Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Unexpected Bone Metastases from Thyroid Cancer Sun, 05 Jul 2015 14:19:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2015/434732/ Objective. To present a complicated case of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with metastases to the skull that was evident on I-131 whole body scan (WBS) but negative on other imaging modalities in a low risk patient. Methods. We will discuss clinical course, imaging, pathological findings, and treatment of the patient with skull metastasis from DTC. Pertinent literature on imaging and pathology findings as well as radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment impact on quality of life and survival in patients with bone metastases from DTC will be reviewed. Results. The patient is a 37-year-old woman with a diagnosis of DTC who had focal areas of increased uptake in the head on WBS with no correlative findings on CT and MRI. Initially, false positive findings were suspected since patient had a low risk for developing metastases. However, the persistent findings on post-RAI treatment WBS, following two courses of treatment, were highly concerning for metastatic bone disease. WBC performed 6 months following the second RAI treatment revealed resolution of the findings. Conclusions. False positive findings in WBS are frequent and may be due to contamination, perspiration, or folliculitis of the scalp as well as benign lesions such as meningioma, hematoma, cavernous angioma, and metallic sutures. However, metastatic disease should always be considered even if the patient has low risk of distant metastatic disease and correlative images do not support the diagnosis. RAI therapy appears to improve the survival rates and quality of life of thyroid cancer patients with bone metastases based on retrospective studies. Sandra Gibiezaite, Savas Ozdemir, Sania Shuja, Barry McCook, Monica Plazarte, and Mae Sheikh-Ali Copyright © 2015 Sandra Gibiezaite et al. All rights reserved. Current Smoking Dose-Dependently Associated with Decreased β-Cell Function in Chinese Men without Diabetes Sun, 05 Jul 2015 14:16:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/841768/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic smoking and insulin resistance and β-cell function in Chinese men without diabetes. A total of 1,568 participants were recruited by multistage sampling. Using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), geometric means of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by general linear model. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were estimated to evaluate the associations between smoking status and insulin resistance and β-cell deficiency under a logistic regression model. Current smokers had higher levels of 2 h glucose (6.66 versus 6.48 mmol/L) for oral glucose tolerance test and lower levels of fasting insulin (5.68 versus 6.03 mU/L) than never smokers. The adjusted means for HOMA-β (%) were 54.86 in current smokers and 58.81 in never smokers (). Current smoking was associated with β-cell deficiency (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.64) compared to never smoking. The β-cell function gradually decreased with increasing smoking intensity (), and the differences were statistically significant when the pack-year of smoking was 20 or above. No association was observed between smoking status and HOMA-IR. Our study suggested that chronic smoking may dose-dependently suppress insulin secretion in Chinese men. Chun Wang, Yijun Wang, Junxia Wu, Suyi Liu, Ying Zhu, Shurong Lv, Ping Lin, Xiaoke Wang, Yan Xu, Shali Yu, Gang Chen, and Quanyong Xiang Copyright © 2015 Chun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Collapsing Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in a Patient with Acute Malaria Sun, 05 Jul 2015 14:04:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/420459/ Introduction. Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is most commonly seen in association with HIV infection. Rare data is available about the association between collapsing FSGS and malaria. Case Description. A 72-year-old African male patient presented to the hospital for generalized body aches, fatigue, fever, and night sweats for three days. He had history of recent travel to Ghana. Patient looked in acute distress and was shivering. Laboratory tests showed elevated serum creatinine (Cr) of 2.09 mg/dL (baseline was 1.5 mg/dL in 2012). Hospital course was significant for rapid elevation of Cr to 9.5 mg/dL and proteinuria of 7.9 grams. Autoimmune studies resulted negative. Blood smear resulted positive for Plasmodium falciparum and patient was treated with Artemether/Lumefantrine. Patient’s fever and pain improved, but kidney function continued to deteriorate and he became oliguric. On day seven, he was started on Hemodialysis. Tests for different causes of glomerular pathology were also negative. He underwent left kidney biopsy which resulted in findings consistent with severe collapsing glomerulopathy. Discussion. This case illustrates a biopsy proven collapsing FSGS likely secondary to malarial infection requiring renal replacement therapy. Literature review revealed only few case reports that suggested the possible association of malaria with secondary form of FSGS. Najamus Sehar, Emad Gobran, and Suzanne Elsayegh Copyright © 2015 Najamus Sehar et al. All rights reserved. The Pitting Susceptibility Investigation of Passive Films Formed on X70, X80, and X100 Pipeline Steels by Electrochemical Noise and Mott-Schottky Measurements Sun, 05 Jul 2015 14:01:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijc/2015/298584/ The pitting susceptibility of passive films formed on X70, X80, and X100 pipeline steels was investigated by means of electrochemical noise (EN) and Mott-Schottky measurements. The EN results were analyzed according to the shot-noise theory and stochastic theory. Pit initiation process was analyzed quantitatively using the Weibull distribution function. Pit growth process was simulated by Gumbel distribution function. The experimental results of Mott-Schottky plots showed that the passive films formed on the three pipeline steels displayed an n-type semiconductor character, and the passive film for X100 pipeline steel has the lowest donor density () among the three passive films. The EN results demonstrated that X100 pipeline steel had the lowest pit initiation rate and pit growth probability, which implied that the X100 pipeline steel had the lowest pitting susceptibility. Yang Zhao, Ping Liang, Yanhua Shi, Yunxia Zhang, and Tao Yang Copyright © 2015 Yang Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Neurophysiological Correlates of Central Fatigue in Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients before and after Treatment with Amantadine Sun, 05 Jul 2015 13:59:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/616242/ In ten healthy subjects and in ten patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS), we investigated the cortical functional changes induced by a standard fatiguing repetitive tapping task. The Cortical Silent Period (CSP), an intracortical, mainly -mediated inhibitory phenomenon, was recorded by two different hand muscles, one acting as prime mover of the fatiguing index-thumb tapping task (First Dorsal Interosseous, FDI) and the other one not involved in the task but sharing largely overlapping central, spinal, and peripheral innervation (Abductor Digiti Minimi, ADM). At baseline, the CSP was shorter in patients than in controls. As fatigue developed, CSP changes involved both the “fatigued” FDI and the “unfatigued” ADM muscles, suggesting a cortical spread of central fatigue mechanisms. Chronic therapy with amantadine annulled differences in CSP duration between controls and patients, possibly through restoration of more physiological levels of intracortical inhibition in the motor cortex. These inhibitory changes correlated with the improvement of fatigue scales. The CSP may represent a suitable marker of neurophysiological mechanisms accounting for central fatigue generation either in controls or in MS patients, involving corticospinal neural pools supplying not only the fatigued muscle but also adjacent muscles sharing an overlapping cortical representation. Emiliano Santarnecchi, Simone Rossi, Sabina Bartalini, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Elisa Tatti, and Monica Ulivelli Copyright © 2015 Emiliano Santarnecchi et al. All rights reserved. Elementary Superconductivity in Nonlinear Electrodynamics Coupled to Gravity Sun, 05 Jul 2015 13:56:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jgrav/2015/904171/ Source-free equations of nonlinear electrodynamics minimally coupled to gravity admit regular axially symmetric asymptotically Kerr-Newman solutions which describe charged rotating black holes and electromagnetic spinning solitons (lumps). Asymptotic analysis of solutions shows, for both black holes and solitons, the existence of de Sitter vacuum interior which has the properties of a perfect conductor and ideal diamagnetic and displays superconducting behaviour which can be responsible for practically unlimited lifetime of the electron. Superconducting current flows on the equatorial ring replacing the Kerr ring singularity of the Kerr-Newman geometry. Interior de Sitter vacuum supplies the electron with the finite positive electromagnetic mass related to the interior de Sitter vacuum of the electroweak scale and to breaking of space-time symmetry, which allows explaining the mass-square differences for neutrino and the appearance of the minimal length scale in the annihilation reaction . Irina Dymnikova Copyright © 2015 Irina Dymnikova. All rights reserved. Efficient Photoluminescence of Mn2+-Doped ZnS Quantum Dots Sensitized by Hypocrellin A Sun, 05 Jul 2015 13:49:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/412476/ Mn2+-doped ZnS semiconductor quantum dots reveal remarkably intense photoluminescence with the 4T1(4G) f6A1(6S) transition. In this study, following growth doping technique, Mn2+-doped ZnS quantum dots (ZnS:Mn2+ QDs) with high-quality optical properties and narrow size distribution were synthesized successfully. The dopant emission has been optimized with various reaction parameters, and it has been found that the percentage of introduced dopant, reaction temperature, and time as well as the pH of a reaction mixture are key factors for controlling the intensity. Photoluminescence emission (PL) measurements of ZnS:Mn2+ QDs show Mn2+ d-d orange luminescence along with band-edge blue luminescence. Moreover, the electron transfer from singlet states of hypocrellin A (HA) to colloidal ZnS:Mn2+ QDs has been examined by absorption spectra and fluorescence quenching. The absorption spectrum gave an evidence of the increases in the extinction coefficient and the red-shift of the absorption maxima in the absorption spectra of HA in the presence of ZnS:Mn2+ QDs, demonstrating the occurrence of surface interactions between the sensitizer and the particle surface. Fluorescence quenching by ZnS:Mn2+ QDs also suggested that there were a complex association between HA and ZnS:Mn2+ QDs, which was necessary for observing the heterogeneous electron-transfer process at the interface of sensitizer-semiconductor. Xianlan Chen, Wei Liu, Guowei Zhang, Na Wu, Ling Shi, and Shanqing Pan Copyright © 2015 Xianlan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Runge-Kutta Integration of the Equal Width Wave Equation Using the Method of Lines Sun, 05 Jul 2015 13:01:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/274579/ The equal width (EW) equation governs nonlinear wave phenomena like waves in shallow water. Numerical solution of the (EW) equation is obtained by using the method of lines (MOL) based on Runge-Kutta integration. Using von Neumann stability analysis, the scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the generated scheme. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the and error norms. The results are found in good agreement with exact solution. M. A. Banaja and H. O. Bakodah Copyright © 2015 M. A. Banaja and H. O. Bakodah. All rights reserved. Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques Sun, 05 Jul 2015 12:40:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/372459/ This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed. Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu and Sung-Ok Baek Copyright © 2015 Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu and Sung-Ok Baek. All rights reserved. The Role of Optimal Intervention Strategies on Controlling Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Its Adverse Health Effects Sun, 05 Jul 2015 12:37:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/238784/ We propose and analyze a mathematical model for alcohol drinking problem. The transmission process is modeled as a social “contact” process between “heavy” alcohol drinkers and “light” alcohol drinkers within an unchanging shared drinking environment. The basic reproductive number of the model is computed and the stability of the model steady states is investigated. Further, the model is fitted to data on alcohol drinking for Cape Town and Gauteng, South Africa. In addition, the basic model is extended to incorporate three time dependent intervention strategies. The control functions represent the efforts and policies aimed at weakening the intensity of social interactions between light and heavy drinkers and increase the fraction of treated individuals who permanently quit alcohol drinking. Optimal control results suggest that effective control of high-risk alcohol drinking can be achieved if more resources and efforts are devoted on weakening the intensity of social interactions between light and heavy drinkers. Steady Mushayabasa Copyright © 2015 Steady Mushayabasa. All rights reserved. ATP-Binding Pocket-Targeted Suppression of Src and Syk by Luteolin Contributes to Its Anti-Inflammatory Action Sun, 05 Jul 2015 12:22:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/967053/ Luteolin is a flavonoid identified as a major anti-inflammatory component of Artemisia asiatica. Numerous reports have demonstrated the ability of luteolin to suppress inflammation in a variety of inflammatory conditions. However, its exact anti-inflammatory mechanism has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory mode of action in activated macrophages of luteolin from Artemisia asiatica was examined by employing immunoblotting analysis, a luciferase reporter gene assay, enzyme assays, and an overexpression strategy. Luteolin dose-dependently inhibited the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and diminished the levels of mRNA transcripts of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) and pam3CSK-treated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells without displaying cytotoxicity. Luteolin displayed potent NO-inhibitory activity and also suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB (p65 and p50) via blockade of Src and Syk, but not other mitogen-activated kinases. Overexpression of wild type Src and point mutants thereof, and molecular modelling studies, suggest that the ATP-binding pocket may be the luteolin-binding site in Src. These results strongly suggest that luteolin may exert its anti-inflammatory action by suppressing the NF-κB signaling cascade via blockade of ATP binding in Src and Syk. Jeong-Oog Lee, Deok Jeong, Mi-Yeon Kim, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2015 Jeong-Oog Lee et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Etoricoxib on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats Sun, 05 Jul 2015 12:12:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/598162/ Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) damage is known to be a pathological process which continues with the increase of oxidants and expands with the inflammatory response. There is not any study about protective effect of etoricoxib on the liver I/R damage in literature. Objective. This study investigates the effect of etoricoxib on oxidative stress induced by I/R of the rat liver. Material and Methods. Experimental animals were divided into four groups as liver I/R control (LIRC), 50 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-50), 100 mg/kg etoricoxib + liver I/R (ETO-100), and healthy group (HG). ETO-50 and ETO-100 groups were administered etoricoxib, while LIRC and HG groups were orally given distilled water by gavage. Hepatic artery was clamped for one hour to provide ischemia, and then reperfusion was provided for 6 hours. Oxidant, antioxidant, and COX-2 gene expressions were studied in the liver tissues. ALT and AST were measured. Results. Etoricoxib in 50 and 100 mg/kg doses changed the levels of oxidant/antioxidant parameters such as MDA, MPO, tGSH, GSHRd, GST, SOD, NO, and 8-OH/Gua in favour of antioxidants. Furthermore, etoricoxib prevented increase of COX-2 gene expression and ALT and AST levels. This important protective effect of etoricoxib on the rat liver I/R can be tested in the clinical setting. Celalettin Semih Kunak, Osman Kukula, Emre Mutlu, Fatma Genç, Gülçer Güleç Peker, Ufuk Kuyrukluyıldız, Orhan Binici, Durdu Altuner, and Hamit Hakan Alp Copyright © 2015 Celalettin Semih Kunak et al. All rights reserved. Microstructural Study on Oxygen Permeated Arc Beads Sun, 05 Jul 2015 12:06:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/373861/ We simulated short circuit of loaded copper wire at ambient atmosphere and successfully identified various phases of the arc bead. A cuprous oxide flake was formed on the surface of the arc bead in the rapid solidification process, and there were two microstructural constituents, namely, Cu-κ eutectic structure and solutal dendrites. Due to the arc bead formed at atmosphere during the local equilibrium solidification process, the phase of arc bead has segregated to the cuprous oxide flake, Cu-κ eutectic, and Cu phase solutal dendrites, which are the fingerprints of the arc bead permeated by oxygen. Kuan-Heng Liu, Yung-Hui Shih, Guo-Ju Chen, and Jaw-Min Chou Copyright © 2015 Kuan-Heng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Formal Pseudodifferential Operators in One and Several Variables, Central Extensions, and Integrable Systems Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:51:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/210346/ We review some aspects of the theory of Lie algebras of (twisted and untwisted) formal pseudodifferential operators in one and several variables in a general algebraic context. We focus mainly on the construction and classification of nontrivial central extensions. As applications, we construct hierarchies of centrally extended Lie algebras of formal differential operators in one and several variables, Manin triples and hierarchies of nonlinear equations in Lax and zero curvature form. Jarnishs Beltran and Enrique G. Reyes Copyright © 2015 Jarnishs Beltran and Enrique G. Reyes. All rights reserved. A Study on the Conductivity Variation of Au Coated Conductive Particles in ACF Packaging Process Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:41:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/485276/ In the ACF packaging process, a bonding force will be applied to the ACF structure. The finite element analysis is used to simulate the ACF packaging process. Material behavior is assumed to be superelastic for resin, viscoelastic for polymer matrix, and elastic-plastic for metal, such as bump, pad, chip, and Au-film. The axis-symmetric model is employed in FEA simulation with time-varying bonding force and operating temperature. In this study, the parameters, including conductive particle diameter, Au-film thickness, and bonding force, are analyzed with nonliner and temperature-dependent material properties. The simulation results indicate that bonding force and operating temperature have strong effects on the formation of concave on Au-film. In addition, surface wrinkle of Au-film will be induced by the bonding force. Both of the concaving and the wrinkling on Au-film will decrease the contact area between the conductive particle and the bump and the contact area between the conductive particle and the pad. Decrease of the contact area means increase of the total resistance for the ACF structure. The results show that the smaller the conductive particle diameter, the smaller the contact area. Generally, increasing the thickness of Au-film will decrease the contact areas, except at the Au-film thickness of 0.05 μm. Jao-Hwa Kuang, Chao-Ming Hsu, and Ah-Der Lin Copyright © 2015 Jao-Hwa Kuang et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Bronchogenic and Gastroenteric Cysts Arising from the Stomach in a Patient with Abdominal Pain Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:34:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/601491/ Bronchogenic cysts arising from the stomach are uncommon. We discuss a young female patient with presumed enteric duplication cysts who was found to have three bronchogenic and gastroenteric cysts upon pathologic review. We discuss the pathophysiology of bronchogenic cysts and their malignant potential. Maykong Leepalao and Jessica Wernberg Copyright © 2015 Maykong Leepalao and Jessica Wernberg. All rights reserved. Controlled Orientation and Improved Photovoltaic Characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells via Using In2Se3 Seeding Layers Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:18:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/802178/ In2Se3 films were utilized as seeding layers in the synthesis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films via the spin-coating route. Selenizing the indium-containing precursors at 400°C resulted in the formation of the hexagonal γ-In2Se3 with the preferred (006) orientation. Increasing the selenization temperature to 500°C yielded the (300)-oriented γ-In2Se3. Using the preferred (006)-oriented In2Se3 as seeding layers produced the preferred (112)-oriented Cu(In,Ga)Se2 film because of the crystalline symmetry. In contrast, the use of the (300)-oriented In2Se3 as seeding layers yielded the (220/204)-oriented Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films. According to results obtained using SEM and the Hall effect, (112)-oriented Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films had a denser morphology and more favorable electrical properties. Using the (112)-oriented Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films as the absorber layer in the solar devices resulted in a significant increase in the conversion efficiency. Fu-Shan Chen, Che-Yuan Yang, Jen-Cheng Sung, and Chung-Hsin Lu Copyright © 2015 Fu-Shan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of a CUPRAC-Based HPLC Postcolumn Assay and Its Applications for Ginkgo biloba L. Extracts Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:11:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/280167/ The aim of the present work was to improve and validate the HPLC-CUPRAC postcolumn method for the evaluation of active antioxidant markers from the acetonic extracts of Ginkgo biloba leaves. Improvement of the HPLC online assay was performed by evaluating the suitable loop temperature, the reaction loop length, and the impact of flow rate. Separation of the analytes was performed by the HPLC method on an ACE C18 analytical column using a gradient elution program. The separated antioxidant markers in the extracts reacted with copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) reagent in the postcolumn reaction coil. The reagent was reduced by antioxidants to the copper(I)-neocuproine (Cu(I)-Nc) chelate with a maximum absorption at 450 nm. Validation experiments confirmed sufficient precision, sensitivity, and effectiveness of the corresponding method, which could be used for further evaluations of active antioxidant compounds in similar plant materials. Laura Rimkiene, Liudas Ivanauskas, Asta Kubiliene, Konradas Vitkevicius, Guoda Kiliuviene, and Valdas Jakstas Copyright © 2015 Laura Rimkiene et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Zoom Lens with Discrete State of Liquid Lens Elements by Using Genetic Algorithm Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:11:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/209064/ This paper is to employ liquid lens elements to design a lens with zoom function by using the genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. The liquid lens elements used in the proposal can apply voltage adjustment to generate the electrical field that induces the liquid with electric conductivity to vary the surface curvature between two different kinds of liquids. According to the voltage level, the liquid lens element makes the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness realize the zoom function without moving the lens groups so that the overall length can be reduced. However, it is difficult to design the zoom lens under the discrete variation of the curvature and thickness in the liquid lens elements and the mechanical space that is constantly limited. The GA offers a flexible way for lens optimization. We regarded the spot size as the fitness function to look for the optimum curvatures, thickness, and the corresponding statuses of liquid lens elements for the zoom lens. As a result, the zoom lens with constant space can be realized by running the selection, crossover, and mutation operation in the GA optimization. Cheng-Mu Tsai Copyright © 2015 Cheng-Mu Tsai. All rights reserved. Elucidating How Surface Functionalization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Affects Nanostructured MWCNT/Titania Hybrid Materials Sun, 05 Jul 2015 11:04:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/952797/ The new class of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/titania nanocomposites was prepared using a sol-gel technique. The addition of titania to MWCNTs has the potential to provide new capability for the development of electrical devices by taking advantage of the favorable electric characteristics of MWCNTs. MWCNTs were first functionalized with carboxyl, acyl chloride, amine, and hydroxyl groups and were then dispersed in a tetraisopropyl titanate (TIPT) solution via ultrasonic processing. After gelation, well-dispersed titania in the MWCNT/titania nanocomposites was obtained. Functionalized MWCNTs with varied functional groups were proved by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For the nanocomposites, the degree of the sol-gel process were proved by Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Furthermore, the morphology of the MWCNT/titania nanocomposites was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the sol-gel process, the functionalized MWCNTs with carboxyl, acyl chloride, amine, and hydroxyl groups have resulted in the carbon nanotube-graft-titania nanocomposites with a network structure of titania between the carbon nanotubes. Cheng-Fu Yang, Wei-Chieh Hsu, Song-Mao Wu, and Chean-Cheng Su Copyright © 2015 Cheng-Fu Yang et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Ageing Effect on Li-Polymer Batteries Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:52:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/979321/ Lithium-ion batteries are a key technology for current and future energy storage in mobile and stationary application. In particular, they play an important role in the electrification of mobility and therefore the battery lifetime prediction is a fundamental aspect for successful market introduction. Numerous studies developed ageing models capable of predicting battery life span. Most of the previous works compared the effect of the ageing factors to a battery’s cycle life. These cycles are identical, which is not the case for electric vehicles applications. Indeed, most of the available information is based on results from laboratory testing, under very controlled environments, and using ageing protocols, which may not correctly reflect the actual utilization. For this reason, it is important to link the effect of duty cycles with the ageing of the batteries. This paper proposes a simple method to investigate the effect of the duty cycle on the batteries lifetime through tests performed on different cells for different kinds of cycle. In this way, a generic complex cycle can be seen as a composition of elemental cycles by means of Rainflow procedures. Consequently, the ageing due to any cycle can be estimated starting from the knowledge of simpler cycles. Simone Barcellona, Morris Brenna, Federica Foiadelli, Michela Longo, and Luigi Piegari Copyright © 2015 Simone Barcellona et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Nano-Tricalcium Phosphate and Nanohydroxyapatite on the Staining Susceptibility of Bleached Enamel Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:52:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/935264/ Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of nano-tricalcium phosphate (n-TCP) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HAP) on prevention of restaining of enamel after dental bleaching. Methods. Forty bovine incisors were bleached with 20% carbamide peroxide for two weeks. Afterward, they were divided into five groups based on remineralization solution: no treatment (control), 10% n-TCP, 5% n-TCP, 10% n-HAP, and 5% n-HAP. Each group was daily immersed for 10 minutes in the restaining solution (tea) and for 3 minutes in the remineralization agent, respectively. This protocol was repeated for five days. Subsequently, three digital photographs (baseline, after bleaching, and after restaining) were analyzed by Adobe Photoshop software. The obtained , , , and parameters were compared using ANOVA and Wilcoxon and Bonferroni tests. Results. After bleaching, there were significant changes in tooth colors () while, after restaining and immersion in remineralization solutions, there were no significant differences in , , and values of different groups (). However, of 10% TCP was significantly lower than the control () while there were no significant differences between the other groups (). Conclusion. 10% n-TCP could significantly maintain the resultant color and reconstruct the enamel structure after bleaching. Mohammad Bagher Rezvani, Mohammad Atai, Mohammad Reza Rouhollahi, Kosar Malekhoseini, Hamideh Rezai, and Faeze Hamze Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Bagher Rezvani et al. All rights reserved. Thiomers: A Blessing to Evaluating Era of Pharmaceuticals Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:51:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2015/146329/ Thiomers are the polymers modified for the mucoadhesive properties and other additive properties by incorporating thiol moieties in the backbone of the unmodified polymeric chain by substitution reactions or simple oxidation reactions. Drugs that are less soluble and permeable can be complexed with thiomers for their increased absorption through the mucosal membranes by increase in contact time and prolonged stay in body due to mucoadhesion. Immobilization of thiol group therefore increases the mucoadhesive properties of the modified polymer by 2–140-folds. The prepared thiomers are characterized and made stable by different techniques. Thiomers also give the controlled delivery of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in the body. Different polymers that are modified by thiolation are chitosan, polyacrylic acid, sodium alginate, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, guar gum, and so forth. Thiomeric formulations are a challenge to deliver drugs with low therapeutic compatibility. Micro- and nanopreparations containing thiomers can be prepared by different techniques such as covalent crosslinking, in situ gelation, radical emulsion polymerization, and emulsification. Nowadays thiomers have wide range of applications as a promising pharmaceutical excipient in the evaluating era of pharmaceutical technology. Muhammad Hanif, Muhammad Zaman, and Sundas Qureshi Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Hanif et al. All rights reserved. Decomposition and Mineralization of Dimethyl Phthalate in an Aqueous Solution by Wet Oxidation Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:41:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/164594/ Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) was treated via wet oxygen oxidation process (WOP). The decomposition efficiency of DMP and mineralization efficiency of total organic carbons were measured to evaluate the effects of operation parameters on the performance of WOP. The results revealed that reaction temperature is the most affecting factor, with a higher offering higher and as expected. The increases as rotating speed increases from 300 to 500 rpm with stirring enhancement of gas liquid mass transfer. However, it exhibits reduction effect at 700 rpm due to purging of dissolved oxygen by overstirring. Regarding the effects of pressure , a higher provides more oxygen for the forward reaction with DMP, while overhigh increases the absorption of gaseous products such as CO2 and decomposes short-chain hydrocarbon fragments back into the solution thus hindering the forward reaction. For the tested of 2.41 to 3.45 MPa, the results indicated that 2.41 MPa is appropriate. A longer reaction time of course gives better performance. At 500 rpm, 483 K, 2.41 MPa, and 180 min, the and are 93 and 36%, respectively. Dar-Ren Ji, Chia-Chi Chang, Shih-Yun Chen, Chun-Yu Chiu, Jyi-Yeong Tseng, Ching-Yuan Chang, Chiung-Fen Chang, Sheng-Wei Chiang, Zang-Sie Hung, Je-Lueng Shie, Yi-Hung Chen, and Min-Hao Yuan Copyright © 2015 Dar-Ren Ji et al. All rights reserved. Fast Object Tracking Employing Labelled Particle Filter for Thermal Infrared Imager Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:40:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/497639/ More and more network cameras are now working over distributed networks, offering the capability of remote intelligent video surveillance. In this paper, we bring forward an original particle filter tracking algorithm named labelled particle filter which describes each image patch with a binary label. Based on the imaging theory of thermography, moving objects, such as pedestrians and automobiles, usually have higher intensities compared with the background in a gray-level pseudocolor mode. Thus an image patch can be classified into two categories according to its intensity distribution, and we can use a one-bit binary label, positive or negative, to describe the attribute of image patch. Therefore, the candidate target template is established only if the label of candidate target matches the label of reference target, and the computational complexity is reduced consequently. Experiments are conducted to show that the proposed algorithm can handle real-time object tracking with less time cost while maintaining high tracking accuracy. Junying Yang, Zhenghao Li, Jingman Xia, and Peng Han Copyright © 2015 Junying Yang et al. All rights reserved. Bearing-Foreign Material Deposition on Retrieved Co-Cr Femoral Heads: Composition and Morphology Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:33:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/967278/ Bearing-foreign material deposition onto a femoral head can occur from contact with an acetabular shell due to dislocation, reduction, or subluxation. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively characterize deposit regions on retrieved cobalt-chrome femoral heads from metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasties that had experienced such adverse events. The morphology, topography, and composition of deposition regions were characterized using macrophotography, optical profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The deposit areas were relatively large, they were much rougher than the surrounding undamaged clean areas, and they displayed several distinct morphologies. Titanium alloy elements were the predominant constituents. Calcium and phosphorous were also detected within the deposit areas, in a composition that could nucleate abrasive hydroxyapatite. In addition, tungsten-rich particles, likely present as tungsten carbide, were observed on top of the titanium deposits. The increased roughness associated with these deposition features would be expected to accelerate damage and wear of the opposing liner and hence accelerate the development of osteolysis. Nishant M. Tikekar, Anneliese D. Heiner, Thomas E. Baer, Karen M. Kruger, John J. Callaghan, Thomas D. Brown, and John J. Lannutti Copyright © 2015 Nishant M. Tikekar et al. All rights reserved. Detecting and Preventing Sybil Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Message Authentication and Passing Method Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:26:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/841267/ Wireless sensor networks are highly indispensable for securing network protection. Highly critical attacks of various kinds have been documented in wireless sensor network till now by many researchers. The Sybil attack is a massive destructive attack against the sensor network where numerous genuine identities with forged identities are used for getting an illegal entry into a network. Discerning the Sybil attack, sinkhole, and wormhole attack while multicasting is a tremendous job in wireless sensor network. Basically a Sybil attack means a node which pretends its identity to other nodes. Communication to an illegal node results in data loss and becomes dangerous in the network. The existing method Random Password Comparison has only a scheme which just verifies the node identities by analyzing the neighbors. A survey was done on a Sybil attack with the objective of resolving this problem. The survey has proposed a combined CAM-PVM (compare and match-position verification method) with MAP (message authentication and passing) for detecting, eliminating, and eventually preventing the entry of Sybil nodes in the network. We propose a scheme of assuring security for wireless sensor network, to deal with attacks of these kinds in unicasting and multicasting. Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan and Rajamani Vayanaperumal Copyright © 2015 Udaya Suriya Raj Kumar Dhamodharan and Rajamani Vayanaperumal. All rights reserved. Sythesis, Modification, and Biosensing Characteristics of Au2S/AuAgS-Coated Gold Nanorods Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:10:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/530631/ The Au2S/AuAgS-coated gold nanorods (Au2S/AuAgS/GNRs) are prepared by a facile synthesis method and functionally modified for their biosensing application. In the preparation process, the longitudinal plasmon resonance (LPR) bands of Au2S/AuAgS/GNRs can be changed by controlling the thickness of the chalcogenide layer coated on GNRs. Especially, the LPR band located at 800 nm is obtained for biosensing application in the near-infrared region. Furthermore, mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) are, respectively, used to modify Au2S/AuAgS/GNRs to acquire the functional nanoprobes; that is, MUA-modified and PSS-modified Au2S/AuAgS/GNRs and their different chemical reaction mechanisms are studied by the absorption spectrum and ξ-potential measurement. Then, the functional nanoprobes are incubated with anti-prostate-specific antigen (PSA) antibody to detect PSA. The experimental results demonstrate that the functional nanoprobes are sensitive to the target binding of PSA. Therefore, Au2S/AuAgS/GNRs are suitable to form the bioprobes for detection of PSA in early-phase prostate cancer. Yanting Liu, Yanan Ma, Jun Zhou, Xing Li, Shusen Xie, and Ruiqin Tan Copyright © 2015 Yanting Liu et al. All rights reserved. Plasmonic Filters Based on Lithographically Patterned and Hexagonally Arranged Triangular Silver Nanoparticles Array Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:08:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/195320/ A plasmonic filter applied in visible regime is proposed on the basis of hexagonally arranged triangular silver nanoparticle arrays. A method using discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to aid design parameters of the silver nanoparticle arrays is adopted for the filter design and optimization on the basis of computational numerical calculation. The influence of the particle’s thickness and period on the extinction spectrum is studied using the DDA-based computational analysis. Considering the nanofabrication condition, arrays with 40 nm thickness and 230 nm period are selected and fabricated by using nanosphere lithography (NSL) technique. The experimental spectrum is basically in agreement with the theoretical spectrum derived by the DDA calculation. Jing Liu, Haoyuan Cai, Kai Tang, and Lingqi Kong Copyright © 2015 Jing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Multisensor Track Occupancy Detection Model Based on Chaotic Neural Networks Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:08:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/896340/ Bad shunting of track circuit is one of the major risks for railway traffic safety. The occupancy of track will not be correctly detected due to bad shunting, which could severely degrade the efficiency of the train dispatching command, sometimes even causing serious accidents, such as train collision and derailment. To handle the bad shunting problem, the Three Points Test Method is commonly used for detecting track occupancy. However, this method completely relies on manual confirmation and it thus usually leads to low detection efficiency and high labor intensity. In order to improve the detection efficiency and involve as less human labors as possible, this paper proposes a multisensor track occupancy detection model which is based on chaotic neural networks. This model uses the detection results of track occupancy collected by multiple sensors as the fundamental data, and then it calculates their weights using chaotic neural networks for data fusion, and finally the model determines whether the track is occupied. Experimental results and field tests demonstrate that the proposed model is able to provide track occupancy detection with high effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, the accuracy of detection reaches 99.9999%, which can help to greatly reduce the labor intensity of manual confirmation. Ze-xi Hua and Xiang-dong Chen Copyright © 2015 Ze-xi Hua and Xiang-dong Chen. All rights reserved. Giant Ovarian Cyst Masquerading as Massive Ascites in an 11-Year-Old Sun, 05 Jul 2015 10:05:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/878716/ We are presenting a unique case of an 11-year-old girl admitted for investigation of progressive abdominal distention of more than one-year duration. Due to the complete cystic nature of the mass and its enormous size, it was not visualized by the ultrasound and was reported as massive ascites. MRI and postoperative histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of giant serous cystadenoma of the right ovary. She underwent a right ovarian cystectomy with complete preservation of both ovaries and fallopian tubes and is doing well on outpatient follow-up. Shaza Ali Mohammed Elhassan, Shabina Khan, and Ahmed El-Makki Copyright © 2015 Shaza Ali Mohammed Elhassan et al. All rights reserved. One-Stop Clinic Utilization in Plastic Surgery: Our Local Experience and the Results of a UK-Wide National Survey Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:55:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2015/747961/ Introduction. “See and treat” one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service. Mark Gorman, James Coelho, Sameer Gujral, and Alastair McKay Copyright © 2015 Mark Gorman et al. All rights reserved. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:55:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/584075/ This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved. Jiankun Peng, Hongwen He, Wei Liu, and Hongqiang Guo Copyright © 2015 Jiankun Peng et al. All rights reserved. Sequence and Structure Analysis of Biological Molecules Based on Computational Methods Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:51:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/565328/ Jia-Feng Yu, Yue-Dong Yang, Xiao Sun, and Ji-Hua Wang Copyright © 2015 Jia-Feng Yu et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Opposition-Based Learning Particle Swarm Optimization for the Detection of SNP-SNP Interactions Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:49:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/524821/ SNP-SNP interactions have been receiving increasing attention in understanding the mechanism underlying susceptibility to complex diseases. Though many works have been done for the detection of SNP-SNP interactions, the algorithmic development is still ongoing. In this study, an improved opposition-based learning particle swarm optimization (IOBLPSO) is proposed for the detection of SNP-SNP interactions. Highlights of IOBLPSO are the introduction of three strategies, namely, opposition-based learning, dynamic inertia weight, and a postprocedure. Opposition-based learning not only enhances the global explorative ability, but also avoids premature convergence. Dynamic inertia weight allows particles to cover a wider search space when the considered SNP is likely to be a random one and converges on promising regions of the search space while capturing a highly suspected SNP. The postprocedure is used to carry out a deep search in highly suspected SNP sets. Experiments of IOBLPSO are performed on both simulation data sets and a real data set of age-related macular degeneration, results of which demonstrate that IOBLPSO is promising in detecting SNP-SNP interactions. IOBLPSO might be an alternative to existing methods for detecting SNP-SNP interactions. Junliang Shang, Yan Sun, Shengjun Li, Jin-Xing Liu, Chun-Hou Zheng, and Junying Zhang Copyright © 2015 Junliang Shang et al. All rights reserved. Quantum Chemical Study on the Corrosion Inhibition of Some Oxadiazoles Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:49:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/519606/ Quantum chemical calculations based on DFT method were performed on three nitrogen-bearing heterocyclic compounds used as corrosion inhibitors for the mild steel in acid media to determine the relationship between the molecular structure of inhibitors and inhibition efficiency. The structural parameters, such as energy and distribution of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO), the charge distribution of the studied inhibitors, the absolute electronegativity (χ) values, and the fraction of electrons () transfer from inhibitors to mild steel were also calculated and correlated with inhibition efficiencies. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency of inhibitors increased with the increase in energy of HOMO and decrease in energy gap of frontier molecular orbital, and the areas containing N and O atoms are most possible sites for bonding the steel surface by donating electrons to the mild steel. Hong Ju, Li Ding, Can Sun, and Jie-jing Chen Copyright © 2015 Hong Ju et al. All rights reserved. EDSS Change Relates to Physical HRQoL While Relapse Occurrence Relates to Overall HRQoL in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Subcutaneous Interferon β-1a Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:49:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/msi/2015/631989/ Objective. To compare patterns of associations of changes in mental and physical health dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over time with relapse occurrence and changes in Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). Methods. This 24-month, phase IV, observational study enrolled 334 patients with RMS who received interferon β-1a 44 μg or 22 μg subcutaneously three times weekly. At each 6-month visit, patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 (MSQOL-54) and site investigators assessed EDSS and recorded relapse occurrence. A generalized linear model procedure was used for multivariable analyses (per protocol) that explored unique associations of EDSS score change and relapse occurrence with MSQOL-54 physical health composite score (PCS) and mental health composite score (MCS). Results. HRQoL improved over 2 years among those who completed the study. Occurrence of ≥1 relapse was significantly associated with lower MSQOL-54 PCS and MCS. Changes in EDSS score were significantly associated with MSQOL-54 PCS, but not MCS. Conclusions. HRQoL assessments, particularly those that examine mental health, may provide information on the general health status of patients with RMS that would not be recognized using traditional clinician-assessed measures of disease severity and activity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov; identifier: NCT01141751. Barbara G. Vickrey, Liesly Lee, Fraser Moore, and Patrick Moriarty Copyright © 2015 Barbara G. Vickrey et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Global ATGL Knockout on Murine Fasting Glucose Kinetics Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:41:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/542029/ Mice deficient in adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL−/−) present elevated ectopic lipid levels but are paradoxically glucose-tolerant. Measurement of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and Cori cycle activity provide insights into the maintenance of glycemic control in these animals. These parameters were determined in 7 wild-type (ATGL+/−) and 6 ATGL−/− mice by a primed-infusion of [U-13C6]glucose followed by LC-MS/MS targeted mass-isotopomer analysis of blood glucose. EGP was quantified by isotope dilution of [U-13C6]glucose while Cori cycling was estimated by analysis of glucose triose 13C-isotopomers. Fasting plasma free fatty-acids were significantly lower in ATGL−/− versus control mice (0.43 ± 0.05 mM versus 0.73 ± 0.11 mM, ). Six-hour fasting EGP rates were identical for both ATGL−/− and control mice (79 ± 11 versus 71 ± 7 μmol/kg/min, resp.). Peripheral glucose metabolism was dominated by Cori cycling (80 ± 2% and 82 ± 7% of glucose disposal for ATGL−/− and control mice, resp.) indicating that peripheral glucose oxidation was not significantly upregulated in ATGL−/− mice under these conditions. The glucose 13C-isotopomer distributions in both ATGL−/− and control mice were consistent with extensive hepatic pyruvate recycling. This suggests that gluconeogenic outflow from the Krebs cycle was also well compensated in ATGL−/− mice. Margarida Coelho, Patricia Nunes, Vera M. Mendes, Bruno Manadas, Arend Heerschap, and John G. Jones Copyright © 2015 Margarida Coelho et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Range-Extended Strategy for Fuel Cell/Battery Electric Vehicles Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:32:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/363094/ The range-extended electric vehicle is proposed to improve the range anxiety drivers have of electric vehicles. Conventionally, a gasoline/diesel generator increases the range of an electric vehicle. Due to the zero-CO2 emission stipulations, utilizing fuel cells as generators raises concerns in society. This paper presents a novel charging strategy for fuel cell/battery electric vehicles. In comparison to the conventional switch control, a fuzzy control approach is employed to enhance the battery’s state of charge (SOC). This approach improves the quick loss problem of the system’s SOC and thus can achieve an extended driving range. Smooth steering experience and range extension are the main indexes for development of fuzzy rules, which are mainly based on the energy management in the urban driving model. Evaluation of the entire control system is performed by simulation, which demonstrates its effectiveness and feasibility. Jenn-Jiang Hwang, Jia-Sheng Hu, and Chih-Hong Lin Copyright © 2015 Jenn-Jiang Hwang et al. All rights reserved. The High-Temperature Synthesis of the Nanoscaled White-Light Phosphors Applied in the White-Light LEDs Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:27:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/976106/ The white-light phosphors consisting of Dy3+ doped YPO4 and Dy3+ doped YP1-XVXO4 were prepared by the chemical coprecipitation method. After the 1200°C thermal treatment in the air atmosphere, the white-light phosphors with particle sizes around 90 nm can be obtained. In order to reduce the average particle size of phosphors, the alkaline washing method was applied to the original synthesis process, which reduces the particle sizes to 65 nm. From the PLE spectra, four absorption peaks locating at 325, 352, 366, and 390 nm can be observed in the YPO4-based phosphors. These peaks appear due to the following electron transitions: 6H15/2→4K15/2, 6H15/2→4M15/2+6P7/2, 6H15/2→4I11/2, and 6H15/2→4M19/2. Besides, the emission peaks of wavelengths 484 nm and 576 nm can be observed in the PL spectra. In order to obtain the white-light phosphors, the vanadium ions were applied to substitute the phosphorus ions to compose the YP1-XVXO4 phosphors. From the PL spectra, the strongest PL intensity can be obtained with 30% vanadium ions. As the concentration of vanadium ions increases to 40%, the phosphors with the CIE coordinates locating at the white-light area can be obtained. Hao-Ying Lu and Meng-Han Tsai Copyright © 2015 Hao-Ying Lu and Meng-Han Tsai. All rights reserved. A Thermal Infrared and Visible Images Fusion Based Approach for Multitarget Detection under Complex Environment Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:22:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/750708/ Multitarget detection under complex environment is a challenging task, where the measured signal will be submerged by noise. D-S belief theory is an effective approach in dealing with Multitarget detection. However, there are some limitations of the general D-S belief theory under complex environment. For example, the basic belief assignment is difficult to establish, and the subjective factors will influence the update process of evidence. In this paper, a new Multitarget detection approach based on thermal infrared and visible images fusion is proposed. To easily characterize the defected heterogeneous image, a basic belief assignment based on the distance distribution function of heterogeneous characteristics is presented. Furthermore, to improve the discrimination and effectiveness of the Multitarget detection, a concept of comprehensive credibility is introduced into the proposed approach and a new update rule of evidence is designed. Finally, some experiments are carried out and the experimental results show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach in the Multitarget detection task. Xinnan Fan, Pengfei Shi, Jianjun Ni, and Min Li Copyright © 2015 Xinnan Fan et al. All rights reserved. Uterine Intravenous Leiomyomatosis with Cardiac Extension: Radiologic Assessment with Surgical and Pathologic Correlation Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:17:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/576743/ We present the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of a 71-year-old woman with a cardiac extension of intravenous leiomyoma (IVL) that arose from the uterus, extended to the inferior vena cava (IVC), and reached the right ventricle through the right ovarian vein. Radiologic-pathologic correlation showed that the intravascular cord-like mass originating from the IVC and extending to the right ventricle was composed of degenerated smooth muscle cells with a number of large vessels that were regarded as arteries; moreover, the arteries within the cord-like mass appeared to be looping internally. Given the disappearance of the right ovarian venous wall around the IVL pathologically, extracting the tumor from the ovarian vein during an operation is considered to be impossible retrospectively. Also it was difficult to identify even the intravenous extension of the uterine leiomyoma histopathologically. Therefore, contrast-enhanced CT, in particular arterial phase imaging, provided important information that revealed the mass, range, and path of the lesion, ensuring that an appropriate operative plan could be drawn up and the tumor completely excised. Go Nakai, Kazuya Maeda, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Takashi Yamada, Yoshinobu Hirose, Yoshito Terai, Masahide Ohmichi, Takahiro Katsumata, and Yoshifumi Narumi Copyright © 2015 Go Nakai et al. All rights reserved. X-Ray Computed Tomography Analysis of Sajau Coal, Berau Basin, Indonesia: 3D Imaging of Cleat and Microcleat Characteristics Sun, 05 Jul 2015 09:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/415769/ The Pliocene Sajau coals of the Berau Basin area have a moderately to highly developed cleat system. Mostly the cleat fractures are well developed in both bright and dull bands, and these cleats are generally inclined or perpendicular to the bedding planes of the seam. The presence of cleat networks/fractures in coal seam is the important point in coalbed methane prospect. The 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) technique was performed to identify cleats characteristics in the Sajau coal seams, such as the direction of coal cleats, geometry of cleat, and cleats mineralization. By CT scan imaging technique two different types of natural fractures observed in Sajau coals have been identified, that is, face cleats and butt cleats. This technique also identified the direction of face cleats and butt cleats as shown in the resulting 3D images. Based on the images, face cleats show a NNE-SSW direction while butt cleats have a NW-SE direction. The crosscutting relationship indicated that NNE-SSW cleats were formed earlier than NW-SE cleats. The procedure also identified the types of minerals that filled the cleats apertures. Based on their density, the minerals are categorized as follows: very high density minerals (pyrite), high density minerals (anastase), and low density minerals (kaolinite, calcite) were identified filling the cleats aperture. Ahmad Helman Hamdani Copyright © 2015 Ahmad Helman Hamdani. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Geriatric Inpatients at a German Tertiary University Teaching Hospital: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study of Clinical Practice Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:59:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2015/647930/ Current iron supplementation practice in geriatric patients is erratic and lacks evidence-based recommendations. Despite potential benefits in this population, intravenous iron supplementation is often withheld due to concerns regarding pharmacy expense, perceived safety issues, and doubts regarding efficacy in elderly patients. This retrospective, observational cohort study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, Ferinject) in patients aged >75 years with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA). Within a twelve-month data extraction period, the charts of 405 hospitalised patients aged 65–101 years were retrospectively analysed for IDA, defined according to WHO criteria for anaemia (haemoglobin: <13.0 g/dL (m)/<12.0 g/dL (f)) in conjunction with transferrin saturation <20%. Of 128 IDA patients screened, 51 (39.8%) received intravenous iron. 38 patient charts were analysed. Mean cumulative dose of intravenous FCM was 784.4 ± 271.7 mg iron (1–3 infusions). 18 patients (47%) fulfilled treatment response criteria (≥1.0 g/dL increase in haemoglobin between baseline and hospital discharge). AEs were mild/moderate, most commonly transient increases of liver enzymes (n = 5/13.2%). AE incidence was comparable with that observed in patients <75 years. No serious AEs were observed. Ferric carboxymaltose was well tolerated and effective for correction of Hb levels and iron stores in this cohort of IDA patients aged over 75 years. Matthias Bach, Tabea Geisel, Julia Martin, Bettina Schulze, Roland Schaefer, Garth Virgin, and Juergen Stein Copyright © 2015 Matthias Bach et al. All rights reserved. Simple Rheological Analysis Method of Spinnable-Polymer Flow Properties Using MFI Tester Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:57:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/790107/ Rheological characterization of polymers explains the flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties and tests fibre-forming ability. The current method investigates the viscoelastic properties and morphology of polymers and finds the rheological data and the right polymer viscosity, which is determining the best processing temperature. The right processing temperature saves the power, the material, and the time needed for production. After calculating polymers viscosity by using MFI tester, the method investigates rheological properties and surface shape at different temperatures and loads. The method could apply to other polymers to find the viscosity-temperature change and to set the best processing temperature. Basel Younes Copyright © 2015 Basel Younes. All rights reserved. Hypobaric Hypoxia Imbalances Mitochondrial Dynamics in Rat Brain Hippocampus Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:55:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/742059/ Brain is predominantly susceptible to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction during hypobaric hypoxia, and therefore undergoes neurodegeneration due to energy crisis. Evidences illustrate a high degree of association for mitochondrial fusion/fission imbalance and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial fusion/fission is a recently reported dynamic mechanism which frequently occurs among cellular mitochondrial network. Hence, the study investigated the temporal alteration and involvement of abnormal mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission) along with disturbed mitochondrial functionality during chronic exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH). The Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to simulated high altitude equivalent to 25000 ft for 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Mitochondrial morphology, distribution within neurons, enzyme activity of respiratory complexes, , ADP: ATP, and expression of fission/fusion key proteins were determined. Results demonstrated HH induced alteration in mitochondrial morphology by damaged, small mitochondria observed in neurons with disturbance of mitochondrial functionality and reduced mitochondrial density in neuronal processes manifested by excessive mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and decreased mitochondrial fusion as compared to unexposed rat brain hippocampus. The study suggested that imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics is one of the noteworthy mechanisms occurring in hippocampal neurons during HH insult. Khushbu Jain, Dipti Prasad, Shashi Bala Singh, and Ekta Kohli Copyright © 2015 Khushbu Jain et al. All rights reserved. Regadenoson-Stress Dynamic Myocardial Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Performance of CT Angiography in Assessment of Intermediate Coronary Artery Stenosis in Asymptomatic Patients Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:52:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/105629/ The prospective study included 54 asymptomatic high-risk patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CTA) and regadenoson-induced stress CT perfusion (rsCTP). Diagnostic accuracy of significant stenosis (≥50%) determination was evaluated for CTA alone and CTA + rsCTP in 27 patients referred to ICA due to the positive rsCTP findings. Combined evaluation of CTA + rsCTP had higher diagnostic accuracy over CTA alone (per-segment: specificity 96 versus 68%, ; per-vessel: specificity 95 versus 75%, ) and high overruling rate of rsCTP was proved in intermediate stenosis (40–70%). Results demonstrate a significant additional value of rsCTP in the assessment of intermediate coronary artery stenosis found with CTA. Jan Baxa, Milan Hromádka, Jakub Šedivý, Lucie Štěpánková, Jiří Moláček, Bernhard Schmidt, Thomas Flohr, and Jiří Ferda Copyright © 2015 Jan Baxa et al. All rights reserved. Role of the Aspartate Transaminase and Platelet Ratio Index in Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis and Liver Inflammation in Adolescent Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:50:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/906026/ This study described an index of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) to assess hepatic fibrosis with limited expense and widespread availability compared to the liver biopsy in adolescent patients with CHB. Yu Zhijian, Li Hui, Yao Weiming, Lin Zhanzhou, Chen Zhong, Zheng Jinxin, Wang Hongyan, Deng Xiangbin, Yang Weizhi, Li Duoyun, Liu Xiaojun, and Deng Qiwen Copyright © 2015 Yu Zhijian et al. All rights reserved. Simple Hydrolysis Synthesis of Uniform Rice-Shaped β-FeOOH Nanocrystals and Their Transformation to α-Fe2O3 Microspheres Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:43:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/918424/ In the synthesis of nanostructure materials a specific emphasis has been focused on the control of shape and orientation of nanocrystals to obtain prerequisite properties of the materials. Nanorice is a new hybrid nanoparticle prolate geometry of nanoshells with reduced symmetry having new exciting optical behavior. Rice-shaped β-FeOOH nanocrystals have been synthesized by a simple hydrolysis chemical method using ferric aqueous solution and urea as surfactant. The successive calcination of β-FeOOH nanocrystals at 650°C results in the formation of the porous α-Fe2O3 (hematite) microspheres. The as-synthesized yield of β-FeOOH nanocrystals was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and optical spectroscopy. The successive transformation of rice-shaped β-FeOOH nanostructures into porous α-Fe2O3 (hematite) microspheres through calcination process was confirmed by XRD, SEM, and EDAX studies. The water contact angle of as-prepared α-Fe2O3 microspheres shows hydrophobic behavior of the material. Beer Pal Singh, Nansy Sharma, Rakesh Kumar, and Ashwani Kumar Copyright © 2015 Beer Pal Singh et al. All rights reserved. Novel Design for a Diffusive Solar Cell Window Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:41:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/675312/ Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are an important application of future solar energy development. The incorporation of solar cells into windows must not only maintain indoor natural lighting but also generate electrical power at the same time. In our continuing effort to improve the design of diffusion solar window, a more fundamental and efficient three-layer structure—glass/EVA with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded/glass—was proposed. In this work, a well-established ASAP ray-tracing model for a diffusive solar cell window was implemented to validate the outperformance of three-layer structure over primitive five-layer structure. Optical simulations were also implemented to perform its primary design for the determination of the optimal design parameters, such as the glass thickness, the EVA thickness, and the weight concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Based on the simulation results, an optimal design for a three-layer diffusive solar cell window prototype was proposed. And the influence of both EVA thickness and glass thickness on the power edge-exitance (solar cell power generation efficiency) of a DSCW was thoroughly investigated. Ruei-Tang Chen, Chih-Chieh Kang, Jeng-Feng Lin, Sheng-Wei Chiou, Hung-Hsiang Cheng, and Chih-Wen Lai Copyright © 2015 Ruei-Tang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Formation of Nanoporous Tin Oxide Layers on Different Substrates during Anodic Oxidation in Oxalic Acid Electrolyte Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:40:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/302560/ Nanoporous tin oxide layers were obtained on various Sn substrates including high- and low-purity foils and wire by one-step anodic oxidation carried out in a 0.3 M oxalic acid electrolyte at various anodizing potentials. In general, amorphous oxide layers with the atomic ratio of Sn : O (1 : 1) were grown during anodization, and a typical structure of the as-obtained film consists of the “outer” layer with less regular, interconnetted pores and the “inner” layer with much more uniform and regular channels formed as a result of vigorous gas evolution. It was found that the use of electrochemical cell with the sample placed horizontally on the metallic support and stabilized by the Teflon cover, instead of the typical two-electrode system with vertically arranged electrodes, can affect the morphology of as-obtained layers and allows fabrication of nanoporous oxides even at anodizing potentials up to 11 V. An average pore diameter in the “outer” oxide layer increases with increasing anodizing potential, and no significant effect of substrate purity on the structure of anodic film was proved, except better uniformity of the oxides grown on high-purity Sn. A strong linear relationship between the average steady-state current density and anodizing potential was also observed. Leszek Zaraska, Michał Bobruk, and Grzegorz D. Sulka Copyright © 2015 Leszek Zaraska et al. All rights reserved. Analysis and Design of Robust Positivity and Stability for Continuous-Time Linear Uncertain Systems Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:35:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/861014/ This paper deals with the analysis and design of positivity and stability of linear continuous conic systems. First, two robustness analysis theorems are proposed for the systems with state-feedback. Second, the state-feedback stabilization problem is solved by using linear programming (LP). Numerical examples are given for illustration. Finally, the conclusions are made. Kuo-Liang Yen, Kuo-Shong Wang, and Yau-Tarng Juang Copyright © 2015 Kuo-Liang Yen et al. All rights reserved. Peristaltic Creeping Flow of Power Law Physiological Fluids through a Nonuniform Channel with Slip Effect Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:35:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abb/2015/152802/ A mathematical study on creeping flow of non-Newtonian fluids (power law model) through a nonuniform peristaltic channel, in which amplitude is varying across axial displacement, is presented, with slip effects included. The governing equations are simplified by employing the long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximations. The expressions for axial velocity, stream function, pressure gradient, and pressure difference are obtained. Computational and numerical results for velocity profile, pressure gradient, and trapping under the effects of slip parameter, fluid behavior index, angle between the walls, and wave number are discussed with the help of Mathematica graphs. The present model is applicable to study the behavior of intestinal flow (chyme movement from small intestine to large intestine). It is also relevant to simulations of biomimetic pumps conveying hazardous materials, polymers, and so forth. M. K. Chaube, D. Tripathi, O. Anwar Bég, Shashi Sharma, and V. S. Pandey Copyright © 2015 M. K. Chaube et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Samarium Doped Hydroxyapatite, Ceramics for Medical Application: Antimicrobial Activity Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:28:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/849216/ Samarium doped hydroxyapatite (Sm:HAp), (PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp), bionanoparticles with different have been successfully synthesized by coprecipitation method. Detailed characterization of samarium doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Sm:HAp-NPs) was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The biocompatibility of samarium doped hydroxyapatite was assessed by cell viability. The antibacterial activity of the Sm:HAp-NPs was tested against Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus). A linear increase of antimicrobial activity of P. aeruginosa has been observed when concentrations of Sm:HAp-NPs in the samples with were higher than 0.125 mg/mL. For Sm:HAp-NPs with a significant increase of antibacterial activity on E. coli was observed in the range 0.5–1 mg/mL. For low concentrations of Sm:HAp-NPs () from 0.031 to 0.125 mg/mL a high antibacterial activity on Enterococcus faecalis has been noticed. A growth of the inhibitory effect on S. aureus was observed for all concentrations of Sm:HAp-NPs with . C. S. Ciobanu, S. L. Iconaru, C. L. Popa, M. Motelica-Heino, and D. Predoi Copyright © 2015 C. S. Ciobanu et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Genomics Revealed Genetic Diversity and Species/Strain-Level Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Three Probiotic Bifidobacterial Species Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:28:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/567809/ Strains of Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium animalis are widely used as probiotics in the food industry. Although numerous studies have revealed the properties and functionality of these strains, it is uncertain whether these characteristics are species common or strain specific. To address this issue, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of 49 strains belonging to these three bifidobacterial species to describe their genetic diversity and to evaluate species-level differences. There were 166 common clusters between strains of B. breve and B. longum, whereas there were nine common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. longum and four common clusters between strains of B. animalis and B. breve. Further analysis focused on carbohydrate metabolism revealed the existence of certain strain-dependent genes, such as those encoding enzymes for host glycan utilisation or certain membrane transporters, and many genes commonly distributed at the species level, as was previously reported in studies with limited strains. As B. longum and B. breve are human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB), whereas B. animalis is a non-HRB species, several of the differences in these species’ gene distributions might be the result of their adaptations to the nutrient environment. This information may aid both in selecting probiotic candidates and in understanding their potential function as probiotics. Toshitaka Odamaki, Ayako Horigome, Hirosuke Sugahara, Nanami Hashikura, Junichi Minami, Jin-zhong Xiao, and Fumiaki Abe Copyright © 2015 Toshitaka Odamaki et al. All rights reserved. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:28:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/313274/ Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI) outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3–14.2) years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5–16) years) who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ for “mentally retarded” and “average,” respectively (Spearman’s rho = 0.42, . There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman’s rho = 0.8977, . “Picture arrangement” and “picture completion,” reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes. Mina Park, Jae-Jin Song, Seo Jin Oh, Min-Sup Shin, Jun Ho Lee, and Seung Ha Oh Copyright © 2015 Mina Park et al. All rights reserved. Diphenyl Ditelluride Intoxication Triggers Histological Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Lung of Mice Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:18:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2015/784612/ Tellurium compounds may be cytotoxic to different cells types. Thus, this work evaluated the effect of diphenyl ditelluride ((PhTe)2), an organotellurium commonly used in organic synthesis, on the morphology of liver, kidney, and lung. Adult mice were acutely (a subcutaneous single dose: 250 μmol/kg) or subchronically (one daily subcutaneous dose: 10 or 50 μmol/kg for 7 and 14 days) exposed to (PhTe)2. Afterwards, the histological analyses of liver, kidney, and lungs were performed. Liver histology revealed that the hepatocytes of mice subchronically exposed to (PhTe)2 presented cytoplasmic vacuolization, hydropic degeneration, and hyperchromatic nuclei. Subchronic exposure to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 also caused hepatic necrosis. Microvesicular and macrovesicular steatosis were identified in liver of mice acutely exposed to (PhTe)2. Acute and subchronic intoxication with (PhTe)2 induced changes on epithelial cells of renal tubules, namely, loss of brush border and cytoplasmatic vacuolization. Atrophy and hypertrophy, cast proteinaceous formation, and acute tubular necrosis were also identified in renal tissue. Mice subchronically exposed to 50 μmol/kg (PhTe)2 developed intra-alveolar edema and alveolar wall congestion in some areas of lungs. Acute exposure to (PhTe)2 did not cause histological changes in lungs. Our data show that (PhTe)2 may be considered a histotoxic agent for liver, kidney, and lung. Sônia Cristina Almeida da Luz, Melissa Falster Daubermann, Gustavo Roberto Thomé, Matheus Mülling dos Santos, Angelica Ramos, Gerson Torres Salazar, João Batista Teixeira da Rocha, and Nilda Vargas Barbosa Copyright © 2015 Sônia Cristina Almeida da Luz et al. All rights reserved. Written Language Ability in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:05:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/282164/ Objectives. To examine narrative writing in cochlear implant (CI) children and understand the factors associated with unfavorable outcomes. Materials and Methods. Forty-five CI children in grades 2–6 participated in this study. They received CIs at 4.1 ± 2.1 years of age and had used them for 6.5 ± 2.7 years. A story-writing test was conducted and scored on 4 subscales: Total Number of Words, Words per Sentence, Morphosyntax, and Semantics. Scores more than 1.5 SD lower than the mean of the normal-hearing normative sample were considered problematic. Language and speech skills were examined. Results. Significantly more implanted students were problematic on “Total Number of Words” (), “Words per Sentence” (), and “Semantics” (). Poorer receptive language and auditory performance were independently associated with problematic “Total Number of Words” () and “Semantics” (), respectively. “Semantics” problem was more common in lower graders (grades 2–4) than in higher graders (grades 5-6; ). Conclusion. Implanted children tend to write stories that are shorter, worse-organized, and without a plot, while formulating morphosyntactically correct sentences. Special attention is required on their auditory and language performances, which could lead to written language problems. Che-Ming Wu, Hui-Chen Ko, Yen-An Chen, Yung-Ting Tsou, and Wei-Chieh Chao Copyright © 2015 Che-Ming Wu et al. All rights reserved. Modeling of Auditory Neuron Response Thresholds with Cochlear Implants Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:04:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/394687/ The quality of the prosthetic-neural interface is a critical point for cochlear implant efficiency. It depends not only on technical and anatomical factors such as electrode position into the cochlea (depth and scalar placement), electrode impedance, and distance between the electrode and the stimulated auditory neurons, but also on the number of functional auditory neurons. The efficiency of electrical stimulation can be assessed by the measurement of e-CAP in cochlear implant users. In the present study, we modeled the activation of auditory neurons in cochlear implant recipients (nucleus device). The electrical response, measured using auto-NRT (neural responses telemetry) algorithm, has been analyzed using multivariate regression with cubic splines in order to take into account the variations of insertion depth of electrodes amongst subjects as well as the other technical and anatomical factors listed above. NRT thresholds depend on the electrode squared impedance (β = −0.11 ± 0.02, ), the scalar placement of the electrodes (β = −8.50 ± 1.97, ), and the depth of insertion calculated as the characteristic frequency of auditory neurons (CNF). Distribution of NRT residues according to CNF could provide a proxy of auditory neurons functioning in implanted cochleas. Frederic Venail, Thibault Mura, Mohamed Akkari, Caroline Mathiolon, Sophie Menjot de Champfleur, Jean Pierre Piron, Marielle Sicard, Françoise Sterkers-Artieres, Michel Mondain, and Alain Uziel Copyright © 2015 Frederic Venail et al. All rights reserved. Secretory Carcinoma of the Breast: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:03:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/581892/ Secretory carcinoma of the breast is an extremely rare subtype of breast cancer characterized by intracellular or extracellular secretion and granular eosinophilic cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. The disease which was considered to be predominant in younger age group has been recognized in adult population too and tends to show slow growth and indolent behavior. The disease occurs preferentially in females and only 27 cases have been reported amongst males. An optimal treatment for the disease subtype has been debated because of the paucity of data. We report two cases (one female and one male) of this rare disease that underwent treatment at our institution. Vivekanand Sharma, Gajendra Anuragi, Suresh Singh, Pinakin Patel, Arpita Jindal, and Raj Govind Sharma Copyright © 2015 Vivekanand Sharma et al. All rights reserved. TiO2-Based Nanomaterials: Design, Synthesis, and Applications Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:01:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/250632/ Yuekun Lai, Luning Wang, Dawei Liu, Zhong Chen, and Changjian Lin Copyright © 2015 Yuekun Lai et al. All rights reserved. Cochlear Implant Outcomes and Genetic Mutations in Children with Ear and Brain Anomalies Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:58:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/696281/ Background. Specific clinical conditions could compromise cochlear implantation outcomes and drastically reduce the chance of an acceptable development of perceptual and linguistic capabilities. These conditions should certainly include the presence of inner ear malformations or brain abnormalities. The aims of this work were to study the diagnostic value of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with sensorineural hearing loss who were candidates for cochlear implants and to analyse the anatomic abnormalities of the ear and brain in patients who underwent cochlear implantation. We also analysed the effects of ear malformations and brain anomalies on the CI outcomes, speculating on their potential role in the management of language developmental disorders. Methods. The present study is a retrospective observational review of cochlear implant outcomes among hearing-impaired children who presented ear and/or brain anomalies at neuroimaging investigations with MRI and HRCT. Furthermore, genetic results from molecular genetic investigations (GJB2/GJB6 and, additionally, in selected cases, SLC26A4 or mitochondrial-DNA mutations) on this study group were herein described. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis was conducted using statistical tests. Results. Between January 1, 1996 and April 1, 2012, at the ENT-Audiology Department of the University Hospital of Ferrara, 620 cochlear implantations were performed. There were 426 implanted children at the time of the present study (who were <18 years). Among these, 143 patients (64 females and 79 males) presented ear and/or brain anomalies/lesions/malformations at neuroimaging investigations with MRI and HRCT. The age of the main study group (143 implanted children) ranged from 9 months and 16 years (average = 4.4; median = 3.0). Conclusions. Good outcomes with cochlear implants are possible in patients who present with inner ear or brain abnormalities, even if central nervous system anomalies represent a negative prognostic factor that is made worse by the concomitant presence of cochlear malformations. Common cavity and stenosis of the internal auditory canal (less than 2 mm) are negative prognostic factors even if brain lesions are absent. Micol Busi, Monica Rosignoli, Alessandro Castiglione, Federica Minazzi, Patrizia Trevisi, Claudia Aimoni, Ferdinando Calzolari, Enrico Granieri, and Alessandro Martini Copyright © 2015 Micol Busi et al. All rights reserved. Sympathetic Arousal during a Touch-Based Healing Ritual Predicts Increased Well-Being Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:56:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/641704/ Objective. There is mounting evidence that more elaborate treatment rituals trigger larger nonspecific effects. The reasons for this remain unclear. In a pilot field study, we investigated the role of psychophysiological changes during a touch-based healing ritual for improvements in subjective well-being. Methods. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and skin conductance levels (SCL) were continuously assessed in 22 subjects before, during, and after a touch-based healing ritual. Participants rated their expectations and subjective well-being was assessed before and after the ritual by the “Short Questionnaire on Current Disposition”. Results. Subjective well-being increased significantly from before to after the ritual. The analysis of psychophysiological changes revealed a significant increase in respiratory rate from baseline to ritual, while skin conductance, heart rate, and heart rate variability did not change. Increases in SCL as well as decreases in respiratory rate from baseline to ritual were significantly associated with improvements in subjective well-being. Regression analyses showed increases in SCL to be the only significant predictor of improvements in well-being. Conclusion. Higher sympathetic arousal during a touch-based healing ritual predicted improvements in subjective well-being. Results suggest the occurrence of an anticipatory stress response, that is, a state of enhanced sympathetic activity that is known to precede relaxation. Karin Meissner and Anne Koch Copyright © 2015 Karin Meissner and Anne Koch. All rights reserved. Diabetic Muscle Infarction of the Tibialis Anterior and Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscles Mimicking the Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:55:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/656307/ One of the most common causes of skeletal muscle infarction is diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), a rare complication associated with poorly controlled diabetes. We report an atypical case of DMI localized in the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles of an elderly individual. A 64-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with a 6-month history of a palpable mass in his lower left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the mass exhibited heterogeneous signals on T1- and T2-weighted images and slight heterogeneous enhancement within the muscles on fat suppressed T1-weighted images. Because histopathological analysis revealed mostly necrotic muscle tissues but no neoplastic cells, we resected the affected muscles. A typical symptom of DMI is severe abrupt-onset pain in the region of the affected muscles, but the patient did not complain of pain. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment for DMI were delayed, and widespread irreversible muscle necrosis developed. MRI findings of DMI can be similar to that of a malignant soft-tissue tumor. So, it is necessary to consider the malignant soft-tissue tumor as one of the differential diagnoses of DMI. Yoshikuni Mimata, Kotaro Sato, Karen Tokunaga, Itsuko Tsukimura, Hiroshi Tada, and Minoru Doita Copyright © 2015 Yoshikuni Mimata et al. All rights reserved. A Turbidity Test Based Centrifugal Microfluidics Diagnostic System for Simultaneous Detection of HBV, HCV, and CMV Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:54:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/306708/ This paper presents a LAMP- (loop-mediated isothermal amplification-) based lab-on-disk optical system that allows the simultaneous detection of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and cytomegalovirus. The various flow stages are controlled in the proposed system using different balance among centrifugal pumping, Coriolis pumping, and the capillary force. We have implemented a servo system for positioning and speed control for the heating and centrifugal pumping. We have also successfully employed a polymer light-emitting diode section for turbidity detection. The easy-to-use one-click system can perform diagnostics in less than 1 hour. Hung-Cheng Chang, Yu-Tin Chao, Jia-Yush Yen, Ya-Lin Yu, Chun-Nan Lee, Bing-Ching Ho, Kou-Chen Liu, Jiunn Fang, Chii-Wann Lin, and Jiun-Haw Lee Copyright © 2015 Hung-Cheng Chang et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation of Anode Thickness on the Performance and Heat/Mass Transport Phenomenon for an Anode-Supported SOFC Button Cell Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:52:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/172876/ This study analyzes how anode thickness and working temperature affect heat/mass transport characteristics and cell performance of the anode-supported SOFC button cell by the finite-volume SIMPLE-C method coupled with preconditioned conjugate gradient methods. The numerical results of this work are compared with the experimental data and good agreement is observed. The simulation is carried out for various anode thicknesses (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) and working temperatures (873, 1073, and 1273 K). The results showed that the cell performance reduces about 5.05% as the anode thickness is increased from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm; however, the influence of anode thickness on the heat/mass transport phenomenon is slight because the geometric size of anode thickness is tiny for the whole SOFC. In addition, the cell performance increases about 50.54% as the working temperature is increased from 873 K to 1273 K. A higher working temperature enhances the fluid velocity and convection and consequently promotes the chemical reaction and obtains a better cell performance. Shiang-Wuu Perng and Chang-Ren Chen Copyright © 2015 Shiang-Wuu Perng and Chang-Ren Chen. All rights reserved. Hypoxia Induces a Metabolic Shift and Enhances the Stemness and Expansion of Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Stem/Progenitor Cells Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:45:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/359537/ Previously, we demonstrated that hypoxia (1% O2) enhances stemness markers and expands the cell numbers of cochlear stem/progenitor cells (SPCs). In this study, we further investigated the long-term effect of hypoxia on stemness and the bioenergetic status of cochlear spiral ganglion SPCs cultured at low oxygen tensions. Spiral ganglion SPCs were obtained from postnatal day 1 CBA/CaJ mouse pups. The measurement of oxygen consumption rate, extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels corresponding to 20% and 5% oxygen concentrations was determined using a Seahorse XF extracellular flux analyzer. After low oxygen tension cultivation for 21 days, the mean size of the hypoxia-expanded neurospheres was significantly increased at 5% O2; this correlated with high-level expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (Hif-1α), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, Abcg2, nestin, and Nanog proteins but downregulated expression of p27 compared to that in a normoxic condition. Low oxygen tension cultivation tended to increase the side population fraction, with a significant difference found at 5% O2 compared to that at 20% O2. In addition, hypoxia induced a metabolic energy shift of SPCs toward higher basal ECARs and higher maximum mitochondrial respiratory capacity but lower proton leak than under normoxia, where the SPC metabolism was switched toward glycolysis in long-term hypoxic cultivation. Hsin-Chien Chen, Jen-Tin Lee, Cheng-Ping Shih, Ting-Ting Chao, Huey-Kang Sytwu, Shiue-Li Li, Mei-Cho Fang, Hang-Kang Chen, Yi-Chun Lin, Chao-Yin Kuo, and Chih-Hung Wang Copyright © 2015 Hsin-Chien Chen et al. All rights reserved. LMI Based Fuzzy Control of a Wing Doubled Fractional-Order Chaos Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2015/604257/ This paper investigates a new wing doubled fractional-order chaos and its control. Firstly, a new fractional-order chaos is proposed, replacing linear term x in the second equation by its absolute value; a new improved system is got, which can make the wing of the original system doubled. Then, circuit diagram is presented for the proposed fractional-order chaos. Furthermore, based on fractional-order stability theory and T-S fuzzy model, a more practical stability condition for fuzzy control of the proposed fractional-order chaos is given as s set of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and the strict mathematical norms of LMI are presented. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed theoretical results. Bin Wang, Yuzhu Wang, Hongbo Cao, and Delan Zhu Copyright © 2015 Bin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Recurrence Relation and Accurate Value on Inverse Moment of Discrete Distributions Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:43:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jps/2015/972035/ Properties of the generalized hypergeometric series functions are employed to get the recurrence relation for inverse moments and inverse factorial moments of some discrete distributions. Meanwhile, with the existence of the recurrence relations, the accurate value for inverse moment of discrete distributions can thus be obtained. ChunYuan Wang and Wuyungaowa Copyright © 2015 ChunYuan Wang and Wuyungaowa. All rights reserved. Charging Guidance of Electric Taxis Based on Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:43:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/354952/ Electric taxis are playing an important role in the application of electric vehicles. The actual operational data of electric taxis in Shenzhen, China, is analyzed, and, in allusion to the unbalanced time availability of the charging station equipment, the electric taxis charging guidance system is proposed basing on the charging station information and vehicle information. An electric taxis charging guidance model is established and guides the charging based on the positions of taxis and charging stations with adaptive mutation particle swarm optimization. The simulation is based on the actual data of Shenzhen charging stations, and the results show that electric taxis can be evenly distributed to the appropriate charging stations according to the charging pile numbers in charging stations after the charging guidance. The even distribution among the charging stations in the area will be achieved and the utilization of charging equipment will be improved, so the proposed charging guidance method is verified to be feasible. The improved utilization of charging equipment can save public charging infrastructure resources greatly. Liyong Niu and Di Zhang Copyright © 2015 Liyong Niu and Di Zhang. All rights reserved. Asteroids Exploration Trajectory Optimal Design with Differential Evolution Based on Mixed Coding Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:42:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/827987/ With the development of space technology, asteroid exploration will become a hotspot in the deep space exploration field. Space flight trajectory has the following requirements: needing a long time, having many engineering constraints, having a large number of targets, and having a series of feasible solutions. So how to find the global optimum flight program is the core issue of the deep space exploration trajectory design. This paper proposes a novel method to design the optimal trajectory by differential evolution (DE) algorithm for asteroid exploration based on mixed coding. In our method, the celestial sequence and the time sequence are coded together into the chromosomes of DE and optimized them simultaneously. The chromosomes are designed to include four parts: the celestial sequence, the exploration type, the time sequence, and the return time. The algorithm can make full use of the characteristics of the high efficiency and global optimization ability of differential evolution and can also avoid the problem of high complexity of the branch-and-bound algorithm and the problem of nonglobal optimal solution of the greedy algorithm. The algorithm is adopted to solve the Fourth Contest of National Space Orbit Design in China, and the result shows that both the computational efficiency and the performance of the algorithm are superior. Maocai Wang, Zhiming Song, Guangming Dai, Lei Peng, and Chang Zheng Copyright © 2015 Maocai Wang et al. All rights reserved. An Effective Error Correction Scheme for Arithmetic Coding Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:41:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/861093/ We propose an effective error correction technique for arithmetic coding with forbidden symbol. By predicting the occurrence of the subsequent forbidden symbols, the forbidden region is actually expanded and theoretically, a better error correction performance can be achieved. Moreover, a generalized stack algorithm is exploited to detect the forbidden symbol beforehand. The proposed approach is combined with the maximum a posteriori (MAP) metric to keep the highly probable decoding paths in the stack. Simulation results justify that our scheme performs better than the existing MAP methods on the error correction performance, especially at a low coding rate. Qiuzhen Lin, Kwok-Wo Wong, Ming Li, and Jianyong Chen Copyright © 2015 Qiuzhen Lin et al. All rights reserved. A Fast Cluster Motif Finding Algorithm for ChIP-Seq Data Sets Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:40:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/218068/ New high-throughput technique ChIP-seq, coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment with high-throughput sequencing technologies, has extended the identification of binding locations of a transcription factor to the genome-wide regions. However, the most existing motif discovery algorithms are time-consuming and limited to identify binding motifs in ChIP-seq data which normally has the significant characteristics of large scale data. In order to improve the efficiency, we propose a fast cluster motif finding algorithm, named as FCmotif, to identify the motifs in large scale ChIP-seq data set. It is inspired by the emerging substrings mining strategy to find the enriched substrings and then searching the neighborhood instances to construct PWM and cluster motifs in different length. FCmotif is not following the OOPS model constraint and can find long motifs. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm has been proved by experiments on the ChIP-seq data sets from mouse ES cells. The whole detection of the real binding motifs and processing of the full size data of several megabytes finished in a few minutes. The experimental results show that FCmotif has advantageous to deal with the motif finding in the ChIP-seq data; meanwhile it also demonstrates better performance than other current widely-used algorithms such as MEME, Weeder, ChIPMunk, and DREME. Yipu Zhang and Ping Wang Copyright © 2015 Yipu Zhang and Ping Wang. All rights reserved. Enhancing Algal Growth by Stimulation with LED Lighting and Ultrasound Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:39:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/531352/ Algae are not only rich in natural nutrients, but are also a high-priced health food. An important constituent called “growth factor” is extracted from algae and used as an ingredient in medical drugs, foods, cosmetics, and other products. Its enormous potential market should not be taken lightly. Algae are mostly found near coastal areas and their habitats are limited by a number of natural factors, leading to large labor and financial expenditures to harvest. This report describes our study of indoor algae production using LED lights and ultrasound and manipulating other growth factors at different temperatures. Ultrasound treatment at the alga’s natural resonant frequency was varied to determine optimal algal growth using the Taguchi method to plan and to analyze the experiments. The results were very satisfying, showing an 8.23% increase in the growth rate by the fifth day due to ultrasound treatment and an amazing 27.01% growth rate due to biomechanical stimulation. Shao-Yi Hsia and Shiuh-Kuang Yang Copyright © 2015 Shao-Yi Hsia and Shiuh-Kuang Yang. All rights reserved. Conventional, Hybrid, or Electric Vehicles: Which Technology for an Urban Distribution Centre? Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:38:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/302867/ Freight transport has an important impact on urban welfare. It is estimated to be responsible for 25% of CO2 emissions and up to 50% of particles matters generated by the transport sector in cities. Facing that problem, the European Commission set the objective of reaching free CO2 city logistics by 2030 in major urban areas. In order to achieve this goal, electric vehicles could be an important part of the solution. However, this technology still faces a number of barriers, in particular high purchase costs and limited driving range. This paper explores the possible integration of electric vehicles in urban logistics operations. In order to answer this research question, the authors have developed a fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows for electric vehicles. In particular, an energy consumption model is integrated in order to consider variable range of electric vehicles. Based on generated instances, the authors analyse different sets of vehicles in terms of vehicle class (quadricycles, small vans, large vans, and trucks) and vehicle technology (petrol, hybrid, diesel, and electric vehicles). Results show that a fleet with different technologies has the opportunity of reducing costs of the last mile. Philippe Lebeau, Cedric De Cauwer, Joeri Van Mierlo, Cathy Macharis, Wouter Verbeke, and Thierry Coosemans Copyright © 2015 Philippe Lebeau et al. All rights reserved. Topology Identification of Coupling Map Lattice under Sparsity Condition Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:36:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/303454/ Coupling map lattice is an efficient mathematical model for studying complex systems. This paper studies the topology identification of coupled map lattice (CML) under the sparsity condition. We convert the identification problem into the problem of solving the underdetermined linear equations. The norm method is used to solve the underdetermined equations. The requirement of data characters and sampling times are discussed in detail. We find that the high entropy and small coupling coefficient data are suitable for the identification. When the measurement time is more than 2.86 times sparsity, the accuracy of identification can reach an acceptable level. And when the measurement time reaches 4 times sparsity, we can receive a fairly good accuracy. Jiangni Yu, Lixiang Li, and Yixian Yang Copyright © 2015 Jiangni Yu et al. All rights reserved. Automated Delineation of Vessel Wall and Thrombus Boundaries of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Multispectral MR Images Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:31:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/202539/ A correct patient-specific identification of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is useful for both diagnosis and treatment stages, as it locates the disease and represents its geometry. The actual thickness and shape of the arterial wall and the intraluminal thrombus are of great importance when predicting the rupture of the abdominal aortic aneurysms. The authors describe a novel method for delineating both the internal and external contours of the aortic wall, which allows distinguishing between vessel wall and intraluminal thrombus. The method is based on active shape model and texture statistical information. The method was validated with eight MR patient studies. There was high correspondence between automatic and manual measurements for the vessel wall area. Resulting segmented images presented a mean Dice coefficient with respect to manual segmentations of 0.88 and a mean modified Hausdorff distance of 1.14 mm for the internal face and 0.86 and 1.33 mm for the external face of the arterial wall. Preliminary results of the segmentation show high correspondence between automatic and manual measurements for the vessel wall and thrombus areas. However, since the dataset is small the conclusions cannot be generalized. B. Rodriguez-Vila, J. Tarjuelo-Gutierrez, P. Sánchez-González, P. Verbrugghe, I. Fourneau, G. Maleux, P. Herijgers, and E. J. Gomez Copyright © 2015 B. Rodriguez-Vila et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Modeling of the Internal Dispersive Shock Wave in the Ocean Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:17:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/875619/ Numerical modeling of dispersive shock waves called solibore in a stratified fluid is conducted. The theoretical model is based on extended version of the Korteweg-de Vries equation which takes into account the effects of cubic nonlinearity and Earth rotation. This model is now very popular in the physical oceanography. Initial conditions for simulations correspond to the real observed internal waves of shock-like shape in the Pechora Sea, the Arctic. It is shown that a sharp drop (like kink in the soliton theory) in the depth of the thermocline is conserved at a distance of one–three kilometers, and then it is transformed into dispersive shock waves (shock wave with undulations). Tatiana Talipova, Efim Pelinovsky, Oxana Kurkina, and Andrey Kurkin Copyright © 2015 Tatiana Talipova et al. All rights reserved. Parameter Optimization of a Temperature and Relative Humidity Based Transmission Power Control Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:10:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/921319/ We present refinements of a novel transmission power control (TPC) algorithm based on temperature and relative humidity (TRH). Previously, we deployed a prototype TRH TPC algorithm on wireless sensor nodes operating in real harsh environmental conditions and reported promising results. Since then, we have made enhancements of the TRH TPC model, which we will show here. Furthermore, in order to develop an understanding of the nonlinear behavior that we observed from this TRH TPC scheme, we developed a simulation platform that uses real radio frequency (RF) signal and interference samples and actual T and RH sensor data acquired simultaneously. Afterwards, we logged results of repeated experiments and determined the algorithms operating ranges and behaviors, varying its main parameters, such as (1) its gain factor, (2) the average time period to recalculate power level updates, and (3) proper received signal threshold selection. We then summarize optimal parameter ranges from the analytical results that reflect where this TRH TPC technique works best. And finally, we report results of the TRH TPC algorithm running on long range WSN systems deployed in harsh environmental conditions, corroborating behaviors observed through simulation. César Ortega-Corral, Luis E. Palafox, J. Antonio García-Macías, Jaime Sánchez-García, Leocundo Aguilar, and Juan Iván Nieto-Hipólito Copyright © 2015 César Ortega-Corral et al. All rights reserved. Distributed Data Mining Based on Deep Neural Network for Wireless Sensor Network Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:06:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/157453/ As the sample data of wireless sensor network (WSN) has increased rapidly with more and more sensors, a centralized data mining solution in a fusion center has encountered the challenges of reducing the fusion center’s calculating load and saving the WSN’s transmitting power consumption. Rising to these challenges, this paper proposes a distributed data mining method based on deep neural network (DNN), by dividing the deep neural network into different layers and putting them into sensors. By the proposed solution, the distributed data mining calculating units in WSN share much of fusion center’s calculating burden. And the power consumption of transmitting the data processed by DNN is much less than transmitting the raw data. Also, a fault detection scenario is built to verify the validity of this method. Results show that the detection rate is 99%, and WSN shares 64.06% of the data mining calculating task with 58.31% reduction of power consumption. Chunlin Li, Xiaofu Xie, Yuejiang Huang, Hong Wang, and Changxi Niu Copyright © 2015 Chunlin Li et al. All rights reserved. Intrusion Detection and Cooperative Tracking Using PTZ Network Thermal Imagers Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:01:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/130103/ Nowadays more and more network thermal imaging cameras are working over distributed networks, offering the capability of online remote intelligent video surveillance. In this paper, we propose an original intrusion detection and cooperative tracking approach applied for PTZ (Pan/Tilt/Zoom) network thermal imagers. It consists of three modules. The key module is the real-time FOV (Field of View) matching module, which is realized in a parallel way. The intrusion detection module first eliminates the offset between current frame and prior frame through FOV matching and then handles intrusion detection by motion detection in the preset surveillance zone. The cooperative tracking module shifts the priority of tracking by imager pose estimation, which is also based on FOV matching, avoiding transferring the local features from one imager to another. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate that the proposed approach is of high accuracy for intrusion detection and cooperative tracking and keeps the frame rate over 20 fps. Zhenghao Li, Junying Yang, Peng Han, Yang Ran, and Zhi Chai Copyright © 2015 Zhenghao Li et al. All rights reserved. Sirtuin 1 and Aging Theory for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Sun, 05 Jul 2015 07:01:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2015/897327/ Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory syndrome that represents an increasing health problem, especially in the elderly population. Drug therapies are symptomatic and inadequate to contrast disease progression and mortality. Thus, there is an urgent need to clarify the molecular mechanisms responsible for this condition in order to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Processes including oxidant/antioxidant, protease/antiprotease, and proliferative/antiproliferative balance and control of inflammatory response become dysfunctional during aging as well as in COPD. Recently it was suggested that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an antiaging molecule involved in the response to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, is implicated in both development and progression of COPD. The present review focuses on the involvement of SIRT1 in the regulation of redox state, inflammation, and premature senescence, all crucial characteristics of COPD phenotypes. Recent evidence corroborating the statement of the “aging theory for COPD” was also discussed. V. Conti, G. Corbi, V. Manzo, G. Pelaia, A. Filippelli, and A. Vatrella Copyright © 2015 V. Conti et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Pairing-Free Privacy-Preserving Auditing Scheme for Cloud Storage in Distributed Sensor Networks Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:59:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/593759/ With the rapid growth of the distributed sensor networks, the distributed sensor network data security problems begin to attract the attention of people. The previous research of distributed sensor network security has focused on secure information in communication; however the research of secure data storage has been overlooked. As we know, cloud data storage and retrieval have become popular for efficient data management in distributed sensor networks; thus they can enjoy the on-demand high-quality cloud storage service. Meanwhile, it also introduces new security challenges. To tackle with these security challenges, many classic auditing schemes of cloud storage have been proposed. However, these schemes all need very expensive pairing computation, which is not suitable for sensor networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient pairing-free auditing scheme for data storage of distributed sensor networks. We exploit homomorphic message authentication codes (MACs) to reduce the space used to store the verification information. We also employ the random masking technique to make sure the TPA cannot recover the primitive data blocks of the sensor networks data manager. Experimental results show that our auditing scheme is more light-weight than previous auditing schemes and more practical in applied distributed sensor networks environments. Xinpeng Zhang, Chunxiang Xu, and Xiaojun Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xinpeng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Highly Flexible Silicone Coated Neural Array for Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:58:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/109702/ We present an effective method for tailoring the flexibility of a commercial thin-film polymer electrode array for intracochlear electrical stimulation. Using a pneumatically driven dispensing system, an average  μm (mean ± SD) thickness layer of silicone adhesive coating was applied to stiffen the underside of polyimide multisite arrays. Additional silicone was applied to the tip to protect neural tissue during insertion and along the array to improve surgical handling. Each array supported 20 platinum sites (180 μm dia., 250 μm pitch), spanning nearly 28 mm in length and 400 μm in width. We report an average intracochlear stimulating current threshold of  μA to evoke an auditory brainstem response in 7 acutely deafened felines. A total of 10 arrays were each inserted through a round window approach into the cochlea’s basal turn of eight felines with one delamination occurring upon insertion (preliminary results of the in vivo data presented at the 48th Annual Meeting American Neurotology Society, Orlando, FL, April 2013, and reported in Van Beek-King 2014). Using microcomputed tomography imaging (50 μm resolution), distances ranging from 100 to 565 μm from the cochlea’s central modiolus were measured. Our method combines the utility of readily available commercial devices with a straightforward postprocessing step on the order of 24 hours. P. Bhatti, J. Van Beek-King, A. Sharpe, J. Crawford, S. Tridandapani, B. McKinnon, and D. Blake Copyright © 2015 P. Bhatti et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Freeway Incident Detection for Free Flow Conditions: A Vehicle Reidentification Based Approach Using Image Data from Sparsely Distributed Video Cameras Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:56:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/102380/ This paper proposes a vehicle reidentification (VRI) based automatic incident algorithm (AID) for freeway system under free flow condition. An enhanced vehicle feature matching technique is adopted in the VRI component of the proposed system. In this study, arrival time interval, which is estimated based on the historical database, is introduced into the VRI component to improve the matching accuracy and reduce the incident detection time. Also, a screening method, which is based on the ratios of the matching probabilities, is introduced to the VRI component to further reduce false alarm rate. The proposed AID algorithm is tested on a 3.6 km segment of a closed freeway system in Bangkok, Thailand. The results show that in terms of incident detection time, the proposed AID algorithm outperforms the traditional vehicle count approach. Jiankai Wang and Agachai Sumalee Copyright © 2015 Jiankai Wang and Agachai Sumalee. All rights reserved. Effects of Temperature, Time, Magnesium, and Copper on the Wettability of Al/TiC System Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:54:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/710526/ The effects of temperature, time, and the additions of magnesium and copper on the wetting behavior of Al/TiC are studied theoretically. Mathematical formula is presented in explicit form. The effect of each variable is investigated by using the obtained equation. It is observed that the time and temperature have a stronger effect on the wetting of TiC in comparison to other input parameters. The proposed model shows good agreement with test results and can be used to find the wetting behavior of Al/TiC. The findings led to a new insight of the wetting process of TiC. Halil Ibrahim Kurt and Murat Oduncuoglu Copyright © 2015 Halil Ibrahim Kurt and Murat Oduncuoglu. All rights reserved. Adaptive Output Feedback Sliding Mode Control for Complex Interconnected Time-Delay Systems Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:42:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/239584/ We extend the decentralized output feedback sliding mode control (SMC) scheme to stabilize a class of complex interconnected time-delay systems. First, sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived such that the equivalent reduced-order system in the sliding mode is asymptotically stable. Second, based on a new lemma, a decentralized adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to guarantee the finite time reachability of the system states by using output feedback only. The advantage of the proposed method is that two major assumptions, which are required in most existing SMC approaches, are both released. These assumptions are (1) disturbances are bounded by a known function of outputs and (2) the sliding matrix satisfies a matrix equation that guarantees the sliding mode. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Van Van Huynh, Yao-Wen Tsai, and Phan Van Duc Copyright © 2015 Van Van Huynh et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Intracochlear Trauma Caused by Insertion of Cochlear Implant Electrode Arrays through Different Quadrants of the Round Window Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:36:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/236364/ Hypothesis. This study aimed to evaluate whether there is a difference in the degree of intracochlear trauma when the cochlear implant electrode arrays is inserted through different quadrants of the round window membrane. Background. The benefits of residual hearing preservation in cochlear implant recipients have promoted the development of atraumatic surgeries. Minimal trauma during electrode insertion is crucial for residual hearing preservation. Methods. In total, 25 fresh human temporal bones were subjected to mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy. The cochlear implant electrode array was inserted through the anterosuperior quadrant of the round window membrane in 50% of the bones and through the anteroinferior quadrant in the remaining 50%. The temporal bones were dehydrated, embedded in epoxy, serially polished, stained, viewed through a stereomicroscope, and photographed with the electrode arrays in situ. The resulting images were analyzed for signs of intracochlear trauma. Results. Histological examinations revealed varying degrees of damage to the intracochlear structures, although the incidence and severity of intracochlear trauma were not influenced by the quadrant of insertion. Conclusions. The incidence and severity of intracochlear trauma were similar in all samples, irrespective of electrode array insertion through the anterosuperior or anteroinferior quadrant of the round window membrane. Graziela de Souza Queiroz Martins, Rubens Vuono Brito Neto, Robinson Koji Tsuji, Eloisa Maria Mello Santiago Gebrim, and Ricardo Ferreira Bento Copyright © 2015 Graziela de Souza Queiroz Martins et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Functional Nanomaterials Synthesis and Nanocrystal Growth Technology Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:35:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/192385/ Wei-Chun Chen, Hao-Chung Kuo, Rajanish Nath Tiwari, Shou-Yi Kuo, Fang-I Lai, and Ying-Lung Daniel Ho Copyright © 2015 Wei-Chun Chen et al. All rights reserved. Stability Testing of a Wide Bone-Anchored Device after Surgery without Skin Thinning Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:29:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/853072/ Objective. To longitudinally follow the osseointegration using Resonance Frequency Analysis (RFA) for different lengths of abutment on a new wide bone-anchored implant, introduced with the non-skin thinning surgical technique. Study Design. A single-center, prospective 1 year study following adults with bone-anchored hearing implants. Materials and Methods. Implantation was performed and followed for a minimum of 1 year. All patients were operated on according to the tissue preserving technique. A 4.5 mm wide fixture (Oticon Medical) with varying abutments (9 to 12 mm) was used and RFA was tested 1 week, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months later. Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ), was measured from 1 to 100. Stability was compared to a group of patients implanted with another brand (Cochlear BI400) of 4.5 mm fixtures. Results. All 10 adults concluded the study. None of the participants lost their implant during the test period indicating a good anchoring of abutments to the wide fixture tested. Stability testing was shown to vary depending on abutment length and time after surgery and with higher values for shorter abutments and increasing values over the first period of time. One patient changed the abutment from 12 to 9 mm and another from a 9 to a 12 during the year. No severe skin problems, numbness around the implant, or cosmetic problems arose. Conclusion. After 1 year of follow-up, combination of a wide fixture implant and the non-skin thinning surgical technique indicates a safe procedure with good stability and no abutment losses. Malou Hultcrantz Copyright © 2015 Malou Hultcrantz. All rights reserved. Improvement of Lighting Uniformity and Phosphor Life in Field Emission Lamps Using Carbon Nanocoils Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:29:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/373549/ The lighting performances and phosphor degradation in field emission lamps (FELs) with two different kinds of cathode materials—multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon nanocoils (CNCs)—were compared. The MWCNTs and CNCs were selectively synthesized on 304 stainless steel wire substrates dip-coated with nanosized Pd catalysts by controlling the growth temperature in thermal chemical vapor deposition, and the film uniformity can be optimized by adjusting the growth time. FELs were successfully fabricated by assembling these cathode filaments with a glass bulb-type anode. The FEL with the CNC cathode showed much higher lighting uniformity and light-spot density and a lower current at the same voltage than that with the MWCNT cathode filament, and its best luminous efficiency was as high as 75 lm/W at 8 kV. We also found that, for P22, the phosphor degradation can be effectively suppressed by replacing MWCNTs with CNCs in the cathode, due to the much larger total bright spot area and hence much lower current density loading on the anode. Kun-Ju Chung, Nen-Wen Pu, Meng-Jey Youh, Yih-Ming Liu, Ming-Der Ger, and Wen-Ko Huang Copyright © 2015 Kun-Ju Chung et al. All rights reserved. Cochlear Dummy Electrodes for Insertion Training and Research Purposes: Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Experimental Validation Sun, 05 Jul 2015 06:27:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/574209/ To develop skills sufficient for hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery, surgeons need to perform several electrode insertion trials in ex vivo temporal bones, thereby consuming relatively expensive electrode carriers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the insertion characteristics of cochlear electrodes in a plastic scala tympani model and to fabricate radio opaque polymer filament dummy electrodes of equivalent mechanical properties. In addition, this study should aid the design and development of new cochlear electrodes. Automated insertion force measurement is a new technique to reproducibly analyze and evaluate the insertion dynamics and mechanical characteristics of an electrode. Mechanical properties of MED-EL’s FLEX28, FLEX24, and FLEX20 electrodes were assessed with the help of an automated insertion tool. Statistical analysis of the overall mechanical behavior of the electrodes and factors influencing the insertion force are discussed. Radio opaque dummy electrodes of comparable characteristics were fabricated based on insertion force measurements. The platinum-iridium wires were replaced by polymer filament to provide sufficient stiffness to the electrodes and to eradicate the metallic artifacts in X-ray and computed tomography (CT) images. These low-cost dummy electrodes are cheap alternatives for surgical training and for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo research purposes. Jan-Philipp Kobler, Anandhan Dhanasingh, Raphael Kiran, Claude Jolly, and Tobias Ortmaier Copyright © 2015 Jan-Philipp Kobler et al. All rights reserved. Hyperandrogenism-Insulin Resistance-Acanthosis Nigricans Syndrome Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:45:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2015/193097/ Introduction. Female hyperandrogenism is a frequent motive of consultation. It is revealed by hirsutism, acne or seborrhea, and disorders in menstruation cycle combined or not with virilisation signs. Several etiologies are incriminated but the hyperandrogenism-insulin resistance-acanthosis nigricans syndrome is rare. Observation. A 20-year-old girl, having had a five-year-old secondary amenorrhea. The exam revealed a patient, normotensive with a body mass index at 30 kg/m2 and a waist measurement of 120 cm, a severe hirsutism assessed to be 29 according to Ferriman Gallwey scale, virilisation signs of male morphotype, clitoridic hypertrophy and frontal alopecia, and an acanthosis nigricans behind the neck, in the armpits and elbows. The assessment carried out revealed testosteronemia at 1.28 ng/mL, which is more than twice the upper norm of the laboratory. Imaging studies were negative for both ovarian and adrenal masses. The retained diagnosis is HAIR-AN syndrome probably related to ovarian hyperthecosis and she was provided with androcur 50 mg/day and estradiol pills 2 mg/day and under hygiene-dietetic conditions. Conclusion. This case proves that HAIR-AN syndrome could be responsible for severe hyperandrogenism with virilisation signs. It must be retained after discarding the tumoral causes and when there are signs of insulin resistance. A. H. Dédjan, A. Chadli, S. El Aziz, and A. Farouqi Copyright © 2015 A. H. Dédjan et al. All rights reserved. Conformational States of the Spiropyran Molecule Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:37:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2015/161248/ The form of the potential surface of the ground state was investigated on the basis of indoline spiropyran. As a result of this work the rotamers of an open-ring form of the spiropyran molecule were discovered, and the existence of the most probable rotamers was justified. The 3D potential surface of the ground state of the spiropyran molecule was built. The route of the isomerization of the molecule was discovered and values of barriers for this reaction were found. The part of the isomerization route that is responsible for changing the hybridization of spiroatom from sp3 to sp2 was found. Olha Kovalenko, Petro Kondratenko, and Yuriy Lopatkin Copyright © 2015 Olha Kovalenko et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Sand Relative Density on Response of a Laterally Loaded Pile and Sand Deformation Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:36:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/891212/ Two scale-model tests were separately conducted in standard Toyoura sand with relative density of 50% and 80%. The effect of sand relative density on pile-soil interaction was investigated through the response of a laterally loaded pile and the sand movement around the pile. At a displacement of 3.6 mm of the loading point, the applied loads in loose and dense sand were 4.775 N and 21.025 N, respectively, and the maximum moment and soil resistance of the pile in dense sand were over 4 times those in loose sand. However, the deflection of the pile in dense sand was less than that in loose sand; additionally, the depth of zero deflection in dense sand was also less than that in loose sand. At the same time, the maximum displacements of loose sand in the vertical profile and ground surface were over 1.5 times those of dense sand. These characteristics occurred because the relative stiffness ratio of soil and pile increased as the relative density increased, which caused the behavior of the pile in dense sand to be elastic rather than rigid. In addition, the compacted sand particles did not move as easily as the loose sand particles. Bingxiang Yuan, Rui Chen, Jun Teng, Yixian Wang, Wenwu Chen, Tao Peng, Zhongwen Feng, Yang Yu, and Jianghui Dong Copyright © 2015 Bingxiang Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Forest Fire Danger Indexes for Eucalypt Plantations in Bahia, Brazil Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:28:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfr/2015/613736/ A Forest Fire Danger Index is a valuable tool in forest fire prevention and firefight because it grades fire occurrence possibility on a daily basis. Six Fire Danger Indexes were tested for accuracy based on forest fire occurrence in eucalyptus plantations of the north coast of Bahia, Brazil. They are Angstron, Nesterov, Telicyn Logarithmic Index, Monte Alegre, Rodríguez and Moretti, and Modified Monte Alegre. The results were analyzed using two parameters of the Heidke Skill Score test: Skill Score index and Percentage of Success. The Telicyn Logarithmic Index proved to be the most accurate for the study area. Larissa Alves Secundo White, Benjamin Leonardo Alves White, and Genésio Tâmara Ribeiro Copyright © 2015 Larissa Alves Secundo White et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Substrate Temperature on the Thermoelectric Properties of the Sb2Te3 Thin Films Deposition by Using Thermal Evaporation Method Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:21:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/135130/ The antimony-telluride (Sb2Te3) thermoelectric thin films were prepared on SiO2/Si substrates by thermal evaporation method. The substrate temperature that ranged from room temperature to 150°C was adopted to deposit the Sb2Te3 thin films. The effects of substrate temperature on the microstructures and thermoelectric properties of the Sb2Te3 thin films were investigated. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the Sb2Te3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses and field emission scanning electron microscope observation. The RT-deposited Sb2Te3 thin films showed the amorphous phase. Te and Sb2Te3 phases were coexisted in the Sb2Te3-based thin films as the substrate temperature was higher than room temperature. The average grain sizes of the Sb2Te3-based thin films were 39 nm, 45 nm, 62 nm, 84 nm, and 108 nm, as the substrate temperatures were 50°C, 75°C, 100°C, 125°C, and 150°C, respectively. The Seebeck coefficients, electrical conductivity, and power factor were measured at room temperature; we had found that they were critically dependent on the substrate temperature. Jyun-Min Lin, Ying-Chung Chen, Cheng-Fu Yang, and Wei Chen Copyright © 2015 Jyun-Min Lin et al. All rights reserved. An Analysis and Application of Fast Nonnegative Orthogonal Matching Pursuit for Image Categorization in Deep Networks Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:20:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/180675/ Nonnegative orthogonal matching pursuit (NOMP) has been proven to be a more stable encoder for unsupervised sparse representation learning. However, previous research has shown that NOMP is suboptimal in terms of computational cost, as the coefficients selection and refinement using nonnegative least squares (NNLS) have been divided into two separate steps. It is found that this problem severely reduces the efficiency of encoding for large-scale image patches. In this work, we study fast nonnegative OMP (FNOMP) as an efficient encoder which can be accelerated by the implementation of factorization and iterations of coefficients in deep networks for full-size image categorization task. It is analyzed and demonstrated that using relatively simple gain-shape vector quantization for training dictionary, FNOMP not only performs more efficiently than NOMP for encoding but also significantly improves the classification accuracy compared to OMP based algorithm. In addition, FNOMP based algorithm is superior to other state-of-the-art methods on several publicly available benchmarks, that is, Oxford Flowers, UIUC-Sports, and Caltech101. Bo Wang, Jichang Guo, and Yan Zhang Copyright © 2015 Bo Wang et al. All rights reserved. Outcome-Based Quality Control by a Dental Reference Profile of a Population-Based Study (SHIP-0) Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:19:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/794769/ Objectives. The aim was to develop an instrument for quality control in dental practices. We compared the number of teeth of subjects of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-0) with those from patients of dental practices. Methods. Patients from seven dental practices were randomly sampled by age strata and gender for a period of two years. Dental status derived from patient files was transformed into practice profiles using age-specific number of teeth as a parameter. Practice profiles were compared with a nomogram, which was based on the age-specific number of teeth of 3,990 SHIP-0 participants regularly visiting the dentist. Further, negative binomial regression models were evaluated to model associations between the number of teeth with age and dental practices, including interactions. Results. The practice profiles ranged between the 45th and 95th quantile curves of the reference population SHIP-0. The rate ratios (RR) for the number of missing teeth ranged from 0.37 to 0.67 between the different dental practices, indicating lower risk for higher numbers of missing teeth in comparison to SHIP-0. Conclusions. This study showed considerable differences between dental practices and the reference population of SHIP-0 regarding the pattern of tooth loss and confirms the value of nomograms to compare age-specific numbers of teeth between patients of dental practices and a population-based-study as a tool for quality control. For further analyses, the socioeconomic status of patients and relevant risk factors will be used to adjust for structural differences in order to improve the validity of the comparisons. Stefanie Samietz, Andreas Söhnel, Christian Schwahn, Birte Holtfreter, Torsten Mundt, Peter Meisel, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Thomas Kocher, and Reiner Biffar Copyright © 2015 Stefanie Samietz et al. All rights reserved. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:16:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/410526/ Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (). But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles. Ick Keun Ahn, You Lim Kim, Young-Hyeon Bae, and Suk Min Lee Copyright © 2015 Ick Keun Ahn et al. All rights reserved. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:06:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/370194/ The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. Ashwin Belle, Raghuram Thiagarajan, S. M. Reza Soroushmehr, Fatemeh Navidi, Daniel A. Beard, and Kayvan Najarian Copyright © 2015 Ashwin Belle et al. All rights reserved. Consequence of Menin Deficiency in Mouse Adipocytes Derived by In Vitro Differentiation Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:03:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/149826/ Lipoma in patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is a type of benign fat-cell tumor that has biallelic inactivation of MEN1 that encodes menin and could serve as a model to investigate normal and pathologic fat-cell (adipocyte) proliferation and function. The role of menin and its target genes in adipocytes is not known. We used in vitro differentiation to derive matched normal and menin-deficient adipocytes from wild type (WT) and menin-null (Men1-KO) mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), respectively, or 3T3-L1 cells without or with menin knockdown to investigate cell size, lipid content, and gene expression changes. Adipocytes derived from Men1-KO mESCs or after menin knockdown in 3T3-L1 cells showed a 1.5–1.7-fold increase in fat-cell size. Global gene expression analysis of mESC-derived adipocytes showed that lack of menin downregulated the expression of many differentially methylated genes including the tumor suppressor long noncoding RNA Meg3 but upregulated gene expression from the prolactin gene family locus. Our results show that menin deficiency leads to fat-cell hypertrophy and provide model systems that could be used to study the regulation of fat-cell size. Vaishali I. Parekh, Sita D. Modali, Shruti S. Desai, and Sunita K. Agarwal Copyright © 2015 Vaishali I. Parekh et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Advanced Glycation End Products on Human Thyroglobulin’s Antigenicity as Identified by the Use of Sera from Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Thu, 02 Jul 2015 12:03:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/849615/ Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed on proteins after exposure to high concentrations of glucose and modify protein’s immunogenicity. Herein, we investigated whether the modification of thyroglobulin (Tg) by AGEs influences its antigenicity and immunogenicity. Human Tg was incubated in vitro with increasing concentrations of D-glucose-6-phosphate in order to produce Tgs with different AGE content (AGE-Tg). Native Tg and AGE-Tgs were used in ELISA to assess the serum antibody reactivity of two patient groups, pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), and patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). We produced in vitro AGE-Tg with low and high AGE content, 13 and 49 AGE units/mg Tg, respectively. All HT patients’ sera presented the same antibody reactivity profile against native Tg and AGE-Tgs, indicating that the modification of Tg by AGEs did not alter its antigenicity. Similarly, the GDM patients’ sera did not discriminate among the two forms of Tg, native or artificially glycated, suggesting that the modification of Tg by AGEs might not alter its immunogenicity. The modification of Tg by AGEs has no obvious effect on neither its antigenicity nor, most likely, its immunogenicity. It seems that other Tg modifications might account for the production of aTgAbs in patients with GDM. A. Hatzioannou, I. Kanistras, E. Mantzou, E. Anastasiou, M. Peppa, V. Sarantopoulou, P. Lymberi, and M. Alevizaki Copyright © 2015 A. Hatzioannou et al. All rights reserved. On Mann’s Type Method for Nonexpansive and Strongly Quasinonexpansive Mappings in Hilbert Spaces Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:58:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/671983/ In the setting of Hilbert spaces, we study Mann’s type method to approximate strong solutions of variational inequalities. We show that these solutions are fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping and/or a strongly quasinonexpansive mapping, depending on the coefficients involved in the algorithm. Nawab Hussain, Giuseppe Marino, and Badriah A. S. Alamri Copyright © 2015 Nawab Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Environmental Factors on Germination and Emergence of Invasive Rumex confertus in Central Europe Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:56:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/170176/ Rumex confertus is a biennial species native to Eastern Europe and Asia, where it thrives on meadow-steppes and glades in forest-steppe. This species has increased its range rapidly within central Europe, yet its biology is not well understood, which has led to poorly timed management. Effects of temperature, light, sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrogen ion concentration (pH), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and polyethylene glycol 6000 on seed germination were examined. Seedling emergence was examined for seeds sown at different depths in sand-filled pots. Seeds of R. confertus were nondormant at maturity. The germination percentage and rate of germination were significantly higher in light than in darkness. Secondary dormancy was induced in these seeds by 12 weeks of dark incubation at 4°C. The seeds of R. confertus undergo a seasonal dormancy cycle with deep dormancy in winter and early spring and a low level of dormancy in early autumn. Germination decreased as soil salinity increased. increased the percentage and rate of germination in the studied species. Decrease in seedling emergence from the seeds buried at >0.5 cm may be due to deficiency of light. From our experiments, we conclude that the weed R. confertus normally becomes established in vegetation gaps or due to disturbance of the uppermost soil layer during the growing season through the germination of seeds originating from a long-lived seed bank. Jeremi Kołodziejek and Jacek Patykowski Copyright © 2015 Jeremi Kołodziejek and Jacek Patykowski. All rights reserved. Neuroprotective Activity of Coptisine from Coptis chinensis (Franch) Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:44:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/827308/ Coptis chinensis rhizomes (CR) are one important ingredient of traditional Chinese herbal formulas such as San-Huang-Xie-Xin-Tang which is used for treatment of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies suggest that the extract of CR might be a potential therapeutic agent for amelioration of neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress. In the present study we aimed at revealing the main active compound(s) of the CR extract and at investigating the mechanism of action. Four main alkaloids of the CR extract (berberine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine) were selected for this study. Results showed that out of those alkaloids only pretreatment with coptisine significantly attenuated tert-butylhydroperoxide induced reduction of cell viability, increased rate of apoptosis, and declined mitochondrial membrane potential. Elisa assay and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) gene expression was downregulated by coptisine, which could explain the neuroprotective effect, hypothetically, by strengthening the thioredoxin defense system against oxidative stress and attenuation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (Ask1) mediated apoptotic signaling. A comparison between coptisine and CR extract identified coptisine as the main single component responsible for the neuroprotective effect. Based on the results the CR extract and coptisine are promising candidate agents for prevention or improvement of diabetic neuropathy and neurodegenerative disorders. Thomas Friedemann, Udo Schumacher, Yi Tao, Alexander Kai-Man Leung, and Sven Schröder Copyright © 2015 Thomas Friedemann et al. All rights reserved. Beam Purity for Light Dark Matter Search in Beam Dump Experiments Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:42:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2015/105730/ This paper reviews the search for light dark matter in beam dump experiments with a special emphasis on the necessity of beam purity for precise background rejection at the sensitivities aimed at these experiments. As a case study we cite the P348 experiment which has test beam time in Fall 2015 at the SPS H4 beam line at CERN and aims to search for the gauge boson, , which as per one model of dark matter mediates a weak interaction between ordinary matter and dark matter via mixing of these “dark photons” with ordinary photon. The experiment aims to probe the still unexplored area of mixing strength and masses  MeV by using 10–300 GeV electron beam from the CERN SPS. This paper presents the simulation results for rejection of background due to beam impurity, by tracking the incoming particles with Micromegas detectors at a level <. D. Banerjee, P. Crivelli, and A. Rubbia Copyright © 2015 D. Banerjee et al. All rights reserved. Vibration Control of the Boom System of Truck-Mounted Concrete Pump Based on Constant-Position Commandless Input Shaping Technique Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:38:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/420935/ Vibration of the boom system is inevitably caused by periodic disturbances, which are induced by pumping concrete. In this paper, an active control strategy of constant-position commandless input shaping technique is developed to suppress vibration. Based on a set of independent modal equations obtained by adopting modal approach, the double-impulse control with reverse direction is proposed, which is aiming at not only suppressing vibration, but also avoiding the variation of the equilibrium position of the boom system after active control action. And the characteristic of time-lag existing in real system is also taken into account for optimizing the control action. Experiments of vibration control were implemented on a 52-meter-long five-boom system to verify the proposed control strategy. Rongsheng Liu, Yingjie Gao, Sen Yang, and Yulin Yang Copyright © 2015 Rongsheng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Surface Patterning of PEDOT:PSS by Photolithography for Organic Electronic Devices Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:35:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/603148/ Along with the development of organic electronics, conductive polymer of PEDOT:PSS has been attracting more and more attention because they possess various novel electrical, optical, and mechanical properties, which render them useful in modern organic optoelectronic devices. Due to its organic nature, it is lightweight and can be fabricated into flexible devices. For better device processing and integrating, it is essential to tune their surface morphologies, and photolithography is the best choice at present. In this paper, current PEDOT:PSS patterning approaches using photolithography are reviewed, and some of our works are also briefly introduced. Appropriate photolithographic patterning process for PEDOT:PSS will enable its application in future organic electronics. Shihong Ouyang, Yingtao Xie, Dongping Wang, Dalong Zhu, Xin Xu, Te Tan, and Hon Hang Fong Copyright © 2015 Shihong Ouyang et al. All rights reserved. Forest Fire Smoke Video Detection Using Spatiotemporal and Dynamic Texture Features Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:32:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/706187/ Smoke detection is a very key part of fire recognition in a forest fire surveillance video since the smoke produced by forest fires is visible much before the flames. The performance of smoke video detection algorithm is often influenced by some smoke-like objects such as heavy fog. This paper presents a novel forest fire smoke video detection based on spatiotemporal features and dynamic texture features. At first, Kalman filtering is used to segment candidate smoke regions. Then, candidate smoke region is divided into small blocks. Spatiotemporal energy feature of each block is extracted by computing the energy features of its 8-neighboring blocks in the current frame and its two adjacent frames. Flutter direction angle is computed by analyzing the centroid motion of the segmented regions in one candidate smoke video clip. Local Binary Motion Pattern (LBMP) is used to define dynamic texture features of smoke videos. Finally, smoke video is recognized by Adaboost algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect smoke image recorded from different scenes. Yaqin Zhao, Zhong Zhou, and Mingming Xu Copyright © 2015 Yaqin Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Extreme Learning Machine on High Dimensional and Large Data Applications Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:31:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/624903/ Zhiping Lin, Jiuwen Cao, Tao Chen, Yi Jin, Zhan-Li Sun, and Amaury Lendasse Copyright © 2015 Zhiping Lin et al. All rights reserved. Extreme Learning Machines on High Dimensional and Large Data Applications: A Survey Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:31:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/103796/ Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been developed for single hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs). In ELM algorithm, the connections between the input layer and the hidden neurons are randomly assigned and remain unchanged during the learning process. The output connections are then tuned via minimizing the cost function through a linear system. The computational burden of ELM has been significantly reduced as the only cost is solving a linear system. The low computational complexity attracted a great deal of attention from the research community, especially for high dimensional and large data applications. This paper provides an up-to-date survey on the recent developments of ELM and its applications in high dimensional and large data. Comprehensive reviews on image processing, video processing, medical signal processing, and other popular large data applications with ELM are presented in the paper. Jiuwen Cao and Zhiping Lin Copyright © 2015 Jiuwen Cao and Zhiping Lin. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of the Essential Oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus Species Grown in Portugal Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:28:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/851721/ The antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of the essential oils from Thymbra capitata and Thymus species grown in Portugal were evaluated. Thymbra and Thymus essential oils were grouped into two clusters: Cluster I in which carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, and γ-terpinene dominated and Cluster II in which thymol and carvacrol were absent and the main constituent was linalool. The ability for scavenging ABTS•+ and peroxyl free radicals as well as for preventing the growth of THP-1 leukemia cells was better in essential oils with the highest contents of thymol and carvacrol. These results show the importance of these two terpene-phenolic compounds as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents against THP-1 cells. Maria Graça Miguel, Custódia Gago, Maria Dulce Antunes, Cristina Megías, Isabel Cortés-Giraldo, Javier Vioque, A. Sofia Lima, and A. Cristina Figueiredo Copyright © 2015 Maria Graça Miguel et al. All rights reserved. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films Codoped with Sodium and Bismuth Ions for the Use in the Solar Cells Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:27:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/579510/ The codoping effects of sodium and bismuth ions on the characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films prepared via the solution process were investigated in this study. When sodium and bismuth ions were incorporated into Cu(In,Ga)Se2, the ratio of the intensity of (112) diffraction peak to that of (220/204) diffraction peak was greatly increased. The codoping process not only enlarged the sizes of the grains in the films but also resulted in densification of the films. The carrier concentration of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 was found to be effectively increased to cause a reduction in the resistivity of the films. The above phenomena were attributed to the densified microstructures of the films and a decrease in the amount of the donor-type defects. The leakage current of the solar cells was found to be also decreased via the codoping process. Owing to the improved electrical properties of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 films, the conversion efficiency of the fabricated solar cells was significantly enhanced. Fu-Shan Chen, Jen-Cheng Sung, Che-Yuan Yang, and Chung-Hsin Lu Copyright © 2015 Fu-Shan Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Mittag-Leffler Kernel Based Hybrid Fault Diagnosis Method for Wheeled Robot Driving System Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:22:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2015/606734/ The wheeled robots have been successfully applied in many aspects, such as industrial handling vehicles, and wheeled service robots. To improve the safety and reliability of wheeled robots, this paper presents a novel hybrid fault diagnosis framework based on Mittag-Leffler kernel (ML-kernel) support vector machine (SVM) and Dempster-Shafer (D-S) fusion. Using sensor data sampled under different running conditions, the proposed approach initially establishes multiple principal component analysis (PCA) models for fault feature extraction. The fault feature vectors are then applied to train the probabilistic SVM (PSVM) classifiers that arrive at a preliminary fault diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of preliminary results, a novel ML-kernel based PSVM classifier is proposed in this paper, and the positive definiteness of the ML-kernel is proved as well. The basic probability assignments (BPAs) are defined based on the preliminary fault diagnosis results and their confidence values. Eventually, the final fault diagnosis result is archived by the fusion of the BPAs. Experimental results show that the proposed framework not only is capable of detecting and identifying the faults in the robot driving system, but also has better performance in stability and diagnosis accuracy compared with the traditional methods. Xianfeng Yuan, Mumin Song, Fengyu Zhou, Zhumin Chen, and Yan Li Copyright © 2015 Xianfeng Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Efficacy of Various Diagnostic Tests for Small Bowel Tumors and Clinical Features of Tumors Missed by Capsule Endoscopy Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:19:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/623208/ Background. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of various diagnostic tools such as computerized tomography (CT), small bowel follow-through (SBFT), and capsule endoscopy (CE) in diagnosing small bowel tumors (SBTs). Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features of SBTs missed by CE. Methods. We retrospectively studied 79 patients with histologically proven SBT. Clinical data were analyzed with particular attention to the efficacy of CT, SBFT, and CE in detecting SBT preoperatively. We also analyzed the clinical features of SBTs missed by CE. Results. The most common symptoms of SBT were bleeding (43%) and abdominal pain (13.9%). Diagnostic yields were as follows: CT detected 55.8% of proven SBTs; SBFT, 46.1%; and CE, 83.3%. The sensitivity for detecting SBTs was 40.4% for CT, 43.9% for SBFT, and 79.6% for CE. Two patients with nondiagnostic but suspicious findings on CE and seven patients with negative findings on CE were eventually found to have SBT. These nine patients were eventually diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (4), small polyps (3), inflammatory fibroid polyp (1), and adenocarcinoma (1). These tumors were located in the proximal jejunum (5), middle jejunum (1), distal jejunum (1), and proximal ileum (1). Conclusion. CE is more efficacious than CT or SBFT for detecting SBTs. However, significant tumors may go undetected with CE, particularly when located in the proximal jejunum. Jung Wan Han, Sung Noh Hong, Hyun Joo Jang, Seong Ran Jeon, Jae Myung Cha, Soo Jung Park, Jung Sik Byeon, Bong Min Ko, Eun Ran Kim, Hwang Choi, and Dong Kyung Chang Copyright © 2015 Jung Wan Han et al. All rights reserved. A Simpler GMRES Method for Oscillatory Integrals with Irregular Oscillations Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:17:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/103074/ A simpler GMRES method for computing oscillatory integral is presented. Theoretical analysis shows that this method is mathematically equivalent to the GMRES method proposed by Olver (2009). Moreover, the simpler GMRES does not require upper Hessenberg matrix factorization, which leads to much simpler program and requires less work. Numerical experiments are conducted to illustrate the performance of the new method and show that in some cases the simpler GMRES method could achieve higher accuracy than GMRES. Qinghua Wu and Meiying Xiang Copyright © 2015 Qinghua Wu and Meiying Xiang. All rights reserved. Clustering Ensemble for Identifying Defective Wafer Bin Map in Semiconductor Manufacturing Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:09:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/707358/ Wafer bin map (WBM) represents specific defect pattern that provides information for diagnosing root causes of low yield in semiconductor manufacturing. In practice, most semiconductor engineers use subjective and time-consuming eyeball analysis to assess WBM patterns. Given shrinking feature sizes and increasing wafer sizes, various types of WBMs occur; thus, relying on human vision to judge defect patterns is complex, inconsistent, and unreliable. In this study, a clustering ensemble approach is proposed to bridge the gap, facilitating WBM pattern extraction and assisting engineer to recognize systematic defect patterns efficiently. The clustering ensemble approach not only generates diverse clusters in data space, but also integrates them in label space. First, the mountain function is used to transform data by using pattern density. Subsequently, k-means and particle swarm optimization (PSO) clustering algorithms are used to generate diversity partitions and various label results. Finally, the adaptive response theory (ART) neural network is used to attain consensus partitions and integration. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proposed WBMs clustering ensemble approach. Several criterions in terms of sum of squared error, precision, recall, and F-measure were used for evaluating clustering results. The numerical results showed that the proposed approach outperforms the other individual clustering algorithm. Chia-Yu Hsu Copyright © 2015 Chia-Yu Hsu. All rights reserved. Secure Two-Party Distance Computation Protocols with a Semihonest Third Party and Randomization for Privacy Protection in Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 02 Jul 2015 10:54:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/475150/ Scenarios in which two nodes who distrust each other in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) would like to know the distance between them are considered. The scenario is designed to protect the private information of WSNs, in this case each node’s location, from the other nodes and from a passive attacker. The goal of the present work is to provide two novel and secure two-party distance computation protocols based on a semihonest model, the first with aid of a third party and the second based on randomization technique. Both of these protocols can extend the calculated value into a real number field. The output of the distance computation and the intermediate values in the proposed protocols are also private and not accessible to a third party or any other attackers. When executing these two protocols, security is guaranteed, and the performances of communication and computation of them are found to be satisfactory when compared to those of other similar protocols. Haiping Huang, Tianhe Gong, Ping Chen, Guoxia Qiu, and Ruchuan Wang Copyright © 2015 Haiping Huang et al. All rights reserved. A Multicriteria Decision Model for Assessment of Failure Consequences in the RCM Approach Thu, 02 Jul 2015 10:49:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/729865/ This paper proposes a multicriteria decision model based on MAUT (Multiattribute Utility Theory) incorporated into an RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) approach in order to provide a better assessment of the consequences of failure, allowing a more effective maintenance planning. MAUT provides an evaluation of probability distributions on each attribute as well as trade-offs involving lotteries. The model proposed takes advantage of such evaluations and it also restructures consequence groups established in an RCM approach into new five dimensions. As a result, overall indices of utility are computed for each failure mode analyzed. With these values, the ranking of the alternatives is established. The decision-maker’s preferences are taken into account so that the final result for each failure mode incorporates subjective aspects based on the decision-maker’s perceptions and behavior. Marcelo H. Alencar and Adiel T. de Almeida Copyright © 2015 Marcelo H. Alencar and Adiel T. de Almeida. All rights reserved. Right Breast Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Tissue Expander under Thoracic Paravertebral Blocks in a 12-Week Parturient Thu, 02 Jul 2015 10:42:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cria/2015/842725/ Paravertebral blocks are becoming increasingly utilized for breast surgery with studies showing improved postoperative pain control, decreased need for opioids, and less nausea and vomiting. We describe the anesthetic management of an otherwise healthy woman who was 12 weeks pregnant presenting for treatment of her breast cancer. For patients undergoing breast mastectomy and reconstruction with tissue expanders, paravertebral blocks offer an anesthetic alternative when general anesthesia is not desired. Christopher Allen-John Webb, Paul David Weyker, Shara Cohn, Amanda Wheeler, and Jennifer Lee Copyright © 2015 Christopher Allen-John Webb et al. All rights reserved. Dual-Homomorphic Message Authentication Code Scheme for Network Coding-Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 02 Jul 2015 10:21:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/510251/ Network coding has shown a considerable improvement in terms of capacity and robustness compared to traditional store-and-forward transmission paradigm. However, since the intermediate nodes in network coding-enabled networks have the ability to change the packets en route, network coding-enabled networks are vulnerable to pollution attacks where a small number of polluted messages can corrupt bunches of legitimate messages. Recently, research effort has been put on schemes for protecting the transmitted messages against data pollution attacks. However, most of them cannot resist tag pollution attacks. This paper presents a new homomorphic MAC-based scheme, called Dual-Homomorphic MAC (Dual-HMAC), for network coding-enabled wireless sensor networks. The proposed scheme makes use of two types of tags (i.e., MACs and D-MACs) to provide resistance against data pollution attacks and partially tag pollution attacks. Furthermore, our proposed scheme presents low communication overhead and low computational complexity compared to other existing schemes. Alireza Esfahani, Du Yang, Georgios Mantas, Alberto Nascimento, and Jonathan Rodriguez Copyright © 2015 Alireza Esfahani et al. All rights reserved. Huge Pyogenic Granuloma of the Penis Thu, 02 Jul 2015 10:21:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/263168/ Pyogenic granulomas are benign vascular disorders of the skin and mucose membranes, generally developed by trauma and irritation. The lesions are generally small. They are most commonly seen in the skin and oral mucosa and rarely seen on penis. We present the case of a huge pyogenic granuloma on the penis. Fatih Akbulut, Tugba Akbulut, Faruk Kucukdurmaz, Erkan Sonmezay, Abdulmuttalip Simsek, and Gokhan Gurbuz Copyright © 2015 Fatih Akbulut et al. All rights reserved. Antidepressant-Like and Antioxidant Effects of Plinia trunciflora in Mice Thu, 02 Jul 2015 10:00:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/601503/ The jaboticaba tree, Plinia trunciflora (O. Berg) Kausel, is popularly named “jabuticabeira” in Brazil and is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and chronic inflammation of the tonsils, but studies evaluating the central effects of this species are limited. This study evaluated the antidepressant-like and antioxidant effects of P. trunciflora (PT) aqueous extract, in which five different anthocyanins were identified. PT showed significant ferric-reduction power and DPPH radical scavenging activity in vitro and reduced lipid peroxidation both in vitro and ex vivo. At the behavioural level, PT (400 and 800 mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced immobility time in the tail suspension test in Swiss male mice. The identification of bioactive compounds accompanied by the in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant activity of PT suggests that these activities might be related to the antidepressant-like activity of P. trunciflora. Cassia Sacchet, Ricieri Mocelin, Adrieli Sachett, Fernanda Bevilaqua, Rafael Chitolina, Fernanda Kuhn, Aline Augusti Boligon, Margareth Linde Athayde, Walter Antonio Roman Junior, Denis Broock Rosemberg, Jacir Dal Magro, Greicy Michelle Marafiga Conterato, and Angelo L. Piato Copyright © 2015 Cassia Sacchet et al. All rights reserved. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:55:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/968152/ Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise. Hirotomo Yamanashi, Jun Koyamatsu, Masaharu Nobuyoshi, Kunihiko Murase, and Takahiro Maeda Copyright © 2015 Hirotomo Yamanashi et al. All rights reserved. Perspectives of Managing Mobile Service Security Risks Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/592150/ The rapid growth of mobile telecommunications industry has been influencing the tremendous technological diffusion offering lower access cost, mobility, and convenience based communication as compared to wired telecom. The global rise of mobile competition helped service providers to offer much improved services both in terms of capabilities, information processing, retrieval, and communication over typical problems of inefficiencies generated by monopolies in wired networks. While there are significant opportunities to leverage the growth of mobile devices to increase the effectiveness of mobile users, also there are significant concerns about security and privacy of sensitive data that must be handled in these devices. Correspondingly, cyber security is becoming one of the top priorities for any nation. This paper reviews and presents some of the literature exercises in this regard. Objectives of this paper are: (i) to bring into light the explicit and implicit assumptions on the nature of technological change and how they could raise security issues, (ii) to discuss the technology and management perspectives on the security issues, and (iii) to present them through a methodology oriented taxonomy. It is believed that the adoption of methodology driven by sense-and-respond model would serve as an effective means to achieve these objectives. Mohammed Ahmed Truki AlSudiary Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Ahmed Truki AlSudiary. All rights reserved. Phase Error Caused by Speed Mismatch Analysis in the Line-Scan Defect Detection by Using Fourier Transform Technique Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:53:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/852016/ The phase error caused by the speed mismatch issue is researched in the line-scan images capturing 3D profile measurement. The experimental system is constructed by a line-scan CCD camera, an object moving device, a digital fringe pattern projector, and a personal computer. In the experiment procedure, the detected object is moving relative to the image capturing system by using a motorized translation stage in a stable velocity. The digital fringe pattern is projected onto the detected object, and then the deformed patterns are captured and recorded in the computer. The object surface profile can be calculated by the Fourier transform profilometry. However, the moving speed mismatch error will still exist in most of the engineering application occasion even after an image system calibration. When the moving speed of the detected object is faster than the expected value, the captured image will be compressed in the moving direction of the detected object. In order to overcome this kind of measurement error, an image recovering algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the original compressed image. Thus, the phase values can be extracted much more accurately by the reconstructed images. And then, the phase error distribution caused by the speed mismatch is analyzed by the simulation and experimental methods. Eryi Hu and Yuan Hu Copyright © 2015 Eryi Hu and Yuan Hu. All rights reserved. Presentation of Complex Homozygous Allele in ABCA4 Gene in a Patient with Retinitis Pigmentosa Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:36:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2015/452068/ Retinitis pigmentosa is a degenerative retinal disease characterized by progressive photoreceptor damage, which causes loss of peripheral and night vision and the development of tunnel vision and may result in loss of central vision. This study describes a patient with retinitis pigmentosa caused by a mutation in the ABCA4 gene with complex allele c.1622T>C, p.L541P; c.3113C>T, p.A1038V in homozygous state. Māreta Audere, Katrīna Rutka, Svetlana Šepetiene, and Baiba Lāce Copyright © 2015 Māreta Audere et al. All rights reserved. New Results on Reachable Set Estimation and Controller Design for Linear Systems with Mixed Delays via Triple Integral Functionals Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:25:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/935920/ This paper is concerned with the problem of reachable set estimation and controller design for a class of linear systems with mixed delays and bounded disturbance inputs. By constructing a newly augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, combining with triple integral technique and reciprocally convex approach, some new reachable set estimation conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Based on these conditions, a state-feedback controller has been designed to ensure the reachable set of the closed-loop system bounded by a given ellipsoid. Finally, two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed analysis and designed method. Wei Kang and Shouming Zhong Copyright © 2015 Wei Kang and Shouming Zhong. All rights reserved. Change of Neural Connectivity of the Red Nucleus in Patients with Striatocapsular Hemorrhage: A Diffusion Tensor Tractography Study Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:15:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/679815/ The red nucleus (RN) is involved in motor control and it is known to have potential to compensate for injury of the corticospinal tract (CST). We investigated the change of connectivity of the RN (RNc) and its relation to motor function in patients with striatocapsular hemorrhage. Thirty-five chronic patients with striatocapsular hemorrhage were recruited. Motricity Index (MI), Modified Brunnstrom Classification (MBC), and Functional Ambulation Category (FAC) were measured for motor function. The probabilistic tractography method was used for evaluation of the RNc. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume (TV) of the RNc were measured. FA and TV ratios of the RNc in patients with discontinuation of the affected CST were significantly higher than those of patients with preserved integrity of the CST in the affected hemisphere (). TV ratio of the RNc showed significant negative correlation with upper MI (weak correlation, ), total MI (weak correlation, ), and MBC (moderate correlation, ), respectively (). We found that the neural structure of the RNc was relatively increased in the unaffected hemisphere compared with the affected hemisphere in patients with more severe injury of the CST. Sung Ho Jang and Hyeok Gyu Kwon Copyright © 2015 Sung Ho Jang and Hyeok Gyu Kwon. All rights reserved. Dynamical Analysis of an SEIT Epidemic Model with Application to Ebola Virus Transmission in Guinea Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:14:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/582625/ In order to investigate the transmission mechanism of the infectious individual with Ebola virus, we establish an SEIT (susceptible, exposed in the latent period, infectious, and treated/recovery) epidemic model. The basic reproduction number is defined. The mathematical analysis on the existence and stability of the disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium is given. As the applications of the model, we use the recognized infectious and death cases in Guinea to estimate parameters of the model by the least square method. With suitable parameter values, we obtain the estimated value of the basic reproduction number and analyze the sensitivity and uncertainty property by partial rank correlation coefficients. Zhiming Li, Zhidong Teng, Xiaomei Feng, Yingke Li, and Huiguo Zhang Copyright © 2015 Zhiming Li et al. All rights reserved. Lupus-Associated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Variable Course and Importance of Prompt Recognition Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:13:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/328435/ We describe a critically ill young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) presenting with circulatory shock, multiorgan dysfunction, and elevated right-sided heart pressures. She was found to have recurrent acute severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the setting of an SLE flare. Our report highlights the variable course that SLE-associated PAH can take in the same patient and the implications of this for instituting the most effective treatment approach with each episode. This report also highlights the potential for SLE-associated PAH to present with life-threatening symptoms requiring critical care level interventions. We also describe evidence-based therapies, which can result in significant improvement in symptoms, function, and long-term outcomes. Kofi A. Mensah, Rajwardhan Yadav, Terence K. Trow, Cristina M. Brunet, and Wassim H. Fares Copyright © 2015 Kofi A. Mensah et al. All rights reserved. Novel Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation: Monitoring, Reversal and Perioperative Management Thu, 02 Jul 2015 09:09:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/424031/ Atrial fibrillation continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective anticoagulation remains the cornerstone of outpatient and inpatient treatment. The use of the new generation of anticoagulants (NOACs) continues to grow. Recently published data indicate their cost-effectiveness and overall safety in stroke prevention; compared to vitamin K antagonists, they can be prescribed in fixed doses for long-term therapy without the need for coagulation monitoring. Both United States and European Guidelines recommend NOACs for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. This review discusses each of the NOACs, along with their efficacy and safety data. It explores the most recent guidelines regarding their perioperative use in atrial fibrillation patients. It also discusses bleeding complications, perioperative management, and reversal agents. Fadi Shamoun, Hiba Obeid, and Harish Ramakrishna Copyright © 2015 Fadi Shamoun et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Effect of the Contact Point and the Contact Force of a Glass Fiber under End-Face Polishing Process Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:58:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/825238/ The offset between the center lines of the polished end-face and the fiber core has a significant effect on coupling efficiency. The initial contact point and the contact force are two of the most important parameters that induce the offset. This study proposes an image assistant method to find the initial contact point and a mathematical model to estimate the contact force when fabricating the double-variable-curvature end-face of single mode glass fiber. The repeatability of finding the initial contact point via the vision assistant program is 0.3 μm. Based on the assumption of a large deflection, a mathematical model is developed to study the relationship between the contact force and the displacement of the lapping film. In order to verify the feasibility of the mathematical model, experiments, as well as DEFORM simulations, are carried out. The results show that the contact forces are alomst linearly proportional to the feed amounts of the lapping film and the errors are less than 9%. By using the method developed in this study, the offset between the grinding end-face and the center line of the fiber core is within 0.15 to 0.35 μm. Ying-Chien Tsai, Guang-Miao Huang, Shin-Wei Cheng, Cheng-An Hsu, and Innchyn Her Copyright © 2015 Ying-Chien Tsai et al. All rights reserved. Gestation Related Gene Expression of the Endocannabinoid Pathway in Rat Placenta Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:52:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/850471/ Mammalian placentation is a vital facet of the development of a healthy and viable offspring. Throughout gestation the placenta changes to accommodate, provide for, and meet the demands of a growing fetus. Gestational gene expression is a crucial part of placenta development. The endocannabinoid pathway is activated in the placenta and decidual tissues throughout pregnancy and aberrant endocannabinoid signaling during the period of placental development has been associated with pregnancy disorders. In this study, the gene expression of eight endocannabinoid system enzymes was investigated throughout gestation. Rat placentae were obtained at E14.25, E15.25, E17.25, and E20, RNA was extracted, and microarray was performed. Gene expression of enzymes Faah, Mgll, Plcd4, Pld1, Nat1, Daglα, and Ptgs2 was studied (cohort 1, microarray). Biological replication of the results was performed by qPCR (cohort 2). Four genes showed differential expression (Mgll, Plcd4, Ptgs2, and Pld1), from mid to late gestation. Genes positively associated with gestational age were Ptgs2, Mgll, and Pld1, while Plcd4 was downregulated. This is the first comprehensive study that has investigated endocannabinoid pathway gene expression during rat pregnancy. This study provides the framework for future studies that investigate the role of endocannabinoid system during pregnancy. Kanchan Vaswani, Hsiu-Wen Chan, Hassendrini N. Peiris, Marloes Dekker Nitert, Ryan J. Wood Bradley, James A. Armitage, Gregory E. Rice, and Murray D. Mitchell Copyright © 2015 Kanchan Vaswani et al. All rights reserved. Mycobiota and Natural Incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin A, and Citrinin in Indian Spices Confirmed by LC-MS/MS Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:48:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmicro/2015/242486/ Nine different Indian spices (red chilli, black pepper, turmeric, coriander, cumin, fennel, caraway, fenugreek, and dry ginger) commonly cultivated and highly used in India were analysed for natural occurrence of toxigenic mycoflora and aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA), and citrinin (CTN) contamination. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the most dominant species isolated from all types of spices. Red chilli samples were highly contaminated with aflatoxins (85.4%) followed by dry ginger (77.7%). 56% Aspergillus flavus from red chilli and 45% Aspergillus ochraceus from black pepper were toxigenic and produced aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Qualitative detection and quantitative detection of mycotoxins in spices were analyzed by ELISA and further confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Penicillium citrinum produced citrinin in red chilli, black pepper, coriander, cumin, fenugreek, and dry ginger samples. The highest amount of AFs was found in red chilli (219.6 ng/g), OTA was in black pepper (154.1 ng/g), and CTN was in dry ginger samples (85.1 ng/g). The results of this study suggest that the spices are susceptible substrate for growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and further mycotoxin production. This is the first report of natural occurrence of citrinin in black pepper and dry ginger from India. Punam Jeswal and Dhiraj Kumar Copyright © 2015 Punam Jeswal and Dhiraj Kumar. All rights reserved. Conditional Optimization and One Inverse Boundary Value Problem Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:38:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/949703/ Here we construct different approximate solutions of the plane inverse boundary value problem of aerohydrodynamics. In order to do this we solve some conditional optimization problems in the norms , , and  and some of their generalizations. We present the example clarifying the mathematical constructions and show that the supremum norm generalization seems to be the optimal one of all the functionals considered in the paper. Pyotr N. Ivanshin Copyright © 2015 Pyotr N. Ivanshin. All rights reserved. Achalasia in Pregnancy: Botulinum Toxin A Injection of Lower Esophageal Sphincter Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/328970/ Background. Achalasia, a rare esophageal motility disorder that may cause malnutrition during pregnancy, can result in fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Many medical treatment regimens are contraindicated or not tolerated during pregnancy, and surgery is generally avoided due to potential risks to the fetus. Case Report. Severe, medically refractory achalasia in a 23-year-old pregnant woman that caused malnutrition was successfully managed by administering a botulinum toxin A injection to the lower esophageal sphincter. The injection was performed at approximately 14 weeks’ gestation and the patient reported clinically significant relief from dysphagia. She gained weight and ultimately delivered a healthy baby girl at term, but her symptoms returned a few months postpartum. She underwent a second treatment of botulinum toxin A injection, but it offered only one month of relief. Roughly eight months after delivery, the patient underwent a laparoscopic extended Heller myotomy and Dor fundoplication. The patient resumed a normal diet one week postoperatively, and her baby has had no complications. Conclusion. This is only the second reported case of botulinum toxin A injection being used to treat achalasia in pregnancy. This treatment proved to be a safe temporary alternative without the risks of surgery and anesthesia during pregnancy. Nicole Hooft, Emily S. Schmidt, and Ross M. Bremner Copyright © 2015 Nicole Hooft et al. All rights reserved. On Key Evolution over Wireless Channels Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:13:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/592848/ Noise is a powerful resource for the implementation of cryptographic primitives, especially in wireless networks. In general, a key agreement protocol is tailored to the channels and relies on the assumption that knowledge on the eavesdropper’s channel is available. This is not practical. In this paper, we focus on the problem of developing key agreement schemes for secure communication across wireless channels and propose a key evolution scheme to alleviate the assumption. Keys evolve continuously based on the transmitted messages over the noisy wireless channel. Even if the eavesdropper’s channel is superior to the legitimate receiver, the legitimate parties can establish secret keys. To further confuse the eavesdropper, we present a strategy for legitimate parties to send artificial noise if the eavesdropper cannot distinguish the sources of messages. Finally, we propose a -resistant encryption scheme that can use different keys to encrypt and decrypt messages if there are no more than bits which differ between the encryption and decryption keys. Zhihong Liu, Yong Zeng, Pingjuan Zhang, and Qiping Huang Copyright © 2015 Zhihong Liu et al. All rights reserved. Symmetry Analysis and Conservation Laws of a Generalized Two-Dimensional Nonlinear KP-MEW Equation Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:11:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/805763/ Lie symmetry analysis is performed on a generalized two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-modified equal width equation. The symmetries and adjoint representations for this equation are given and an optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras is derived. The similarity reductions and exact solutions with the aid of -expansion method are obtained based on the optimal systems of one-dimensional subalgebras. Finally conservation laws are constructed by using the multiplier method. Khadijo Rashid Adem and Chaudry Masood Khalique Copyright © 2015 Khadijo Rashid Adem and Chaudry Masood Khalique. All rights reserved. A New Approach and Solution Technique to Solve Time Fractional Nonlinear Reaction-Diffusion Equations Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:08:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/457013/ A new application of the hybrid generalized differential transform and finite difference method is proposed by solving time fractional nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations. This method is a combination of the multi-time-stepping temporal generalized differential transform and the spatial finite difference methods. The procedure first converts the time-evolutionary equations into Poisson equations which are then solved using the central difference method. The temporal differential transform method as used in the paper takes care of stability and the finite difference method on the resulting equation results in a system of diagonally dominant linear algebraic equations. The Gauss-Seidel iterative procedure then used to solve the linear system thus has assured convergence. To have optimized convergence rate, numerical experiments were done by using a combination of factors involving multi-time-stepping, spatial step size, and degree of the polynomial fit in time. It is shown that the hybrid technique is reliable, accurate, and easy to apply. Inci Cilingir Sungu and Huseyin Demir Copyright © 2015 Inci Cilingir Sungu and Huseyin Demir. All rights reserved. Thermal Properties of Asphalt Mixtures Modified with Conductive Fillers Thu, 02 Jul 2015 08:02:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/926809/ This paper investigates the thermal properties of asphalt mixtures modified with conductive fillers used for snow melting and solar harvesting pavements. Two different mixing processes were adopted to mold asphalt mixtures, dry- and wet-mixing, and two conductive fillers were used in this study, graphite and carbon black. The thermal conductivity was compared to investigate the effects of asphalt mixture preparing methods, the quantity, and the distribution of conductive filler on thermal properties. The combination of conductive filler with carbon fiber in asphalt mixture was evaluated. Also, rheological properties of modified asphalt binders with conductive fillers were measured using dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer at grade-specific temperatures. Based on rheological testing, the conductive fillers improve rutting resistance and decrease thermal cracking resistance. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon black improve the thermal properties of asphalt mixes and the combined conductive fillers are more effective than the single filler. Byong Chol Bai, Dae-Wook Park, Hai Viet Vo, Samer Dessouky, and Ji Sun Im Copyright © 2015 Byong Chol Bai et al. All rights reserved. LogDet Rank Minimization with Application to Subspace Clustering Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:56:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2015/824289/ Low-rank matrix is desired in many machine learning and computer vision problems. Most of the recent studies use the nuclear norm as a convex surrogate of the rank operator. However, all singular values are simply added together by the nuclear norm, and thus the rank may not be well approximated in practical problems. In this paper, we propose using a log-determinant (LogDet) function as a smooth and closer, though nonconvex, approximation to rank for obtaining a low-rank representation in subspace clustering. Augmented Lagrange multipliers strategy is applied to iteratively optimize the LogDet-based nonconvex objective function on potentially large-scale data. By making use of the angular information of principal directions of the resultant low-rank representation, an affinity graph matrix is constructed for spectral clustering. Experimental results on motion segmentation and face clustering data demonstrate that the proposed method often outperforms state-of-the-art subspace clustering algorithms. Zhao Kang, Chong Peng, Jie Cheng, and Qiang Cheng Copyright © 2015 Zhao Kang et al. All rights reserved. Study of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Effects on Workpiece Quality in Sheet Metal Extrusion Process Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:30:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/848126/ Sheet metal extrusion is a metal forming process in which the movement of a punch penetrates a sheet metal surface and it flows through a die orifice; the extruded parts can be deflected to have an extrusion cavity and protrusion on the opposite side. Therefore, this process results in a narrow region of highly localized plastic deformation due to the formation and microstructure effect on the work piece. This research investigated the characteristics of the material-flow behavior during the formation and its effect on the microstructure of the extruded sheet metal using the finite element method (FEM). The actual parts and FEM simulation model were developed using a blank material made from AISI-1045 steel with a thickness of 5 mm; the material’s behavior was determined subject to the punch penetration depths of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the sheet thickness. The results indicated the formation and microstructure effects on the sheet metal extrusion parts and defects. Namely, when increasing penetration, narrowing the die orifice the material flows through, the material was formed by extruding, and defects were visibility, and the microstructure of the material’s grains’ size was flat and very fine. Extrusion defects were not found in the control material flow. The region of highly localized plastic deformation affected the material gain and mechanical properties. The FEM simulation results agreed with the experimental results. Moreover, FEM could be investigated as a tool to decrease the cost and time in trial and error procedures. Chatkaew Suriyapha, Bopit Bubphachot, and Sampan Rittidech Copyright © 2015 Chatkaew Suriyapha et al. All rights reserved. Validation of the Official Slovak Version of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS) Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:17:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/674796/ After successful clinimetric testing of the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale (UDysRS), a program for translation and validation of non-English versions of the UDysRS was initiated. The aim of this study was to validate and confirm the factor structure of the Slovak translation of the UDysRS. We examined 251 patients with Parkinson’s disease and dyskinesia using the Slovak version of the UDysRS. The average age of our sample was 65.2 ± 9.2 years and average disease duration was 10.9 ± 5.0 years. Slovak data were compared using confirmatory factor analysis with the Spanish data. To be designated as the official Slovak UDysRS translation, the comparative fit index (CFI) had to be 0.90 relative to the Spanish language version. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to explore the underlying factor structure without the constraint of a prespecified factor structure. For all four parts of the Slovak UDysRS, the CFI, in comparison with the Spanish language factor structure, was 0.98. Isolated differences in the factor structure of the Slovak UDysRS were identified by exploratory factor analysis compared with the Spanish version. The Slovak version of the UDysRS was designated as an official non-English translation and can be downloaded from the website of the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. Matej Skorvanek, Michal Minar, Milan Grofik, Katarina Kracunova, Vladimir Han, Frantisek Cibulcik, Jan Necpal, Ladislav Gurcik, and Peter Valkovic Copyright © 2015 Matej Skorvanek et al. All rights reserved. Developing an Inspection Optimization Model Based on the Delay-Time Concept Thu, 02 Jul 2015 07:04:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jie/2015/843137/ Infrastructures are considered as important facilities required for every country and society to be able to work properly. Aging and deterioration of such structures during their lifetime are a major concern both for maintenance researchers in the academic world and for the practitioners. This concern is mainly because the deterioration increases the maintenance costs dramatically and lowers the reliability, availability, and safety of the structural system. Preventive maintenance and inspection activities are the most usual means for keeping the structure in a good condition. This paper utilizes the concept of delay-time for developing the optimal inspection policy for deteriorating structures. In the proposed stochastic model, discrete times of inspection activities are taken as the decision variables of an optimization problem, in a way that the obtained aperiodic (nonuniform) inspection schedule minimizes the total downtime ratio of the structure. To illustrate the model capabilities, various numerical examples are solved and results are compared with the traditional periodic (uniform) inspection policies. The results indicate the substantial reduction in system downtime due to the wisely planned inspection schedule and the appropriate utilization of delay-time concept, which is indeed a powerful framework for inspection optimization problems. Ehsan Nazemi and Kamran Shahanaghi Copyright © 2015 Ehsan Nazemi and Kamran Shahanaghi. All rights reserved. Isolated Subclinical Hyperthyrotropinemia in Obese Children: Does Levothyroxine (LT4) Improve Weight Reduction during Combined Behavioral Therapy? Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:50:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/792509/ Objective. The study aim was to analyze whether anthropometrical parameters and TSH values in obese children with isolated subclinical hypothyroidism (IsHT) treated with levothyroxine (LT4) and weight reduction program differ from those managed by dietary and behavior counselling only. Material and Methods. 51 obese children with IsHT, who were treated according to the same weight reduction program, were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into two groups: Group 1, , and Group 2, , without or with LT4 therapy, respectively. Changes in anthropometrical (delta BMI z-score) and hormonal (delta TSH) status were analyzed at the first follow-up visit. Results. In both groups significant decrease of TSH and BMI z-score values were noted. TSH normalized in 80.9% of children from Group 1 versus 90.5% from Group 2, p = NS. Delta BMI z-score was insignificantly higher in Group 1 compared to Group 2. Delta TSH was significantly related to initial TSH level in children treated by lifestyle intervention program only. Conclusions. In obese children with sHT dietary-behavioral management intervention contributed to reduction of body mass index, irrespective of levothyroxine use. This finding suggests that moderately elevated levels of TSH are a consequence rather than cause of overweight and pharmacological treatment should be avoided. Pawel Matusik, Aneta Gawlik, Aleksandra Januszek-Trzciakowska, and Ewa Malecka-Tendera Copyright © 2015 Pawel Matusik et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Elemental Composition of Malabar spinach, Lettuce, Spinach, Hyacinth Bean, and Cauliflower Vegetables Using Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Technique at Savar Subdistrict in Bangladesh Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:42:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/128256/ The concentrations of 18 different elements (K, Ca, Fe, Cl, P, Zn, S, Mn, Ti, Cr, Rb, Co, Br, Sr, Ru, Si, Ni, and Cu) were analyzed in five selected vegetables through Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. The objective of this study was to provide updated information on concentrations of elements in vegetables available in the local markets at Savar subdistrict in Bangladesh. These elements were found in varying concentrations in the studied vegetables. The results also indicated that P, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, and Zn were found in all vegetables. Overall, K and Ca exhibited the highest concentrations. Cu and Ni exhibited the lowest concentrations in vegetables. The necessity of these elements was also evaluated, based on the established limits of regulatory standards. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption of these vegetables is not completely free of health risks. S. M. Fahad, A. F. M. Mahmudul Islam, Mahiuddin Ahmed, Nizam Uddin, Md. Rezaul Alam, Md. Ferdous Alam, Md. Farhan Khalik, Md. Sazzad Hossain, Md. Lokman Hossain, and Md. Joynal Abedin Copyright © 2015 S. M. Fahad et al. All rights reserved. Rat Models of Diet-Induced Obesity and High Fat/Low Dose Streptozotocin Type 2 Diabetes: Effect of Reversal of High Fat Diet Compared to Treatment with Enalapril or Menhaden Oil on Glucose Utilization and Neuropathic Endpoints Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:42:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/307285/ We examined whether reversal of high fat diet, stimulating weight loss, compared to two treatments previously shown to have beneficial effects, could improve glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy in animal models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet and treated with a low dose of streptozotocin to create models of diet induced obesity or type 2 diabetes, respectively. Afterwards, rats were transferred to a normal diet or treated with enalapril or dietary enrichment with menhaden oil for 12 weeks. Obesity and to a greater extent type 2 diabetes were associated with impaired glucose utilization and peripheral neuropathy. Placing obese rats on a normal diet improved glucose utilization. Steatosis but not peripheral neuropathy was improved after placing obese or diabetic rats on a normal diet. Treating obese and diabetic rats with enalapril or a menhaden oil enriched diet generally improved peripheral neuropathy endpoints. In summary, dietary improvement with weight loss in obese or type 2 diabetic rats was not sufficient to correct peripheral neuropathy. These results further stress the need for discovery of a comprehensive treatment for peripheral neuropathy. Amey Holmes, Lawrence J. Coppey, Eric P. Davidson, and Mark A. Yorek Copyright © 2015 Amey Holmes et al. All rights reserved. Regulation of Dendritic Cell Function in Inflammation Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:32:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/743169/ Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells and link the innate and adaptive immune system. During steady state immune surveillance in skin, DC act as sentinels against commensals and invading pathogens. Under pathological skin conditions, inflammatory cytokines, secreted by surrounding keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and immune cells, influence the activation and maturation of different DC populations including Langerhans cells (LC) and dermal DC. In this review we address critical differences in human DC subtypes during inflammatory settings compared to steady state. We also highlight the functional characteristics of human DC subsets in inflammatory skin environments and skin diseases including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Understanding the complex immunoregulatory role of distinct DC subsets in inflamed human skin will be a key element in developing novel strategies in anti-inflammatory therapy. André Said and Günther Weindl Copyright © 2015 André Said and Günther Weindl. All rights reserved. Reducing the Size of Combinatorial Optimization Problems Using the Operator Vaccine by Fuzzy Selector with Adaptive Heuristics Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:27:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/713043/ Nowadays, solving optimally combinatorial problems is an open problem. Determining the best arrangement of elements proves being a very complex task that becomes critical when the problem size increases. Researchers have proposed various algorithms for solving Combinatorial Optimization Problems (COPs) that take into account the scalability; however, issues are still presented with larger COPs concerning hardware limitations such as memory and CPU speed. It has been shown that the Reduce-Optimize-Expand (ROE) method can solve COPs faster with the same resources; in this methodology, the reduction step is the most important procedure since inappropriate reductions, applied to the problem, will produce suboptimal results on the subsequent stages. In this work, an algorithm to improve the reduction step is proposed. It is based on a fuzzy inference system to classify portions of the problem and remove them, allowing COPs solving algorithms to utilize better the hardware resources by dealing with smaller problem sizes, and the use of metadata and adaptive heuristics. The Travelling Salesman Problem has been used as a case of study; instances that range from 343 to 3056 cities were used to prove that the fuzzy logic approach produces a higher percentage of successful reductions. Oscar Montiel and Francisco Javier Díaz Delgadillo Copyright © 2015 Oscar Montiel and Francisco Javier Díaz Delgadillo. All rights reserved. Role of Vitamin D in Osteoarthritis: Molecular, Cellular, and Clinical Perspectives Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:22:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/383918/ Osteoarthritis is a debilitating and degenerative disease which affects millions of people worldwide. The causes and mechanisms of osteoarthritis remain to be fully understood. Vitamin D has been hypothesised to play essential roles in a number of diseases including osteoarthritis. Many cell types within osteoarthritic joints appear to experience negative effects often at increased sensitivity to vitamin D. These findings contrast clinical research which has identified vitamin D deficiency to have a worryingly high prevalence among osteoarthritis patients. Randomised-controlled trial is considered to be the most rigorous way of determining the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the development of osteoarthritis. Studies into the effects of low vitamin D levels on pain and joint function have to date yielded controversial results. Due to the apparent conflicting effects of vitamin D in knee osteoarthritis, further research is required to fully elucidate its role in the development and progression of the disease as well as assess the efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation as a therapeutic strategy. Thomas Mabey and Sittisak Honsawek Copyright © 2015 Thomas Mabey and Sittisak Honsawek. All rights reserved. A Class of Parameter Estimation Methods for Nonlinear Muskingum Model Using Hybrid Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithm Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:18:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/573894/ Nonlinear Muskingum models are important tools in hydrological forecasting. In this paper, we have come up with a class of new discretization schemes including a parameter to approximate the nonlinear Muskingum model based on general trapezoid formulas. The accuracy of these schemes is second order, if , but interestingly when , the accuracy of the presented scheme gets improved to third order. Then, the present schemes are transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem which can be solved by a hybrid invasive weed optimization (HIWO) algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the present methods. The numerical results substantiate the fact that the presented methods have better precision in estimating the parameters of nonlinear Muskingum models. Aijia Ouyang, Li-Bin Liu, Zhou Sheng, and Fan Wu Copyright © 2015 Aijia Ouyang et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Changes in Vowel Articulation with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Dysarthric Speakers with Parkinson’s Disease” Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:12:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/419294/ Vincent Martel Sauvageau, Joël Macoir, Mélanie Langlois, Michel Prud’Homme, Léo Cantin, and Johanna-Pascale Roy Copyright © 2015 Vincent Martel Sauvageau et al. All rights reserved. Neural Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis: The Functional and Molecular Background Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:08:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/307175/ Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disorder resulting in motor dysfunction and cognitive decline. The inflammatory and neurodegenerative changes seen in the brains of MS patients lead to progressive disability and increasing brain atrophy. The most common type of MS is characterized by episodes of clinical exacerbations and remissions. This suggests the presence of compensating mechanisms for accumulating damage. Apart from the widely known repair mechanisms like remyelination, another important phenomenon is neuronal plasticity. Initially, neuroplasticity was connected with the developmental stages of life; however, there is now growing evidence confirming that structural and functional reorganization occurs throughout our lifetime. Several functional studies, utilizing such techniques as fMRI, TBS, or MRS, have provided valuable data about the presence of neuronal plasticity in MS patients. CNS ability to compensate for neuronal damage is most evident in RR-MS; however it has been shown that brain plasticity is also preserved in patients with substantial brain damage. Regardless of the numerous studies, the molecular background of neuronal plasticity in MS is still not well understood. Several factors, like IL-1β, BDNF, PDGF, or CB1Rs, have been implicated in functional recovery from the acute phase of MS and are thus considered as potential therapeutic targets. Dominika Justyna Ksiazek-Winiarek, Piotr Szpakowski, and Andrzej Glabinski Copyright © 2015 Dominika Justyna Ksiazek-Winiarek et al. All rights reserved. Evolution of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Fractional Anisotropy in the Cerebrum of Asphyxiated Newborns Treated with Hypothermia over the First Month of Life Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:07:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/653727/ The objective of this study was to assess the evolution of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) over the first month of life in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia and to compare it with that of healthy newborns. Asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia were enrolled prospectively; and the presence and extent of brain injury were scored on each MRI. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured in the basal ganglia, in the white matter and in the cortical grey matter. Sixty-one asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia had a total of 126 ADC and FA maps. Asphyxiated newborns developing brain injury eventually had significantly decreased ADC values on days 2-3 of life and decreased FA values around day 10 and 1 month of life compared with those not developing brain injury. Despite hypothermia treatment, asphyxiated newborns may develop brain injury that still can be detected with advanced neuroimaging techniques such as DWI and DTI as early as days 2-3 of life. A study of ADC and FA values over time may aid in the understanding of how brain injury develops in these newborns despite hypothermia treatment. Saskia Kwan, Elodie Boudes, Anouk Benseler, Guillaume Gilbert, Christine Saint-Martin, Michael Shevell, and Pia Wintermark Copyright © 2015 Saskia Kwan et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Osteogenesis of Vancomycin Loaded Nanohydroxyapatite/Collagen/Calcium Sulfate Composite for Treating Infectious Bone Defect Induced by Chronic Osteomyelitis Thu, 02 Jul 2015 06:06:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/261492/ A novel antibacterial bone graft substitute was developed to repair bone defects and to inhibit related infections simultaneously. This bone composite was prepared by introducing vancomycin (VCM) to nanohydroxyapatite/collagen/calcium sulphate hemihydrate (nHAC/CSH). XRD, SEM, and CCK-8 tests were used to characterize the structure and morphology and to investigate the adhesion and proliferation of murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell on VCM/nHAC/CSH composite. The effectiveness in restoring infectious bone defects was evaluated in vivo using a rabbit model of chronic osteomyelitis. Our in vivo results implied that the VCM/nHAC/CSH composite performed well both in antibacterial ability and in bone regeneration. This novel bone graft substitute should be very promising for the treatment of bone defect-related infection in orthopedic surgeries. Xiaojie Lian, Kezheng Mao, Xi Liu, Xiumei Wang, and Fuzhai Cui Copyright © 2015 Xiaojie Lian et al. All rights reserved. CD4+RORγt++ and Tregs in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:52:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/239623/ Background and Aims. Inflammatory mediators that cross-talk in different metabolically active organs are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH). This study was aimed at investigating the CD4+RORγt+ T-helper cells and their counterpart, the CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in the liver, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) in a high fat diet (HFD) mouse model. Methods. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD or a normal diet (ND). Liver enzymes, metabolic parameters, and liver histology were assessed. The expression of CD4+RORγt+ cells and regulatory T cells in different organs (blood, liver, AAT, and SAT) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokine and adipokine tissue expression were studied by RT-PCR. Results. Mice fed a HFD developed NASH and metabolic alterations compared to normal diet. CD4+RORγt++ cells were significantly increased in the liver and the AAT while an increase of regulatory T cells was observed in the SAT of mice fed HFD compared to ND. Inflammatory cytokines were also upregulated. Conclusions. CD4+RORγt++ cells and regulatory T cells are altered in NASH with a site-specific pattern and correlate with the severity of the disease. These site-specific differences are associated with increased cytokine expression. Luisa Vonghia, Nathalie Ruyssers, Dorien Schrijvers, Paul Pelckmans, Peter Michielsen, Luc De Clerck, Albert Ramon, Emilio Jirillo, Didier Ebo, Benedicte De Winter, Chris Bridts, and Sven Francque Copyright © 2015 Luisa Vonghia et al. All rights reserved. RLN2 Is a Positive Regulator of AKT-2-Induced Gene Expression Required for Osteosarcoma Cells Invasion and Chemoresistance Thu, 02 Jul 2015 05:48:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/147468/ The aim of the study was to determine the effect of H2 relaxin (RLN2) on invasion, migration, and chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human osteosarcoma U2-OS and MG-63 cells and then to investigate the effect of RLN2 on the AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway. The expression of RLN2, p-AKT (Ser473), and p-ERK1/2 (Phospho-Thr202/Tyr204) proteins was detected by western blot in OS tissues from 21 patients with pulmonary metastatic disease, and the correlation between RLN2 and p-AKT or RLN2 and p-ERK1/2 expression was investigated. RLN2 expression was inhibited by RLN2 siRNA transfection in the MG-63 cells. RLN2 was overexpressed in the U2-OS cells by treatment with recombinant relaxin. The results showed that positive relation was found between RLN2 and p-AKT expression in tissues of OS. Silencing RLN2 inhibited cell migratory and invasive ability and angiogenesis formation and increased the chemosensitivity to cisplatin in MG-63 cells. RLN2 overexpression promoted migratory and invasive ability and angiogenesis and increased the chemoresistance to cisplatin in U2-OS cells. Silencing RLN2 inhibited the activity of AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway in MG-63 cells, and vice versa. Blockage of both pathways by specific inhibitors abrogated RLN2-induced survival and invasion of OS cells, and vice versa. Our results indicated RLN2 confers to migratory and invasive ability, angiogenesis, and chemoresistance to cisplatin via modulating the AKT/NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro. Jinfeng Ma, Hai Huang, Zenggang Han, Changzheng Zhu, and Bin Yue Copyright © 2015 Jinfeng Ma et al. All rights reserved. Toxic Effects of Rhamnus alaternus: A Rare Case Report Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:42:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2015/182951/ In Tunisia, there are about 478 species of plants commonly used in folk medicine. Medicinal plants and herbal remedies used are responsible for 2% of intoxications listed by Tunisian National Poison Center. Most cases are related to confusion between edible plants and toxic plants lookalikes or to an excessive consumption of therapeutic plants. We report the case of a 58-year-old man admitted to the Emergency Department of the Regional Hospital of Zaghouan (Tunisia), with renal failure and rhabdomyolysis. The patient reported having daily consumption of a homemade tea based on Mediterranean Buckthorn roots, during the last 6 months to treat type 2 diabetes. The aim of this work was to establish an association between the consumption of the herbal remedy and the occurrence of both renal failure and rhabdomyolysis. No similar cases have been reported in recent literature. H. Ben Ghezala, N. Chaouali, I. Gana, S. Snouda, A. Nouioui, I. Belwaer, J. Ouali, M. Kaddour, W. Masri, D. Ben Salah, D. Amira, H. Ghorbal, and A. Hedhili Copyright © 2015 H. Ben Ghezala et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Reconstruction of Spring-Mass System from Two Nondisjoint Spectra Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:35:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/350879/ A new numerical procedure is presented to reconstruct a fixed-free spring-mass system from two auxiliary spectra, which are nondisjoint. The method is a modification of the fast orthogonal reduction algorithm, which is less computationally expensive than others in the literature. Numerical results are obtained, showing the accuracy of the algorithm. Hubert Pickmann, Juan C. Egaña, and Ricardo L. Soto Copyright © 2015 Hubert Pickmann et al. All rights reserved. MELD Score Is Not Related to Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:35:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/270456/ This study investigates the correlation between SBP and repeated paracentesis, and its relation to MELD score, in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites in an outpatient setting. Through the data base, 148 cirrhotic patients were prospectively included in the study with refractory ascites undergoing relief paracentesis from March 2012 to March 2013. Demographics data, etiology of liver disease, MELD score, and inscription on the waiting list for liver transplantation were analyzed. The ascites removed was analyzed through cellular count and culture for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The cirrhotic patients underwent a total of 854 paracentesis procedures in the ambulatory setting during the study period. Eighty-one patients (54%) were on the waiting list for liver transplantation. Patients on the liver transplant list had higher associated costs due to a higher total number of outpatient paracentesis procedures (394.7 ± 512.3 versus 291.7 ± 384.7) and a higher volume drained per procedure (6.5 ± 8.5 versus 4.8 ± 6.4). There were 28 episodes of SBP (3.3%) diagnosed in 24 patients. In conclusion, the prevalence of asymptomatic SBP in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites undergoing repeated paracentesis is low. MELD score is not related to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Luciana Haddad, Tatiana Morgado Conte, Liliana Ducatti, Lucas Nacif, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D’Albuquerque, and Wellington Andraus Copyright © 2015 Luciana Haddad et al. All rights reserved. Melatonin Modulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Akt/GSK3-Beta Signaling Pathway in a Rat Model of Renal Warm Ischemia Reperfusion Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:35:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2015/635172/ Melatonin (Mel) is widely used to attenuate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in several organs. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was conducted to explore the effect of Mel on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Akt and MAPK cascades after renal warm I/R. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: Sham, I/R, and Mel + I/R. The ischemia period was 60 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Mel (10 mg/kg) was administrated 30 min prior to ischemia. The creatinine clearance, MDA, LDH levels, and histopathological changes were evaluated. In addition, Western blot was performed to study ER stress and its downstream apoptosis as well as phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, VDAC, ERK, and P38. Mel decreased cytolysis and lipid peroxidation and improved renal function and morphology compared to I/R group. Parallely, it significantly reduced the ER stress parameters including GRP 78, p-PERK, XBP 1, ATF 6, CHOP, and JNK. Simultaneously, p-Akt level was significantly enhanced and its target molecules GSK-3β and VDAC were inhibited. Furthermore, the ERK and P38 phosphorylation were evidently augmented after Mel administration in comparison to I/R group. In conclusion, Mel improves the recovery of renal function by decreasing ER stress and stimulating Akt pathway after renal I/R injury. Kaouther Hadj Ayed Tka, Asma Mahfoudh Boussaid, Mohamed Amine Zaouali, Rym Kammoun, Mohamed Bejaoui, Sonia Ghoul Mazgar, Joan Rosello Catafau, and Hassen Ben Abdennebi Copyright © 2015 Kaouther Hadj Ayed Tka et al. All rights reserved. Research of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion for Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients Based on the LC-MS Metabonomics Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:33:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/621490/ Objective. To explore the efficacy and mechanism of primary dysmenorrhea patients were treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion through metabonomics. Methods. 20 patients with primary dysmenorrhea were randomized into two groups, separately treated with herb-partitioned moxibustion at CV8 (shenque) and acupuncture at SP6 (sanyinjiao). After three menstrual cycles’ treatment, the intensity of menstrual pain using VAS and the changes of metabolites of plasma using LC-MS were observed. Results. The VAS of two groups decreased with different descending range. Herb-partitioned moxibustion upregulated 20α-dihydroprogesterone, pregnenolone, prostaglandin E2 and γ-aminobutyric acid and downregulated the content of estrone and prostaglandin H2, while acupuncture upregulated pregnenolone and 20α-dihydroprogesterone and downregulated 2-methoxyestradiol-3-methylether, 15-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid and 6-keto-prostaglandin. Discussion. It was effective in relieving the abdominal pain by these two therapies. Herb-partitioned moxibustion is superior to acupuncture for primary dysmenorrhea, which could be related to regulating the endocrine hormone. Yu-xia Ma, Xing-yue Yang, Gang Guo, Dong-qing Du, Yan-pu Yu, and Shu-zhong Gao Copyright © 2015 Yu-xia Ma et al. All rights reserved. Are Aortic Stent Grafts Safe in Pregnancy? Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:32:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2015/190878/ Aortic stent grafts are increasingly used to treat aortic aneurysms and also other aortic pathologies. The safety of aortic stent grafts in pregnancy has never been studied or reported. We report on two cases of aortic stent grafts in pregnant women and discuss the effect of pregnancy on these aortic stent grafts. Nader Khandanpour, Tapan A. Mehta, M. Adiseshiah, and Felicity J. Meyer Copyright © 2015 Nader Khandanpour et al. All rights reserved. A Dynamic Recommender System for Improved Web Usage Mining and CRM Using Swarm Intelligence Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:30:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/193631/ In modern days, to enrich e-business, the websites are personalized for each user by understanding their interests and behavior. The main challenges of online usage data are information overload and their dynamic nature. In this paper, to address these issues, a WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender system that uses web usage mining techniques in tandem with software agents developed for providing dynamic recommendations to users that can be used for customizing a website is proposed. The proposed WebBluegillRecom-annealing dynamic recommender uses swarm intelligence from the foraging behavior of a bluegill fish. It overcomes the information overload by handling dynamic behaviors of users. Our dynamic recommender system was compared against traditional collaborative filtering systems. The results show that the proposed system has higher precision, coverage, measure, and scalability than the traditional collaborative filtering systems. Moreover, the recommendations given by our system overcome the overspecialization problem by including variety in recommendations. Anna Alphy and S. Prabakaran Copyright © 2015 Anna Alphy and S. Prabakaran. All rights reserved. High Potency of a Novel Resveratrol Derivative, 3,3′,4,4′-Tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene, against Ovarian Cancer Is Associated with an Oxidative Stress-Mediated Imbalance between DNA Damage Accumulation and Repair Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:30:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/135691/ We explored the effect of a new resveratrol (RVT) derivative, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene (3,3′,4,4′-THS), on viability, apoptosis, proliferation, and senescence of three representative lines of ovarian cancer cells, that is, A2780, OVCAR-3, and SKOV-3, in vitro. In addition, the mechanistic aspects of 3,3′,4,4′-THS activity, including cell redox homeostasis (the production of reactive oxygen species, activity of enzymatic antioxidants, and magnitude of DNA damage accumulation and repair), and the activity of caspases (3, 8, and 9) and p38 MAPK were examined. The study showed that 3,3′,4,4′-THS affects cancer cell viability much more efficiently than its parent drug. This effect coincided with increased generation of reactive oxygen species, downregulated activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and excessive accumulation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and its insufficient repair due to decreased expression of DNA glycosylase I. Cytotoxicity elicited by 3,3′,4,4′-THS was related to increased incidence of apoptosis, which was mediated by caspases 3 and 9. Moreover, 3,3′,4,4′-THS inhibited cancer cell proliferation and accelerated senescence, which was accompanied by the activation of p38 MAPK. Collectively, our findings indicate that 3,3′,4,4′-THS may constitute a valuable tool in the fight against ovarian malignancy and that the anticancer capabilities of this stilbene proceed in an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism. Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Patrycja Sosińska, Marek Murias, Marcin Wierzchowski, Marta Brewińska-Olchowik, Katarzyna Piwocka, Dariusz Szpurek, and Krzysztof Książek Copyright © 2015 Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik et al. All rights reserved. Multihops Fitting Approach for Node Localization in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:26:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/682182/ Nodes in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) keep moving and dispersing due to force of water flow and aquatic creatures touching, and thus some isolated unknown nodes emerge. This type of isolated unknown nodes cannot directly communicate with enough beacons in their neighborhoods, which makes localizations for them disabled or the localization error unbearable. To this end, a multihops fitting localization approach is proposed in this paper. Firstly, some intermediate nodes between beacons and unknown nodes are set as routers to construct paths via a greedy method; then, the multihop paths are approximately fitted into straight lines; finally, the positions of unknown nodes can be estimated by trilateration. The proposed algorithm is analyzed and simulated in terms of localization error and error variance, and the results are proven preferable. Linfeng Liu, Jiagao Wu, and Zhiwen Zhu Copyright © 2015 Linfeng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Cooperative Transmission for Security Enhancement in Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:25:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/751456/ We study opportunistic decode-and-forward relaying transmission in cooperative cluster-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with secrecy constraints, where a passive eavesdropper may overhear the source message. To deal with this problem, we consider the novel opportunistic relay section cooperative transmission for the cluster configuration of WSNs. The system performance in terms of the secrecy outage probability and the probability of nonzero secrecy capacity are analyzed and the exact closed-form expressions are derived over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we derive the asymptotic secrecy outage probability which accurately reveals the secrecy diversity order. Finally, numerical results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and depict that node cooperation has a great potential to enhance physical layer security against eavesdropping. Weiwei Yang, Songqing Wang, and Xiaoming Xu Copyright © 2015 Weiwei Yang et al. All rights reserved. An Integrated Approach Using Spatial Analysis to Study the Risk Factors for Leishmaniasis in Area of Recent Transmission Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:07:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/621854/ Some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of Formiga, Brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. Those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. Sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. The most captured species included Lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and Lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). A significant correlation between sand fly densities and climatic conditions was detected. Serological diagnosis (DPP and ELISA) was performed in 570 dogs indicating a prevalence of 5.8%. After sequencing the main species circulating in the area were Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis. Spatial analysis demonstrated that vegetation and hydrography may be related to sand fly distribution and infected dogs. The municipality of Formiga has proven leishmaniasis vectors and infected dogs indicating the circulation of the parasite in the city. Correlation of those data with environmental and human cases has identified the critical areas for control interventions (south, northeast, and northwest). In conclusion, there is current transmission of visceral and canine human cases and the city is on the risk for the appearance of cutaneous cases. Júlia Alves Menezes, Eduardo de Castro Ferreira, José Dilermando Andrade-Filho, Alessandra Mara de Sousa, Mayron Henrique Gomes Morais, Ana Maria Sampaio Rocha, George Luis Lins Machado-Coelho, Fernanda Pinheiro Lima, Ana Paula Madureira, Tânia Cristina Garcia, Christian Resende Freitas, Rodrigo Pedro Soares, and Carina Margonari Copyright © 2015 Júlia Alves Menezes et al. All rights reserved. Full Mouth Reconstruction of a Bruxer with Severely Worn Dentition: A Clinical Report Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:05:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/531618/ Tooth wear is attributed to several factors many of which often remain unidentified. Management of tooth wear is challenging in preventive and restorative dentistry. Correct assessment of occlusal vertical dimension, interocclusal rest space, and centric relation records are critical for successful treatment. In order to evaluate different treatment modalities and select the treatment of choice some information can be obtained from study casts and diagnostic wax-up. In order to achieve a predictable and desirable result, a systematic approach may be helpful. This paper describes the full mouth rehabilitation of a 36-year-old bruxer with severely worn dentition and other dental problems such as unfavorable restorations. A diagnostic work-up was performed and provisional restorations were made; then, they were clinically evaluated and adjusted based on the criteria dictating esthetics, phonetics, and vertical dimension. After endodontic therapy, clinical crown lengthening was performed. Two short implants were inserted in the posterior mandible. Custom-cast dowel cores and metal-ceramic restorations were fabricated and a full occlusal splint was used to protect the restorations. We ensured stable contacts on all teeth with equal intensity in centric relation and anterior guidance in accord with functional jaw movements. Somayeh Zeighami, Hakimeh Siadat, and Sakineh Nikzad Copyright © 2015 Somayeh Zeighami et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:03:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2015/612042/ Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) for breast cancer. Results. We identified 129 age-matched pairs. The mean age of breast cancer diagnosis was 37.5 years. Each year decrease in the age of menarche significantly increased the risk of breast cancer (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.09–2.56, ). The risk was also increased with a current body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 5.24, 95% CI 1.10–24.9, ). Age at first childbirth, parity, and breastfeeding were not significantly associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk (). Conclusions. Age at menarche and adult weight gain were associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk. Other factors associated with Westernization may not be relevant to premenopausal breast cancer risk in Bangladesh. Javaid Iqbal, Tahmina Ferdousy, Rahela Dipi, Reza Salim, Wei Wu, Steven A. Narod, Joanne Kotsopoulos, Mohammad G. Mostafa, and Ophira Ginsburg Copyright © 2015 Javaid Iqbal et al. All rights reserved. Titanium Carbide Nanocrystals Synthesized from a Metatitanic Acid-Sucrose Precursor via a Carbothermal Reduction Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:03:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/469121/ A TiC powder is synthesized from a micron-sized mesoporous metatitanic acid-sucrose precursor (precursor M) by a carbothermal reduction process. Control specimens are also prepared using a nanosized TiO2-sucrose precursor (precursor T) with a higher cost. When synthesized at 1500°C for 2 h in flowing Ar, the characteristics of the synthesized TiC from precursor M are similar to those of the counterpart from precursor T in terms of the crystal size (58.5 versus 57.4 nm), oxygen content (0.22 wt% versus 0.25 wt%), and representative sizes of mesopores: approximately 2.5 and 19.7–25.0 nm in both specimens. The most salient differences of the two specimens are found in the TiC from precursor M demonstrating (i) a higher crystallinity based on the distinctive doublet peaks in the high-two-theta XRD regime and (ii) a lower specific surface area (79.4 versus 94.8 m2/g) with a smaller specific pore volume (0.1 versus 0.2 cm3/g) than the counterpart from precursor T. Hyunho Shin and Jun-Ho Eun Copyright © 2015 Hyunho Shin and Jun-Ho Eun. All rights reserved. Relation of Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress with Hypertension Occurrence in Lone Atrial Fibrillation Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:59:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/653026/ We compared plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation (CRP) and oxidation (oxLDL), determined at study inclusion in lone atrial fibrillation (LAF) patients ( years; 74.0 men) and sinus rhythm controls ( years; 72.7 men, ), and investigated the association of baseline CRP and oxLDL levels with the risk for vascular disease (VD) development (hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, coronary/peripheral artery disease, and pulmonary embolism) during prospective follow-up. Baseline CRP (1.2 [0.7–1.9] mgL versus 1.1 [0.7–1.6] mgL) and oxLDL levels ( U/L versus  UL) were higher in LAF patients (both ). Following a median of 36 months, incident VD occurred in 14 (28.0) LAF patients, all of whom developed arterial hypertension, and in 5 (11.4) controls (hypertension, ; coronary artery disease, ), . LAF patients developed VD more frequently and at a younger age. Both CRP (HR, 2.54; 95 CI, 1.26–5.12; ) and oxLDL (HR, 2.24; 95 CI, 1.14–4.40; ) were multivariate predictors of incident hypertension in LAF patients, but not in the controls. Further research should clarify clinical relevance of investigated biomarkers for risk stratification and treatment of LAF patients. Marija M. Polovina, Miodrag C. Ostojic, and Tatjana S. Potpara Copyright © 2015 Marija M. Polovina et al. All rights reserved. Association of Inflammation with Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Kazakh and Uyghur Adults in Far Western China Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:57:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/706768/ This study focused on low-income rural and nomadic minority people residing in China’s far west and investigated their relationship between inflammatory markers (IL-6, hsCRP, FFA, and adiponectin) and MS and ethnic differences. And it found that improving behavioral lifestyle by education or using drugs to control inflammation may prevent MS. These observations may benefit low-income populations. Yi-Zhong Yan, Ru-Lin Ma, Yu-Song Ding, Heng Guo, Jing-Yu Zhang, La-Ti Mu, Mei Zhang, Jia-Ming Liu, Dong-Sheng Rui, Jia He, Feng Sun, Kui Wang, and Shu-Xia Guo Copyright © 2015 Yi-Zhong Yan et al. All rights reserved. Hemostatic Parameters according to Renal Function and Time after Transplantation in Brazilian Renal Transplanted Patients Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:52:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/472750/ Kidney transplantation is the key for patients with end-stage renal disease, improving quality of life and longer survival. However, kidney transplant triggers an intense inflammatory response and alters the hemostatic system, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are not completely understood. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to investigate hemostatic biomarkers in Brazilian renal transplanted patients according to renal function and time after transplantation. A total of 159 renal transplanted patients were enrolled and D-Dimer (D-Di), Thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand Factor (VWF), and ADAMTS13 plasma levels were assessed by ELISA. An increase of D-Di was observed in patients with higher levels of creatinine. ADAMTS13 levels were associated with creatinine plasma levels and D-Di levels with Glomerular Filtration Rate. These results suggested that D-Di and ADAMTS13 can be promising markers to estimate renal function. ADAMTS13 should be investigated throughout the posttransplant time to clarify the participation of this enzyme in glomerular filtration and acceptance or rejection of the graft in Brazilian transplanted patients. Ana Paula Lucas Mota, Patrícia Nessralla Alpoim, Roberta Carvalho de Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Karina Braga Gomes, and Luci Maria SantAna Dusse Copyright © 2015 Ana Paula Lucas Mota et al. All rights reserved. The Transcription Factor ZNF395 Is Required for the Maximal Hypoxic Induction of Proinflammatory Cytokines in U87-MG Cells Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:50:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/804264/ Hypoxia activates the expression of proangiogenic and survival promoting factors as well as proinflammatory cytokines that support tissue inflammation. Hypoxia and inflammation are associated with tumor progression. The identification of the factors participating in the hypoxia associated inflammation is essential to develop strategies to control tumor hypoxia. The transcription factor ZNF395 was found to be overexpressed in various tumors including glioblastomas particularly in the network of a hypoxic response pointing to a functional role of ZNF395. On the other hand, ZNF395 was suggested to have tumor suppressor activities which may rely on its repression of proinflammatory factors. To address these conflictive observations, we investigated the role of ZNF395 in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the astrocytoma cell line U87-MG under hypoxia. We show that ZNF395 is a target gene of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α. By gene expression analysis, RT-PCR and ELISA, we demonstrated that the siRNA-mediated suppression of ZNF395 impairs the hypoxic induction of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and LIF in U87-MG cells. At ambient oxygen concentrations, ZNF395 had no enhancing effect, indicating that this transcriptional activation by ZNF395 is restricted to hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that ZNF395 contributes to hypoxia associated inflammation by superactivating proinflammatory cytokines. Christine Herwartz, Paola Castillo-Juárez, Linda Schröder, Blanca L. Barron, and Gertrud Steger Copyright © 2015 Christine Herwartz et al. All rights reserved. Netherton Syndrome in a Neonate with Possible Growth Hormone Deficiency and Transient Hyperaldosteronism Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:50:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/818961/ Netherton syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is classified as an ichthyosiform syndrome. In this report we present the case of a neonate with erythroderma shortly after birth, accompanied by severe hypernatremia, recurrent infections, transient hyperaldosteronism, and signs of growth hormone (GH) deficiency. DNA molecular analysis in the SPINK5 gene revealed heterozygosity in our index patient for 238insG and 2468delA frameshift mutations in exons 4 and 26, respectively, in the maternal allele and 1431-12G>A splice-site mutation in intron 15 in the paternal allele as well as the missense variation E420K in homozygous state. Combination of the identified mutations along with transient hyperaldosteronism and possible GH deficiency have not been described before. Accordingly, the importance of early multidisciplinary approach is highlighted, in order to reach accurate diagnosis, initiate prompt treatment, and ensure survival with fewer disease complications. Chatziioannidis Ilias, Babatseva Evgenia, Patsatsi Aikaterini, Galli-Tsinopoulou Asimina, Sarri Constantina, Lithoxopoulou Maria, Mitsiakos George, Karagianni Paraskevi, Tsakalidis Christos, Mamuris Zissis, and Nikolaidis Nikolaos Copyright © 2015 Chatziioannidis Ilias et al. All rights reserved. Exposure Perception as a Key Indicator of Risk Perception and Acceptance of Sources of Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:32:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2015/198272/ The presented survey was conducted in six European countries as an online study. A total of 2454 subjects participated. Two main research questions were investigated: firstly, how does the cognitive, moral, and affective framing of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure perception influence RF EMF risk perception? Secondly, can the deployment of mobile phone base stations have greater acceptance with RF EMF exposure reduction? The findings with respect to the first question clearly indicated that the cognitive framed exposure perception is the main determinant of RF EMF risk perception. The concomitant sensitivity to exposure strength offers an opportunity to improve the acceptance of base stations by exposure reduction. A linear regression analysis supported this assumption: in a fictional test situation, exposure reduction improved the acceptance of base stations, operationalized as the requested distance of the base station from one’s own home. Furthermore, subjects with high RF EMF risk perception were most sensitive to exposure reduction. On average, a 70% exposure reduction reduced the requested distance from about 2000 meters to 1000 meters. The consequences for risk communication are discussed. Frederik Freudenstein, Peter M. Wiedemann, and Tim W. C. Brown Copyright © 2015 Frederik Freudenstein et al. All rights reserved. Structural Properties of the Unobservable Subspace Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:26:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/974654/ The structural properties of the unobservable subspace are explored. In particular the canonical decomposition of the unobservable subspace as a direct sum of cyclic subspaces as well as the conditions for this subspace to be spectral for the system matrix is studied. These properties are applied to simple input-simple output (SISO) feedback systems by connecting the spectral decomposition of the unobservable subspace to the total cancellation of unobservable modes in the compensator with multiple transmission zeros in the plant. Juan Ignacio Mulero Martínez and Alfonso Baños Copyright © 2015 Juan Ignacio Mulero Martínez and Alfonso Baños. All rights reserved. Reliable Adaptive Video Streaming Driven by Perceptual Semantics for Situational Awareness Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:22:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/394956/ A novel cross-layer optimized video adaptation driven by perceptual semantics is presented. The design target is streamed live video to enhance situational awareness in challenging communications conditions. Conventional solutions for recreational applications are inadequate and novel quality of experience (QoE) framework is proposed which allows fully controlled adaptation and enables perceptual semantic feedback. The framework relies on temporal/spatial abstraction for video applications serving beyond recreational purposes. An underlying cross-layer optimization technique takes into account feedback on network congestion (time) and erasures (space) to best distribute available (scarce) bandwidth. Systematic random linear network coding (SRNC) adds reliability while preserving perceptual semantics. Objective metrics of the perceptual features in QoE show homogeneous high performance when using the proposed scheme. Finally, the proposed scheme is in line with content-aware trends, by complying with information-centric-networking philosophy and architecture. M. A. Pimentel-Niño, Paresh Saxena, and M. A. Vazquez-Castro Copyright © 2015 M. A. Pimentel-Niño et al. All rights reserved. Neonatal Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia Presenting with Leukemia Cutis and Multiple Intracranial Lesions Successfully Treated with Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:56:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2015/610581/ Neonatal acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) without Down syndrome (DS) is an extremely rare disorder. We report of a one-day-old male infant without DS who developed AMKL with leukemia cutis and right facial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the patient’s brain revealed multiple intracranial tumors. A biopsy specimen of the skin lesion was suggestive of AMKL, but the bone marrow leukemic cells were less than 5% of the marrow nucleated cells. The skin and intracranial lesions had spontaneously regressed within one and a half months, but the patient’s anemia and thrombocytopenia gradually worsened and the leukemic cells in the bone marrow gradually increased to more than 20% of the nucleated cells. In addition, multiple intracranial lesions reappeared at 72 days of life. We diagnosed the patient with AMKL, and chemotherapy followed by unrelated cord blood transplantation after a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen resulted in sustained complete remission. At present, the patient is well, and he has demonstrated normal development for five years. Hiroshi Tsujimoto, Shinji Kounami, Yasuyuki Mitani, Takashi Watanabe, and Katsunari Takifuji Copyright © 2015 Hiroshi Tsujimoto et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Effect of Electroacupuncture on Gene Expression in Hypothalamus of Rats with Stress-Induced Prehypertension Based on Gene Chip Technology Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:56:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/621237/ Objective. To explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on gene expression in the hypothalamus of rats with stress-induced prehypertension and try to reveal its biological mechanism with gene chip technology. Methods. The stress-induced hypertensive rat model was prepared by combining electric foot-shocks with generated noise. Molding cycle lasted for 14 days and EA intervention was applied on model + EA group during model preparation. Rat Gene 2.0 Array technology was used for the determination of gene expression profiles and the screened key genes were verified by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR method. Results. Compared with the blank group, 234 genes were upregulated and 73 were downregulated in the model group. Compared with the model group, 110 genes were upregulated and 273 genes were downregulated in model + EA group. The PCR results of the key genes including HSPB1, P2RX4, PPP1R14A, and TH are consistent with that of gene chip test. Conclusion. EA could significantly lower blood pressure of stress-induced prehypertension rats and affect its gene expression profile in hypothalamus. Genes and their signal transduction pathway that related to the contraction of vascular smooth muscle, concentration of Ca2+, and excitability of sympathetic nerve may be involved in EA’s antihypertensive mechanism. Xiaojia Xie, Yan Guo, Qingguo Liu, Zhaoyang Wang, and Changqing Guo Copyright © 2015 Xiaojia Xie et al. All rights reserved. Cyclic Tensile Strain Induces Tenogenic Differentiation of Tendon-Derived Stem Cells in Bioreactor Culture Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:54:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/790804/ Different loading regimens of cyclic tensile strain impose different effects on cell proliferation and tenogenic differentiation of TDSCs in three-dimensional (3D) culture in vitro, which has been little reported in previous literatures. In this study we assessed the efficacy of TDSCs in a poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)/collagen (P(LLA-CL)/Col) scaffold under mechanical stimulation in the custom-designed 3D tensile bioreactor, which revealed that cyclic tensile strain with different frequencies (0.3 Hz, 0.5 Hz, and 1.0 Hz) and amplitudes (2%, 4%, and 8%) had no influence on TDSC viability, while it had different effects on the proliferation and the expression of type I collagen, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, and scleraxis of TDSCs, which was most obvious at 0.5 Hz frequency with the same amplitude and at 4% amplitude with the same frequency. Moreover, signaling pathway from microarray analysis revealed that reduced extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor interaction signaling initiated the tendon genius switch. Cyclic tensile strain highly upregulated genes encoding regulators of NPM1 and COPS5 transcriptional activities as well as MYC related transcriptional factors, which contributed to cell proliferation and differentiation. In particular, the transcriptome analysis provided certain new insights on the molecular and signaling networks for TDSCs loaded in these conditions. Yuan Xu, Qiang Wang, Yudong Li, Yibo Gan, Pei Li, Songtao Li, Yue Zhou, and Qiang Zhou Copyright © 2015 Yuan Xu et al. All rights reserved. Narrow-Band Imaging Magnifying Endoscopy versus Lugol Chromoendoscopy with Pink-Color Sign Assessment in the Diagnosis of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Neoplasms: A Randomised Noninferiority Trial Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:48:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/639462/ Previous studies have shown the high diagnostic accuracy of narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) and Lugol chromoendoscopy with pink-color sign assessment (LCE-PS) for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC). However, there has been no controlled trial comparing these two diagnostic techniques. We conducted a randomized noninferiority trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NBI-ME and LCE-PS. We recruited patients with, or with a history of, squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region or in the esophagus. They were randomly assigned to either NBI-ME or LCE-PS. When lesions > 5 mm in diameter were found as brownish areas on NBI or as Lugol-voiding lesions (LVL), they were evaluated to determine whether they are SESCC on the basis of the findings of NBI-ME or PS in the LVL. NBI-ME and LCE-PS were completed in 147 patients each. There was no significant difference in all diagnostic values between the two techniques. Compared with LCE-PS, NBI-ME showed a significantly shorter examination time but a larger number of misdiagnosed lesions especially in patients with many irregularly shaped multiform LVLs. Compared with LCE-PS, NBI-ME might be similarly accurate and less invasive, but less reliable in patients with many LVLs, in the diagnosis of SESCC. Kenichi Goda, Akira Dobashi, Noboru Yoshimura, Masayuki Kato, Hiroyuki Aihara, Kazuki Sumiyama, Hirobumi Toyoizumi, Tomohiro Kato, Masahiro Ikegami, and Hisao Tajiri Copyright © 2015 Kenichi Goda et al. All rights reserved. Methods and Models for the Coupled Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulics Analysis of the CROCUS Reactor at EFPL Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:35:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2015/237646/ In order to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the CROCUS reactor, several methods and models need to be developed in the areas of reactor physics, thermal-hydraulics, and multiphysics coupling. The long-term objectives of this project are to work towards the development of a modern method for the safety analysis of research reactors and to update the Final Safety Analysis Report of the CROCUS reactor. A first part of the paper deals with generation of a core simulator nuclear data library for the CROCUS reactor using the Serpent 2 Monte Carlo code and also with reactor core modeling using the PARCS code. PARCS eigenvalue, radial power distribution, and control rod reactivity worth results were benchmarked against Serpent 2 full-core model results. Using the Serpent 2 model as reference, PARCS eigenvalue predictions were within 240 pcm, radial power was within 3% in the central region of the core, and control rod reactivity worth was within 2%. A second part reviews the current methodology used for the safety analysis of the CROCUS reactor and presents the envisioned approach for the multiphysics modeling of the reactor. A. Rais, D. Siefman, G. Girardin, M. Hursin, and A. Pautz Copyright © 2015 A. Rais et al. All rights reserved. Boundary Criteria for the Stability of Delay Differential-Algebraic Equations Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:24:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/768345/ This paper is concerned with the asymptotic stability of delay differential-algebraic equations. Two stability criteria described by evaluating a corresponding harmonic analytical function on the boundary of a certain region are presented. Stability regions are also presented so as to show the method geometrically. Our results are not reported. Leping Sun and Yuhao Cong Copyright © 2015 Leping Sun and Yuhao Cong. All rights reserved. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:12:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/965257/ Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms. James J. Bresnahan and William L. Hennrikus Copyright © 2015 James J. Bresnahan and William L. Hennrikus. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Diagnostic Approach to Sleep Apnea in Hemodialysis Patients: A Population Study Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:02:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/103686/ Background. Previous observations found a high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the hemodialysis population, but the best diagnostic approach remains undefined. We assessed OSA prevalence and performance of available screening tools to propose a specific diagnostic algorithm. Methods. 104 patients from 6 Swiss hemodialysis centers underwent polygraphy and completed 3 OSA screening scores: STOP-BANG, Berlin’s Questionnaire, and Adjusted Neck Circumference. The OSA predictors were identified on a derivation population and used to develop the diagnostic algorithm, which was validated on an independent population. Results. We found 56% OSA prevalence (AHI ≥ 15/h), which was largely underdiagnosed. Screening scores showed poor performance for OSA screening (ROC areas 0.538 [SE 0.093] to 0.655 [SE 0.083]). Age, neck circumference, and time on renal replacement therapy were the best predictors of OSA and were used to develop a screening algorithm, with higher discriminatory performance than classical screening tools (ROC area 0.831 [0.066]). Conclusions. Our study confirms the high OSA prevalence and highlights the low diagnosis rate of this treatable cardiovascular risk factor in the hemodialysis population. Considering the poor performance of OSA screening tools, we propose and validate a specific algorithm to identify hemodialysis patients at risk for OSA for whom further sleep investigations should be considered. Valentina Forni Ogna, Adam Ogna, Menno Pruijm, Isabelle Bassi, Emilie Zuercher, Georges Halabi, Olivier Phan, Roberto Bullani, Daniel Teta, Thierry Gauthier, Anne Cherpillod, Claudine Mathieu, Alexandra Mihalache, Francoise Cornette, José Haba-Rubio, Michel Burnier, and Raphaël Heinzer Copyright © 2015 Valentina Forni Ogna et al. All rights reserved. Critical Factors Inhibiting Performance of Small- and Medium-Scale Contractors in Sub-Saharan Region: A Case for Malawi Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:56:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcen/2015/927614/ The construction industry is dominated by small- and medium-scale contractors (SMCs) who face an emerging trend of unique challenges in the implementation of projects. The study was aimed at examining inhibiting factors that influence performance of SMCs in terms of “quality of work,” “tender estimation,” “tender preparation,” and “timely completion of construction projects” in Malawi. A survey questionnaire was administered to 370 players in the construction industry which included public sector clients, contractors, consultants, and construction resource trainers in order to elicit data from 118 variables that were identified through a careful literature review. The inhibiting factors were generally dominated by economic issues, which was an emerging trend to what has been previously reported in the sub-Saharan region. The first highest ranked inhibiting factors were high lending interest regimes offered by financial institutions; stringent conditions to access capital; fluctuation of currency; stringent requirements for obtaining bonds; and high taxes. The research lays the foundation for further understanding of inhibitors on performance of SMCs in an evolving world which is being impacted by global factors and punctuated by sudden changes. Paul John Kulemeka, Grant Kululanga, and Danny Morton Copyright © 2015 Paul John Kulemeka et al. All rights reserved. Height Growth of Korean Pine Seedlings Planted under Strip-Cut Larch Plantations in Northeast China Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:46:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfr/2015/178681/ To develop two-storied forest management of larch plantations in Northeast China, this study examined the height growth of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) seedlings planted under strip-cut larch canopies. We measured the height growth of the underplanted seedlings 4 years after planting. The larch canopies were of varying stand age (12, 17, and 37 years) and strip-cut width (4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 m). We measured the seedling height growth in an open site (i.e., a site with no canopy). Underplanted seedlings had a smaller height growth (12.1–20.1 cm year−1) than the seedlings planted in the open site (23.7 cm year−1). The seedlings underplanted in the wider strip-cuts tended to have greater height growth than the seedlings underplanted in the narrowest strip-cuts. A generalized linear mixed model analysis predicted the greatest seedling height growth in the open site. A 36–47% reduction in annual height growth was predicted for the narrowest strip-cuts (4.5 m) versus the open site, while a 13–36% reduction in annual height growth was predicted for the wider strip-cuts (6.0–7.5 m) versus the open site. To maintain adequate height growth, forest managers are recommended to create wider strip-cuts (i.e., ≥6.0 m) for the purpose of underplanting Korean pine seedlings in larch plantations. Toshiaki Owari, Shinichi Tatsumi, Liangzhi Ning, and Mingfang Yin Copyright © 2015 Toshiaki Owari et al. All rights reserved. Heartbeat Cycle Length Detection by a Ballistocardiographic Sensor in Atrial Fibrillation and Sinus Rhythm Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:44:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/840356/ Background. Heart rate monitoring is especially interesting in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and is routinely performed by ECG. A ballistocardiography (BCG) foil is an unobtrusive sensor for mechanical vibrations. We tested the correlation of heartbeat cycle length detection by a novel algorithm for a BCG foil to an ECG in AF and sinus rhythm (SR). Methods. In 22 patients we obtained BCG and synchronized ECG recordings before and after cardioversion and examined the correlation between heartbeat characteristics. Results. We analyzed a total of 4317 heartbeats during AF and 2445 during SR with a correlation between ECG and BCG during AF of (95% CI 0.68–0.71, ) and (95% CI 0.73–0.77, ) during SR. By adding a quality index, artifacts could be reduced and the correlation increased for AF to 0.76 (95% CI 0.74–0.77, , ) and for SR to 0.85 (95% CI 0.83–0.86, , ). Conclusion. Heartbeat cycle length measurement by our novel algorithm for BCG foil is feasible during SR and AF, offering new possibilities of unobtrusive heart rate monitoring. This trial is registered with IRB registration number EK205/11. This trial is registered with clinical trials registration number NCT01779674. Matthias Daniel Zink, Christoph Brüser, Patrick Winnersbach, Andreas Napp, Steffen Leonhardt, Nikolaus Marx, Patrick Schauerte, and Karl Mischke Copyright © 2015 Matthias Daniel Zink et al. All rights reserved. A Key Distribution Scheme for WSN Based on Hash Chains and Deployment Knowledge Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:42:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/640792/ Based on the deployment knowledge and the irreversibility of some hash chains, a novel pairwise key distribution scheme (DKH-KD) for wireless sensor networks is proposed. In DKH-KD scheme, before the nodes in the network are deployed, the offline server constructs a number of hash chains and uses the values from a pair of reverse hash chains to establish their pairwise keys among the nodes in the same region, while, among the neighbor nodes in the different regions, some pairs of the hash chains based on the deployment knowledge are employed to establish the pairwise keys. These procedures make the attackers hard to break the network and ensure that the probability of the pairwise key establishment is close to 1. Compared with the Dai scheme and the q-composite’s scheme, our analyses show that DKH-KD scheme can improve the probability of the pairwise key establishment and the invulnerability more efficiently. Lin You, Younan Yuan, Wangke Yu, and Qiuhua Wang Copyright © 2015 Lin You et al. All rights reserved. On Analysis of Fractional Navier-Stokes Equations via Nonsingular Solutions and Approximation Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:40:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/212760/ Until now, all the investigations on fractional or generalized Navier-Stokes equations have been done under some restrictions on the different values that can take the fractional order derivative parameter . In this paper, we analyze the existence and stability of nonsingular solutions to fractional Navier-Stokes equations of type () defined below. In the case where , we show that the stability of the (quadratic) convergence, when exploiting Newton’s method, can only be ensured when the first guess is sufficiently near the solution . We provide interesting well-posedness and existence results for the fractional model in two other cases, namely, when and Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo and Stella Mugisha Copyright © 2015 Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo and Stella Mugisha. All rights reserved. A CPW-Fed Monopole Antenna with Double Rectangular Rings and Vertical Slots in the Ground Plane for WLAN/WiMAX Applications Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:40:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/165270/ A compact triple-band monopole antenna consisting of double rectangular rings and vertical slots cut into the ground is proposed for WLAN and WiMAX operations. The antenna has a compact size of 27.1 × 38.8 × 1.6 mm3, with simulated and measured impedance bandwidths of 2.37~2.81, 3.21~3.82, and 4.61~6.34 GHz with a reflection coefficient of less than −10 dB. The antenna also exhibits an almost omnidirectional radiation pattern and stable gain levels in the triple bands. The characteristics of the proposed antenna have been investigated using the numerical simulations and experiments. Sangjin Jo, Hyunjin Choi, Jaehyuk Lim, Beomsoo Shin, Sangyeol Oh, and Jaehoon Lee Copyright © 2015 Sangjin Jo et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Three-Dimensional Fe3O4/Graphene Aerogels for the Removal of Arsenic Ions from Water Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:36:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/864864/ We report the synthesis of three-dimensional Fe3O4/graphene aerogels (GAs) and their application for the removal of arsenic (As) ions from water. The morphology and properties of Fe3O4/GAs have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and superconducting quantum inference device. The 3D nanostructure shows that iron oxide nanoparticles are decorated on graphene with an interconnected network structure. It is found that Fe3O4/GAs own a capacity of As(V) ions adsorption up to 40.048 mg/g due to their remarkable 3D structure and existence of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for separation. The adsorption isotherm matches well with the Langmuir model and kinetic analysis suggests that the adsorption process is pseudo-second-ordered. In addition to the excellent adsorption capability, Fe3O4/GAs can be easily and effectively separated from water, indicating potential applications in water treatment. Yan Ye, Da Yin, Bin Wang, and Qingwen Zhang Copyright © 2015 Yan Ye et al. All rights reserved. Inverse Problems via the “Generalized Collage Theorem” for Vector-Valued Lax-Milgram-Based Variational Problems Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:34:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/764643/ We present an extended version of the Generalized Collage Theorem to deal with inverse problems for vector-valued Lax-Milgram systems. Numerical examples show how the method works in practical cases. H. Kunze, D. La Torre, K. Levere, and M. Ruiz Galán Copyright © 2015 H. Kunze et al. All rights reserved. Amyloid β Enhances Typical Rodent Behavior While It Impairs Contextual Memory Consolidation Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:32:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2015/526912/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with an early hippocampal dysfunction, which is likely induced by an increase in soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). This hippocampal failure contributes to the initial memory deficits observed both in patients and in AD animal models and possibly to the deterioration in activities of daily living (ADL). One typical rodent behavior that has been proposed as a hippocampus-dependent assessment model of ADL in mice and rats is burrowing. Despite the fact that AD transgenic mice show some evidence of reduced burrowing, it has not been yet determined whether or not Aβ can affect this typical rodent behavior and whether this alteration correlates with the well-known Aβ-induced memory impairment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test whether or not Aβ affects burrowing while inducing hippocampus-dependent memory impairment. Surprisingly, our results show that intrahippocampal application of Aβ increases burrowing while inducing memory impairment. We consider that this Aβ-induced increase in burrowing might be associated with a mild anxiety state, which was revealed by increased freezing behavior in the open field, and conclude that Aβ-induced hippocampal dysfunction is reflected in the impairment of ADL and memory, through mechanisms yet to be determined. Karla Salgado-Puga, Roberto A. Prado-Alcalá, and Fernando Peña-Ortega Copyright © 2015 Karla Salgado-Puga et al. All rights reserved. Intravascular Hemolysis and Septicemia due to Clostridium perfringens Emphysematous Cholecystitis and Hepatic Abscesses Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:10:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/523402/ Context. Clostridium perfringens septicemia is often associated with translocation from the gastrointestinal or gastrourinary tract and occurs in patients who have malignancy or are immunocompromised. Clostridium perfringens septicemia is usually fatal without early identification, source control, and antibiotics. Case. We present a case of a 65-year-old female with Clostridium perfringens septicemia secondary to emphysematous cholecystitis, with progression to hepatic abscesses. Conclusion. Septicemia secondary to Clostridium perfringens is generally fatal if not detected early. Source control with surgery or percutaneous drainage and early antibiotic therapy is imperative. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may reduce mortality. Clinicians caring for patients with sepsis and intravascular hemolysis must have Clostridium perfringens septicemia on their differential diagnosis with a low threshold for starting antibiotics and pursuing source of infection. Justin Cochrane, Lacie Bland, and Mary Noble Copyright © 2015 Justin Cochrane et al. All rights reserved. Simulation-Based Optimization of Cure Cycle of Large Area Compression Molding for LED Silicone Lens Wed, 01 Jul 2015 09:08:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/573076/ Three-dimensional heat transfer-curing simulation was performed for the curing process by introducing a large area compression molding for simultaneous forming and mass production for the lens and encapsulants in the LED molding process. A dynamic cure kinetics model for the silicone resin was adopted and cure model and analysis result were validated and compared through a temperature measurement experiment for cylinder geometry with cure model. The temperature deviation between each lens cavity could be reduced by implementing a simulation model on the large area compression mold and by optimizing the location of heat source. A two-step cure cycle was constructed to reduce excessive reaction peak at the initial stage and cycle time. An optimum cure cycle that could reduce cycle time by more than 29% compared to a one-step cure cycle by adjusting dwell temperature, heating rate, and dwell time was proposed. It was thus confirmed that an optimization of large area LED lens molding process was possible by using the present experiment and the finite element method. Min-Jae Song, Kwon-Hee Kim, Seok-Kwan Hong, Jeong-Won Lee, Jeong-Yeon Park, Gil-Sang Yoon, and Heung-Kyu Kim Copyright © 2015 Min-Jae Song et al. All rights reserved.