institution. The applied meshes were modified by autologous plasma coating prior to implantation. A retrospective chart review for peri- and early postoperative complications was performed. Functional outcome and QoL were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Results. The functional outcome and QoL improved significantly in all groups. Two reoperations (Grade IIIB) with the release of TVT-mesh in anesthesia due to the obstruction were needed. No other severe complications were registered. Conclusion. For the first time we applied a mesh modification in a human setting according to IDEAL criteria of surgical innovations. The procedure of mesh coating with autologous plasma is safe and a prospective randomized trial proving a positive effect of plasma coating on the biocompatibility and morbidity outcome with long-term registry is planned. Dimitri Barski, Holger Gerullis, Evangelos Georgas, Andreas Bär, Bernhard Lammers, Albert Ramon, Dirk Ysebaert, Bernd Klosterhalfen, Mihaly Boros, and Thomas Otto Copyright © 2014 Dimitri Barski et al. All rights reserved. The Characteristics of Thrombin in Osteoarthritic Pathogenesis and Treatment Tue, 16 Sep 2014 07:46:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/407518/ Osteoarthritis (OA) is a mechanical abnormality associated with degradation of joints. It is characterized by chronic, progressive degeneration of articular cartilage, abnormalities of bone, and synovial change. The most common symptom of OA is local inflammation resulting from exogenous stress or endogenous abnormal cytokines. Additionally, OA is associated with local and/or systemic activation of coagulation and anticoagulation pathways. Thrombin plays an important role in the stimulation of fibrin deposition and the proinflammatory processes in OA. Thrombin mediates hemostatic and inflammatory responses and guides the immune response to tissue damage. Thrombin activates intracellular signaling pathways by interacting with transmembrane domain G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), known as protease-activated receptors (PARs). In pathogenic mechanisms, PARs have been implicated in the development of acute and chronic inflammatory responses in OA. Therefore, discovery of thrombin signaling pathways would help us to understand the mechanism of OA pathogenesis and lead us to develop therapeutic drugs in the future. Pei-Yu Chou, Chen-Ming Su, Chun-Yin Huang, and Chih-Hsin Tang Copyright © 2014 Pei-Yu Chou et al. All rights reserved. Multi-Channel Packet-Analysis System Based on IEEE 802.15.4 Packet-Capturing Modules Tue, 16 Sep 2014 07:42:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/216504/ There have been increasing demands for research into multi-channel-based wireless sensor network protocols and applications to support requirements such as increased throughput and real-time or reliable transmission. Researchers or developers of these protocols and applications have to simultaneously analyze the exchanged packets for correctness of both their contents and message exchange timelines. However, if developers were to use multiple conventional single-channel packet sniffers for this purpose, debugging during development and the verification process becomes extremely tedious and difficult because of the need to check the correctness of the protocols over multiple channels individually. Therefore, we present a multi-channel packet-analysis system (MPAS) that helps in debugging and verification for multi-channel protocols or applications. Wireless packets are detected and timestamped by each sniffer module in the MPAS for each channel, and packets are preprocessed and transmitted to a GUI-based analyzer, which then parses the received packets and shows them in order. We present the design and implementation results of the MPAS and evaluate its performance by comparing it against a widely used packet sniffer. Seong-eun Yoo, Poh Kit Chong, Jeonghwan Bae, Tae-Soo Kim, Hiecheol Kim, and Joonhyuk Yoo Copyright © 2014 Seong-eun Yoo et al. All rights reserved. Levels of Soluble E-Cadherin in Breast, Gastric, and Colorectal Cancers Tue, 16 Sep 2014 07:32:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/408047/ Soluble E-cadherin is a 80 kDa protein fragment coming from the proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain of the full length epithelial cadherin, a molecule involved in cell adhesion/polarity and tissue morphogenesis. In comparison with normal epithelia, cancer cells show a decreased cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion, and sE-cad levels normally increase in body fluids (blood and urine). This review focuses on soluble E-cadherin in sera of patients affected by three solid cancers (breast, gastric, and colorectal cancers) and how its levels correlate or not with some cancer parameters (e.g., dimension, progression, and localisation). We will describe the main proteomics approaches adopted to measure sE-cad both in vivo and in vitro and the most important findings about its behaviour in cancer dynamics. Ombretta Repetto, Paolo De Paoli, Valli De Re, Vincenzo Canzonieri, and Renato Cannizzaro Copyright © 2014 Ombretta Repetto et al. All rights reserved. Physical Activity and Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders Tue, 16 Sep 2014 07:27:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2014/312163/ Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in social communication deficits and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Literature comparing the physical activity and fitness of children with ASD to typically developing peers is in need of attention. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physical activity and fitness of school-aged children with ASD () in comparison to typically developing peers (). Participants with ASD completed diagnostic and developmental assessments and a series of physical fitness assessments: 20-meter multistage shuttle, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength, and body mass index. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry and preestablished cut-points of physical activity (Freedson et al., 2005). MANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in strength (), while ANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in sedentary (), light (), moderate (), and total moderate-to-vigorous () physical activity. Children with ASD are less physically active and fit than typically developing peers. Adapted physical activity programs are one avenue with intervention potential to combat these lower levels of physical activity and fitness found in children with ASD. Kiley Tyler, Megan MacDonald, and Kristi Menear Copyright © 2014 Kiley Tyler et al. All rights reserved. A Functional Interplay between 5-Lipoxygenase and μ-Calpain Affects Survival and Cytokine Profile of Human Jurkat T Lymphocyte Exposed to Simulated Microgravity Tue, 16 Sep 2014 07:08:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/782390/ A growing body of evidence strongly indicates that both simulated and authentic weightlessness exert a broad range of effects on mammalian tissues and cells, including impairment of immune cell function and increased apoptotic death. We previously reported that microgravity-dependent activation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) might play a central role in the initiation of apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, suggesting that the upregulation of this enzyme might be (at least in part) responsible for immunodepression observed in astronauts during space flights. Herein, we supplement novel information about the molecular mechanisms underlying microgravity-triggered apoptotic cell death and immune system deregulation, demonstrating that under simulated microgravity human Jurkat T cells increase the content of cytosolic DNA fragments and cytochrome c (typical hallmarks of apoptosis) and have an upregulated expression and activity of µ-calpain. These events were paralleled by the unbalance of interleukin- (IL-) 2 and interferon- (INF-) γ, anti- and proapoptotic cytokines, respectively, that seemed to be dependent on the functional interplay between 5-LOX and µ-calpain. Indeed, we report unprecedented evidence that 5-LOX inhibition reduced apoptotic death, restored the initial IL-2/INF-γ ratio, and more importantly reverted µ-calpain activation induced by simulated microgravity. Valeria Gasperi, Cinzia Rapino, Natalia Battista, Monica Bari, Nicolina Mastrangelo, Silvia Angeletti, Enrico Dainese, and Mauro Maccarrone Copyright © 2014 Valeria Gasperi et al. All rights reserved. Neurenteric Cyst of the Area Postrema Tue, 16 Sep 2014 06:23:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/718415/ Neurenteric cysts are CNS lesions most frequently occurring in the spinal cord. Intracranial neurenteric cysts are rarer, typically presenting with headache, mass effect, or location-specific symptoms. The area postrema is known as the emetic center of the brain; lesions can cause nausea and vomiting. Our case, featuring a neurenteric cyst of the area postrema, illustrates the importance of considering a neurological etiology for nonspecific symptoms that otherwise elude explanation. Our patient presented with acute decompensated hydrocephalus upon exploratory abdominal laparoscopy for unresolving abdominal pain. The patient had an eight-month history of unexplained intermittent nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. These bouts increased in frequency during the weeks before acute presentation, prompting exploratory abdominal laparoscopy. The acute decompensation was managed by ventriculostomy, and cranial MRI revealed a cystic mass by the floor of the fourth ventricle. After the patient stabilized and returned to neurological baseline, suboccipital craniectomy and resection were performed. The mass was histologically identified as a neurenteric cyst. The patient was free from neurological complaints at one-year follow-up, indicating that the successful resection of the area postrema-associated neurenteric cyst resolved her previous symptoms. Thus, some intracranial lesions can masquerade as nonspecific symptoms, presenting a challenge to accurate diagnosis. Claire M. Miller, Bonnie H. Wang, Seong-Jin Moon, Eric Chen, and Huan Wang Copyright © 2014 Claire M. Miller et al. All rights reserved. A Clustering Approach for the -Diversity Model in Privacy Preserving Data Mining Using Fractional Calculus-Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm Tue, 16 Sep 2014 06:14:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aceng/2014/396529/ In privacy preserving data mining, the -diversity and -anonymity models are the most widely used for preserving the sensitive private information of an individual. Out of these two, -diversity model gives better privacy and lesser information loss as compared to the -anonymity model. In addition, we observe that numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed in data mining, namely, -means, PSO, ACO, and BFO. Amongst them, the BFO algorithm is more stable and faster as compared to all others except -means. However, BFO algorithm suffers from poor convergence behavior as compared to other optimization algorithms. We also observed that the current literature lacks any approaches that apply BFO with -diversity model to realize privacy preservation in data mining. Motivated by this observation, we propose here an approach that uses fractional calculus (FC) in the chemotaxis step of the BFO algorithm. The FC is used to boost the computational performance of the algorithm. We also evaluate our proposed FC-BFO and BFO algorithms empirically, focusing on information loss and execution time as vital metrics. The experimental evaluation shows that our proposed FC-BFO algorithm derives an optimal cluster as compared to the original BFO algorithm and existing clustering algorithms. Pawan R. Bhaladhare and Devesh C. Jinwala Copyright © 2014 Pawan R. Bhaladhare and Devesh C. Jinwala. All rights reserved. Superoptimal Rate of Convergence in Nonparametric Estimation for Functional Valued Processes Tue, 16 Sep 2014 06:00:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/264217/ We consider the nonparametric estimation of the generalised regression function for continuous time processes with irregular paths when the regressor takes values in a semimetric space. We establish the mean-square convergence of our estimator with the same superoptimal rate as when the regressor is real valued. Christophe Chesneau and Bertrand Maillot Copyright © 2014 Christophe Chesneau and Bertrand Maillot. All rights reserved. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Models with Considering the Environmental Impact Tue, 16 Sep 2014 05:47:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/852529/ Global warming and climate changes created by large scale emissions of greenhouse gases are a worldwide concern. Due to this, the issue of green supply chain management has received more attention in the last decade. In this study, a closed-loop logistic concept which serves the purposes of recycling, reuse, and recovery required in a green supply chain is applied to integrate the environmental issues into a traditional logistic system. Here, we formulate a comprehensive closed-loop model for the logistics planning considering profitability and ecological goals. In this way, we can achieve the ecological goal reducing the overall amount of CO2 emitted from journeys. Moreover, the profitability criterion can be supported in the cyclic network with the minimum costs and maximum service level. We apply three scenarios and develop problem formulations for each scenario corresponding to the specified regulations and investigate the effect of the regulation on the preferred transport mode and the emissions. To validate the models, some numerical experiments are worked out and a comparative analysis is investigated. Amir Mohajeri and Mohammad Fallah Copyright © 2014 Amir Mohajeri and Mohammad Fallah. All rights reserved. Hemorrhage in the Wall of Pyogenic Brain Abscess on Susceptibility Weighted MR Sequence: A Report of 3 Cases Tue, 16 Sep 2014 05:46:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2014/907584/ Background and Purpose. In pyogenic brain abscess, hemorrhage in the walls is considered exceptional. Recently, hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic abscess have been demonstrated on susceptibility weighted imaging with 3T MRI. Here, we report hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic brain abscess on susceptibility weighted imaging with 1.5T MRI. Method. MRI of brain was done using 1.5T MRI with diffusion weighted sequence, susceptibility weighted sequence, and other standard sequences in 3 consecutive cases of pyogenic brain abscess. Stereotactic biopsy and cultures were obtained in 2 cases. One case was treated empirically with antibiotics. Results. Susceptibility sequence demonstrated hemorrhage in the wall of brain abscess in all three cases. All three cases also demonstrated restricted diffusion on diffusion weighted imaging. Conclusion. Susceptibility weighted imaging can demonstrate hemorrhagic changes in the walls of pyogenic brain abscess on 1.5T MRI. Presence of hemorrhage in the walls of ring enhancing lesions should not automatically lead to a diagnosis of tumor. Krishnamoorthy Thamburaj, Amit K. Agarwal, Shyamsunder B. Sabat, and Dan T. Nguyen Copyright © 2014 Krishnamoorthy Thamburaj et al. All rights reserved. Synaptojanin 1 Mutation in Parkinson’s Disease Brings Further Insight into the Neuropathological Mechanisms Tue, 16 Sep 2014 05:40:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/289728/ Synaptojanin 1 (SYNJ1) is a phosphoinositide phosphatase highly expressed in nerve terminals. Its two phosphatase domains dephosphorylate phosphoinositides present in membranes, while its proline-rich domain directs protein-protein interactions with synaptic components, leading to efficient recycling of synaptic vesicles in neurons. Triplication of SYNJ1 in Down’s syndrome is responsible for higher level of phosphoinositides, enlarged endosomes, and learning deficits. SYNJ1 downregulation in Alzheimer’s disease models is protective towards amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) toxicity. One missense mutation in one of SYNJ1 functional domains was recently incriminated in an autosomal recessive form of early-onset Parkinson’s disease (PD). In the third decade of life, these patients develop progressive Parkinsonism with bradykinesia, dystonia, and variable atypical symptoms such as cognitive decline, seizures, and eyelid apraxia. The identification of this new gene, together with the fact that most of the known PD proteins play a role in synaptic vesicle recycling and lipid metabolism, points out that synaptic maintenance is a key player in PD pathological mechanisms. Studying PD genes as a network regulating synaptic activity could bring insight into understanding the neuropathological processes of PD and help identify new genes at fault in this devastating disorder. Valérie Drouet and Suzanne Lesage Copyright © 2014 Valérie Drouet and Suzanne Lesage. All rights reserved. Trial of Zolpidem, Eszopiclone, and Other GABA Agonists in a Patient with Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Tue, 16 Sep 2014 05:36:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/107064/ Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive, debilitating neurodegenerative disease of the Parkinson-plus family of syndromes. Unfortunately, there are no pharmacologic treatments for this condition, as most sufferers of the classic variant respond poorly to Parkinson medications such as levodopa. Zolpidem, a gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist specific to the -1 receptor subtype, has been reported to show improvements in symptoms of PSP patients, including motor dysfunction, dysarthria, and ocular disturbances. We observed a 73-year-old woman with a six-year history of PSP, who, upon administration of a single 12.5 mg dose of sustained-release zolpidem, exhibited marked enhancements in speech, facial expressions, and fine motor skills for five hours. These results were reproduced upon subsequent clinic visits. In an effort to find a sustainable medication that maximized these beneficial effects while minimizing side effects and addressing some of her comorbid neuropsychological conditions, a trial of five other GABA receptor agonists was performed with the patient’s consent, while she and her caregivers were blinded to the specific medications. She and her caretakers subsequently reported improvements, especially visual, while on eszopiclone, and, to a lesser degree, temazepam and flurazepam. Andrew Young Chang and Erica Weirich Copyright © 2014 Andrew Young Chang and Erica Weirich. All rights reserved. Retracted: Structural and Optical Properties of Germanium Thin Films Prepared by the Vacuum Evaporation Technique Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physri/2014/128505/ Physics Research International Copyright © 2014 Physics Research International. All rights reserved. Quantifying Proteinuria in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijhy/2014/941408/ Background. Progressive proteinuria indicates worsening of the condition in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and hence its quantification guides clinician in decision making and treatment planning. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of spot dipstick analysis and urinary protein-creatinine ratio (UPCR) in hypertensive disease of pregnancy for predicting 24-hour proteinuria. Subjects and Methods. A total of 102 patients qualifying inclusion criteria were evaluated with preadmission urine dipstick test and UPCR performed on spot voided sample. After admission, the entire 24-hour urine sample was collected and analysed for daily protein excretion. Dipstick estimation and UPCR were compared to the 24-hour results. Results. Seventy-eight patients (76.5%) had significant proteinuria of more than 300 mg/24 h. Dipstick method showed 59% sensitivity and 67% specificity for prediction of significant proteinuria. Area under curve for UPCR was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83 to 0.95, ) showing 82% sensitivity and 12.5% false positive rate for cutoff value of 0.45. Higher cutoff values (1.46 and 1.83) predicted heavy proteinuria (2 g and 3 g/24 h, resp.). Conclusion. This study suggests that random urinary protein : creatine ratio is a reliable investigation compared to dipstick method to assess proteinuria in hypertensive pregnant women. However, clinical laboratories should standardize the reference values for their setup. Sapna V. Amin, Sireesha Illipilla, Shripad Hebbar, Lavanya Rai, Pratap Kumar, and Muralidhar V. Pai Copyright © 2014 Sapna V. Amin et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a New Modification of Pancreaticogastrostomy after Pancreaticoduodenectomy: Anastomosis of the Pancreatic Duct to the Gastric Mucosa with Invagination of the Pancreatic Remnant End into the Posterior Gastric Wall for Patients with Cancer Head of Pancreas and Periampullary Carcinoma in terms of Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula Formation Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijso/2014/490386/ Background/Objectives. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains the main problem after pancreaticoduodenectomy and determines to a large extent the final outcome. We describe a new modification of pancreaticogastrostomy which combines duct to mucosa anastomosis with suturing the pancreatic capsule to posterior gastric wall and then invaginating the pancreatic remnant into the posterior gastric wall. This study was designed to assess the results of this new modification of pancreaticogastrostomy. Methods. The newly modified pancreaticogastrostomy was applied to 37 consecutive patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary cancer (64.86%) or cancer head of the pancreas (35.14%). Eighteen patients (48.65%) had a soft pancreatic remnant, 13 patients (35.14%) had firm pancreatic remnant, and 6 patients (16.22%) had intermediate texture of pancreatic remnant. Rate of mortality, early postoperative complications, and hospital stay were also reported. Results. Operative mortality was zero and morbidity was 29.73%. Only three patients (8.11%) developed pancreatic leaks; they were treated conservatively. Eight patients (16.1%) had delayed gastric emptying, one patient (2.70%) had minor hemorrhage, one patient (2.70%) had biliary leak, and four patients (10.81%) had superficial wound infection. Conclusions. The new modified pancreatogastrostomy seems safe and reliable with low rate of POPF. However, further prospective controlled trials are essential to support these results. Mohamed Mazloum Osman and Walid Abd El Maksoud Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Mazloum Osman and Walid Abd El Maksoud. All rights reserved. Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/gri/2014/154204/ Statistical power is one of the major concerns in genetic association studies. Related individuals such as twins are valuable samples for genetic studies because of their genetic relatedness. Phenotype similarity in twin pairs provides evidence of genetic control over the phenotype variation in a population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability for carrying beneficial genes and thus are useful samples for gene-longevity association analysis. We conducted a computer simulation to estimate the power of association study using longevity concordant twin pairs. We observed remarkable power increases in using singletons from longevity concordant twin pairs as cases in comparison with cases of sporadic proband. A similar power would require doubled sample sizes for fraternal twins than for identical twins who are concordant for longevity suggesting that longevity concordant identical twins are more efficient samples than fraternal twins. We also observed an approximate of 2- to 3-fold increase in sample sizes needed for longevity cutoff at age 90 as compared with that at age 95. Overall, our results showed high value of twins in genetic association studies on human longevity. Qihua Tan, Jing Hua Zhao, Torben Kruse, and Kaare Christensen Copyright © 2014 Qihua Tan et al. All rights reserved. Certain Admissible Classes of Multivalent Functions Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jca/2014/936748/ We investigate some applications of the differential subordination and the differential superordination of certain admissible classes of multivalent functions in the open unit disk . Several differential sandwich-type results are also obtained. M. K. Aouf, H. M. Srivastava, and T. M. Seoudy Copyright © 2014 M. K. Aouf et al. All rights reserved. Artificial Neural Network Application in the Diagnosis of Disease Conditions with Liver Ultrasound Images Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abi/2014/708279/ The preliminary study presented within this paper shows a comparative study of various texture features extracted from liver ultrasonic images by employing Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), a type of artificial neural network, to study the presence of disease conditions. An ultrasound (US) image shows echo-texture patterns, which defines the organ characteristics. Ultrasound images of liver disease conditions such as “fatty liver,” “cirrhosis,” and “hepatomegaly” produce distinctive echo patterns. However, various ultrasound imaging artifacts and speckle noise make these echo-texture patterns difficult to identify and often hard to distinguish visually. Here, based on the extracted features from the ultrasonic images, we employed an artificial neural network for the diagnosis of disease conditions in liver and finding of the best classifier that distinguishes between abnormal and normal conditions of the liver. Comparison of the overall performance of all the feature classifiers concluded that “mixed feature set” is the best feature set. It showed an excellent rate of accuracy for the training data set. The gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) feature shows better results when the network was tested against unknown data. Karthik Kalyan, Binal Jakhia, Ramachandra Dattatraya Lele, Mukund Joshi, and Abhay Chowdhary Copyright © 2014 Karthik Kalyan et al. All rights reserved. The Associations of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica Aspects by Focusing Their Morphological and Molecular Features on Clinical Appearances in Khuzestan Province, Iran Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/913510/ Cutaneous leishmaniasis has various phenotypic aspects consisting of polymorphic amastigotes with different genetic ranges. Samples were collected from suspected patients of Khuzestan province. Prepared smears were stained, scaled, and measured using ocular micrometer. The Cyt b, ITS-rDNA, and microsatellite genes of Leishmania were amplified and Leishmania species were identified by molecular analyses. Of 150 examined suspected patients, 102 were identified to Leishmania species (90 L. major, nine L. tropica, and three unidentified). The amastigotes of 90 L. major had regular and different irregular shapes within three clinical lesions with no and/or low genetic diversity. Three haplotypes of Cyt b of L. major were found but no variation was observed using ITS-rDNA gene. Interesting findings were that all nine L. tropica had regular amastigote shapes with more genetic variations, also a patient which had coinfection of L. major, L. tropica, and Crithidia. At least two L. major and L. tropica were identified in suspected patients of the regions. Different irregular amastigotes’ shapes of L. major can be explained by various reservoir hosts and vectors. In contrast, more molecular variations in L. tropica could be justified by genetic characters. Unidentified Leishmania could be mixed pathogens or nonpathogens with mammals’ Leishmania or Crithidia. Adel Spotin, Soheila Rouhani, and Parviz Parvizi Copyright © 2014 Adel Spotin et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Progressive Failure Behaviour of Composite Skewed Hypar Shells Using Finite Element Method Tue, 16 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jstruc/2014/147578/ Progressive failure behaviour of laminated composite skewed hypar shells is investigated in this paper through finite element approach. For composite materials which are weak in transverse shear, failure may initiate at any inner lamina or interface and may remain undetected and unattended to. Such latent damages may progress gradually and lead to a sudden total ply failure. An iterative method is adopted using the various failure theories to predict the first ply failure load. After the first ply failure, the stiffness of the failed element is totally discarded from the laminate and the remaining laminate is considered for further analysis. The developed finite element code is validated through solution of a benchmark problem. Numerical experiments are carried out to obtain the first ply and progressive failure of simply supported hypar shells under transverse distributed load. While obtaining the failure loads, the shell is considered to be under plane stress condition and in linear elastic range. Results are studied meticulously to extract a set of conclusions of practical significance regarding the failure characteristics of composite hypar shells. Arghya Ghosh and Dipankar Chakravorty Copyright © 2014 Arghya Ghosh and Dipankar Chakravorty. All rights reserved. In Silico Identification, Phylogenetic and Bioinformatic Analysis of Argonaute Genes in Plants Mon, 15 Sep 2014 13:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/967461/ Argonaute protein family is the key players in pathways of gene silencing and small regulatory RNAs in different organisms. Argonaute proteins can bind small noncoding RNAs and control protein synthesis, affect messenger RNA stability, and even participate in the production of new forms of small RNAs. The aim of this study was to characterize and perform bioinformatic analysis of Argonaute proteins in 32 plant species that their genome was sequenced. A total of 437 Argonaute genes were identified and were analyzed based on lengths, gene structure, and protein structure. Results showed that Argonaute proteins were highly conserved across plant kingdom. Phylogenic analysis divided plant Argonautes into three classes. Argonaute proteins have three conserved domains PAZ, MID and PIWI. In addition to three conserved domains namely, PAZ, MID, and PIWI, we identified few more domains in AGO of some plant species. Expression profile analysis of Argonaute proteins showed that expression of these genes varies in most of tissues, which means that these proteins are involved in regulation of most pathways of the plant system. Numbers of alternative transcripts of Argonaute genes were highly variable among the plants. A thorough analysis of large number of putative Argonaute genes revealed several interesting aspects associated with this protein and brought novel information with promising usefulness for both basic and biotechnological applications. Khaled Mirzaei, Bahman Bahramnejad, Mohammad Hasan Shamsifard, and Wahid Zamani Copyright © 2014 Khaled Mirzaei et al. All rights reserved. Multipurpose Water Reservoir Management: An Evolutionary Multiobjective Optimization Approach Mon, 15 Sep 2014 13:12:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/638259/ The reservoirs that feed large hydropower plants should be managed in order to provide other uses for the water resources. Those uses include, for instance, flood control and avoidance, irrigation, navigability in the rivers, and other ones. This work presents an evolutionary multiobjective optimization approach for the study of multiple water usages in multiple interlinked reservoirs, including both power generation objectives and other objectives not related to energy generation. The classical evolutionary algorithm NSGA-II is employed as the basic multiobjective optimization machinery, being modified in order to cope with specific problem features. The case studies, which include the analysis of a problem which involves an objective of navigability on the river, are tailored in order to illustrate the usefulness of the data generated by the proposed methodology for decision-making on the problem of operation planning of multiple reservoirs with multiple usages. It is shown that it is even possible to use the generated data in order to determine the cost of any new usage of the water, in terms of the opportunity cost that can be measured on the revenues related to electric energy sales. Luís A. Scola, Ricardo H. C. Takahashi, and Sérgio A. A. G. Cerqueira Copyright © 2014 Luís A. Scola et al. All rights reserved.