Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Untargeted Metabolomics Reveals Intervention Effects of Total Turmeric Extract in a Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Mon, 30 May 2016 16:50:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8495953/ Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease. Currently, there are no recognized medical therapies effective for NAFLD. Previous studies have demonstrated the effects of total turmeric extract on rats with NAFLD induced by high-fat diet. In this study, serum metabolomics was employed using UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of HFD-induced NAFLD and the therapeutic effects of TE. Supervised orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis was used to discover differentiating metabolites, and pathway enrichment analysis suggested that TE had powerful combined effects of regulating lipid metabolism by affecting glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycerolipid metabolism, and steroid hormone biosynthesis signaling pathways. In addition, the significant changes in glycerophospholipid metabolism proteins also indicated that glycerophospholipid metabolism might be involved in the therapeutic effect of TE on NAFLD. Our findings not only supply systematic insight into the mechanisms of NAFLD but also provide a theoretical basis for the prevention or treatment of NAFLD. Ya Wang, Ming Niu, Ge-liu-chang Jia, Rui-sheng Li, Ya-ming Zhang, Cong-en Zhang, Ya-kun Meng, He-rong Cui, Zhi-jie Ma, Dong-hui Li, Jia-bo Wang, and Xiao-he Xiao Copyright © 2016 Ya Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Note on Primitivity of Ideals in Skew Polynomial Rings of Automorphism Type Mon, 30 May 2016 15:47:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2016/7159180/ We extend results about primitive ideals in polynomial rings over nil rings originally proved by Smoktunowicz (2005) for -primitive ideals in skew polynomial rings of automorphism type. Edilson Soares Miranda Copyright © 2016 Edilson Soares Miranda. All rights reserved. A Self-Adjusting Method to Resist Bus Bunching Based on Boarding Limits Mon, 30 May 2016 15:47:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8950209/ Bus bunching is one of the most serious problems of urban bus systems. Bus bunching increases waiting and travel time of passengers. Many bus systems use schedules to reach equal headways. Compared to the idea of schedules and the target headway introduced later, we propose a new method to improve the efficiency of a bus system and avoid bus bunching by boarding limits. Our solution can be effectively implemented when buses cannot travel as planned because of bad road conditions and dynamic demands at bus stops. Besides, using our method, bus headways reach the state with equal headways dynamically and spontaneously without drivers’ explicit intervention. Moreover, the method can improve the level of the bus service and reduce total travel time of passengers. We verify our method using an ideal bus route and a real bus route, both showing the success of the proposed method. Shuzhi Zhao, Chunxiu Lu, Shidong Liang, and Huasheng Liu Copyright © 2016 Shuzhi Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Fast Direct Solution of Electromagnetic Scattering from Left-Handed Materials Coated Target over Wide Angle Mon, 30 May 2016 15:44:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/2108586/ When solving the electromagnetic scattering problems over wide angle, the traditional method of moments (MoM) needs to repeat the solving process of dense systems of linear equations using the iteration method at each incident angle, which proved to be quite inefficient. To circumvent this problem, a fast numerical method based on block LDLT factorization accelerated by adaptive cross approximation (ACA) algorithm is presented to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of left-handed materials (LHM) coated target. The ACA algorithm is applied to impedance matrix filling and all steps of block LDLT factorization process, which can accelerate the computation process and reduce the memory consumption. The numerical results proved that the proposed method is efficient in calculating monostatic RCS of LHM coated target with many required sampling angles. Compared with the traditional MoM, computation time and memory consumption are reduced effectively. Guo-hua Wang and Ying-bao Geng Copyright © 2016 Guo-hua Wang and Ying-bao Geng. All rights reserved. FAB: Fast Angular Binary Descriptor for Matching Corner Points in Video Imagery Mon, 30 May 2016 15:41:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jr/2016/3458207/ Image matching is a fundamental step in several computer vision applications where the requirement is fast, accurate, and robust matching of images in the presence of different transformations. Detection and more importantly description of low-level image features proved to be a more appropriate choice for this purpose, such as edges, corners, or blobs. Modern descriptors use binary values to store neighbourhood information of feature points for matching because binary descriptors are fast to compute and match. This paper proposes a descriptor called Fast Angular Binary (FAB) descriptor that illustrates the neighbourhood of a corner point using a binary vector. It is different from conventional descriptors because of selecting only the useful neighbourhood of corner point instead of the whole circular area of specific radius. The descriptor uses the angle of corner points to reduce the search space and increase the probability of finding an accurate match using binary descriptor. Experiments show that FAB descriptor’s performance is good, but the calculation and matching time is significantly less than BRIEF, the best known binary descriptor, and AMIE, a descriptor that uses entropy and average intensities of informative part of a corner point for the description. Mehwish Tahir, Nadia Kanwal, and Fatima Anjum Copyright © 2016 Mehwish Tahir et al. All rights reserved. Shallow Inferior Conjunctival Fornix in Contracted Socket and Anophthalmic Socket Syndrome: A Novel Technique to Deepen the Fornix Using Fascia Lata Strips Mon, 30 May 2016 15:41:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/3857579/ Purpose. To evaluate a new surgical technique using fascia lata to deepen the shallow inferior conjunctival fornix in contracted socket and anophthalmic socket syndrome. Methods. A prospective controlled study in which 24 sockets of 24 patients who were unable to wear and retain their ocular prosthesis due to shallow inferior fornix were enrolled and categorized into anophthalmic socket syndromes (9 patients) and contracted sockets (15 patients). Another 24 patients who underwent evisceration or enucleation with healthy sockets and can wear and retain their prosthesis comfortably were chosen as a control group. Deepening of the fornix was performed using fascia lata strips under general anesthesia. Central depth of the inferior fornix was measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Results. A statistically significant improvement of the postoperative central inferior fornix depth was reported which was marked in anophthalmic subgroup. 100% of anophthalmic sockets and 93.3% of contracted sockets achieved satisfactory results during the follow-up period with no postoperative lower eyelid malposition or obvious skin scar. Conclusion. Fascia lata technique is a new alternative and effective procedure to deepen the shallow inferior fornix that can be used in moderate to severe contracted sockets or anophthalmic socket syndrome with minimal lower eyelid or socket complications. Mohamed F. K. Ibrahiem and Sahar T. A. Abdelaziz Copyright © 2016 Mohamed F. K. Ibrahiem and Sahar T. A. Abdelaziz. All rights reserved. Pain in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives Mon, 30 May 2016 15:37:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2016/7576292/ Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease (PD) and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND), Huntington’s disease (HD), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed. Marina de Tommaso, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Ruti Defrin, Miriam Kunz, Gisele Pickering, and Massimiliano Valeriani Copyright © 2016 Marina de Tommaso et al. All rights reserved. New Application’s Approach to Unified Power Quality Conditioners for Mitigation of Surge Voltages Mon, 30 May 2016 15:35:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/6384390/ This paper outlines a new approach for the compensation of power systems presented through the use of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) which compensates impulsive and oscillatory electromagnetic transients. The newly proposed control technique involves a dual analysis of the UPQC where the parallel compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled voltage source, while the series compensator is modelled as a sinusoidal controlled current source, opposed to the traditional approach where the parallel and series compensators are modelled as current and voltage nonsinusoidal sources, respectively. Also a new compensation algorithm is proposed through the application of the theory of generalized reactive power; this is then compared with the theory of active and reactive instantaneous power, or theory. The results are presented by means of simulations in MATLAB-Simulink®. Yeison Alberto Garcés Gomez, Nicolás Toro García, and Fredy E. Hoyos Copyright © 2016 Yeison Alberto Garcés Gomez et al. All rights reserved. Refractive Results: Safety and Efficacy of Secondary Piggyback Sensar™ AR40 Intraocular Lens Implantation to Correct Pseudophakic Refractive Error Mon, 30 May 2016 14:55:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/4505812/ In this study we evaluate the visual outcomes, safety, efficacy, and stability of implanting of second sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) to correct unsatisfied ametropic patients after phacoemulsification. Methods. Retrospective study of 15 eyes (15 patients) underwent secondary intraocular lens implanted into the ciliary sulcus. The IOL used was a Sensar IOL three-piece foldable hydrophobic acrylic IOL. The first IOL in all patients was acrylic intrabagal IOL implanted in uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery. Results. Fifteen eyes (15 patients) were involved in this study. Preoperatively, mean UDVA and CDVA were 0.88 ± 0.22 and 0.19 ± 0.13, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 28 months (range: 24 to 36 months). At the end of the follow-up, all eyes achieved UDVA of 0.20 ± 0.12 with postoperative refraction ranging from 0.00 to −0.50 D of attempted emmetropia. Conclusions. Implantation of the second sulcus SensarAR40 IOL was found to be safe, easy, and simple technique for management of ametropia following uncomplicated phacoemulsification. Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan, Khulood M. Sayed, Mohammed ElAgooz, and Ashraf Mostafa Elhawary Copyright © 2016 Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan et al. All rights reserved. Classification of Motor Imagery EEG Signals with Support Vector Machines and Particle Swarm Optimization Mon, 30 May 2016 14:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4941235/ Support vector machines are powerful tools used to solve the small sample and nonlinear classification problems, but their ultimate classification performance depends heavily upon the selection of appropriate kernel and penalty parameters. In this study, we propose using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the selection of both the kernel and penalty parameters in order to improve the classification performance of support vector machines. The performance of the optimized classifier was evaluated with motor imagery EEG signals in terms of both classification and prediction. Results show that the optimized classifier can significantly improve the classification accuracy of motor imagery EEG signals. Yuliang Ma, Xiaohui Ding, Qingshan She, Zhizeng Luo, Thomas Potter, and Yingchun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yuliang Ma et al. All rights reserved. Sex and Gender Differences in Central Nervous System-Related Disorders Mon, 30 May 2016 14:50:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/neuroscience/2016/2827090/ There are important sex differences in the brain that seem to arise from biology as well as psychosocial influences. Sex differences in several aspects of human behavior and cognition have been reported. Gonadal sex steroids or genes found on sex chromosomes influence sex differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and neuronal structure, and connectivity. There has been some resistance to accept that sex differences in the human brain exist and have biological relevance; however, a few years ago, it has been recommended by the USA National Institute of Mental Health to incorporate sex as a variable in experimental and clinical neurological and psychiatric studies. We here review the clinical literature on sex differences in pain and neurological and psychiatric diseases, with the aim to further stimulate interest in sexual dimorphisms in the brain and brain diseases, possibly encouraging more research in the field of the implications of sex differences for treating these conditions. Emanuela Zagni, Lucia Simoni, and Delia Colombo Copyright © 2016 Emanuela Zagni et al. All rights reserved. A Wavelet Based Multiscale Weighted Permutation Entropy Method for Sensor Fault Feature Extraction and Identification Mon, 30 May 2016 14:48:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/9693651/ Sensor is the core module in signal perception and measurement applications. Due to the harsh external environment, aging, and so forth, sensor easily causes failure and unreliability. In this paper, three kinds of common faults of single sensor, bias, drift, and stuck-at, are investigated. And a fault diagnosis method based on wavelet permutation entropy is proposed. It takes advantage of the multiresolution ability of wavelet and the internal structure complexity measure of permutation entropy to extract fault feature. Multicluster feature selection (MCFS) is used to reduce the dimension of feature vector, and a three-layer back-propagation neural network classifier is designed for fault recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively identify the different sensor faults and has good classification and recognition performance. Qiaoning Yang and Jianlin Wang Copyright © 2016 Qiaoning Yang and Jianlin Wang. All rights reserved. Comparison between Limbal and Pars Plana Approaches Using Microincision Vitrectomy for Removal of Congenital Cataracts with Primary Intraocular Lens Implantation Mon, 30 May 2016 14:34:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/8951053/ Purpose. To compare the surgical outcomes of limbal versus pars plana vitrectomy using the 23-gauge microincision system for removal of congenital cataracts with primary intraocular lens implantation. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed all eyes that underwent cataract removal through limbal or pars plana incision. Main outcome measures included visual outcomes and complications. Results. We included 40 eyes (26 patients) in the limbal group and 41 eyes (30 patients) in the pars plana group. The mean age was 46 months. There was no significant difference in best-corrected visual acuity between the two groups (). Significantly, more eyes had at least one intraoperative complication in the limbal group than in the pars plana group () that were mainly distributed at 1.5–3 years of age (). The most common intraoperative complications were iris aspiration, iris prolapse, and iris injury. More eyes in the limbal group had postoperative complications and required additional intraocular surgery, but the difference was not significant (). Conclusions. The visual results were encouraging in both approaches. We recommend the pars plana approach for lower incidence of complications. The limbal approach should be reserved for children older than 3 years of age and caution should be exercised to minimize iris disturbance. Xin Liu, Tianyu Zheng, Xingtao Zhou, Yi Lu, Peng Zhou, Fan Fan, and Yi Luo Copyright © 2016 Xin Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Genetic Biomarker of Oxidative Stress, the Paraoxonase-1 Q192R Gene Variant, Associates with Cardiomyopathy in CKD: A Longitudinal Study Mon, 30 May 2016 14:26:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/1507270/ Background. Oxidative stress is a hallmark of CKD and this alteration is strongly implicated in LV hypertrophy and in LV dysfunction. Methods and Patients. We resorted to the strongest genetic biomarker of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, the Q192R variant in the PON1 gene, to unbiasedly assess (Mendelian randomization) the cross-sectional and longitudinal association of this gene-variant with LV mass and function in 206 CKD patients with a 3-year follow-up. Results. The R allele of Q192R polymorphism associated with oxidative stress as assessed by plasma 8-isoPGF2α () and was dose-dependently related in a direct fashion to LVMI (QQ: 131.4 ± 42.6 g/m2; RQ: 147.7 ± 51.1 g/m2; RR: 167.3 ± 41.9 g/m2; ) and in an inverse fashion to systolic function (LV Ejection Fraction) (QQ: 79 ± 12%; RQ: 69 ± 9%; RR: 65 ± 10% ). On longitudinal observation, this gene variant associated with the evolution of the same echocardiographic indicators [LVMI: 13.40 g/m2 per risk allele, ; LVEF: −2.96% per risk allele, ]. Multivariate analyses did not modify these associations. Conclusion. In CKD patients, the R allele of the Q192R variant in the PON1 gene is dose-dependently related to the severity of LVH and LV dysfunction and associates with the longitudinal evolution of these cardiac alterations. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that oxidative stress is implicated in cardiomyopathy in CKD patients. E. Dounousi, I. Bouba, B. Spoto, K. Pappas, G. Tripepi, I. Georgiou, A. Tselepis, M. Elisaf, D. Tsakiris, C. Zoccali, and K. Siamopoulos Copyright © 2016 E. Dounousi et al. All rights reserved. Periodic Event-Triggered Condition Design for the Consensus of Multiagent Systems with Communication Delays Mon, 30 May 2016 14:24:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3408152/ This paper focuses on the periodic event-triggered consensus problem for multiagent systems under undirected graph. In the periodic event-triggered control, the event condition is tested only periodically to decide when to exert the control behaviors and when to broadcast the sampling data. Two sets of event-triggered strategies combining with sampled-data control are designed based on an exponential decay function and a quadratic Lyapunov function, respectively. Some useful theorems for these two periodic event-triggered strategies about the choice of period are derived to guarantee the asymptotical stability of the closed-loop multiagent systems. In addition, this paper gives a sufficient condition about the bounds of communication delay for the multiagent systems. It is rigorously proved that the overall system will achieve the consensus under the proposed strategy if the period and time delay satisfy the theorems. Finally, we extend these solutions to general linear dynamical systems. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness. Feng Zhou, Zhiwu Huang, Weirong Liu, Liran Li, and Kai Gao Copyright © 2016 Feng Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Far-Field Testing Method of Spurious Emission Produced by HF RFID Mon, 30 May 2016 14:22:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/4715898/ We present measurements of spurious emission produced by high-frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) using carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz. HF RFID tags produce unwanted emission due to rectification and more generally due to nonlinearity of analog front end. Depending on the conducting material of an HF RFID coil and surrounding dielectric material, the coil behaves as more or less good antenna on some harmonic frequencies. Exact characterization and analysis of unwanted emission is important from the security perspective as well as from the perspective of interference with other systems. Consequently we measured the harmonics produced in the integrated circuitry and characterized radiation properties of the antenna. Finally we present the measurements of the spurious emission performed in a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. Nikola Gvozdenovic, Ralph Prestros, and Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker Copyright © 2016 Nikola Gvozdenovic et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach Mon, 30 May 2016 14:19:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/2079704/ Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases. Amr T. M. Saeb and Dhekra Al-Naqeb Copyright © 2016 Amr T. M. Saeb and Dhekra Al-Naqeb. All rights reserved. Thyroid Hormone Profile in Patients Ingesting Soft Gel Capsule or Liquid Levothyroxine Formulations with Breakfast Mon, 30 May 2016 14:07:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/9043450/ Background. Recently, it has been shown that liquid L-T4 formulation can be ingested with breakfast. This study looked to extend these findings by investigating whether a soft gel capsule formulation of L-T4 could also be ingested at breakfast time. Methods. 60 patients (18–65 yrs), previously submitted to thyroidectomy for proven benign goitre in stable euthyroidism receiving liquid L-T4 therapy ingested with breakfast, were enrolled. TSH, fT4, and fT3 levels were assessed in all the patients who were switched from liquid L-T4 to a soft gel capsule formulation at the same dosage of L-T4. After 6 months, TSH, fT4, and fT3 levels were determined again. Results. There were no differences in TSH levels, but fT3 and fT4 levels during treatment with the soft gel capsule were significantly lower than those at enrolment with the liquid L-T4 formulation (TSH median (min–max): 1.9 (0.5–4.0) versus 2.2 (0.5–4.5) mIU/L, fT3: 2.5 (2.4–3.1) versus 2.7 (2.4–3.3) pg/mL, , and fT4: 9.9 (8.0–13) versus 10.6 (8.6–13.8) pg/mL, ). Conclusion. Both liquid and soft gel formulations of L-T4 can be taken with breakfast. However, liquid L-T4 would be the preferred formulation for patients in whom even small changes in fT4 and fT3 levels are to be avoided. Carlo Cappelli, Ilenia Pirola, Elena Gandossi, Alessandra Cristiano, Linda Daffini, Barbara Agosti, Claudio Casella, and Maurizio Castellano Copyright © 2016 Carlo Cappelli et al. All rights reserved. GST-TAT-SOD: Cell Permeable Bifunctional Antioxidant Enzyme—A Potential Selective Radioprotector Mon, 30 May 2016 14:06:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/5935080/ Superoxide dismutase (SOD) fusion of TAT was proved to be radioprotective in our previous work. On that basis, a bifunctional recombinant protein which was the fusion of glutathione S-transferase (GST), SOD, and TAT was constructed and named GST-TAT-SOD. Herein we report the investigation of the cytotoxicity, cell-penetrating activity, and in vitro radioprotective effect of GST-TAT-SOD compared with wild SOD, single-function recombinant protein SOD-TAT, and amifostine. We demonstrated that wild SOD had little radioprotective effect on irradiated L-02 and Hep G2 cells while amifostine was protective to both cell lines. SOD-TAT or GST-TAT-SOD pretreatment 3 h prior to radiation protects irradiated normal liver cells against radiation damage by eliminating intracellular excrescent superoxide, reducing cellular MDA level, enhancing cellular antioxidant ability and colony formation ability, and reducing apoptosis rate. Compared with SOD-TAT, GST-TAT-SOD was proved to have better protective effect on irradiated normal liver cells and minimal effect on irradiated hepatoma cells. Besides, GST-TAT-SOD was safe for normal cells and effectively transduced into different organs in mice, including the brain. The characteristics of this protein suggest that it may be a potential radioprotective agent in cancer therapy better than amifostine. Fusion of two antioxidant enzymes and cell-penetrating peptides is potentially valuable in the development of radioprotective agent. Jianru Pan, Huocong He, Ying Su, Guangjin Zheng, Junxin Wu, Shutao Liu, and Pingfan Rao Copyright © 2016 Jianru Pan et al. All rights reserved. Reliable Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty by the Use of an iPod-Based Navigation System Mon, 30 May 2016 14:05:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aorth/2016/2606453/ Axial alignment is one of the main objectives in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) is more accurate regarding limb alignment reconstruction compared to the conventional technique. The aim of this study was to analyse the precision of the innovative navigation system DASH® by Brainlab and to evaluate the reliability of intraoperatively acquired data. A retrospective analysis of 40 patients was performed, who underwent CAS TKA using the iPod-based navigation system DASH. Pre- and postoperative axial alignment were measured on standardized radiographs by two independent observers. These data were compared with the navigation data. Furthermore, interobserver reliability was measured. The duration of surgery was monitored. The mean difference between the preoperative mechanical axis by X-ray and the first intraoperatively measured limb axis by the navigation system was 2.4°. The postoperative X-rays showed a mean difference of 1.3° compared to the final navigation measurement. According to radiographic measurements, 88% of arthroplasties had a postoperative limb axis within ±3°. The mean additional time needed for navigation was 5 minutes. We could prove very good precision for the DASH system, which is comparable to established navigation devices with only negligible expenditure of time compared to conventional TKA. Paola Koenen, Marco M. Schneider, Matthias Fröhlich, Arne Driessen, Bertil Bouillon, and Holger Bäthis Copyright © 2016 Paola Koenen et al. All rights reserved. Psychosis or Obsessions? Clozapine Associated with Worsening Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Mon, 30 May 2016 14:02:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2016/2180748/ One underrecognized adverse event of clozapine is the emergence or worsening of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). OCS, particularly violent thoughts, can be inaccurately described as psychosis and result in a misdiagnosis. We report a case of a 42-year-old man, initially diagnosed with schizoaffective, who was placed on clozapine for the management of “violent delusions.” However, clozapine led to a worsening of these violent thoughts resulting in suicidal ideation and hospitalization. After exploration of the intrusive thoughts and noting these to be egodystonic, clearly disturbing, and time consuming, an alternative diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) was made. Clozapine was inevitably discontinued resulting in a significant reduction of the intrusive thoughts without emergence of psychosis or adverse events. While an overlapping phenomenology between OCD and psychotic disorders has been described, clozapine and other antiserotonergic antipsychotics have been implicated with the emergence or worsening of OCS. Unique to our case is that the patient’s obsessions had been treated as psychosis leading to the inadequate treatment of his primary illness, OCD. This case highlights the potential for OCD to masquerade as a psychotic disorder and reminds clinicians that clozapine may worsen OCS. Jonathan G. Leung and Brian A. Palmer Copyright © 2016 Jonathan G. Leung and Brian A. Palmer. All rights reserved. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation after Surgery for Facial Injury Mon, 30 May 2016 14:01:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/6053652/ A case of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) presenting after surgery for facial trauma associated with multiple facial bone fractures is described. With regard to the oral and maxillofacial region, DIC has been described in the literature following head trauma, infection, and metastatic disease. Until now, only 5 reports have described DIC after surgery for facial injury. DIC secondary to facial injury is thus rare. The patient in this case was young and had no medical history. Preoperative hemorrhage or postoperative septicemia may thus induce DIC. Hisashi Ozaki, Hirohiko Tachibana, Shigeo Ishikawa, Kazuyuki Yusa, Kenichirou Kitabatake, and Mitsuyoshi Iino Copyright © 2016 Hisashi Ozaki et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Addition of Systemic Tramadol or Adjunct Tramadol to Lidocaine Used for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Hand Surgery Mon, 30 May 2016 13:47:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arp/2016/9161264/ Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) is used in outpatient hand surgery as an easily applicable and cost-effective technique with clinical advantages. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of addition of systemic tramadol or adjunct tramadol to lidocaine for IVRA in patients undergoing hand surgery. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I-II patients () who underwent hand surgery were included. For this purpose, only lidocaine (LDC), lidocaine+adjunct tramadol (LDC+TRA group), or lidocaine+systemic tramadol (LDC+SysTRA group) was administered to the patients for IVRA and the groups were compared in terms of onset and recovery time of sensory and motor blocks, quality of anesthesia, and the degree of intraoperative and postoperative pain. The onset time of sensorial block was significantly shorter in the LDC+TRA group than that in the LDC+SysTRA group. The motor block recovery time was significantly shorter in the LDC+SysTRA group than that in the LDC+TRA and LDC groups. Administration of tramadol as an adjunct showed some clinical benefits by providing a shorter onset time of sensory and motor block, decreasing pain and analgesic requirement, and improving intraoperative conditions during IVRA. It was determined that systemic tramadol administration had no superiority. Abdulkadir Yektaş, Funda Gümüş, Abdulhalim Karayel, and Ayşin Alagöl Copyright © 2016 Abdulkadir Yektaş et al. All rights reserved. The Mechanical Analysis of the Biofilm Streamer Nucleation and Geometry Characterization in Microfluidic Channels Mon, 30 May 2016 13:46:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/7819403/ Bacteria can form biofilm streamers in microfluidic channels with various geometries. Experiments show that the streamer geometry, such as its shape or thickness, depends on the fluid velocity and the geometry and curvature of the microfluidic channel. In the paper, a mechanical analysis of the flow field is made in different channels, which shows that the secondary flow in the channel is the reason for streamer nucleation and that the shear stress distribution decides the streamer geometry including shape and thickness. Through a finite elements simulation, we obtain the secondary flow forming positions in both static and rotating channels: positions that are the location of nucleation of the streamer. Thick or wide biofilm streamers occur at the points of minimum shear stress in static channels. Furthermore, in rotating channels, spiral-like streamers form, due to the helical shape of the minimum shear stress distribution. The findings may allow the prevention of biofilm formation and also the removal of bacteria adhered onto certain surfaces in channels with small cross sections. The analysis also indicates how one can obtain desirable biofilm streamers by control of the channel geometry and the loading conditions. Xiaoling Wang, Mudong Hao, Xin Du, Guoqing Wang, and Jun-ichi Matsushita Copyright © 2016 Xiaoling Wang et al. All rights reserved. Vitamin D3 Suppresses Class II Invariant Chain Peptide Expression on Activated B-Lymphocytes: A Plausible Mechanism for Downregulation of Acute Inflammatory Conditions Mon, 30 May 2016 13:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/4280876/ Class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP) expression has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in the regulation of B cell function after nonspecific polyclonal expansion. Several studies have shown vitamin D3 helps regulate the immune response. We hypothesized that activated vitamin D3 suppresses CLIP expression on activated B-cells after nonspecific activation or priming of C57BL/6 mice with CpG. This study showed activated vitamin D3 actively reduced CLIP expression and decreased the number of CLIP+ B-lymphocytes in a dose and formulation dependent fashion. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) based on changes in concentration of CLIP on activated B-lymphocytes after treatment with the various formulations of vitamin D3. The human formulation of activated vitamin D (calcitriol) had the most dramatic reduction in CLIP density at an MFI of 257.3 [baseline of 701.1 ( value = 0.01)]. Cholecalciferol and alfacalcidiol had no significant reduction in MFI at 667.7 and 743.0, respectively. Calcitriol seemed to best reduce CLIP overexpression in this ex vivo model. Bioactive vitamin D3 may be an effective compliment to other B cell suppression therapeutics to augment downregulation of nonspecific inflammation associated with many autoimmune disorders. Further study is necessary to confirm these findings. Omar K. Danner, Leslie R. Matthews, Sharon Francis, Veena N. Rao, Cassie P. Harvey, Richard P. Tobin, Ken L. Wilson, Ernest Alema-Mensah, M. Karen Newell Rogers, and Ed W. Childs Copyright © 2016 Omar K. Danner et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of “Transfer-Out” Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Gondar, Ethiopia Mon, 30 May 2016 13:44:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/trt/2016/1294876/ Background. During tuberculosis treatment, patients may transfer to continue treatment at another health facility. To ensure adherence until treatment completion, keeping track of patients is paramount. This study aimed to investigate treatment outcomes of patients who transferred out from the University of Gondar Hospital. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort evaluation of patients registered from 2009 to 2013. Treatment outcomes were collected from the TB registers of receiving units using a standardized data capture format. Results. During the study period 3,707 patients initiated treatment and 47.5% (1,760) transferred out. The study evaluated the outcome of 26% (457/1,760) patients, of whom 403 (88%) arrived in the receiving units. Overall, 79% were successfully treated and 13.8% transferred out for a second time. For all transferred-out cases, treatment outcomes were not reported to the referring unit. Conclusion and Recommendation. About half of the patients were transferred out to complete treatment elsewhere. Although successful treatment outcome was obtained in 79% of patients, these results were not fed back to the referring unit. Implementing a clear mechanism to communicate the arrival of and treatment outcome for transfer-out patients and appropriate patient education on treatment unit selection before treatment and during transfer-out are recommended. Tadesse Belayneh, Afework Kassu, Desalgne Tigabu, Gashaw Asmare, Sofanit Tilaye, and Eveline Klinkenberg Copyright © 2016 Tadesse Belayneh et al. All rights reserved. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency in an Exon 3 Deletion Mouse Model Promotes Hematopoietic Stem Cell Proliferation and Impacts Endosteal Niche Cells Mon, 30 May 2016 13:39:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/4536187/ The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) family of proteins. The AHR is involved in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) functions including self-renewal, proliferation, quiescence, and differentiation. We hypothesize that AHR impacts HSC functions by influencing genes that have roles in HSC maintenance and function and that this may occur through regulation of bone marrow (BM) niche cells. We examined BM and niche cells harvested from 8-week-old AHR null-allele (KO) mice in which exon 3 was deleted in the Ahr gene and compared these data to cells from B6 control mice; young and old (10 months) animals were also compared. We report changes in HSCs and peripheral blood cells in mice lacking AHR. Serial transplantation assays revealed a significant increase in long term HSCs. There was a significant increase in mesenchymal stem cells constituting the endosteal BM niche. Gene expression analyses of HSCs revealed an increase in expression of genes involved in proliferation and maintenance of quiescence. Our studies infer that loss of AHR results in increased proliferation and self-renewal of long term HSCs, in part, by influencing the microenvironment in the niche regulating the balance between quiescence and proliferation in HSCs. Zeenath Unnisa, Kameshwar P. Singh, Ellen C. Henry, Catherine L. Donegan, John A. Bennett, and Thomas A. Gasiewicz Copyright © 2016 Zeenath Unnisa et al. All rights reserved. Ag-Decorated Fe3O4@SiO2 Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications in Degradation of Organic Dyes Mon, 30 May 2016 13:08:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5837406/ Well-dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are successfully decorated on Fe3O4@SiO2 nanorods (NRs) via a facile step-by-step strategy. This method involves coating α-Fe2O3 NRs with uniform silica layer, reduction in 10% H2/Ar atmosphere at 450°C to obtain Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs, and then depositing Ag NPs on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs through a sonochemical step. It was found that the as-prepared Ag-decorated magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 NRs (Ag-MNRs) exhibited a higher catalytic efficiency than bare Ag NPs in the degradation of organic dye and could be easily recovered by convenient magnetic separation, which show great application potential for environmental protection applications. Chao Li, Junjie Sun, Duo Chen, Guangbing Han, Shuyun Yu, Shishou Kang, and Liangmo Mei Copyright © 2016 Chao Li et al. All rights reserved. Development of Oral Dissolvable Films of Diclofenac Sodium for Osteoarthritis Using Albizia and Khaya Gums as Hydrophilic Film Formers Mon, 30 May 2016 13:07:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdd/2016/6459280/ Oral dissolvable films (ODFs) of diclofenac sodium intended for osteoarthritis were prepared using Albizia and Khaya gums as hydrophilic film formers. The physicochemical properties of the gums were characterized and the gums were used to prepare diclofenac sodium ODFs (~50 mg/4 cm2 film) by solvent casting. The two gums showed satisfactory film forming properties. The physicomechanical properties, drug-excipient compatibility, and in vitro drug release of the films in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 were studied. Khaya gum had higher extraction yield, moisture content, insoluble matter and true density while Albizia gum showed greater swelling capacity, solubility, and minerals content. The ODFs were thin, soft, and flexible with smooth glossy surfaces and possessed satisfactory physicomechanical properties. FTIR studies showed that no interaction occurred between the drug and the gums. The ODFs disintegrated in <45 s achieved >75% drug release within 7 min with dissolution efficiencies of ~83–96%. Drug releases from F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6 were similar to F1 (; and ) while F7 differed markedly from F1 (; and ). Drug release followed the Higuchi kinetic model which is indicative of Fickian drug diffusion. Martina Aduenimaa Bonsu, Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye, Samuel Lugrie Kipo, Mariam El Boakye-Gyasi, and Mary-Ann Fosu Copyright © 2016 Martina Aduenimaa Bonsu et al. All rights reserved. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss Mon, 30 May 2016 13:06:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3284704/ Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica) extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr) cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell.) Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr) or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr) on ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT) was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks) augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. Tae-Ho Kim, Eui Kyun Park, Man-Il Huh, Hong Kyun Kim, Shin-Yoon Kim, and Sang-Han Lee Copyright © 2016 Tae-Ho Kim et al. All rights reserved. Visual Timing of Structured Dance Movements Resembles Auditory Rhythm Perception Mon, 30 May 2016 13:05:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/1678390/ Temporal mechanisms for processing auditory musical rhythms are well established, in which a perceived beat is beneficial for timing purposes. It is yet unknown whether such beat-based timing would also underlie visual perception of temporally structured, ecological stimuli connected to music: dance. In this study, we investigated whether observers extracted a visual beat when watching dance movements to assist visual timing of these movements. Participants watched silent videos of dance sequences and reproduced the movement duration by mental recall. We found better visual timing for limb movements with regular patterns in the trajectories than without, similar to the beat advantage for auditory rhythms. When movements involved both the arms and the legs, the benefit of a visual beat relied only on the latter. The beat-based advantage persisted despite auditory interferences that were temporally incongruent with the visual beat, arguing for the visual nature of these mechanisms. Our results suggest that visual timing principles for dance parallel their auditory counterparts for music, which may be based on common sensorimotor coupling. These processes likely yield multimodal rhythm representations in the scenario of music and dance. Yi-Huang Su and Elvira Salazar-López Copyright © 2016 Yi-Huang Su and Elvira Salazar-López. All rights reserved. Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Gastric Tissues Mon, 30 May 2016 12:57:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/8608462/ Aim. To investigate the effects of static magnetic field (SMF) on oxidant and antioxidant parameters of the cancerous and noncancerous human gastric tissues. Materials and Methods. Gastric tissues obtained from patients with gastric cancer were used in the study. SMF was created by using two static magnets. Before and after treatment with SMF, oxidant and antioxidant parameters were measured in the tissue samples. Results. In the cancerous tissue, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was found higher and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was found lower as compared with noncancerous tissue. SMF affects oxidant/antioxidant parameters differently in the cancerous and noncancerous tissues. In this regard, SMF causes increase in SOD activity and decrease in MDA level in the noncancerous tissue. However, it decreases SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and increases MDA level and catalase (CAT) activity in the cancerous tissue. There were no differences between nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) parameters in or among the cancerous and noncancerous tissues. Conclusions. SMF accelerates peroxidation reactions possibly by suppressing SOD and GSH-Px enzymes in the cancerous gastric tissue. This event caused by SMF might play part in the death of cancer cells, which may be a good supportive vehicle for the cancer therapy. Bahadır Öztürk, Zahide Esra Durak, Süleyman Büber, and Ender Hilmi Kocaoğlu Copyright © 2016 Bahadır Öztürk et al. All rights reserved. Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Drainage without Fluoroscopic Guidance for Extraluminal Complicated Cysts Mon, 30 May 2016 12:56:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/1249064/ Background. Endoscopic ultrasound- (EUS-) guided drainage is generally performed under fluoroscopic guidance. However, improvements in endoscopic and EUS techniques and experience have led to questions regarding the usefulness of fluoroscopy. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of EUS-guided drainage of extraluminal complicated cysts without fluoroscopic guidance. Methods. Patients who had undergone nonfluoroscopic EUS-guided drainage of extraluminal complicated cysts were enrolled. Drainage was performed via a transgastric, transduodenal, or transrectal approach. Single or double 7 Fr double pigtail stents were inserted. Results. Seventeen procedures were performed in 15 patients in peripancreatic fluid collections () and pelvic abscesses (). The median lesion size was 7.1 cm (range: 2.8–13.0 cm), and the mean time spent per procedure was minutes (range: 16–50 minutes). Endoscopic drainage was successful in 16 of 17 (94.1%) procedures. There were no complications. All patients experienced symptomatic improvement and revealed partial to complete resolution according to follow-up computed tomography findings. Two patients developed recurrent cysts that were drained during repeat procedures, with eventual complete resolution. Conclusion. EUS-guided drainage without fluoroscopic guidance is a technically feasible, safe, and effective procedure for the treatment of extraluminal complicated cysts. Hyeong Seok Nam, Hyung Wook Kim, Dae Hwan Kang, Cheol Woong Choi, Su Bum Park, Su Jin Kim, Dae Gon Ryu, and Joon Ho Jeon Copyright © 2016 Hyeong Seok Nam et al. All rights reserved. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak Mon, 30 May 2016 12:56:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/2016/1326085/ Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. Weng Kin Wong, Phiaw Chong Foo, Mohamad Noor Mohamad Roze, Chau Dam Pim, Puvaneswari Subramaniam, and Boon Huat Lim Copyright © 2016 Weng Kin Wong et al. All rights reserved. Tuberculous Spondylitis following Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin for Bladder Cancer Mon, 30 May 2016 12:55:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/6741284/ We present a rare case of tuberculous spondylitis following intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for bladder cancer. An 82-year-old man presented with low back pain. Past medical history revealed bladder cancer diagnosed and treated 16 months previously by intravesical BCG. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed destruction of the T5 and T6 vertebrae and an epidural soft tissue mass with anterior dural sac compression. Due to the progression of vertebral destruction, posterior spinal segmental fusion was performed. Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) was identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction of surgical tissue specimens. The patient was started on an antituberculosis treatment regimen including isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol. After surgery, his back pain resolved completely. At the latest examination, the patient was pain-free with no functional limitations or recurrent infection in clinical or imaging findings. Patients undergoing BCG therapy should be monitored for possible hematogenous spread of mycobacteria to the spine for months or even years after treatment. Masashi Miyazaki, Toyomi Yoshiiwa, Toshinobu Ishihara, Masanori Kawano, and Hiroshi Tsumura Copyright © 2016 Masashi Miyazaki et al. All rights reserved. Adiponectin Inhibits LPS-Induced HMGB1 Release through an AMP Kinase and Heme Oxygenase-1-Dependent Pathway in RAW 264 Macrophage Cells Mon, 30 May 2016 12:53:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5701959/ High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a late inflammatory mediator that exaggerates septic symptoms. Adiponectin, an adipokine, has potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, possible effects of adiponectin on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced HMGB1 release are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of full length adiponectin on HMGB1 release in LPS-stimulated RAW 264 macrophage cells. Treatment of the cells with LPS alone significantly induced HMGB1 release associated with HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytosol. However, prior treatment with adiponectin suppressed LPS-induced HMGB1 release and translocation. The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin- (IL-) 10 similarly suppressed LPS-induced HMGB1 release. Adiponectin treatment decreased toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA expression and increased heme oxygenase- (HO-) 1 mRNA expression without inducing IL-10 mRNA, while IL-10 treatment decreased TLR2 and HMGB1 mRNA expression and increased the expression of IL-10 and HO-1 mRNA. Treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP completely prevented the suppression of HMGB1 release by adiponectin but only partially inhibited that induced by IL-10. Treatment with compound C, an AMP kinase (AMPK) inhibitor, abolished the increase in HO-1 expression and the suppression of HMGB1 release mediated by adiponectin. In conclusion, our results indicate that adiponectin suppresses HMGB1 release by LPS through an AMPK-mediated and HO-1-dependent IL-10-independent pathway. Mohamed Elfeky, Ryuji Kaede, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, and Kazuhiro Kimura Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Elfeky et al. All rights reserved. Promoting Optimal Physical Exercise for Life: An Exercise and Self-Management Program to Encourage Participation in Physical Activity after Discharge from Stroke Rehabilitation—A Feasibility Study Mon, 30 May 2016 12:51:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2016/9476541/ People with stroke do not achieve adequate levels of physical exercise following discharge from rehabilitation. We developed a group exercise and self-management program (PROPEL), delivered during stroke rehabilitation, to promote uptake of physical activity after discharge. This study aimed to establish the feasibility of a larger study to evaluate the effect of this program on participation in self-directed physical activity. Participants with subacute stroke were recruited at discharge from one of three rehabilitation hospitals; one hospital offered the PROPEL program whereas the other two did not (comparison group; COMP). A high proportion (11/16) of eligible PROPEL program participants consented to the study. Fifteen COMP participants were also recruited. Compliance with wearing an accelerometer for 6 weeks continuously and completing physical activity questionnaires was high (>80%), whereas only 34% of daily heart rate data were available. Individuals who completed the PROPEL program seemed to have higher outcome expectations for exercise, fewer barriers to physical activity, and higher participation in physical activity than COMP participants (Hedge’s ). The PROPEL program delivered during stroke rehabilitation shows promise for reducing barriers to exercise and increasing participation in physical activity after discharge. This study supports feasibility of a larger randomized trial to evaluate this program. Avril Mansfield, Svetlana Knorr, Vivien Poon, Elizabeth L. Inness, Laura Middleton, Louis Biasin, Karen Brunton, Jo-Anne Howe, and Dina Brooks Copyright © 2016 Avril Mansfield et al. All rights reserved. Application of Partial Internal Transcribed Spacer Sequences for the Discrimination of Artemisia capillaris from Other Artemisia Species Mon, 30 May 2016 12:50:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7043436/ Several Artemisia species are used as herbal medicines including the dried aerial parts of Artemisia capillaris, which are used as Artemisiae Capillaris Herba (known as “Injinho” in Korean medicinal terminology and “Yin Chen Hao” in Chinese). In this study, we developed tools for distinguishing between A. capillaris and 11 other Artemisia species that grow and/or are cultured in China, Japan, and Korea. Based on partial nucleotide sequences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) that differ between the species, we designed primers to amplify a DNA marker for A. capillaris. In addition, to detect other Artemisia species that are contaminants of A. capillaris, we designed primers to amplify DNA markers of A. japonica, A. annua, A. apiacea, and A. anomala. Moreover, based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, we confirmed that primers developed in a previous study could be used to identify Artemisia species that are sources of Artemisiae Argyi Folium and Artemisiae Iwayomogii Herba. By using these primers, we found that multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was a reliable tool to distinguish between A. capillaris and other Artemisia species and to identify other Artemisia species as contaminants of A. capillaris in a single PCR. Eui Jeong Doh, Seung-Ho Paek, Guemsan Lee, Mi-Young Lee, and Seung-Eun Oh Copyright © 2016 Eui Jeong Doh et al. All rights reserved. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Causing Invasive and Noninvasive Pneumococcal Diseases in Korea from 2008 to 2014 Mon, 30 May 2016 12:37:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6950482/ Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen with high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of common serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. pneumoniae in Korea. Methods. A total of 378 pneumococcal isolates were collected from 2008 through 2014. We analyzed the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility for both invasive and noninvasive isolates. Results. Over the 7 years, 3 (13.5%), 35 (10.8%), 19A (9.0%), 19F (6.6%), 6A (6.1%), and 34 (5.6%) were common serotypes/serogroups. The vaccine coverage rates of PCV7, PCV10, PCV13, and PPSV23 were 21.4%, 23.3%, 51.9%, and 62.4% in all periods. The proportions of serotypes 19A and 19F decreased and nonvaccine serotypes increased between 2008 and 2010 and 2011 and 2014. Of 378 S. pneumoniae isolates, 131 (34.7%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and serotypes 19A and 19F were predominant. The resistance rate to levofloxacin was significantly increased (7.2%). Conclusion. We found changes of pneumococcal serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility during the 7 years after introduction of the first pneumococcal vaccine. It is important to continuously monitor pneumococcal serotypes and their susceptibilities. Si Hyun Kim, Il Kwon Bae, Dongchul Park, Kyungmin Lee, Na Young Kim, Sae Am Song, Hye Ran Kim, Ga Won Jeon, Sang-Hwa Urm, and Jeong Hwan Shin Copyright © 2016 Si Hyun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Bone Regeneration in Iliac Crestal Defects: An Experimental Study on Sheep Mon, 30 May 2016 12:33:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4086870/ Background. Oral rehabilitation of partially fully edentulous patients with dental implants has become a routine procedure in clinical practice. In a site with a lack of bone GBR is a surgical procedure that provides an augmentation in terms of volume for the insertion of dental implants. Materials and Methods. In the iliac crest of six sheep 4 defects were created where an implant was inserted, three of them with different biomaterials and a control site. All animals were sacrificed after a 4-month healing period. All specimens were processed and analyzed with histomorphometry. Statistical evaluation was done to evaluate percentage of bone defect filled by new bone. Results. All experimental groups showed an increase of the new bone. Higher and highly statistically significant differences were found in the percentages of bone defect filled by new bone in group filled with corticocancellous 250–1000 microns particulate porcine bone mix. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that particulate porcine bone mix and porcine corticocancellous collagenate prehydrated bone mix when used as scaffold are able to induce bone regeneration. Moreover, these data suggest that these biomaterials have higher biocompatibility and are capable of inducing faster and greater bone formation. Antonio Scarano, Felice Lorusso, Lorenzo Ravera, Carmen Mortellaro, and Adriano Piattelli Copyright © 2016 Antonio Scarano et al. All rights reserved. On the Result of Invariance of the Closure Set of the Real Projections of the Zeros of an Important Class of Exponential Polynomials Mon, 30 May 2016 12:29:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/3605690/ We provide the proof of a practical pointwise characterization of the set defined by the closure set of the real projections of the zeros of an exponential polynomial with real frequencies linearly independent over the rationals. As a consequence, we give a complete description of the set and prove its invariance with respect to the moduli of the , which allows us to determine exactly the gaps of and the extremes of the critical interval of by solving inequations with positive real numbers. Finally, we analyse the converse of this result of invariance. J. M. Sepulcre Copyright © 2016 J. M. Sepulcre. All rights reserved. Hadamard Multipliers and Abel Dual of Hardy Spaces Mon, 30 May 2016 12:29:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/3262761/ The paper is devoted to the study of Hadamard multipliers of functions from the abstract Hardy classes generated by rearrangement invariant spaces. In particular the relation between the existence of such multiplier and the boundedness of the appropriate convolution operator on spaces of measurable functions is presented. As an application, the description of Hadamard multipliers into is given and the Abel type theorem for mentioned Hardy spaces is proved. Paweł Mleczko Copyright © 2016 Paweł Mleczko. All rights reserved. Morphometric Optic Nerve Head Analysis in Glaucoma Patients: A Comparison between the Simultaneous Nonmydriatic Stereoscopic Fundus Camera (Kowa Nonmyd WX3D) and the Heidelberg Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (HRT III) Mon, 30 May 2016 12:07:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/4764857/ Purpose. To investigate the agreement between morphometric optic nerve head parameters assessed with the confocal laser ophthalmoscope HRT III and the stereoscopic fundus camera Kowa nonmyd WX3D retrospectively. Methods. Morphometric optic nerve head parameters of 40 eyes of 40 patients with primary open angle glaucoma were analyzed regarding their vertical cup-to-disc-ratio (CDR). Vertical CDR, disc area, cup volume, rim volume, and maximum cup depth were assessed with both devices by one examiner. Mean bias and limits of agreement (95% CI) were obtained using scatter plots and Bland-Altman analysis. Results. Overall vertical CDR comparison between HRT III and Kowa nonmyd WX3D measurements showed a mean difference (limits of agreement) of −0.06 (−0.36 to 0.24). For the CDR < 0.5 group () mean difference in vertical CDR was −0.14 (−0.34 to 0.06) and for the CDR ≥ 0.5 group () 0.06 (−0.21 to 0.34). Conclusion. This study showed a good agreement between Kowa nonmyd WX3D and HRT III with regard to widely used optic nerve head parameters in patients with glaucomatous optic neuropathy. However, data from Kowa nonmyd WX3D exhibited the tendency to measure larger CDR values than HRT III in the group with CDR < 0.5 group and lower CDR values in the group with CDR ≥ 0.5. Siegfried Mariacher, Stephanie Hipp, Robert Wirthky, Gunnar Blumenstock, Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Focke Ziemssen, Ulrich Schiefer, Bogomil Voykov, and Kai Januschowski Copyright © 2016 Siegfried Mariacher et al. All rights reserved. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions Mon, 30 May 2016 12:04:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2016/2460285/ Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives. Marina Komaroff Copyright © 2016 Marina Komaroff. All rights reserved. A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials of Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy Mon, 30 May 2016 12:03:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3257603/ Objective. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence of Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method for diabetic nephropathy. Methods. 11 electronic databases, through September 2015, were searched to identify randomized controlled trials of Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method for diabetic nephropathy. The quality of the included trials was assessed using the Jadad scale. Results. 26 randomized controlled trials were included in our review. Of all the included trials, most of them were considered as high quality. The aggregated results suggested that Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method is beneficial to diabetic nephropathy in bringing down the microalbuminuria (SMD = −0.98, 95% CI −1.22 to −0.74), serum creatinine (SMD = −0.56, 95% CI −0.93 to −0.20), beta-2 microglobulin (MD = 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.12), fasting plasma glucose (MD = −0.35, 95% CI −0.62 to −0.08), and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (MD = 1.13, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.20), but not in decreasing blood urea nitrogen (SMD = −0.72, 95% CI −1.47 to 0.02) or 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (SMD = −0.48, 95% CI −1.01 to 0.04). Conclusions. Yiqi Yangyin Huoxue Method should be a valid complementary and alternative therapy in the management of diabetic nephropathy, especially in improving UAER, serum creatinine, fasting blood glucose, and beta-2 microglobulin. However, more studies with long follow-up are warrant to confirm the current findings. Jiao Ying Ou, Di Huang, Yan Sheng Wu, Lin Xu, Fei He, Hui Ling Wang, Li Qiang Shi, Qiang Wan, Li Qun He, and Jian Dong Gao Copyright © 2016 Jiao Ying Ou et al. All rights reserved. An Online Multisensor Data Fusion Framework for Radar Emitter Classification Mon, 30 May 2016 12:02:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/5372510/ Radar emitter classification is a special application of data clustering for classifying unknown radar emitters in airborne electronic support system. In this paper, a novel online multisensor data fusion framework is proposed for radar emitter classification under the background of network centric warfare. The framework is composed of local processing and multisensor fusion processing, from which the rough and precise classification results are obtained, respectively. What is more, the proposed algorithm does not need prior knowledge and training process; it can dynamically update the number of the clusters and the cluster centers when new pulses arrive. At last, the experimental results show that the proposed framework is an efficacious way to solve radar emitter classification problem in networked warfare. Dongqing Zhou, Xing Wang, Siyi Cheng, and Xi Zhang Copyright © 2016 Dongqing Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Thymic and Postthymic Regulation of Naïve CD4+ T-Cell Lineage Fates in Humans and Mice Models Mon, 30 May 2016 11:32:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9523628/ Our understanding of how thymocytes differentiate into many subtypes has been increased progressively in its complexity. At early life, the thymus provides a suitable microenvironment with specific combination of stromal cells, growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines to induce the bone marrow lymphoid progenitor T-cell precursors into single-positive CD4+ and CD8+ T effectors and CD4+CD25+ T-regulatory cells (Tregs). At postthymic compartments, the CD4+ T-cells acquire distinct phenotypes which include the classical T-helper 1 (Th1), T-helper 2 (Th2), T-helper 9 (Th9), T-helper 17 (Th17), follicular helper T-cell (Tfh), and induced T-regulatory cells (iTregs), such as the regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1) and transforming growth factor-β- (TGF-β-) producing CD4+ T-cells (Th3). Tregs represent only a small fraction, 5–10% in mice and 1-2% in humans, of the overall CD4+ T-cells in lymphoid tissues but are essential for immunoregulatory circuits mediating the inhibition and expansion of all lineages of T-cells. In this paper, we first provide an overview of the major cell-intrinsic developmental programs that regulate T-cell lineage fates in thymus and periphery. Next, we introduce the SV40 immortomouse as a relevant mice model for implementation of new approaches to investigate thymus organogenesis, CD4 and CD8 development, and thymus cells tumorogenesis. José E. Belizário, Wesley Brandão, Cristiano Rossato, and Jean Pierre Peron Copyright © 2016 José E. Belizário et al. All rights reserved. Review of Brain-Machine Interfaces Used in Neural Prosthetics with New Perspective on Somatosensory Feedback through Method of Signal Breakdown Mon, 30 May 2016 11:30:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/8956432/ The brain-machine interface (BMI) used in neural prosthetics involves recording signals from neuron populations, decoding those signals using mathematical modeling algorithms, and translating the intended action into physical limb movement. Recently, somatosensory feedback has become the focus of many research groups given its ability in increased neural control by the patient and to provide a more natural sensation for the prosthetics. This process involves recording data from force sensitive locations on the prosthetics and encoding these signals to be sent to the brain in the form of electrical stimulation. Tactile sensation has been achieved through peripheral nerve stimulation and direct stimulation of the somatosensory cortex using intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). The initial focus of this paper is to review these principles and link them to modern day applications such as restoring limb use to those who lack such control. With regard to how far the research has come, a new perspective for the signal breakdown concludes the paper, offering ideas for more real somatosensory feedback using ICMS to stimulate particular sensations by differentiating touch sensors and filtering data based on unique frequencies. Gabriel W. Vattendahl Vidal, Mathew L. Rynes, Zachary Kelliher, and Shikha Jain Goodwin Copyright © 2016 Gabriel W. Vattendahl Vidal et al. All rights reserved. Streptococcus milleri and Recurrent Intra-Abdominal Abscesses: A Case Report and Literature Review Mon, 30 May 2016 11:30:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/6297953/ We report a case of recurrent intra-abdominal abscesses as a postoperative complication following diverticular perforation in which Streptococcus milleri (SM) was isolated. SM is evaluated here as a potent pyogenic organism commonly associated with intra-abdominal abscess especially in the postoperative setting. With the commonly adopted conservative management, the challenges of recurrence and prolonged hospital stay experienced in the indexed case as well as many other previous reports are highlighted. We also present a recommendation of the need for a more intensive approach of SM-related abscess drainage along with areas that would benefit further research. Tabitha M. Gana, Olugbenga Awolaran, and Sobia Akhtar Copyright © 2016 Tabitha M. Gana et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Extracellular Calcium Influx Results in Enhanced IL-12 Production in LPS-Treated Murine Macrophages by Downregulation of the CaMKK-AMPK-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway Mon, 30 May 2016 11:28:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/6152713/ Activated macrophages are the primary sources of IL-12, a key cytokine bridging innate and adaptive immunity. However, macrophages produce low amounts of IL-12 upon stimulation and the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found a new calcium-dependent mechanism that controlled IL-12 production in LPS-treated murine macrophages. First, LPS was demonstrated to induce extracellular calcium entry in murine peritoneal macrophages and inhibition of calcium influx resulted in marked enhancement in IL-12 production. Then, withdrawal of extracellular calcium was found to suppress CaMKK and AMPK activation triggered by LPS while chemical inhibition or genetic knockdown of these two kinases augmented LPS induced IL-12 production. AMPK activation increased the NAD+/NADH ratio and activated Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylating enzyme and negative regulator of inflammation. Chemical inhibitor or siRNA of SIRT1 enhanced IL-12 release while its agonist suppressed IL-12 production. Finally, it was found that SIRT1 selectively affected the transcriptional activity of NF-κB which thereby inhibited IL-12 production. Overall, our study demonstrates a new role of transmembrane calcium mobilization in immunity modulation such that inhibition of calcium influx leads to impaired activation of CaMKKβ-AMPK-SIRT1 signaling pathway which lifts restriction on NF-κB activation and results in enhanced IL-12 production. Xin Liu, Ning Wang, Yuanfeng Zhu, Yongjun Yang, Xiaoli Chen, Shijun Fan, Qian Chen, Hong Zhou, and Jiang Zheng Copyright © 2016 Xin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Eruption of Premolar Associated with a Dentigerous Cyst Mon, 30 May 2016 11:27:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/5323978/ Dentigerous cyst (DC) is the second most common odontogenic cyst with greater incidence in young patients. It presents as a unilocular, asymptomatic radiolucency involving the crown of an impacted tooth, commonly noticed in X-rays to investigate absence, wrong tooth position, or delay in the chronology of eruption. Decompression/marsupialization (D/M) is the most implemented treatment, especially when preserving the tooth involved is advised. The aim of this study is to discuss the DC characteristics that contribute to spontaneous eruption of premolars, by reporting the case of a conservative treatment of DC. This eruption depends on factors such as age, angulation of inclusion, rate of root formation, depth of inclusion, and eruption space. This paper reports the case of a 10-year-old patient with a radiolucent lesion diagnosed as DC involving element 35, which erupted as a result of treatment. The patient was observed during 1 year and 6 months. Irla Karlinne Ferreira de Carvalho and Anibal Henrique Barbosa Luna Copyright © 2016 Irla Karlinne Ferreira de Carvalho and Anibal Henrique Barbosa Luna. All rights reserved. A Universal Description of Pseudorapidity Distributions in Both Nucleus-Nucleus and p-p Collisions at Currently Available Energies Mon, 30 May 2016 11:26:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/5308084/ Investigations have shown that the collective motion appears not only in nucleus-nucleus but also in p-p collisions. The best tool for depicting such collective motion is relativistic hydrodynamics. In this paper, the collective motion is assumed to obey the hydrodynamic model which integrates the features of Landau and Hwa-Bjorken theory and is one of a very few analytically solvable models. The fluid is then supposed to freeze out into charged particles from a space-like hypersurface with a fixed time of . The investigations of present paper show that this part of charged particles together with leading particles, which, by conventional definition, carry on the quantum numbers of colliding nucleons and take away the most part of incident energy, can give a proper universal description to the pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles measured in both nucleus-nucleus and p-p collisions at currently available energies. Z. J. Jiang, H. P. Deng, and Y. Huang Copyright © 2016 Z. J. Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Performance of an M/M/1 Retrial Queue with Working Vacation Interruption and Classical Retrial Policy Mon, 30 May 2016 11:25:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aor/2016/4538031/ An M/M/1 retrial queue with working vacation interruption is considered. Upon the arrival of a customer, if the server is busy, it would join the orbit of infinite size. The customers in the orbit will try for service one by one when the server is idle under the classical retrial policy with retrial rate , where is the size of the orbit. During a working vacation period, if there are customers in the system at a service completion instant, the vacation will be interrupted. Under the stable condition, the probability generating functions of the number of customers in the orbit are obtained. Various system performance measures are also developed. Finally, some numerical examples and cost optimization analysis are presented. Tao Li, Liyuan Zhang, and Shan Gao Copyright © 2016 Tao Li et al. All rights reserved. System and Network Security: Anomaly Detection and Monitoring Mon, 30 May 2016 10:30:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/2093790/ Michele Vadursi, Andrea Ceccarelli, Elias P. Duarte Jr., and Aniket Mahanti Copyright © 2016 Michele Vadursi et al. All rights reserved. Smart Grid: ICT Control for Distributed Energy Resources Mon, 30 May 2016 10:30:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/1329421/ Jose Ignacio Moreno, Manel Martínez-Ramón, Pedro S. Moura, Javier Matanza, and Gregorio López Copyright © 2016 Jose Ignacio Moreno et al. All rights reserved. Towards a Standard Psychometric Diagnostic Interview for Subjects at Ultra High Risk of Psychosis: CAARMS versus SIPS Mon, 30 May 2016 10:26:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psychiatry/2016/7146341/ Background. Several psychometric instruments are available for the diagnostic interview of subjects at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis. Their diagnostic comparability is unknown. Methods. All referrals to the OASIS (London) or CAMEO (Cambridgeshire) UHR services from May 13 to Dec 14 were interviewed for a UHR state using both the CAARMS 12/2006 and the SIPS 5.0. Percent overall agreement, kappa, the McNemar-Bowker test, equipercentile methods, and residual analyses were used to investigate diagnostic outcomes and symptoms severity or frequency. A conversion algorithm (CONVERT) was validated in an independent UHR sample from the Seoul Youth Clinic (Seoul). Results. There was overall substantial CAARMS-versus-SIPS agreement in the identification of UHR subjects (, percent overall agreement = 86%; kappa = 0.781, 95% CI from 0.684 to 0.878; McNemar-Bowker test = 0.069), with the exception of the brief limited intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) subgroup. Equipercentile-linking table linked symptoms severity and frequency across the CAARMS and SIPS. The conversion algorithm was validated in 93 UHR subjects, showing excellent diagnostic accuracy (CAARMS to SIPS: ROC area 0.929; SIPS to CAARMS: ROC area 0.903). Conclusions. This study provides initial comparability data between CAARMS and SIPS and will inform ongoing multicentre studies and clinical guidelines for the UHR psychometric diagnostic interview. P. Fusar-Poli, M. Cappucciati, G. Rutigliano, T. Y. Lee, Q. Beverly, I. Bonoldi, J. Lelli, S. J. Kaar, E. Gago, M. Rocchetti, R. Patel, V. Bhavsar, S. Tognin, S. Badger, M. Calem, K. Lim, J. S. Kwon, J. Perez, and P. McGuire Copyright © 2016 P. Fusar-Poli et al. All rights reserved. lwAKE: A Lightweight Authenticated Key Exchange for Class 0 Devices Mon, 30 May 2016 10:14:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/6236494/ Device-to-Device (D2D) communication enables devices in proximity to establish a wireless direct link. However, these devices may be severely constrained in terms of memory, CPU, and processing resources. Hence, a D2D communication with a constrained device implies new challenges as it does not have the resources required to be secured with standard cryptography. We propose lwAKE for class 0 devices (RFC 7228), which uses one-way cryptographic functions and zero-knowledge proofs to provide mutual authentication and a secure key establishment. We specify the protocol using the High Level Protocol Specification Language and then verify the security properties using the model checkers OFMC and CL-AtSe. The significance of the protocol stands in a key reuse for any successive authentication. Experimental results show that this shortened authentication mode reduces the computational load greatly. Juan Jose Echevarria, Jon Legarda, Janire Larrañaga, and Jonathan Ruiz-de-Garibay Copyright © 2016 Juan Jose Echevarria et al. All rights reserved. Ewing Sarcoma of the External Ear Canal Mon, 30 May 2016 10:00:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/6925234/ Background. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a high-grade malignant tumor that has skeletal and extraskeletal forms and consists of small round cells. In the head and neck region, reported localization of extraskeletal ES includes the larynx, thyroid gland, submandibular gland, nasal fossa, pharynx, skin, and parotid gland, but not the external ear canal. Methods. We present the unique case of a 2-year-old boy with extraskeletal ES arising from the external ear canal, mimicking auricular hematoma. Results. Surgery was performed and a VAC/IE (vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide, and etoposide) regimen was used for adjuvant chemotherapy for 12 months. Conclusion. The clinician should consider extraskeletal ES when diagnosing tumors localized in the head and neck region because it may be manifested by a nonspecific clinical picture mimicking common otorhinolaryngologic disorders. Adem Binnetoglu, Tekin Baglam, Gulnur Tokuc, Kiymet Kecelioglu Binnetoglu, Fatma Gerin, and Murat Sari Copyright © 2016 Adem Binnetoglu et al. All rights reserved. Icariin Inhibits Pulmonary Hypertension Induced by Monocrotaline through Enhancement of NO/cGMP Signaling Pathway in Rats Mon, 30 May 2016 09:47:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7915415/ It has been reported that icariin (ICA) increased contents of nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by improving expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). In addition, dysfunction of the NO/cGMP pathway may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). In this study, the potential protective effects of ICA on PH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 50 mg/kg) singly subcutaneous injection were investigated and the possible mechanisms involved in NO/cGMP pathway were explored in male Sprague Dawley rats. The results showed that ICA (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/d) treatment by intragastric administration could significantly ameliorate PH and upregulate the expression of eNOS gene and downregulate the expression of PDE5 gene in MCT-treated rats. Both ICA (40 mg/kg/d) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg/d), a precursor of NO as positive control, notably increased the contents of NO and cGMP in lung tissue homogenate, which were inversed by treatment with -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, and L-NAME-treatment could also inhibit the protective effects of ICA (40 mg/kg/d) on mean pulmonary artery pressure and artery remodeling and tends to inhibit right ventricle hypertrophy index. In summary, ICA is effective in protecting against MCT-induced PH in rats through enhancement of NO/cGMP signaling pathway in rats. Li-sheng Li, Yun-mei Luo, Juan Liu, Yu Zhang, Xiao-xia Fu, and Dan-li Yang Copyright © 2016 Li-sheng Li et al. All rights reserved. Dual-Resonant Implantable Circular Patch Antenna for Biotelemetry Communication Mon, 30 May 2016 09:45:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/5262013/ A compact broadband implantable circular patch antenna is designed and experimentally demonstrated for Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) band (402–405 MHz). Compared with other similar implantable antennas, the proposed antenna incorporates three advantages for biotelemetry communication. First, it can realize a broad impedance bandwidth by exhibiting dual resonances. Second, it can obtain a compact structure by introducing two arc-shaped slots, a rectangular slot and a circular slot on metal radiating patch. Finally, it can display a friendly shape by using a circular structure. The proposed antenna occupies a volume of about 431.5 mm3 (10.42 × 1.27 mm3), which is a compromise between miniaturization and bandwidth. The measured −10 dB impedance bandwidth is 55 MHz (385–440 MHz). Furthermore, the radiation performance and human body safety consideration of the antenna are examined and characterized. Rongqiang Li and Shaoqiu Xiao Copyright © 2016 Rongqiang Li and Shaoqiu Xiao. All rights reserved. Frequency of BCR-ABL Transcript Types in Syrian CML Patients Mon, 30 May 2016 09:44:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2016/8420853/ Background. In Syria, CML patients are started on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and monitored until complete molecular response is achieved. BCR-ABL mRNA transcript type is not routinely identified, contrary to the recommendations. In this study we aimed to identify the frequency of different BCR-ABL transcripts in Syrian CML patients and highlight their significance on monitoring and treatment protocols. Methods. CML patients positive for BCR-ABL transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR were enrolled. BCR-ABL transcript types were investigated using a home-made PCR method that was adapted from published protocols and optimized. The transcript types were then confirmed using a commercially available research kit. Results. Twenty-four transcripts were found in 21 patients. The most common was b2a2, followed by b3a2, b3a3, and e1a3 present solely in 12 (57.1%), 3 (14.3%), 2 (9.5%), and 1 (4.8%), respectively. Three samples (14.3%) contained dual transcripts. While b3a2 transcript was apparently associated with warning molecular response to imatinib treatment, b2a2, b3a3, and e1a3 transcripts collectively proved otherwise (). Conclusion. It might be advisable to identify the BCR-ABL transcript type in CML patients at diagnosis, using an empirically verified method, in order to link the detected transcript with the clinical findings, possible resistance to treatment, and appropriate monitoring methods. Sulaf Farhat-Maghribi, Wafa Habbal, and Fawza Monem Copyright © 2016 Sulaf Farhat-Maghribi et al. All rights reserved. Isolated Retropancreatic Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Mimicking Carcinoma: A Diagnostic Challenge Mon, 30 May 2016 09:43:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2016/7295496/ Tuberculosis as a cause of obstructive jaundice is a rare entity with only a few cases reported in the literature. Patients with this condition usually present with a protracted illness, jaundice, and weight loss, which may be confused with malignancies. We are reporting unusual case of isolated enlarged tuberculous lymph node compressing the common bile duct in the retropancreatic region and causing obstructive jaundice in an immunocompetent patient which to the best of our knowledge is the first case of isolated retropancreatic tuberculous lymphadenitis in Saudi Arabia. H. Kuriry, R. Alenezi, A. Alghamdi, and A. M. Swied Copyright © 2016 H. Kuriry et al. All rights reserved. Change in the Prevalence of Testing for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in the United States: 1999–2012 Mon, 30 May 2016 09:42:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2016/1850879/ Purpose. There is no information on the change in prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) testing in the United States (US) following the introduction of the interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), a new and alternative diagnostic method for LTBI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential changes in the prevalence of LTBI testing in the US following the introduction of IGRA. Methods. This was a multiyear cross-sectional study using nationally representative data from the 1999-2000 and 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Self-reported prevalence of LTBI testing was estimated among groups known to have increased LTBI risk. Descriptive statistics were used. Results. Compared to 1999-2000, significantly fewer individuals self-reported being tested for LTBI in 2011-2012 among Hispanic Americans (68.0% versus 60.7%, ) and among those with comorbidities (74.7% versus 72.0%, ). There were also nonsignificant trends towards less self-reported LTBI testing in 2011-2012 versus 1999-2000 among household contacts of active TB cases, foreign-born individuals, and African Americans. Conclusions. Despite the introduction of IGRA, LTBI testing occurs less frequently in the US among vulnerable groups. Possibly inadequate targeted LTBI testing could result in increased active TB in the US in the future. Nicholas T. Vozoris and Jane Batt Copyright © 2016 Nicholas T. Vozoris and Jane Batt. All rights reserved. Probabilistic Dressing of a Storm Surge Prediction in the Adriatic Sea Mon, 30 May 2016 09:42:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/3764519/ Providing a reliable, accurate, and fully informative storm surge forecast is of paramount importance for managing the hazards threatening coastal environments. Specifically, a reliable probabilistic forecast is crucial for the management of the movable barriers that are planned to become operational in 2018 for the protection of Venice and its lagoon. However, a probabilistic forecast requires multiple simulations and a considerable computational time, which makes it expensive in real-time applications. This paper describes the ensemble dressing method, a cheap operational flood prediction system that includes information about the uncertainty of the ensemble members by computing it directly from the meteorological input and the local spread distribution, without requiring multiple forecasts. Here, a sophisticated error distribution form is developed, which includes the superposition of the uncertainty caused by inaccuracies of the ensemble prediction system, which depends on surge level and lead time, and the uncertainty of the meteorological forcing, which is described using a combination of cross-basin pressure gradients. The ensemble dressing is validated over a 3-month-long period in the year 2010, during which an exceptional sequence of storm surges occurred. Results demonstrate that this computationally cheap method can provide an acceptably realistic estimate of the uncertainty. R. Mel and P. Lionello Copyright © 2016 R. Mel and P. Lionello. All rights reserved. Integral Transforms on a Function Space with Change of Scales Using Multivariate Normal Distributions Mon, 30 May 2016 09:41:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/9235960/ Using simple formulas for generalized conditional Wiener integrals on a function space which is an analogue of Wiener space, we evaluate two generalized analytic conditional Wiener integrals of a generalized cylinder function which is useful in Feynman integration theories and quantum mechanics. We then establish various integral transforms over continuous paths with change of scales for the generalized analytic conditional Wiener integrals. In these evaluation formulas and integral transforms we use multivariate normal distributions so that the orthonormalization process of projection vectors which are needed to establish the conditional Wiener integrals can be removed in the existing change of scale transforms. Consequently the transforms in the present paper can be expressed in terms of the generalized cylinder function itself. Dong Hyun Cho Copyright © 2016 Dong Hyun Cho. All rights reserved. Change in Practice over Four Decades in the Management of Graves’ Disease in Scotland Mon, 30 May 2016 09:40:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtr/2016/9697849/ There is continuing debate on the optimal treatment for Grave’s thyrotoxicosis with a resultant variation in clinical practice. The present study aimed to ascertain changes in practice in the treatment of Grave’s thyrotoxicosis in Tayside, Scotland, over the past four decades. Methods. The “Scottish automated follow-up register” (SAFUR) was queried to identify all patients treated for Grave’s thyrotoxicosis from 1968 to 2007 inclusive. Patients were divided into 4 groups (Groups A to D) according to the decades. Demographic profile, treatment modalities, radioactive iodine (RAI) dose, and recurrence rates were studied and outcomes were compared by test and ANOVA using SPSS v15.0. A value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Altogether, 3737 patients were diagnosed with Grave’s thyrotoxicosis over the 4 decades. Use of RAI has increased from 43.1% in Group A to 68% in Group D (). The dose of RAI has increased () and there has been a reduction in recurrence rate with higher dose of RAI. Surgical intervention rates decreased from 55.3% to 12.3% () over time. Conclusions. Analysis of a large dataset of patients with Grave’s thyrotoxicosis suggests increasing use of RAI as the preferred first line of treatment. Furthermore, using a single higher dose of RAI and adoption of total thyroidectomy have decreased recurrence rates. D. M. Smith, S. Dutta, F. Ahmed, and M. A. Thaha Copyright © 2016 D. M. Smith et al. All rights reserved. Use of Serotonergic Drugs in Canada for Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders: Results of a Retrospective Cohort Study Mon, 30 May 2016 09:39:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/5797804/ Background. Surgery for GI dysmotility is limited to those with severe refractory disease. Though effective, use of serotonergic promotility drugs has been restricted in Canada due to adverse events. We aimed to investigate utilization of promotility serotonergic drugs in patients under consideration for surgical management. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using prospectively collected data. The study population included consecutive patients referred to a motility clinic for consideration of bowel resection at a Canadian tertiary hospital (1996–2011). Univariable tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors of serotonergic drug use. Results. Of 128 patients, the majority (, 76.6%) had constipation-dominant symptoms. Only 25% () had tried serotonergic promotility drugs. There was no association between use of these drugs and severity of constipation nor was there an association between serotonergic drug use and presence of diffuse dysmotility (all ). The majority of patients (, 75.8%) underwent some type of surgical resection, which was associated with considerable morbidity (, 13.4%). Conclusions. Surgical management of GI dysmotility results in serious morbidity. Serotonergic promotility drugs may allow patients to avoid surgery but disease severity does not predict use of these drugs. Biniam Kidane, Farouq Manji, Jennifer Lam, and Brian M. Taylor Copyright © 2016 Biniam Kidane et al. All rights reserved. Improved TV Algorithm Based on Adaptive Multiplier for Interference Hyperspectral Image Decomposition Mon, 30 May 2016 09:33:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ao/2016/6492197/ Interference Hyperspectral Images (IHI) data acquired by Interference Hyperspectral Imaging Spectrometer exhibit many vertical interference stripes. The above characteristics will affect the application of dictionary learning and compressed sensing theory used on IHI data. According to the special characteristics of IHI data, many algorithms are proposed to separate the interference stripes layers and the background layers of IHI data in 2015, but the interference stripes layers are still not clean enough and the ideal background layers without interference stripes are also difficult to be obtained. In this paper, an improved total variation (TV) algorithm based on adaptive multiplier is proposed for IHI data decomposition. The value of the Lagrange multiplier is adaptive according to the unidirectional characteristics of IHI data. The proposed algorithm is used on Large Spatially Modulated Interference Spectral (LSMIS) images and is proved to provide better experimental results than the current algorithms both visually and quantitatively. Jia Wen, Jun Wu, Fang Zhang, Ran Wei, Xianglei Xing, and Cailing Wang Copyright © 2016 Jia Wen et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Printable Watermarking Method in Dithering Halftone Images Mon, 30 May 2016 09:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/am/2016/4901609/ Halftone images are commonly printed on books, newspapers, and magazines. How to protect the copyright of these printed halftone images becomes an important issue. Digital watermarking provides a solution for copyright protection. In this paper, we will propose a novel printable watermarking method for dithering halftone images. Based on downsampling and the property of a dispersed dithering screen, the method can resist cropping, tampering, and print-and-scan process attacks. In addition, comparing to Guo et al.’s method, the experimental results show that the proposed method provides higher robustness for the above-mentioned attacks and better visual quality in the high-frequency regions of halftone images. Hui-Lung Lee and Ling-Hwei Chen Copyright © 2016 Hui-Lung Lee and Ling-Hwei Chen. All rights reserved. Comparison of Frequency Domain and Time-Domain Methods for Aeromechanical Analysis Mon, 30 May 2016 08:53:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrm/2016/4293414/ Unsteady flow around an oscillating plate cascade and that through a single compressor rotor subject to vibration have been computationally studied, aimed at examining the predictive ability of two low fidelity frequency methods compared with a high fidelity time-domain solution method for aeroelasticity. The computational solutions demonstrate the capabilities of the frequency domain methods compared with the nonlinear time-domain solution method in capturing small perturbations in the unsteady flow. They also show the great advantage of significant CPU time saving by the frequency methods over the nonlinear time method. Comparisons of two different frequency methods, nonlinear harmonic and phase solution method, show that these methods can produce different results due to the differences in numeric and physical conditioning. The results obtained using phase solutions method are in better agreement with the nonlinear time-domain solution. This is because the same numeric and physical conditioning are used in both the nonlinear time-domain method and phase solution frequency domain method. M. T. Rahmati Copyright © 2016 M. T. Rahmati. All rights reserved. Integral Sliding Mode Control for Trajectory Tracking of Wheeled Mobile Robot in Presence of Uncertainties Mon, 30 May 2016 08:53:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/7915375/ Wheeled mobile robots present a typical case of complex systems with nonholonomic constraints. In the past few years, the dominance of these systems has been a very active research field. In this paper, a new method based on an integral sliding mode control for the trajectory tracking of wheeled mobile robots is proposed. The controller is designed to solve the reaching phase problem with the elimination of matched disturbances and minimize the unmatched one. We distinguish two parts in the suggested controller: a high-level controller to stabilize the nominal system and a discontinuous controller to assess the trajectory tracking in the presence of disturbances. This controller is robust during the entire motion. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through simulation studies for the unicycle with matched and unmatched disturbances. Aicha Bessas, Atallah Benalia, and Farès Boudjema Copyright © 2016 Aicha Bessas et al. All rights reserved. Ertapenem Articulating Spacer for the Treatment of Polymicrobial Total Knee Arthroplasty Infection Mon, 30 May 2016 08:51:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/2016/5753489/ Introduction. Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are the primary cause of early failure of the total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Polymicrobial TKA infections are often associated with a higher risk of treatment failure. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ertapenem loaded spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial PJI. Methods. There were 18 patients enrolled; nine patients with polymicrobial PJI treated with ertapenem loaded articulating spacers were compared to the group of 9 patients treated with vancomycin or ceftazidime loaded spacers. Results. Successful reimplantation with revision implants was possible in 66.67%. Ertapenem spacers were used in 6 cases in primary two-stage procedure and in 3 cases in secondary spacer exchange. Successful infection eradication was achieved in all cases; final reimplantation with revision knee arthroplasty implants was possible in 6 cases. Conclusion. Ertapenem can be successfully used as antimicrobial addition to the cement spacers in two-stage revision treatment of polymicrobial PJIs. However, this type of spacer may also be useful in the treatment of infections caused by monomicrobial extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing gram-negative bacilli. Further clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertapenem spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial and monomicrobial PJIs. Dragan Radoicic, Milomir Milanovic, Jugoslav Marinkovic, and Danica Radoicic Copyright © 2016 Dragan Radoicic et al. All rights reserved. Thermal Conductivity of Carbon Nanoreinforced Epoxy Composites Mon, 30 May 2016 08:49:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/1847325/ The present study attempts to investigate the influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite nanoplatelets (GNPs) on thermal conductivity (TC) of nanoreinforced polymers and nanomodified carbon fiber epoxy composites (CFRPs). Loading levels from 1 to 3% wt. of MWCNTs and from 1 to 15% wt. of GNPs were used. The results indicate that TC of nanofilled epoxy composites increased with the increase of GNP content. Quantitatively, 176% and 48% increase of TC were achieved in nanoreinforced polymers and nanomodified CFRPs, respectively, with the addition of 15% wt. GNPs into the epoxy matrix. Finally, micromechanical models were applied in order to predict analytically the TC of polymers and CFRPs. Lewis-Nielsen model with optimized parameters provides results very close to the experimental ones in the case of polymers. As far as the composites are concerned, the Hashin and Clayton models proved to be sufficiently accurate for the prediction at lower filler contents. C. Kostagiannakopoulou, E. Fiamegkou, G. Sotiriadis, and V. Kostopoulos Copyright © 2016 C. Kostagiannakopoulou et al. All rights reserved. Characteristic Analysis and Simulated Test of Hybrid Bearing with the Introduction of Piezoelectric Controller Mon, 30 May 2016 08:48:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/6874741/ A novel hybrid bearing with the introduction of piezoelectric controller and tilting pads to control vibration actively is proposed in this paper, and the feasibility of this scheme is verified by theoretical calculation and experimental data. This scheme can control the vibration of bearing actively by using the electromechanical characteristics of piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) components. The static internal character of PZT and static external characteristic of piezoelectric control component are analyzed, and the calculation equations of preload coefficient and driving force of the new bearing are given. The simulation setup of the new bearing is designed and developed. The data representing the relationship of displacement of pad pivot, driving force, voltage, and the simulation stiffness of liquid film are obtained in the test, and the feature parameters of piezoelectric control component are amended to analyze the relationship between preload coefficient of the bearing and driving voltage. The proposed new bearing has the function of controlling preload actively. The theoretical and experimental research results provide essential guidance for the detail design of this new bearing and also provide a new idea for the vibration control of high speed rotor systems. Runlin Chen, Wu Ouyang, Zhaoyang Shi, Yangyang Wei, and Xiaoyang Yuan Copyright © 2016 Runlin Chen et al. All rights reserved. On a Fixed Point Theorem with Application to Integral Equations Mon, 30 May 2016 08:48:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijanal/2016/9843207/ We introduce the notion of dualistic Geraghty’s type contractions. We prove some fixed point theorems for ordered mappings satisfying the abovementioned contractions. We discuss an application of our fixed point results to show the existence of solution of integral equations. Muhammad Nazam and Muhammad Arshad Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Nazam and Muhammad Arshad. All rights reserved. A Rare Complication of Herpes Zoster: Segmental Zoster Paresis Mon, 30 May 2016 07:56:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/7827140/ Herpes zoster is a common presentation in both the community and emergency department; however segmental zoster paresis is a rare complication that can lead to misdiagnosis. We present a case of a 74-year-old Indian gentleman with a background of well controlled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischaemic heart disease who presented with sudden right lower limb weakness. This was preceded by a 5-day history of paraesthesia starting in the right foot and ascending up the right lower limb. On examination, there was a characteristic vesicular rash in the L2/3 region with MRC grading 3/5 in the right hip flexors. The rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable. MRI of the spine did not show any evidence of spinal disease. The patient was initiated on IV acyclovir with improvement of the lower limb weakness to MRC grading 5/5 as the vesicles improved. This is an interesting case as it highlights a rare presentation of zoster: segmental motor paresis that recovered fully with resolution of the rash. It shows the importance of recognizing motor neuropathy as a complication of shingles as it has a very good prognosis with most patients regaining full motor function of the affected limb with treatment. Hooi Khee Teo, Mayank Chawla, and Manish Kaushik Copyright © 2016 Hooi Khee Teo et al. All rights reserved. Uniform Attractors for Nonclassical Diffusion Equations with Memory Mon, 30 May 2016 07:55:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/5340489/ We introduce a new method (or technique), asymptotic contractive method, to verify uniform asymptotic compactness of a family of processes. After that, the existence and the structure of a compact uniform attractor for the nonautonomous nonclassical diffusion equation with fading memory are proved under the following conditions: the nonlinearity satisfies the polynomial growth of arbitrary order and the time-dependent forcing term is only translation-bounded in . Yongqin Xie, Yanan Li, and Ye Zeng Copyright © 2016 Yongqin Xie et al. All rights reserved. Solid-State Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing Technology Mon, 30 May 2016 07:26:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5284786/ The solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing technology is becoming more and more attractive for its brand new future in gene detection field. The challenges that need to be addressed are diverse: the effective methods to detect base-specific signatures, the control of the nanopore’s size and surface properties, and the modulation of translocation velocity and behavior of the DNA molecules. Among these challenges, the realization of the high-quality nanopores with the help of modern micro/nanofabrication technologies is a crucial one. In this paper, typical technologies applied in the field of solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing have been reviewed. Zewen Liu, Yifan Wang, Tao Deng, and Qi Chen Copyright © 2016 Zewen Liu et al. All rights reserved. Innovative Correlation Coefficient Measurement with Fuzzy Data Mon, 30 May 2016 07:25:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9094832/ Correlation coefficients are commonly found with crisp data. In this paper, we use Pearson’s correlation coefficient and propose a method for evaluating correlation coefficients for fuzzy interval data. Our empirical studies involve the relationship between mathematics achievement and other projects. Berlin Wu and Chin Feng Hung Copyright © 2016 Berlin Wu and Chin Feng Hung. All rights reserved. Comparison of Parametric and Nonparametric Methods for Analyzing the Bias of a Numerical Model Mon, 30 May 2016 07:19:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2016/7530759/ Numerical models are presently applied in many fields for simulation and prediction, operation, or research. The output from these models normally has both systematic and random errors. The study compared January 2015 temperature data for Uganda as simulated using the Weather Research and Forecast model with actual observed station temperature data to analyze the bias using parametric (the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), mean error (ME), skewness, and the bias easy estimate (BES)) and nonparametric (the sign test, STM) methods. The RMSE normally overestimates the error compared to MAE. The RMSE and MAE are not sensitive to direction of bias. The ME gives both direction and magnitude of bias but can be distorted by extreme values while the BES is insensitive to extreme values. The STM is robust for giving the direction of bias; it is not sensitive to extreme values but it does not give the magnitude of bias. The graphical tools (such as time series and cumulative curves) show the performance of the model with time. It is recommended to integrate parametric and nonparametric methods along with graphical methods for a comprehensive analysis of bias of a numerical model. Isaac Mugume, Charles Basalirwa, Daniel Waiswa, Joachim Reuder, Michel d. S. Mesquita, Sulin Tao, and Triphonia J. Ngailo Copyright © 2016 Isaac Mugume et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced SDIoT Security Framework Models Mon, 30 May 2016 07:07:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/4807804/ Following the recent increase in the interest in IoT (Internet of Things) environment, devices that provide various services are being developed. As the diversity, research is required for efficient management of these devices and enhanced security. Previous network environments tend to be dependent on network devices and have difficulties in active processing of variable traffic. Moreover, it is expected that new or variant attacks will increase as packets of various patterns are generated from numerous devices, and hence immense research effort is required in solving this problem. In order to address such problems, this study aims to investigate strategies for establishing a security framework for the configuration of a software-defined IoT environment and efficient provision of security services. Moreover, the service to reduce the overhead involved in security service provision is configured, and a simple test is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed model. Seongho Choi and Jin Kwak Copyright © 2016 Seongho Choi and Jin Kwak. All rights reserved. Is Gastroparesis Found More Frequently in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis? A Systematic Review Mon, 30 May 2016 07:04:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/2918139/ Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with different gastrointestinal motility disturbances and syndromes. We aim to assess gastric emptying in patients with CF compared to healthy controls by a systematic review of existing literature. Medical databases and abstracts from major gastroenterology and CF meetings were reviewed. Emptying times in CF patients were compared with healthy controls using random effects models. Subgroup analysis stratified results by age and diagnostic modality. Nineteen studies from 7 countries included 574 subjects (359 CF patients and 215 controls). Using pooled analysis frequency of gastroparesis was high (38%, 95% CI 30–45%) but results were highly dependent on the diagnostic modality. Delayed gastric emptying is more common in CF compared to general population. Scintigraphy identified rapid gastric emptying in a subgroup of CF patients, but this finding disappeared with adequate pancreatic enzyme replacement and after other diagnostic modalities were included. Juan E. Corral, Corey W. Dye, Maria R. Mascarenhas, Jamie S. Barkin, Matthias Salathe, and Baharak Moshiree Copyright © 2016 Juan E. Corral et al. All rights reserved. Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation in Adult Haematological Malignancies Mon, 30 May 2016 07:02:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2016/3905907/ Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a well-established treatment option for both hematological malignancies and nonmalignant conditions such as aplastic anemia and haemoglobinopathies. For those patients lacking a suitable matched sibling or matched unrelated donor, haploidentical donors are an alternative expedient donor pool. Historically, haploidentical transplantation led to high rates of graft rejection and GVHD. Strategies to circumvent these issues include T cell depletion and management of complications thereof or T replete transplants with GVHD prophylaxis. This review is an overview of these strategies and contemporaneous outcomes for hematological malignancies in adult haploidentical stem cell transplant recipients. Kevon Parmesar and Kavita Raj Copyright © 2016 Kevon Parmesar and Kavita Raj. All rights reserved. Pluripotency of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth for Tissue Engineering Mon, 30 May 2016 06:50:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/5957806/ Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are highly proliferative pluripotent cells that can be retrieved from primary teeth. Although SHED are isolated from the dental pulp, their differentiation potential is not limited to odontoblasts only. In fact, SHED can differentiate into several cell types including neurons, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. The high plasticity makes SHED an interesting stem cell model for research in several biomedical areas. This review will discuss key findings about the characterization and differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts, neurons, and hormone secreting cells (e.g., hepatocytes and islet-like cell aggregates). The outcomes of the studies presented here support the multipotency of SHED and their potential to be used for tissue engineering-based therapies. Vinicius Rosa, Nileshkumar Dubey, Intekhab Islam, Kyung-San Min, and Jacques E. Nör Copyright © 2016 Vinicius Rosa et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Glycomacropeptide in Dietary Management of Phenylketonuria Mon, 30 May 2016 06:49:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/2453027/ Dietary therapy is the most common therapy applied in treatment of Phenylketonuria (PKU) with restriction of intake of most natural proteins that are rich in Phenylalanine (Phe). Recently, it has been claimed that caseinoglycomacropeptide (GMP), derived of whey, may be used to replace the amino acid formulae (AAF). The Aim of Work. To study the feasibility of use of GMP for partial replacement of artificial formula in treatment of children with PKU. Methods. Ten patients with PKU were included in the study. They received the recommended daily allowances of protein in the form of AAF or a combination of AAF and GMP. The percent of intake of GMP in phases 1 and 2 was 50% and zero%, respectively. Results. The median and interquartiles of phenyl alanine Phe levels phase were not significantly different in phases I and II, 376 (167–551) μmol/L versus 490 (289–597) μmol/L, respectively. Phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio, amino acids, and other laboratory data showed no significant difference between the two phases. Conclusion. GMP may be used to replace 50% of the protein intake to improve the nutritive value and palatability of diet and to provide a more satisfactory diet. No toxicity or side effects were reported in patients on that regimen. Osama K. Zaki, Lamia El-Wakeel, Yasmin Ebeid, Hanan S. Ez Elarab, Aisha Moustafa, Nayera Abdulazim, Hala Karara, and Ahmed Elghawaby Copyright © 2016 Osama K. Zaki et al. All rights reserved. Analysis and Numerical Simulation on the Reduction Effect of Stress Waves Caused by Water Jet Slotting Near Blasting Source Mon, 30 May 2016 06:46:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5640947/ As one of the most serious “side effects” of blast excavation, blast-induced vibration must be controlled for existing buildings and human beings. This paper proposes a method for blast-induced vibration reduction with water jet assistance according to the cutting characters of low-noised, environment-friendly water jet. The mechanism of vibration-isolation with water jet assistance was analyzed, and the stress wave energy attenuation models were established based on blasting theory and stress wave theory. Influence law on shock wave attenuation by vibration-isolation slot was studied by numerical simulation. Simulation results agree with the theoretical analysis roughly. The results of this study put forward a method for blast-induced vibration near blasting source and provide a certain theoretical basis. Dengfeng Su, Yong Kang, Dongyang Li, Xiaochuan Wang, and Fuwen Yan Copyright © 2016 Dengfeng Su et al. All rights reserved. Progressed Multivessel Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection That Naturally Healed in a Male Patient with Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Mon, 30 May 2016 06:45:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/4109496/ Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare condition that may have a serious outcome because of acute coronary syndrome. The condition especially affects young women. We evaluated a middle-aged male patient with a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction caused by multivessel SCAD. The SCAD had occurred in the distal right coronary artery (RCA), the mid left anterior descending artery (LAD), and the distal LAD at the same time. His culprit lesion was in the distal RCA, but the SCAD had progressed more proximally within the RCA 12 days later with no clinical symptoms. We treated the mid LAD with implantation of a drug-eluting stent on admission and the SCAD had not progressed 12 days later. Moreover, the SCAD in the distal RCA and distal LAD healed spontaneously 12 days later. He had no recurrent attack, and all SCAD lesions of the RCA and LAD had completely healed 6 months later. Given that SCAD appears in various forms over the clinical course, a strategy of intervention needs careful consideration. Tatsuo Haraki, Ryota Uemura, Shin-ichiro Masuda, and Takeshi Lee Copyright © 2016 Tatsuo Haraki et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Lunar-Phase Observation System Based on Augmented Reality and Mobile Learning Technologies Mon, 30 May 2016 06:41:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/8352791/ Observing the lunar phase requires long-term involvement, and it is often obstructed by bad weather or tall buildings. In this study, a lunar-phase observation system is developed using the augmented reality (AR) technology and the sensor functions of GPS, electronic compass, and 3-axis accelerometer on mobile devices to help students observe and record lunar phases easily. By holding the mobile device towards the moon in the sky, the screen will show the virtual moon at the position of the real moon. The system allows the user to record the lunar phase, including its azimuth/elevation angles and the observation date and time. In addition, the system can shorten the learning process by setting different dates and times for observation, so it can solve the problem of being unable to observe and record lunar phases due to a bad weather or the moon appearing late in the night. Therefore, it is an effective tool for astronomy education in elementary and high schools. A teaching experiment has been conducted to analyze the learning effectiveness of the system and the results show that it is effective in learning the lunar concepts. The questionnaire results reveal that students considered the system easy to operate and it is useful in locating the moon and recording the lunar data. Wernhuar Tarng, Yu-Sheng Lin, Chiu-Pin Lin, and Kuo-Liang Ou Copyright © 2016 Wernhuar Tarng et al. All rights reserved. Compensatory Analysis and Optimization for MADM for Heterogeneous Wireless Network Selection Mon, 30 May 2016 06:40:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/7539454/ In the next-generation heterogeneous wireless networks, a mobile terminal with a multi-interface may have network access from different service providers using various technologies. In spite of this heterogeneity, seamless intersystem mobility is a mandatory requirement. One of the major challenges for seamless mobility is the creation of a network selection scheme, which is for users that select an optimal network with best comprehensive performance between different types of networks. However, the optimal network may be not the most reasonable one due to compensation of MADM (Multiple Attribute Decision Making), and the network is called pseudo-optimal network. This paper conducts a performance evaluation of a number of widely used MADM-based methods for network selection that aim to keep the mobile users always best connected anywhere and anytime, where subjective weight and objective weight are all considered. The performance analysis shows that the selection scheme based on MEW (weighted multiplicative method) and combination weight can better avoid accessing pseudo-optimal network for balancing network load and reducing ping-pong effect in comparison with three other MADM solutions. Jian Zhou and Can-yan Zhu Copyright © 2016 Jian Zhou and Can-yan Zhu. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils Mon, 30 May 2016 06:39:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1643762/ This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli () strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. Valéria Maria Lara, Adriano Bonfim Carregaro, Deise Flores Santurio, Mariangela Facco de Sá, Janio Moraes Santurio, and Sydney Hartz Alves Copyright © 2016 Valéria Maria Lara et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Rats Causes an Imbalance in the Asymmetric Dimethylarginine/Nitric Oxide Pathway and ROS Activity: A Possible Synergistic Mechanism for Altitude Pulmonary Hypertension? Mon, 30 May 2016 06:39:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2016/6578578/ Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) and chronic hypoxia (CH) are associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension (HAPH). Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, may contribute to HAPH. This study assessed changes in the ADMA/NO pathway and the underlying mechanisms in rat lungs following exposure to CIH or CH simulated in a hypobaric chamber at 428 Torr. Twenty-four adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups: CIH2x2 (2 days of hypoxia/2 days of normoxia), CH, and NX (permanent normoxia), for 30 days. All analyses were performed in whole lung tissue. L-Arginine and ADMA were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Under both hypoxic conditions right ventricular hypertrophy was observed () and endothelial NOS mRNA increased (), but the phosphorylated/nonphosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) ratio was unchanged. ADMA increased (), whereas dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity decreased only under CH (). Although arginase activity increased () and L-arginine exhibited no changes, the L-arginine/ADMA ratio decreased significantly (). Moreover, NOX4 expression increased only under CH (), but malondialdehyde (MDA) increased (up to 2-fold) equally in CIH2x2 and CH (). Our results suggest that ADMA and oxidative stress likely reduce NO bioavailability under altitude hypoxia, which implies greater pulmonary vascular reactivity and tone, despite the more subdued effects observed under CIH. Nicole Lüneburg, Patricia Siques, Julio Brito, Karem Arriaza, Eduardo Pena, Hans Klose, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, and Rainer H. Böger Copyright © 2016 Nicole Lüneburg et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Air Pollution on the Occurrence of Nonspecific Conjunctivitis Mon, 30 May 2016 06:38:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/3628762/ Purpose. To investigate the short-term effect of air pollution on occurrence of nonspecific conjunctivitis. Methods. Data were collected from outpatient visits from cases with conjunctivitis over a period of one year. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between the number of outpatient visits and the air quality and the lag effect of air quality on conjunctivitis occurrence. Results. The air quality index on the day of presentation (), one day before presentation (), and two days before presentation day () had a positive relation with outpatient visits for conjunctivitis. The air quality index () and outpatient visits number per day () in autumn and winter (October to March) were significantly higher than those in spring (April) and summer (September). Conclusions. The air quality index within two days before presentation affected the probability of attending the outpatient clinic for nonspecific conjunctivitis. High number of cases can be expected in colder season. Zhiwei Li, Xiaoyan Bian, Jianguang Yin, Xiaoli Zhang, and Guoying Mu Copyright © 2016 Zhiwei Li et al. All rights reserved. Drosophila Torsin Protein Regulates Motor Control and Stress Sensitivity and Forms a Complex with Fragile-X Mental Retardation Protein Mon, 30 May 2016 06:09:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/6762086/ We investigated unknown in vivo functions of Torsin by using Drosophila as a model. Downregulation of Drosophila Torsin (DTor) by DTor-specific inhibitory double-stranded RNA (RNAi) induced abnormal locomotor behavior and increased susceptibility to H2O2. In addition, altered expression of DTor significantly increased the numbers of synaptic boutons. One important biochemical consequence of DTor-RNAi expression in fly brains was upregulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Altered expression of ADH has also been reported in Drosophila Fragile-X mental retardation protein (DFMRP) mutant flies. Interestingly, expression of DFMRP was altered in DTor mutant flies, and DTor and DFMRP were present in the same protein complexes. In addition, DTor and DFMRP immunoreactivities were partially colocalized in several cellular organelles in larval muscles. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between synaptic morphologies of dfmrp null mutants and dfmrp mutants expressing DTor-RNAi. Taken together, our evidences suggested that DTor and DFMRP might be present in the same signaling pathway regulating synaptic plasticity. In addition, we also found that human Torsin1A and human FMRP were present in the same protein complexes, suggesting that this phenomenon is evolutionarily conserved. Phuong Nguyen, Jong Bok Seo, Hyo-Min Ahn, and Young Ho Koh Copyright © 2016 Phuong Nguyen et al. All rights reserved. Electrical Resistivity, Tribological Behaviour of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Nanoboron Carbide Particles Reinforced Copper Hybrid Composites for Pantograph Application Sun, 29 May 2016 14:29:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/3432979/ This work focuses on the influence and contribution of multiwalled carbon-nanotube (MWCNT)–boron carbide (B4C) to the mechanical and tribological properties of copper matrix composites. Different weight fractions of nano- B4C-containing fixed-weight fractions of MWCNT-reinforced copper composites were prepared using the entrenched cold-press sintering method of powder metallurgy. The wear losses of sintered Cu–MWCNT–B4C composites were investigated by conducting sliding tests in a pin-on-disc apparatus. The addition of reinforcements showed enhancements in the hardness and wear properties of the composites due to the uniform dispersion of the secondary reinforcement in the copper matrix and the self-lubricating effect of the MWCNTs. The effects of the nanoparticle distribution in the matrix, the worn surface morphology, and the elemental composition of the composites were characterized using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrical resistivity of the fabricated copper hybrid composite preforms was evaluated using a four-point probe tester. Our results highlight the use of experiential reinforcing limits of B4C on the wear and electrical and mechanical behaviour of copper composites. N. Selvakumar and K. Gangatharan Copyright © 2016 N. Selvakumar and K. Gangatharan. All rights reserved. Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Something Old, Something New Sun, 29 May 2016 14:27:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7196280/ Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumour (80–90%) and represents more than 5.7% of all cancers. Although in recent years the therapeutic options for these patients have increased, clinical results are yet unsatisfactory and the prognosis remains dismal. Clinical or molecular criteria allowing a more accurate selection of patients are in fact largely lacking. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic key enzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate under anaerobic conditions. In preclinical models, upregulation of LDH has been suggested to ensure both an efficient anaerobic/glycolytic metabolism and a reduced dependence on oxygen under hypoxic conditions in tumour cells. Data from several analyses on different tumour types seem to suggest that LDH levels may be a significant prognostic factor. The role of LDH in HCC has been investigated by different authors in heterogeneous populations of patients. It has been tested as a potential biomarker in retrospective, small, and nonfocused studies in patients undergoing surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy. In the major part of these studies, high LDH serum levels seem to predict a poorer outcome. We have reviewed literature in this setting trying to resume basis for future studies validating the role of LDH in this disease. Luca Faloppi, Maristella Bianconi, Riccardo Memeo, Andrea Casadei Gardini, Riccardo Giampieri, Alessandro Bittoni, Kalliopi Andrikou, Michela Del Prete, Stefano Cascinu, and Mario Scartozzi Copyright © 2016 Luca Faloppi et al. All rights reserved. Constructing Maximum-Lifetime Data-Gathering Tree in WSNs Based on Compressed Sensing Sun, 29 May 2016 14:26:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/2313064/ Data gathering is one of the most important operations in many wireless sensor networks (WSNs) applications. In order to implement data gathering, a tree structure rooted at the sink is usually defined. In most wireless sensor networks, nodes are powered by batteries with limited energy. Prolonging network lifetime is a critical issue for WSNs. As a technique for signal processing, compressed sensing (CS) is being increasingly applied to wireless sensor networks for saving energy. Compressive sensing can reduce the number of data transmissions and balance the traffic load throughout networks. In this paper, we investigate data gathering in wireless sensor networks using CS and aim at constructing a maximum-lifetime data-gathering tree. The lifetime of the network is defined as the number of data-gathering rounds until the first node depletes its energy. Based on the hybrid-CS data-gathering model, we first construct an arbitrary data-gathering tree and then use the random switching decision and optimal parent node selecting strategy to adjust the load of the bottleneck node and prolong the network lifetime. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms several existing approaches in terms of network lifetime. Zhengyu Chen, Geng Yang, Lei Chen, and Jian Xu Copyright © 2016 Zhengyu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Sargentodoxa cuneata by HPLC Coupled with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection Sun, 29 May 2016 14:15:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2016/8509858/ A HPLC coupled with evaporative light scattering detection method had been developed for the simultaneous determination of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl alcohol glycoside, salidroside, chlorogenic acid, and liriodendrin in the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata. With a C18 column, the analysis was performed using acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase in gradient program at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The optimum drift tube temperature of evaporative light scattering detection was at 105°C with the air flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The calibration curves showed good linearity during the test ranges. This method was validated for limits of detection and quantification, precision, and reproducibility. The recoveries were within the range of 96.39%–104.64%. The relative standard deviations of intraday and interday precision were less than 2.90% and 3.30%, respectively. The developed method can be successfully used to quantify the four analytes in the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata from various regions in China. Di-Hua Li, Yuan-Shan Lv, Jun-Hong Liu, Lei Yang, Yan Wang, Shu-Kun Zhang, and Yu-Zhen Zhuo Copyright © 2016 Di-Hua Li et al. All rights reserved. Ischemic Stroke in Confederation with Trivial Head Trauma Sun, 29 May 2016 14:15:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/2572958/ Minor head injuries in children are common, resulting in brain concussion, and these injuries mostly end up without complications. Usually head trauma results in hemorrhagic stroke. Here we present a case of ischemic stroke following a trivial head trauma. A 10-month-old girl presented with posttraumatic right sided hemiparesis with right sided facial palsy. MRI brain revealed an area of acute infarct in the left capsuloganglionic region. The child was initially managed conservatively, as the hematological parameters were normal, and was started on anticoagulant therapy. An improvement in the clinical condition was achieved in 12 hrs of treatment with gain in power and resolution of weakness in 10 days. The specific cause for hemiparesis in the child is not elicited; possibility of genetic and environmental factors can be attributable. Archana Balachandran, Siddarameshwar Kalyanshettar, Shankargouda Patil, and Vijaykumar Shegji Copyright © 2016 Archana Balachandran et al. All rights reserved. Peripheral Nerve Ultrasonography in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy: Correlations with Clinical and Neurophysiological Data Sun, 29 May 2016 14:13:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2016/9478593/ Objective. This cross-sectional study analyzes the pattern of ultrasound peripheral nerve alterations in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) at different stages of functional disability. Material and Methods. 22 CIDP and 10 MMN patients and a group of 70 healthy controls were evaluated with an ultrasound scan of the median, ulnar, peroneal, tibial, and sural nerves. Results were correlated with clinical disability scales and nerve conduction studies. Results. Patients with intermediate functional impairment showed relatively larger cross-sectional areas than subjects with either a milder () or more severe impairment (), both in CIDP and in MMN. In addition, MMN was associated with greater side-to-side intranerve variability (), while higher cross-sectional areas were observed in CIDP () and in nerve segments with predominantly demyelinating features (). Higher CSA values were observed in nerves with demyelinating features versus axonal damage ( for CIDP; for MMN). Discussion and Conclusions. Greater extent of quantitative and qualitative US alterations was observed in patients at intermediate versus higher functional disability and in nerves with demyelinating versus axonal damage. CIDP and MMN showed differential US aspects, with greater side-to-side intranerve variability in MMN and higher cross-sectional areas in CIDP. Aristide Merola, Michela Rosso, Alberto Romagnolo, Erdita Peci, and Dario Cocito Copyright © 2016 Aristide Merola et al. All rights reserved. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up Sun, 29 May 2016 14:08:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2016/8590971/ This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. Samy Tunchel, Alberto Blay, Roni Kolerman, Eitan Mijiritsky, and Jamil Awad Shibli Copyright © 2016 Samy Tunchel et al. All rights reserved. Computational Modeling of the Effect of Sulci during Tumor Growth and Cerebral Edema Sun, 29 May 2016 14:07:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3038790/ This paper aims at studying the effect of sulci structures during tumor growth and cerebral edema in brain tissues. Motivated by the Intracranial Cerebral Pressure (ICP) monitoring during the brain surgery, a computational model has been created to study macroscopic behaviors of brain tissues with local volume expansion introduced by the tumor growth and cerebral edema. To consider the extra-large deformation during the tumor growth, a nonlinear finite element method has been adopted. Numerical simulation results reveal that sulci structures play significant roles in macroscopic volume expansion and maximum stress of brain tissues. Without considering the sulci structures, predictions on the ICP will be dramatically different from those including sulci structure. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the sulci structure should be included in future studies on the brain modeling for investigating the space-occupying lesions. Dan Peng, Zhiheng Zhou, Yin Liu, Tianfu Guo, Ying Li, and Shan Tang Copyright © 2016 Dan Peng et al. All rights reserved. Risk-Averse Evolutionary Game Model of Aviation Joint Emergency Response Sun, 29 May 2016 14:06:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/9031351/ We study effects of risk-averse attitude of both participators in aviation joint emergency response on the coevolution of cooperation mechanisms and individual preferences between airport and nonprofit organization. First, based on the current aviation joint emergency mechanism in China, we put forward two mechanisms to select the joint nonprofit organization, including reputation cooperation and bidding competition. Meanwhile, we consider two preferences including altruism and selfishness. Then we build replicator dynamics equations using the theory of conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) taking risk aversion attitude into account. Finally, we introduce the factor of government and give all participators some suggestions. We show that the risk-averse attitude of the other game participator affects the one participator’s decision and the effects subject to some parameters. Wei Pan, Ying Guo, and Shujie Liao Copyright © 2016 Wei Pan et al. All rights reserved. Gingival Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells: A Unique Tissue Engineering Gem Sun, 29 May 2016 13:43:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/7154327/ The human gingiva, characterized by its outstanding scarless wound healing properties, is a unique tissue and a pivotal component of the periodontal apparatus, investing and surrounding the teeth in their sockets in the alveolar bone. In the last years gingival mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (G-MSCs), with promising regenerative and immunomodulatory properties, have been isolated and characterized from the gingival lamina propria. These cells, in contrast to other mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell sources, are abundant, readily accessible, and easily obtainable via minimally invasive cell isolation techniques. The present review summarizes the current scientific evidence on G-MSCs’ isolation, their characterization, the investigated subpopulations, the generated induced pluripotent stem cells- (iPSC-) like G-MSCs, their regenerative properties, and current approaches for G-MSCs’ delivery. The review further demonstrates their immunomodulatory properties, the transplantation preconditioning attempts via multiple biomolecules to enhance their attributes, and the experimental therapeutic applications conducted to treat multiple diseases in experimental animal models in vivo. G-MSCs show remarkable tissue reparative/regenerative potential, noteworthy immunomodulatory properties, and primary experimental therapeutic applications of G-MSCs are very promising, pointing at future biologically based therapeutic techniques, being potentially superior to conventional clinical treatment modalities. Karim M. Fawzy El-Sayed and Christof E. Dörfer Copyright © 2016 Karim M. Fawzy El-Sayed and Christof E. Dörfer. All rights reserved. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment Sun, 29 May 2016 13:42:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1054570/ This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system. Rui Li, Peter J. Jin, and Bin Ran Copyright © 2016 Rui Li et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effect of Bevacizumab and Sildenafil following Induction of Stroke in a Mouse Model Sun, 29 May 2016 13:41:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3938523/ To evaluate the effect of bevacizumab and sildenafil on stroke parameters in a mouse model, middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice using an intra-arterial filament method. The filament was removed after 60 minutes, and the mice were immediately given a single intraperitoneal injection of saline, bevacizumab, or sildenafil. An additional group of mice () received bevacizumab 6 h after MCAO induction. The mice were euthanized 24 hours later and evaluated for infarct area and brain edema using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and ImageJ. In the saline-treated mice (), total stroke volume was  mm3, mean penumbra area was  mm3, and hemispheric asymmetry was 106.5%. Corresponding values in the bevacizumab group () were  mm3,  mm3, and 108.6%; in the delayed (6 h) bevacizumab injected mice () they were  mm3,  mm3, and 98.2%; and in the sildenafil group () they were  mm3,  mm3, and 109.9%. The bevacizumab group had a significantly larger mean penumbra area when given immediately and smaller total stroke area in both groups than the saline- () and sildenafil-treated () groups. Only delayed bevacizumab group had reduced edema. Bevacizumab, injected immediately or delayed after injury, exerts a neuroprotective/salvage effect, whereas immediate treatment with sildenafil does not. Inflammation may play a role in the neuroprotective effect. Ivan Novitzky, Neelan J. Marianayagam, Shirel Weiss, Orkun Muhsinoglu, Moran Fridman, Tamar Azrad Leibovitch, Nitza Goldenberg-Cohen, and Shalom Michowiz Copyright © 2016 Ivan Novitzky et al. All rights reserved. Weber B Fracture of the Lateral Malleolus with Concomitant Anterior Talofibular Ligament Injury following an Ankle Supination Injury Sun, 29 May 2016 13:40:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/8035029/ The Lauge-Hansen (LH) classification attempts to predict patterns of ankle injuries based upon the preceding mechanism of injury. Although it is widely used in clinical practice, it has been criticized mainly due to numerous reports of cases conflicting the prediction system. Here, we report a case of a 32-year-old male who sustained a Weber B fracture of the lateral malleolus following a supination ankle injury, which was treated conservatively, following which the patient presented with ankle instability and was found to have concurrent anterior talofibular ligament tear. Critical review of the LH classification along with its shortcomings is discussed. Mohammed Khalid Faqi, Abdulla AlJawder, Fahad Alkhalifa, and Ali H. Almajed Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Khalid Faqi et al. All rights reserved. Spinal Intradural, Extramedullary Ependymoma with Astrocytoma Component: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 29 May 2016 13:39:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2016/3534791/ Ependymomas are common spinal lesions, with the vast majority arising in an intramedullary location. Several cases have been described in the literature of ependymomas in an intradural, extramedullary location. The authors present a case of a 56-year-old female who presented with several weeks of lower back pain and weakness. MRI revealed an intradural, extramedullary enhancing mass at L1-L2. The mass was successfully resected surgically. Pathologic evaluation revealed a low grade glioma with components of both ependymoma and pilocytic astrocytoma with MUTYH G382D mutation. Extramedullary ependymomas are very rare tumors. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of ependymoma/astrocytoma collision tumors described in an extramedullary location. Gene M. Weinstein, Knarik Arkun, James Kryzanski, Michael Lanfranchi, Gaurav K. Gupta, and Harprit Bedi Copyright © 2016 Gene M. Weinstein et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Caused by Listeria monocytogenes Bacteremia Sun, 29 May 2016 13:11:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/1093453/ Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient’s rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection. It is important to keep in mind the risk factors of a particular patient when formulating a differential diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Listeria bacteremia causing leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Daniel R. Bunker and Timothy Sullivan Copyright © 2016 Daniel R. Bunker and Timothy Sullivan. All rights reserved. A Herbal Formula, CGXII, Exerts Antihepatofibrotic Effect in Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced SD Rat Model Sun, 29 May 2016 13:02:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5093718/ We aimed to evaluate the antihepatofibrotic effects of CGXII, an aqueous extract which is composed of A. iwayomogi, A. xanthioides, and S. miltiorrhiza, against dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN-) induced hepatofibrosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with 10 mg/kg of DMN for 4 weeks (three consecutive days weekly). Rats were orally given distilled water, CGXII (50 or 100 mg/kg), or dimethyl dimethoxy biphenyl dicarboxylate (50 mg/kg) daily. DMN injection caused substantial alteration of total body weight and liver and spleen mass, whereas they were notably normalized by CGXII. CGXII treatment also markedly attenuated the elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl contents. Collagen accumulation in hepatic tissue evidenced by histopathological analysis and quantitative assessment of hepatic hydroxyproline was ameliorated by CGXII. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed decreased α-smooth muscle actin supporting the antihepatofibrotic effect of CGXII. The profibrogenic cytokines transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor-β, and connective tissue growth factor were increased by DMN injection. Administration of CGXII normalized the protein and gene expression levels of these cytokines. Our findings suggest that CGXII lowers the levels of profibrogenic cytokines and thereby exerts antifibrotic effects. Hyo-Seon Kim, Hyeong-Geug Kim, Hye-Won Lee, Sung-Bae Lee, Jin-Seok Lee, Hwi-Jin Im, Won-Yong Kim, Dong-Soo Lee, and Chang-Gue Son Copyright © 2016 Hyo-Seon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Discovery of Novel Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease from Blood Sun, 29 May 2016 12:59:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/4250480/ Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease would be very valuable because blood is a more accessible biofluid and is suitable for repeated sampling. However, currently there are no robust and reliable blood-based biomarkers for practical diagnosis. In this study we used a knowledge-based protein feature pool and two novel support vector machine embedded feature selection methods to find panels consisting of two and three biomarkers. We validated these biomarker sets using another serum cohort and an RNA profile cohort from the brain. Our panels included the proteins ECH1, NHLRC2, HOXB7, FN1, ERBB2, and SLC6A13 and demonstrated promising sensitivity (>87%), specificity (>91%), and accuracy (>89%). Jintao Long, Genhua Pan, Emmanuel Ifeachor, Robert Belshaw, and Xinzhong Li Copyright © 2016 Jintao Long et al. All rights reserved. Attribute Analysis of Aridity Variability in North Xinjiang, China Sun, 29 May 2016 12:58:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/9610960/ Identifying the dominant meteorological factors affecting aridity variability can improve our understanding of climate change and its future trend in arid and semiarid regions. This study investigated the spatiotemporal aridity variability in North Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2013, based on the UNESCO aridity index (precipitation/potential evapotranspiration), and analyzed its association with meteorological factors. The results suggest that North Xinjiang is becoming more humid with an increasing trend in aridity index. Precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity have positive correlation with aridity, and evapotranspiration, sunshine hours, and wind speed have negative correlation with aridity. Wind speed and sunshine hours have a higher sensitivity and more contribution to aridity. This study provides an understanding of the effect of recent climate change on drought in northwest China. Yanfeng Wu, Guangxin Zhang, Hong Shen, Y. Jun Xu, and Batur Bake Copyright © 2016 Yanfeng Wu et al. All rights reserved. Research on Cost Information Sharing and Channel Choice in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain Sun, 29 May 2016 12:57:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4368326/ Many studies examine information sharing in an uncertain demand environment in a supply chain. However there is little literature on cost information sharing in a dual-channel structure consisting of a retail channel and a direct sales channel. Assuming that the retail sale cost and direct sale cost are random variables with a general distribution, the paper investigates the retailer’s choice on cost information sharing in a Bertrand competition model. Based on the equilibrium outcome of information sharing, the manufacturer’s channel choice is discussed in detail. Our paper provides several interesting conclusions. In both single- and dual-channel structures, the retailer has little motivation to share its private cost information which is verified to be valuable for the manufacturer. When the cost correlation between the two channels increases, our analyses show that the manufacturer’s profit improves. However, when channel choice is involved, the value of information could play a different role. The paper finds that a dual-channel structure can benefit the manufacturer only when the cost correlation is sufficiently low. In addition, if the cost correlation is weak, the cost fluctuation will bring out the advantage of a dual-channel structure and adding a new direct channel will help in risk pooling. Huihui Liu, Shuguang Sun, Ming Lei, G. Keong Leong, and Honghui Deng Copyright © 2016 Huihui Liu et al. All rights reserved. The Vulnerability of Vessels Involved in the Role of Embolism and Hypoperfusion in the Mechanisms of Ischemic Cerebrovascular Diseases Sun, 29 May 2016 12:57:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8531958/ Accurate definition and better understanding of the mechanisms of stroke are crucial as this will guide the effective care and therapy. In this paper, we review the previous basic and clinical researches on the causes or mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases (ICVD) and interpret the correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion based on vascular stenosis and arterial intimal lesions. It was suggested that if there is no embolus (dynamic or in situ emboli), there might be no cerebral infarction. Three kinds of different clinical outcomes of TIA were theoretically interpreted based on its mechanisms. We suppose that there is a correlation between embolism and hypoperfusion, and which mechanisms (hypoperfusion or hypoperfusion induced microemboli) playing the dominant role in each type of ICVD depends on the unique background of arterial intimal lesions (the vulnerability of vessels). That is to say, the vulnerability of vessels is involved in the role of embolism and hypoperfusion in the mechanisms of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. This inference might enrich and provide better understandings for the underlying etiologies of ischemic cerebrovascular events. Yong Peng Yu and Lan Tan Copyright © 2016 Yong Peng Yu and Lan Tan. All rights reserved. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice Sun, 29 May 2016 12:29:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crp/2016/1020818/ Ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Aditya Bhat, Gary C. H. Gan, Timothy C. Tan, Chijen Hsu, and Alan Robert Denniss Copyright © 2016 Aditya Bhat et al. All rights reserved. Valuing the Economic Costs of Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Bronchitis, and Asthma from Exposure to Indoor Dampness and Mold in the US Sun, 29 May 2016 12:28:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2016/2386596/ Two foundational methods for estimating the total economic burden of disease are cost of illness (COI) and willingness to pay (WTP). WTP measures the full cost to society, but WTP estimates are difficult to compute and rarely available. COI methods are more often used but less likely to reflect full costs. This paper attempts to estimate the full economic cost (2014$) of illnesses resulting from exposure to dampness and mold using COI methods and WTP where the data is available. A limited sensitivity analysis of alternative methods and assumptions demonstrates a wide potential range of estimates. In the final estimates, the total annual cost to society attributable to dampness and mold is estimated to be $3.7 (2.3–4.7) billion for allergic rhinitis, $1.9 (1.1–2.3) billion for acute bronchitis, $15.1 (9.4–20.6) billion for asthma morbidity, and $1.7 (0.4–4.5) billion for asthma mortality. The corresponding costs from all causes, not limited to dampness and mold, using the same approach would be $24.8 billion for allergic rhinitis, $13.5 billion for acute bronchitis, $94.5 billion for asthma morbidity, and $10.8 billion for asthma mortality. David H. Mudarri Copyright © 2016 David H. Mudarri. All rights reserved. Biosorption of Acid Dye in Single and Multidye Systems onto Sawdust of Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Tree Sun, 29 May 2016 12:27:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/6436039/ Properties of raw sawdust of Parkia biglobosa, as a biosorbent for the removal of Acid Blue 161 dye in single, binary, and ternary dye systems with Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue dyes in aqueous solution, were investigated. The sawdust was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, and pH point of zero charge. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine the equilibrium characteristics, thermodynamics, and kinetics of the sorption processes. The data obtained were subjected to various isotherm and kinetics equations. The results showed that the adsorption processes were described by different isotherm models depending on the composition of the system; they were all spontaneous ( ranges from −0.72 to −5.36 kJ/mol) and endothermic (range of is 11.37–26.31 kJ/mol) and with increased randomness with values of 55.55 and 98.78 J·mol/K for single and ternary systems, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetics model gave better fit for all the sorption systems studied irrespective of the differences in composition, with the initial and overall rate constants higher for the mixtures than for the single system (6.76 g·mg−1min−1). The presence of Rhodamine B and Methylene Blue had a synergetic effect on the maximum monolayer capacity of the adsorbent for Acid Blue 161 dye. Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa, Khadijat Ayanpeju Abdulsalam, Francois Wewers, and Mary Adelaide Oladipo Copyright © 2016 Abdur-Rahim Adebisi Giwa et al. All rights reserved. Exploring New Boundaries to Mitigate Structural Vibrations of Bridges in Seismic Regions: A Smart Passive Strategy Sun, 29 May 2016 11:54:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/4528168/ The combined use of two emerging technologies in the field of seismic engineering is investigated. The first is a semiactive control, to reduce smartly the effects induced by earthquakes on structures. The second is the Seismic Early Warning System which allows an estimate of the Peak Ground Accelerations of an incoming earthquake. This paper proposes the exploitation of this information in the framework of a semiactive control strategy based on the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers. The main idea consists of changing the MR dampers’ behaviour by the PGA estimated by the SEWS, to obtain the optimal seismic response of the structure. The control algorithm needed to drive the variable devices, according to the PGA estimate, is the core issue of the proposed strategy. It has been found that different characteristics of earthquakes that occur at different sites play a significant role in the definition of a control algorithm. Therefore, a design procedure for “regional” control algorithms has been performed. It is based on the results of several nonlinear dynamic simulations performed using natural earthquakes and on the use of a multicriteria decision-making procedure. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy has been verified with reference to a highway bridge and to two specific worldwide seismic regions. Giuseppe Maddaloni, Nicola Caterino, Gianluca Nestovito, and Antonio Occhiuzzi Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Maddaloni et al. All rights reserved. Correlation Assessment between Three-Dimensional Facial Soft Tissue Scan and Lateral Cephalometric Radiography in Orthodontic Diagnosis Sun, 29 May 2016 11:53:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2016/1473918/ Purpose. The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate correlations between 3D facial soft tissue scan and lateral cephalometric radiography measurements. Materials and Methods. The study sample comprised 312 subjects of Caucasian ethnic origin. Exclusion criteria were all the craniofacial anomalies, noticeable asymmetries, and previous or current orthodontic treatment. A cephalometric analysis was developed employing 11 soft tissue landmarks and 14 sagittal and 14 vertical angular measurements corresponding to skeletal cephalometric variables. Cephalometric analyses on lateral cephalometric radiographies were performed for all subjects. The measurements were analysed in terms of their reliability and gender-age specific differences. Then, the soft tissue values were analysed for any correlations with lateral cephalometric radiography variables using Pearson correlation coefficient analysis. Results. Low, medium, and high correlations were found for sagittal and vertical measurements. Sagittal measurements seemed to be more reliable in providing a soft tissue diagnosis than vertical measurements. Conclusions. Sagittal parameters seemed to be more reliable in providing a soft tissue diagnosis similar to lateral cephalometric radiography. Vertical soft tissue measurements meanwhile showed a little less correlation with the corresponding cephalometric values perhaps due to the low reproducibility of cranial base and mandibular landmarks. Piero Antonio Zecca, Rosamaria Fastuca, Matteo Beretta, Alberto Caprioglio, and Aldo Macchi Copyright © 2016 Piero Antonio Zecca et al. All rights reserved. Novel Association of WNK4 Gene, Ala589Ser Polymorphism in Essential Hypertension, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Malaysia Sun, 29 May 2016 11:52:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/8219543/ With-no-lysine (K) Kinase-4 (WNK4) consisted of unique serine and threonine protein kinases, genetically associated with an autosomal dominant form of hypertension. Argumentative consequences have lately arisen on the association of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms of WNK4 gene and essential hypertension (EHT). The aim of this study was to determine the association of Ala589Ser polymorphism of WNK4 gene with essential hypertensive patients in Malaysia. WNK4 gene polymorphism was specified utilizing mutagenically separated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method in 320 subjects including 163 cases and 157 controls. Close relation between Ala589Ser polymorphism and elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) was recognized. Sociodemographic factors including body mass index (BMI), age, the level of fasting blood sugar (FBS), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglyceride (TG) in the cases and healthy subjects exhibited strong differences (). The distribution of allele frequency and genotype of WNK4 gene Ala589Ser polymorphism showed significant differences () between EHT subjects with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and normotensive subjects, statistically. The WNK4 gene variation influences significantly blood pressure increase. Ala589Ser probably has effects on the enzymic activity leading to enhanced predisposition to the disorder. Nooshin Ghodsian, Patimah Ismail, Salma Ahmadloo, Farzad Heidari, Polin Haghvirdizadeh, Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor, and Ali Etemad Copyright © 2016 Nooshin Ghodsian et al. All rights reserved. Challenges in Treating Secondary Syphilis Osteitis in an Immunocompromised Patient with a Penicillin Allergy: Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 29 May 2016 11:19:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/4983504/ Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that remains fairly commonplace. The introduction of penicillin aided in curbing the incidence of disease; however, with the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis is now on a resurgence with sometimes curious presentations. We present a case of a 36-year-old Caucasian gentleman with untreated HIV who complained of a skin eruption and joint pains for 6 weeks, prompting the diagnosis of secondary syphilis osteitis. Skin lesions were reminiscent of “malignant” syphilis. CD4 count was 57 cells/μL. RPR was elevated with 1 : 64 titer and positive confirmatory TP-PA. Radiography of the limbs revealed polyostotic cortical irregularities corroborated on bone scintigraphy. The patient had an unknown penicillin allergy and was unwilling to conduct a trial of penicillin-based therapy. He was subsequently treated with doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 6 weeks and commenced antiretroviral therapy, noting dramatic improvement in both the skin lesions and joint pains. Unfortunately, he defaulted on follow-up, precluding serial RPR and bone imaging. Penicillin allergies have proven to be quite a conundrum in such patients, without much recourse for alternative therapy. Doxycycline with/without azithromycin is other options worth considering. Robert Ali, Julio Perez-Downes, Firas Baidoun, Bashar Al Turk, Carmen Isache, Girish Mohan, and Charles Perniciaro Copyright © 2016 Robert Ali et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Hybrid MCDM Procedure for Achieving Aspired Earned Value Project Performance Sun, 29 May 2016 10:00:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9721726/ A better-performing project gains more subsequent businesses. Many organizations worldwide apply an earned value management (EVM) system to monitor and control their projects’ performance. However, a successful EVM application requires handling multiple interinfluenced criteria with feedback effects for decision-making and continuous improvements throughout the application life cycle. The conventional decision approaches assume that preferences between criteria are independent and put their focuses on decision-making. This study employs a hybrid multiple criteria decision-making (HMCDM) method to devise a novel procedure to fulfil the deficiencies. The proposed procedure enables us to evaluate interinfluence effects and gap indices among criteria/dimensions/alternatives and then systemize the evaluation results in a context of influential network relation map (INRM). The INRM provides managers with visual information to find a route in making application decisions, while identifying critical gaps for continuous improvements. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed procedure. The results show that, by employing the HMCDM method, the proposed procedure can provide organizations with a foundation to ensure that the aspired EVM application outcomes are achieved at different levels within an organization. Shou-Yan Chou, Chien-Chou Yu, and Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng Copyright © 2016 Shou-Yan Chou et al. All rights reserved. Effects of ACL Reconstructive Surgery on Temporal Variations of Cytokine Levels in Synovial Fluid Sun, 29 May 2016 09:52:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/8243601/ Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction restores knee stability but does not reduce the incidence of posttraumatic osteoarthritis induced by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was to longitudinally measure IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α levels in patients subjected to ACL reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. Synovial fluid was collected within 24–72 hours of ACL rupture (acute), 1 month after injury immediately prior to surgery (presurgery), and 1 month thereafter (postsurgery). For comparison, a “control” group consisted of individuals presenting chronic ACL tears. Our results indicate that levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 vary significantly over time in reconstruction patients. In the acute phase, the levels of these cytokines in reconstruction patients were significantly greater than those in controls. In the presurgery phase, cytokine levels in reconstruction patients were reduced and comparable with those in controls. Finally, cytokine levels increased again with respect to control group in the postsurgery phase. The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α showed no temporal variation. Our data show that the history of an ACL injury, including trauma and reconstruction, has a significant impact on levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 in synovial fluid but does not affect levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. Marco Bigoni, Marco Turati, Marta Gandolla, Paola Sacerdote, Massimiliano Piatti, Alberto Castelnuovo, Silvia Franchi, Massimo Gorla, Daniele Munegato, Diego Gaddi, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Robert J. Omeljaniuk, Vittorio Locatelli, and Antonio Torsello Copyright © 2016 Marco Bigoni et al. All rights reserved. Fairness-Aware and Energy Efficiency Resource Allocation in Multiuser OFDM Relaying System Sun, 29 May 2016 09:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/7364154/ A fairness-aware resource allocation scheme in a cooperative orthogonal frequency division multiple (OFDM) network is proposed based on jointly optimizing the subcarrier pairing, power allocation, and channel-user assignment. Compared with traditional OFDM relaying networks, the source is permitted to retransfer the same data transmitted by it in the first time slot, further improving the system capacity performance. The problem which maximizes the energy efficiency (EE) of the system with total power constraint and minimal spectral efficiency constraint is formulated into a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem which has an intractable complexity in general. The optimization model is simplified into a typical fractional programming problem which is testified to be quasiconcave. Thus we can adopt Dinkelbach method to deal with MINLP problem proposed to achieve the optimal solution. The simulation results show that the joint resource allocation method proposed can achieve an optimal EE performance under the minimum system service rate requirement with a good global convergence. Guangjun Liang, Qi Zhu, An Yan, Ziyu Pan, Jianfang Xin, and Tianjiao Zhang Copyright © 2016 Guangjun Liang et al. All rights reserved. Overall Survival and Response to Systemic Therapy in Metastatic Extrauterine Leiomyosarcoma Sun, 29 May 2016 09:47:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2016/3547497/ Background. Leiomyosarcomas (LMS) represent a heterogeneous subset of soft tissue sarcomas. Factors influencing prognosis for patients with metastatic extrauterine LMS (euLMS) are not well described. Limited data are available regarding responses to systemic therapy. Methods. We collected clinical and pathologic information for all patients with metastatic euLMS seen at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 1989 and 2012. Objective responses to first-line therapy were analyzed for a subset of patients with available baseline and on-treatment imaging using RECIST 1.1. Results. 215 patients with metastatic euLMS had a median overall survival (OS) of 2.6 years from the time of metastasis. Older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites of metastasis were associated with worse OS on multivariate analysis. Objective response rate (ORR) in was 19% overall and 25%, 26%, and 25% for gemcitabine, gemcitabine plus docetaxel, and anthracycline-alkylator combinations. Patients whose tumors objectively responded to first-line therapy had a lower risk of death versus those who did not (Hazard Ratio 0.46; 95% CI: 0.26–0.79, ). Conclusions. Anthracycline- and gemcitabine-based regimens have similar activity in this cohort of euLMS. Prognostic factors for OS include older age, male sex, and ≥3 initial sites. A. N. Shoushtari, J. Landa, D. Kuk, A. Sanchez, B. Lala, N. Schmidt, C. Okoli, P. Chi, M. A. Dickson, M. M. Gounder, M. L. Keohan, A. M. Crago, W. D. Tap, and S. P. D’Angelo Copyright © 2016 A. N. Shoushtari et al. All rights reserved. NKG2C+CD57+ Natural Killer Cell Expansion Parallels Cytomegalovirus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Evolution towards Senescence Sun, 29 May 2016 09:31:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/7470124/ Objective. Measuring NKG2C+CD57+ natural killer (NK) cell expansion to investigate NK responses against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and assessing relationships with adaptive immunity against HCMV. Methods. Expansion of NKG2C+CD57+ NK was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from groups distinguished by HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status. Anti-HCMV antibody levels against HCMV-infected MRC-5 cell lysate were assessed by ELISA and HCMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses characterized by intracellular flow cytometry following PBMC stimulation with immunodominant HCMV peptides. Results. Median NK, antibody, and CD8+ T cell responses against HCMV were significantly greater in the HCMV/HIV coinfected group than the group infected with CMV alone. The fraction of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 correlated inversely with NKG2C+CD57+ NK expansion in HIV infection. Conclusion. Our data reveal no significant direct relationships between NK and adaptive immunity against HCMV. However, stronger NK and adaptive immune responses against HCMV and an inverse correlation between NKG2C+CD57+ NK expansion and proliferative reserve of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells, as signified by CD28 expression, indicate parallel evolution of NK and T cell responses against HCMV in HIV infection. Similar aspects of chronic HCMV infection may drive both NK and CD8+ T cell memory inflation. John Heath, Nicholas Newhook, Emilie Comeau, Maureen Gallant, Neva Fudge, and Michael Grant Copyright © 2016 John Heath et al. All rights reserved. Function of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-1 in Reproductive System Tumors Sun, 29 May 2016 09:29:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/7128702/ The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1), also known as GPR30, is a novel estrogen receptor mediating estrogen receptor signaling in multiple cell types. The progress of estrogen-related cancer is promoted by GPER-1 activation through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and phospholipase C (PLC) signaling pathways. However, this promoting effect of GPER-1 is nonclassic estrogen receptor (ER) dependent manner. In addition, clinical evidences revealed that GPER-1 is associated with estrogen resistance in estrogen-related cancer patients. These give a hint that GPER-1 may be a novel therapeutic target for the estrogen-related cancers. However, preclinical studies also found that GPER-1 activation of its special agonist G-1 inhibits cancer cell proliferation. This review aims to summarize the characteristics and complex functions of GPER-1 in cancers. Hongyan Qian, Jingxiu Xuan, Yuan Liu, and Guixiu Shi Copyright © 2016 Hongyan Qian et al. All rights reserved. Stick-Slip Analysis of a Drill String Subjected to Deterministic Excitation and Stochastic Excitation Sun, 29 May 2016 09:22:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9168747/ Using a finite element model, this paper investigates the torsional vibration of a drill string under combined deterministic excitation and random excitation. The random excitation is caused by the random friction coefficients between the drill bit and the bottom of the hole and assumed as white noise. Simulation shows that the responses under random excitation become random too, and the probabilistic distribution of the responses at each discretized time instant is obtained. The two points, entering and leaving the stick stage, are examined with special attention. The results indicate that the two points become random under random excitation, and the distributions are not normal even when the excitation is assumed as Gaussian white noise. Hongyuan Qiu, Jianming Yang, and Stephen Butt Copyright © 2016 Hongyuan Qiu et al. All rights reserved. Brain Activation during Memory Encoding in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Discordant Twin Pair Study Sun, 29 May 2016 09:18:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/3978428/ Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of dementia and neuronal dysfunction may occur years before perceptible cognitive decline. We aimed to study the impact of type 2 diabetes on brain activation during memory encoding in middle-aged people, controlling for age, sex, genes, and early-shared environment. Twenty-two twin pairs discordant for type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 60.9 years) without neurological disease were recruited from the Australian Twin Registry (ATR) and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a memory encoding task, cognitive tests, and structural MRI. Type 2 diabetes was associated with significantly reduced activation in left hemisphere temporoparietal regions including angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus and significantly increased activation in bilateral posteriorly distributed regions. These findings were present in the absence of within-pair differences in standard cognitive test scores, brain volumes, or vascular lesion load. Differences in activation were more pronounced among monozygotic (MZ) pairs, with MZ individuals with diabetes also displaying greater frontal activation. These results provide evidence for preclinical memory-related neuronal dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. They support the search for modifiable later-life environmental factors or epigenetic mechanisms linking type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline. Amanda G. Wood, Jian Chen, Christopher Moran, Thanh Phan, Richard Beare, Kimberley Cooper, Stacey Litras, and Velandai Srikanth Copyright © 2016 Amanda G. Wood et al. All rights reserved. Redo Surgery after Failed Open VBG: Laparoscopic Minigastric Bypass versus Laparoscopic Roux en Y Gastric Bypass—Which Is Better? Sun, 29 May 2016 09:16:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mis/2016/8737519/ Background. Long-term studies have reported that the rate of conversion surgeries after open VBG ranged from 49.7 to 56%. This study is aiming to compare between LMGB and LRYGB as conversion surgeries after failed open VBG with respect to indications and operative and postoperative outcomes. Methods. Sixty patients (48 females and 12 males) presenting with failed VBG, with an average BMI of 39.7 kg/m2 ranging between 26.5 kg/m2 and 53 kg/m2, and a mean age of 38.7 ranging between 24 and 51 years were enrolled in this study. Operative and postoperative data was recorded up to one year after the operation. Results. MGB is a simple procedure that is associated with short operative time and low rate of complications. However, MGB may not be applicable in all cases with failed VBG and therefore RYGB may be needed in such cases. Conclusion. LMGB is a safe and feasible revisional bariatric surgery after failed VBG and can achieve early good weight loss results similar to that of LRYGP. However, the decision to convert to lap RYGB or MGB should be taken intraoperatively depending mainly on the actual intraoperative pouch length. Tamer M. S. Salama and Karim Sabry Copyright © 2016 Tamer M. S. Salama and Karim Sabry. All rights reserved. Optimal Duration of Monitoring for Atrial Fibrillation in Cryptogenic Stroke: A Nonsystematic Review Sun, 29 May 2016 09:11:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5704963/ Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of cardiac arrhythmias and an independent risk factor for stroke. Despite major advances in monitoring strategies, clinicians tend to miss the diagnoses of AF and especially paroxysmal AF due mainly to its asymptomatic presentation and the rather limited duration dedicated for monitoring for AF after a stroke, which is 24 hours as per the current recommended guidelines. Hence, determining the optimal duration of monitoring for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation after acute ischemic stroke remains a matter of debate. Multiple trials were published in regard to this matter using both invasive and noninvasive monitoring strategies for different monitoring periods. The data provided by these trials showcase strong evidence suggesting a longer monitoring strategy beyond 24 hours is associated with higher detection rates of AF, with the higher percentage of patients detected consequently receiving proper secondary stroke prevention with anticoagulation and thus justifying the cost-effectiveness of such measures. Overall, we thus conclude that increasing the monitoring duration for AF after a cryptogenic stroke to at least 72 hours will indeed enhance the detection rates, but the cost-effectiveness of this monitoring strategy compared to longer monitoring durations is yet to be established. Essa Hariri, Ahmad Hachem, Georges Sarkis, and Samer Nasr Copyright © 2016 Essa Hariri et al. All rights reserved. Depressed Mood Differentially Mediates the Relationship between Pain Intensity and Pain Disability Depending on Pain Duration: A Moderated Mediation Analysis in Chronic Pain Patients Sun, 29 May 2016 09:05:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prm/2016/3204914/ Research has shown that pain is associated with disability and that depressed mood mediates the relationship between pain and disability. The question of whether duration of pain moderates these effects was addressed in this cross-sectional study with 356 chronic pain patients. A simple mediation model replicated the notion that depressed mood explains a significant proportion of the relationship between pain and disability (in the study at hand: 12%). A moderated mediation model revealed that the indirect effect of pain on disability through depressed mood is moderated by pain duration: while depressed mood did not mediate the effect of pain on disability in chronic pain patients with shorter pain duration, depressed mood significantly mediated the effect pain exerts on disability in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration. Pain duration did not moderate the direct effect of pain on disability. Implications of these findings for the treatment of chronic pain might be that targeting depressed mood is especially relevant in chronic pain patients with longer pain duration to reduce the effect of pain on disability. Thomas Probst, Susanne Neumeier, Jürgen Altmeppen, Michael Angerer, Thomas Loew, and Christoph Pieh Copyright © 2016 Thomas Probst et al. All rights reserved. Tryon’s Conjecture and Energy and Momentum of Bianchi Type Universes Sun, 29 May 2016 09:02:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/1986387/ The energy and momentum of some diagonal anisotropic Bianchi type Universes are obtained using different energy-momentum complexes in the framework of General Relativity. The Møller energy is found to be zero for all the Universes considered in the present work. In all other prescriptions, the energy and momentum vanish when the sum of the metric parameters and vanishes. This result obviously raises a question: why this specific choice? We have explored Tryon’s conjecture that the Universe must have a zero net value for all conserved quantities to get some ideas on this issue. Prajyot Kumar Mishra, Bibhudatta Panda, Pradosh Ranjan Pattanayak, and Sunil Kumar Tripathy Copyright © 2016 Prajyot Kumar Mishra et al. All rights reserved. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Microvascular Complications: Friends or Foes? Sun, 29 May 2016 08:24:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/1803989/ Despite being featured as metabolic disorder, diabetic patients are largely affected by hyperglycemia-induced vascular abnormality. Accumulated evidence has confirmed the beneficial effect of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in coronary heart disease. However, antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatment is the main therapy for diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, indicating the uncertain role of EPCs in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular disease. In this review, we first illustrate how hyperglycemia induces metabolic and epigenetic changes in EPCs, which exerts deleterious impact on their number and function. We then discuss how abnormal angiogenesis develops in eyes and kidneys under diabetes condition, focusing on “VEGF uncoupling with nitric oxide” and “competitive angiopoietin 1/angiopoietin 2” mechanisms that are shared in both organs. Next, we dissect the nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular complications. After we overview the current EPCs-related strategies, we point out new EPCs-associated options for future exploration. Ultimately, we hope that this review would uncover the mysterious nature of EPCs in diabetic microvascular disease for therapeutics. Cai-Guo Yu, Ning Zhang, Sha-Sha Yuan, Yan Ma, Long-Yan Yang, Ying-Mei Feng, and Dong Zhao Copyright © 2016 Cai-Guo Yu et al. All rights reserved. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Metabolic Syndrome: Current Understanding and Potential Clinical Implications Sun, 29 May 2016 08:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/2892840/ Metabolic syndrome is an obesity-based, complicated clinical condition that has become a global epidemic problem with a high associated risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes or glucose dysmetabolism are the major factors constituting metabolic syndrome, and these factors are interrelated and share underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Severe obesity predisposes individuals to metabolic syndrome, and recent data suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute significantly to adipocyte generation by increasing the number of adipocytes. Accordingly, an increasing number of studies have examined the potential roles of MSCs in managing obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, despite the growing bank of experimental and clinical data, the efficacy and the safety of MSCs in the clinical setting are still to be optimized. It is thus hoped that ongoing and future studies can elucidate the roles of MSCs in metabolic syndrome and lead to MSC-based therapeutic options for affected patients. This review discusses current understanding of the relationship between MSCs and metabolic syndrome and its potential implications for patient management. Kenichi Matsushita Copyright © 2016 Kenichi Matsushita. All rights reserved. Invisible Victims: Delayed Onset Depression among Adults with Same-Sex Parents Sun, 29 May 2016 07:58:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drt/2016/2410392/ The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28) of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (,701). At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–4.6) as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted. D. Paul Sullins Copyright © 2016 D. Paul Sullins. All rights reserved. Locating Minimal Fault Interaction in Combinatorial Testing Sun, 29 May 2016 07:51:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ase/2016/2409521/ Combinatorial testing (CT) technique could significantly reduce testing cost and increase software system quality. By using the test suite generated by CT as input to conduct black-box testing towards a system, we are able to detect interactions that trigger the system’s faults. Given a test case, there may be only part of all its parameters relevant to the defects in system and the interaction constructed by those partial parameters is key factor of triggering fault. If we can locate those parameters accurately, this will facilitate the software diagnosing and testing process. This paper proposes a novel algorithm named complete Fault Interaction Location (comFIL) to locate those interactions that cause system’s failures and meanwhile obtains the minimal set of target interactions in test suite produced by CT. By applying this method, testers can analyze and locate the factors relevant to defects of system more precisely, thus making the process of software testing and debugging easier and more efficient. The results of our empirical study indicate that comFIL performs better compared with known fault location techniques in combinatorial testing because of its improved effectiveness and precision. Wei Zheng, Xiaoxue Wu, Desheng Hu, and Qihai Zhu Copyright © 2016 Wei Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Ethylene-Induced Vinblastine Accumulation Is Related to Activated Expression of Downstream TIA Pathway Genes in Catharanthus roseus Sun, 29 May 2016 07:47:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3708187/ We selected different concentrations of ethephon, to stress C. roseus. We used qRT-PCR and HPLC followed by PCA to obtain comprehensive profiling of the vinblastine biosynthesis in response to ethephon. Based on our findings, the results showed that the high concentration of ethephon had a positive effect at both transcriptional and metabolite level. Meanwhile, there was a remarkable decrease of hydrogen peroxide content and a promoted peroxidase activity in leaves. The loading plot combination with correlation analysis suggested that CrPrx1 could be regarded as a positive regulator and interacts with ethylene response factor (ERF) to play a key role in vinblastine content and peroxidase (POD) activity. This study provides the foundation for a better understanding of the regulation and accumulation of vinblastine in response to ethephon. Xi Wang, Ya-Jie Pan, Bo-Wen Chang, Yan-Bo Hu, Xiao-Rui Guo, and Zhong-Hua Tang Copyright © 2016 Xi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Preconception Care: A New Standard of Care within Maternal Health Services Sun, 29 May 2016 07:43:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6150976/ Emerging research suggests that much pediatric affliction has origins in the vulnerable phase of fetal development. Prenatal factors including deficiency of various nutrients and exposure to assorted toxicants are major etiological determinants of myriad obstetrical complications, pediatric chronic diseases, and perhaps some genetic mutations. With recent recognition that modifiable environmental determinants, rather than genetic predestination, are the etiological source of most chronic illness, modification of environmental factors prior to conception offers the possibility of precluding various mental and physical health conditions. Environmental and lifestyle modification through informed patient choice is possible but evidence confirms that, with little to no training in clinical nutrition, toxicology, or environmental exposures, most clinicians are ill-equipped to counsel patients about this important area. With the totality of available scientific evidence that now exists on the potential to modify disease-causing gestational determinants, failure to take necessary precautionary action may render members of the medical community collectively and individually culpable for preventable illness in children. We advocate for environmental health education of maternity health professionals and the widespread adoption and implementation of preconception care. This will necessitate the translation of emerging knowledge from recent research literature, to health professionals, to reproductive-aged women, and to society at large. Stephen J. Genuis and Rebecca A. Genuis Copyright © 2016 Stephen J. Genuis and Rebecca A. Genuis. All rights reserved. Impact of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes in the Upper Basin of the Yellow River Basin of China Sun, 29 May 2016 07:37:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/1404290/ To reveal the revolution law of hydrologic extremes in the next 50 years and analyze the impact of climate change on hydrologic extremes, the following main works were carried on: firstly, the long duration (15 d, 30 d, and 60 d) rainfall extremes according to observed time-series and forecast time-series by dynamical climate model product (BCC-CSM-1.1) were deduced, respectively, on the basis that the quantitative estimation of the impact of climate change on rainfall extremes was conducted; secondly, the SWAT model was used to deduce design flood with the input of design rainfall for the next 50 years. On this basis, quantitative estimation of the impact of climate change on long duration flood volume extremes was conducted. It indicates that (1) the value of long duration rainfall extremes for given probabilities (1%, 2%, 5%, and 10%) of the Tangnaihai basin will rise with slight increasing rate from 1% to 6% in the next 50 years and (2) long duration flood volume extremes of given probabilities of the Tangnaihai basin will rise with slight increasing rate from 1% to 6% in the next 50 years. The conclusions may provide technical supports for basin level planning of flood control and hydropower production. Jun Wang, Zhongmin Liang, Dong Wang, Tian Liu, and Jing Yang Copyright © 2016 Jun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Maximizing Outcomes While Minimizing Morbidity: An Illustrated Case Review of Elbow Soft Tissue Reconstruction Sun, 29 May 2016 07:08:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2016/2841816/ Background. Injuries to the elbow have led to consequences varying from significant limitation in function to loss of the entire upper limb. Soft tissue reconstruction with durable and pliable coverage balanced with the ability to mobilize the joint early to optimize rehabilitation outcomes is paramount. Methods. Methods of flap reconstruction have evolved from local and pedicled flaps to perforator-based flaps and free tissue transfer. Here we performed a review of 20 patients who have undergone flap reconstruction of the elbow at our institution. Discussion. 20 consecutive patients were identified and included in this study. Flap types include local (), regional pedicled (), and free () flaps. The average size of defect was 138 cm2 (range 36–420 cm2). There were no flap failures in our series, and, at follow-up, the average range of movement of elbow flexion was 100°. Results. While the pedicled latissimus dorsi flap is the workhorse for elbow soft tissue coverage, advancements in microvascular knowledge and surgery have brought about great benefit, with the use of perforator flaps and free tissue transfer for wound coverage. Conclusion. We present here our case series on elbow reconstruction and an abbreviated algorithm on flap choice, highlighting our decision making process in the selection of safe flap choice for soft tissue elbow reconstruction. Adrian Ooi, Jonathan Ng, Christopher Chui, Terence Goh, and Bien Keem Tan Copyright © 2016 Adrian Ooi et al. All rights reserved. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model Sun, 29 May 2016 06:50:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5436738/ Oregano essential oil (OEO) has long been used to improve the health of animals, particularly the health of intestine, which is generally attributed to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. However, how OEO acts in the intestine of pig is still unclear. This study was aimed at elucidating how OEO promotes the intestinal barrier integrity in a pig model. Pigs were fed a control diet alone or one supplemented with 25 mg/kg of OEO for 4 weeks. The OEO-treated pigs showed decreased () endotoxin level in serum and increased () villus height and expression of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in the jejunum. These results demonstrated that the integrity of intestinal barrier was improved by OEO treatment. The OEO-treated pigs had a lower () population of Escherichia coli in the jejunum, ileum, and colon than the control. This is in accordance with the greater inactivation () of inflammation, which was reflected by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase B (Akt), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. Our results show that OEO promotes intestinal barrier integrity, probably through modulating intestinal bacteria and immune status in pigs. Yi Zou, Quanhang Xiang, Jun Wang, Jian Peng, and Hongkui Wei Copyright © 2016 Yi Zou et al. All rights reserved. Hemispatial Neglect Shows That “Before” Is “Left” Sun, 29 May 2016 06:41:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/2716036/ Recent research has led to the hypothesis that events which unfold in time might be spatially represented in a left-to-right fashion, resembling writing direction. Here we studied fourteen right-hemisphere damaged patients, with or without neglect, a disorder of spatial awareness affecting contralesional (here left) space processing and representation. We reasoned that if the processing of time-ordered events is spatial in nature, it should be impaired in the presence of neglect and spared in its absence. Patients categorized events of a story as occurring before or after a central event, which acted as a temporal reference. An asymmetric distance effect emerged in neglect patients, with slower responses to events that took place before the temporal reference. The event occurring immediately before the reference elicited particularly slow responses, closely mirroring the pattern found in neglect patients performing numerical comparison tasks. Moreover, the first item elicited significantly slower responses than the last one, suggesting a preference for a left-to-right scanning/representation of events in time. Patients without neglect showed a regular and symmetric distance effect. These findings further suggest that the representation of events order is spatial in nature and provide compelling evidence that ordinality is similarly represented within temporal and numerical domains. Mario Bonato, Arnaud Saj, and Patrik Vuilleumier Copyright © 2016 Mario Bonato et al. All rights reserved. A Two-Stage Compression Method for the Fault Detection of Roller Bearings Thu, 26 May 2016 17:28:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/2971749/ Data measurement of roller bearings condition monitoring is carried out based on the Shannon sampling theorem, resulting in massive amounts of redundant information, which will lead to a big-data problem increasing the difficulty of roller bearing fault diagnosis. To overcome the aforementioned shortcoming, a two-stage compressed fault detection strategy is proposed in this study. First, a sliding window is utilized to divide the original signals into several segments and a selected symptom parameter is employed to represent each segment, through which a symptom parameter wave can be obtained and the raw vibration signals are compressed to a certain level with the faulty information remaining. Second, a fault detection scheme based on the compressed sensing is applied to extract the fault features, which can compress the symptom parameter wave thoroughly with a random matrix called the measurement matrix. The experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method and the comparison of the three selected symptom parameters is also presented in this paper. Huaqing Wang, Yanliang Ke, Ganggang Luo, Lingyang Li, and Gang Tang Copyright © 2016 Huaqing Wang et al. All rights reserved. Spectroscopic and Docking Studies on the Binding of Liquiritigenin with Hyaluronidase for Antiallergic Mechanism Thu, 26 May 2016 17:15:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/9178097/ The inhibitory effect of liquiritigenin on hyaluronidase and its binding mechanism were investigated systematically by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, and molecular modeling approaches. These results indicated that liquiritigenin could interact with hyaluronidase to form a liquiritigenin-hyaluronidase complex. The binding constant, number of binding sites, and thermodynamic parameters were calculated, which indicated that liquiritigenin could spontaneously bind with hyaluronidase mainly through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with one binding site. Synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, and molecular docking results revealed that liquiritigenin bound directly to the enzyme cavity site and this binding influenced the microenvironment of the hyaluronidase activity site, resulting in reduced hyaluronidase activity. The present study provides useful information for clinical applications of liquiritigenin as a hyaluronidase inhibitor. Hua-jin Zeng, Ran Yang, Jing You, Ling-bo Qu, and Yan-jun Sun Copyright © 2016 Hua-jin Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Superspace Unitary Operator in Superfield Approach to Non-Abelian Gauge Theory with Dirac Fields Thu, 26 May 2016 17:15:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/6367545/ Within the framework of augmented version of the superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, we derive the superspace unitary operator (and its Hermitian conjugate) in the context of four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) interacting non-Abelian 1-form gauge theory with Dirac fields. The ordinary 4D non-Abelian theory, defined on the flat 4D Minkowski spacetime manifold, is generalized onto a (4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold which is parameterized by the spacetime bosonic coordinates (with ) and a pair of Grassmannian variables () which satisfy the standard relationships: and  . Various consequences of the application of the above superspace (SUSP) unitary operator (and its Hermitian conjugate) are discussed. In particular, we obtain the results of the application of horizontality condition (HC) and gauge-invariant restriction (GIR) in the language of the above SUSP operators. One of the novel results of our present investigation is the derivation of explicit expressions for the SUSP unitary operator (and its Hermitian conjugate) without imposing any Hermitian conjugation condition from outside on the parameters and (super)fields of the supersymmetric version of our 4D interacting non-Abelian 1-form theory with Dirac fields. T. Bhanja, D. Shukla, and R. P. Malik Copyright © 2016 T. Bhanja et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Enhancement Algorithm Combined with Improved Fuzzy Set Theory for Low Illumination Images Thu, 26 May 2016 15:30:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8598917/ A novel enhancement method of global brightness modulation and local contrast enhancement combined with the improved fuzzy set theory is proposed for color image contrast enhancement. The proposed method consists of three stages. Firstly, putting forward nonlinear global brightness mapping model adjusts dynamic range of images for luminance component of color space. Secondly, membership function is established in stages to adjust local contrast of image details nonlinearly based on fuzzy set theory. Finally, the enhanced images are transformed from color space into color space. The experiments further show that the proposed method has the shortest processing time, the highest AIC values, and the least NIQE values among the other four conventional methods. It has excellent effect, which can enhance the global brightness and local contrast, and advance visibility of low illumination images. Hai-jiao Yun, Zhi-yong Wu, Guan-jun Wang, Gang Tong, and Hua Yang Copyright © 2016 Hai-jiao Yun et al. All rights reserved. Hopf Bifurcation Control in a FAST TCP and RED Model via Multiple Control Schemes Thu, 26 May 2016 15:20:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/8342652/ We focus on the Hopf bifurcation control problem of a FAST TCP model with RED gateway. The system gain parameter is chosen as the bifurcation parameter, and the stable region and stability condition of the congestion control model are given by use of the linear stability analysis. When the system gain passes through a critical value, the system loses the stability and Hopf bifurcation occurs. Considering the negative influence caused by Hopf bifurcation, we apply state feedback controller, hybrid controller, and time-delay feedback controller to postpone the onset of undesirable Hopf bifurcation. Numerical simulations show that the hybrid controller is the most sensitive method to delay the Hopf bifurcation with identical parameter conditions. However, nonlinear state feedback control and time-delay feedback control schemes have larger control parameter range in the Internet congestion control system with FAST TCP and RED gateway. Therefore, we can choose proper control method based on practical situation including unknown conditions or parameter requirements. This paper plays an important role in setting guiding system parameters for controlling the FAST TCP and RED model. Dawei Ding, Chun Wang, Lianghui Ding, Nian Wang, and Dong Liang Copyright © 2016 Dawei Ding et al. All rights reserved. Helmholtz Theorem for Nondifferentiable Hamiltonian Systems in the Framework of Cresson’s Quantum Calculus Thu, 26 May 2016 15:18:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8073023/ We derive the Helmholtz theorem for nondifferentiable Hamiltonian systems in the framework of Cresson’s quantum calculus. Precisely, we give a theorem characterizing nondifferentiable equations, admitting a Hamiltonian formulation. Moreover, in the affirmative case, we give the associated Hamiltonian. Frédéric Pierret and Delfim F. M. Torres Copyright © 2016 Frédéric Pierret and Delfim F. M. Torres. All rights reserved. Study of the Mechanical Properties and Vibration Isolation Performance of a Molecular Spring Isolator Thu, 26 May 2016 15:17:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/6451829/ Molecular Spring Isolator (MSI) is a novel passive vibration isolation technique, providing High-Static-Low-Dynamic (HSLD) stiffness based on the use of molecular spring material. The molecular spring material is a solid-liquid mixture consisting of water and hydrophobic nanoporous materials. Under a certain level of external pressure, water molecules can intrude into the hydrophobic pores of nanoporous materials, developing an additional solid-liquid interface. Such interfaces are able to store, release, and transform mechanical energy, providing properties like mechanical spring. Having been only recently developed, the basic mechanic properties of a MSI have not been studied in depth. This paper focuses on the stiffness influence factors, the dynamic frequency response, and the vibration isolation performance of a MSI; these properties help engineers to design MSIs for different engineering applications. First, the working mechanism of a MSI is introduced from a three-dimensional general view of the water infiltration massive hydrophobic nanoporous pores. Next, a wide range of influence factors on the stiffness properties of MSI are studied. In addition, the frequency response functions (FRFs) of the MSI vibration isolation system are studied utilizing the matching method based on equivalent piecewise linear (EPL) system. Finally, the vibration isolation properties of MSI are evaluated by force transmissibility. Muchun Yu, Xue Gao, and Qian Chen Copyright © 2016 Muchun Yu et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Compact Dual-Polarized Antenna Thu, 26 May 2016 15:14:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/6304356/ A novel compact dual-polarized antenna is proposed. The antenna has a 1.43% impedance bandwidth which is from 1801 MHz to 1827 MHz for return loss larger than 10 dB. The isolation between the two ports is above 28 dB in the bandwidth, and the gain is 6.6 dBi. The proposed antenna not only consists of a full-planar structure, but also is easy to be fabricated for its simple structure. Additionally, a section of slots and slits is cut on the radiation patch to reduce the area of it to 54% compared with the conventional square patch. Yong Cheng, Yadan Li, and Wenjun Lu Copyright © 2016 Yong Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Visualization Experiment on Electrorheological Fluid in Dynamic Coupling Field Thu, 26 May 2016 15:13:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5108401/ Due to lack of visualization experiment on the mechanism of electrorheological effect in dynamic field, a visualization experimental system is designed and successfully made. Through this experiment, the submicroscopic dynamic structural changes of electrorheological (ER) fluids in the coupling field composed by external electric field and flow field are observed. The experimental results indicate that the rheological behaviors of ER fluids are mainly influenced by the polarization forces and the hydrodynamic forces in the dynamic coupling field. And the experiment shows that the yield fracture of chain structures determined the yield strength of ER fluids firstly occurring near the plate electrodes, which expresses the microflow characteristic of velocity slip. Meanwhile, the capture effect has been verified in this experiment. Shisha Zhu, Qi Luo, Jingang Liu, and Toyohisa Fujita Copyright © 2016 Shisha Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Associations between Reoperations and Psychological Factors after Contralateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study Thu, 26 May 2016 15:12:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2016/4604852/ Introduction. The aim of the study was to investigate associations between reoperations after contralateral risk-reducing mastectomies (CRRM) and emotional problems, body image, sexuality, and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in women with breast cancer and hereditary high risk. Patients and Methods. Patients scheduled for CRRM with breast reconstruction between 1998 and 2010 completed questionnaires, comprised of SF-36, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Body Image Scale, and the Sexual Activity Questionnaire, preoperatively and two years after CRRM. Data on reoperations was collected from medical charts. Results. A total of 80 women participated, with a response rate of 61 (76%) preoperatively and 57 (71%) at the two-year follow-up. At the two-year assessment, 44 (55%) patients had undergone ≥1 reoperation (reoperation group), whereas 36 (45%) had not (no reoperation group). No statistically significant differences between the groups were found for HRQoL, sexuality, anxiety, or depression. A higher proportion of patients in the “reoperation group” reported being dissatisfied with their bodies (81% versus 48%, ). Conclusion. The results suggest associations between reoperation following CRRM with breast reconstruction and body image problems. Special attention should be paid to body image problems among women who are subject to reoperations after CRRM. Dmytro Unukovych, Marie Wickman, Kerstin Sandelin, Brita Arver, Hemming Johansson, and Yvonne Brandberg Copyright © 2016 Dmytro Unukovych et al. All rights reserved. Syncope with Surprise: An Unexpected Finding of Huge Gastric Diverticulum Thu, 26 May 2016 15:12:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/1941293/ A gastric diverticulum is a pouch protruding from the gastric wall. The vague long clinical history ranging between dyspepsia, postprandial fullness, and upper gastrointestinal bleeding makes this condition a diagnostic challenge. We present a case of large gastric diverticulum that has been diagnosed during clinical investigations for suspected cardiovascular issues in a patient admitted at the medical ward for syncope. A 51-year-old man presented to the medical department due to a syncopal episode occurring while he was resting on the beach after having his lunch, with concomitant vague epimesogastric gravative pain without any other symptom. A diagnosis of neuromediated syncopal episode was made by the cardiologist. Due to the referred epimesogastric pain, an abdominal ultrasound scan was carried out, showing perisplenic fluid. A CT scan of the abdomen was performed to exclude splenic lesions. The CT scan revealed a large diverticulum protruding from the gastric fundus. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy visualized a large diverticular neck situated in the posterior wall of the gastric fundus, partially filled by undigested food. The patient underwent surgery, with an uneventful postoperative course. Histologic examination showed a full-thickness stomach specimen, indicative of a congenital diverticulum. At the 2nd month of follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic. Mauro Podda, Jenny Atzeni, Antonio Messina Campanella, Alessandra Saba, and Adolfo Pisanu Copyright © 2016 Mauro Podda et al. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of an UHPLC-QqQ-MS Technique for Simultaneous Determination of Ten Bioactive Components in Fangji Huangqi Tang Thu, 26 May 2016 14:28:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2016/1435106/ The aim of this study is to develop an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography method coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in Fangji Huangqi Tang (FHT). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-C18 column, eluted with a mixture of 0.1% acetic acid and acetonitrile at 0.4 mL/min. The separation of these ten compounds was achieved by linear gradient elution. The method was strictly validated with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. All the compounds showed good linearities (). The LOQs of the ten components were 0.36, 0.18, 0.09, 0.43, 0.02, 1.89, 0.26, 0.18, 0.61, and 0.48 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The LODs of the ten components were 0.11, 0.05, 0.03, 0.13, 0.01, 0.57, 0.08, 0.05, 0.18, and 0.14 ng/mL for tetrandrine, fangchinoline, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide III, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin, respectively. The method was proven to be specific and reliable, which would provide a meaningful basis for the quality control and evaluation of FHT during its clinical application. Xiaoli Wang, Xiao Liu, Tingting Zhu, and Baochang Cai Copyright © 2016 Xiaoli Wang et al. All rights reserved. Distributed Channel-Aware Quantization Based on Maximum Mutual Information Thu, 26 May 2016 14:23:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/3595389/ In distributed sensing systems with constrained communication capabilities, sensors’ noisy measurements must be quantized locally before transmitting to the fusion centre. When the same parameter is observed by a number of sensors, the local quantization rules must be jointly designed to optimize a global objective function. In this work we jointly design the local quantizers by maximizing the mutual information as the optimization criterion, so that the quantized measurements carry the most information about the unknown parameter. A low-complexity iterative approach is suggested for finding the local quantization rules. Using the mutual information as the design criterion, we can easily integrate the effect of communication channels in the design and consequently design channel-aware quantization rules. We observe that the optimal design depends on both the measurement and channel noises. Moreover, our algorithm can be used to design quantizers that can be deployed in different applications. We demonstrate the success of our technique through simulating estimation and detection applications, where our method achieves estimation and detection errors as low as when designing for those special purposes. Sahar Movaghati and Masoud Ardakani Copyright © 2016 Sahar Movaghati and Masoud Ardakani. All rights reserved. The Weighted Distance Measure Based Method to Neutrosophic Multiattribute Group Decision Making Thu, 26 May 2016 14:18:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3145341/ Neutrosophic set (NS) is a generalization of fuzzy set (FS) that is designed for some practical situations in which each element has different truth membership function, indeterminacy membership function, and falsity membership function. In this paper, we study the multiattribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems under neutrosophic environment with the incompletely known or completely unknown attribute weight. We first define the single-valued neutrosophic ideal solution (SVNIS) and the weighted distance measure and establish the program models to derive the attribute weights. Then, we give a practical application in the framework of SVNS; the result shows that our method is reasonable and effective in dealing with decision making (DM) problems. Furthermore, we extend the method to interval-valued neutrosophic set (IVNS). Chunfang Liu and YueSheng Luo Copyright © 2016 Chunfang Liu and YueSheng Luo. All rights reserved. Follicular Bronchiolitis in a Nigerian Female Child: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 26 May 2016 14:15:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/1096953/ Small airways diseases are not uncommon in childhood. They account for about 28.4% of hospital admissions for lower respiratory tract infections in South West Nigeria, most of which are due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Noninfectious causes of small airways diseases, on the other hand, are poorly recognized and rarely feature in the differential diagnoses of chronic/recurrent lower respiratory tract disease in our environment. We present a case of follicular bronchiolitis in a 2.5-year-old Nigerian female who had left upper lobectomy on account of recurrent cough and progressive shortness of breath. Nzechukwu Zimudo Ikeri, Godwin O. Umerah, Christopher Emeka Ugwu, Olugbenga Olusoji, Adekunle Adeyomoye, Ekanem Ekure, and Adetola Olubunmi Daramola Copyright © 2016 Nzechukwu Zimudo Ikeri et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita Thu, 26 May 2016 14:07:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3089584/ Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea. Xiting Zhao, Xiaoli Zhang, Xiaobo Guo, Shujie Li, Linlin Han, Zhihui Song, Yunying Wang, Junhua Li, and Mingjun Li Copyright © 2016 Xiting Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Storage Stability of Diisopropylfluorophosphate Thu, 26 May 2016 14:06:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/3190891/ Diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor commonly used in toxicological studies as an organophosphorus nerve agent surrogate. However, LD50 values for DFP in the same species can differ widely even within the same laboratory, possibly due to the use of degraded DFP. The objectives here were to identify an efficient synthesis route for high purity DFP and assess the storage stability of both the in-house synthesized and commercial source of DFP at the manufacturer-recommended storage temperature of 4°C, as well as −10°C and −80°C. After 393 days, the commercial DFP stored at 4°C experienced significant degradation, while only minor degradation was observed at −10°C and none was observed at −80°C. DFP prepared using the newly identified synthesis route was significantly more stable, exhibiting only minor degradation at 4°C and none at −10°C or −80°C. The major degradation product was the monoacid derivative diisopropylphosphate, formed via hydrolysis of DFP. It was also found that storing DFP in glass containers may accelerate the degradation process by generating water in situ as hydrolytically generated hydrofluoric acid attacks the silica in the glass. Based on the results here, it is recommended that DFP be stored at or below −10°C, preferably in air-tight, nonglass containers. Derik R. Heiss, Donald W. Zehnder II, David A. Jett, Gennady E. Platoff Jr., David T. Yeung, and Bobby N. Brewer Copyright © 2016 Derik R. Heiss et al. All rights reserved. A Systematic Review of Point of Care Testing for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis Thu, 26 May 2016 14:00:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2016/4386127/ Objectives. Systematic review of point of care (POC) diagnostic tests for sexually transmitted infections: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Methods. Literature search on PubMed for articles from January 2010 to August 2015, including original research in English on POC diagnostics for sexually transmitted CT, NG, and/or TV. Results. We identified 33 publications with original research on POC diagnostics for CT, NG, and/or TV. Thirteen articles evaluated test performance, yielding at least one test for each infection with sensitivity and specificity ≥90%. Each infection also had currently available tests with sensitivities <60%. Three articles analyzed cost effectiveness, and five publications discussed acceptability and feasibility. POC testing was acceptable to both providers and patients and was also demonstrated to be cost effective. Fourteen proof of concept articles introduced new tests. Conclusions. Highly sensitive and specific POC tests are available for CT, NG, and TV, but improvement is possible. Future research should focus on acceptability, feasibility, and cost of POC testing. While pregnant women specifically have not been studied, the results available in nonpregnant populations are encouraging for the ability to test and treat women in antenatal care to prevent adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Sasha Herbst de Cortina, Claire C. Bristow, Dvora Joseph Davey, and Jeffrey D. Klausner Copyright © 2016 Sasha Herbst de Cortina et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Rapid Point-of-Use DNA Test for the Screening of Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® Soybean in Seed Samples Thu, 26 May 2016 13:56:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3145921/ Testing for the presence of genetically modified material in seed samples is of critical importance for all stakeholders in the agricultural industry, including growers, seed manufacturers, and regulatory bodies. While rapid antibody-based testing for the transgenic protein has fulfilled this need in the past, the introduction of new variants of a given transgene demands new diagnostic regimen that allows distinguishing different traits at the nucleic acid level. Although such molecular tests can be performed by PCR in the laboratory, their requirement for expensive equipment and sophisticated operation have prevented its uptake in point-of-use applications. A recently developed isothermal DNA amplification technique, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), combines simple sample preparation and amplification work-flow procedures with the use of minimal detection equipment in real time. Here, we report the development of a highly sensitive and specific RPA-based detection system for Genuity Roundup Ready 2 Yield (RR2Y) material in soybean (Glycine max) seed samples and present the results of studies applying the method in both laboratory and field-type settings. Dilip Chandu, Sudakshina Paul, Mathew Parker, Yelena Dudin, Jennifer King-Sitzes, Tim Perez, Don W. Mittanck, Manali Shah, Kevin C. Glenn, and Olaf Piepenburg Copyright © 2016 Dilip Chandu et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Diffusion Characteristics through Microfluidic Channels for Passive Drug Delivery Applications Thu, 26 May 2016 13:48:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdd/2016/7913616/ Microfluidics has many drug delivery applications due to the ability to easily create complex device designs with feature sizes reaching down to the 10s of microns. In this work, three different microchannel designs for an implantable device are investigated for treatment of ocular diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy. Devices were fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and soft lithography techniques, where surface chemistry of the channels was altered using 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]trimethoxysilane (PEG-silane). An estimated delivery rate for a number of common drugs was approximated for each device through the ratio of the diffusion coefficients for the dye and the respective drug. The delivery rate of the model drugs was maintained at a physiological condition and the effects of channel design and surface chemistry on the delivery rate of the model drugs were recorded over a two-week period. Results showed that the surface chemistry of the device had no significant effect on the delivery rate of the model drugs. All designs were successful in delivering a constant daily dose for each model drug. Marcus J. Goudie, Alyssa P. Ghuman, Stephanie B. Collins, Ramana M. Pidaparti, and Hitesh Handa Copyright © 2016 Marcus J. Goudie et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Approach for Stimulating Cooperation among Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 26 May 2016 13:44:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/2873439/ A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), characterized as being self-organizing and multihop, consists of a large number of low-power and low-cost nodes. The cooperation among nodes is the foundation for WSNs to achieve the desired functionalities, such as the delivery or forwarding of packets. However, due to the limited resources such as energy, computational availability, and communication capabilities, there may exist some selfish nodes that refuse to cooperate with others. If the critical masses of nodes do not cooperate in the network, the network would not be able to operate to achieve its functional requirements. To resolve the problem above, we introduce a Win-Stay, Lose-Likely-Shift (WSLLS) approach into a Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game framework, and it applies a utility-based function, which is a linear combination of one player’s payoff and its neighbors’ in a game, to evaluate a player’s (i.e., node) performance for a game. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach performs well in stimulating cooperation in different settings under a certain condition with limited information, regardless of the static topologies types of WSNs, initial proportion of cooperation, and the average number of neighbors. Hongyun Xu, Ding Wang, Shigen Shen, Youqun Shi, and Qiying Cao Copyright © 2016 Hongyun Xu et al. All rights reserved. Serum Heme Oxygenase-1 and BMP-7 Are Potential Biomarkers for Bone Metabolism in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis Thu, 26 May 2016 13:18:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7870925/ Backgrounds. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been reported to play a regulatory role in osteoclastogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways induce osteoblastic differentiation and bone remodeling. Aims. To identify serum levels of HO-1, BMP-7, and Runt related-transcription factor 2 (Runx2) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to investigate the relationships between HO-1, BMP-7, Runx2, and other common biomarkers for bone metabolism. Results. Serum levels of HO-1 and BMP-7 were revealed to be significantly higher in patients with RA or AS than in healthy controls (). In RA group, HO-1 was positively correlated with BMP-7, Runx2, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRAP-5b) (, resp.), BMP-7 was positively correlated with Runx2 and TRAP-5b (, resp.), and Runx2 was negatively correlated with N-terminal midfragment of osteocalcin (NMID) (). In AS group, we observed identical correlation between HO-1 and BMP-7, but opposite correlations between BMP-7 and TRAP-5b and between Runx2 and NMID, when comparing with the RA cohort. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that HO-1 and BMP-7 are potential biomarkers for bone metabolism in patients with RA and AS. The different correlations between the bone markers point to distinct differences in bone remodeling pathways in the two types of arthritis. Tong-ling Yuan, Jin Chen, Yan-li Tong, Yan Zhang, Yuan-yuan Liu, James Cheng-Chung Wei, Yi Liu, Yi Zhao, and Martin Herrmann Copyright © 2016 Tong-ling Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Core-Shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA Electrospun Scaffold for Gene Delivery to Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Thu, 26 May 2016 13:11:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/5385137/ Bone tissue engineering is the most promising technology for enhancing bone regeneration. Scaffolds loaded with osteogenic factors improve the therapeutic effect. In this study, the bioactive PEI (polyethylenimine)/pBMP2- (bone morphogenetic protein-2 plasmid-) PLGA (poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)) core-shell scaffolds were prepared using coaxial electrospinning for a controlled gene delivery to hPDLSCs (human periodontal ligament stem cells). The pBMP2 was encapsulated in the PEI phase as a core and PLGA was employed to control pBMP2 release as a shell. First, the scaffold characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated. Then the gene release behavior was analyzed. Our results showed that pBMP2 was released at high levels in the first few days, with a continuous release behavior in the next 28 days. At the same time, PEI/pBMP2 showed high transfection efficiency. Moreover, the core-shell electrospun scaffold showed BMP2 expression for a much longer time (more than 28 days) compared with the single axial electrospun scaffold, as evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot after culturing with hPDLSCs. These results suggested that the core-shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA scaffold fabricated by coaxial electrospinning had a good gene release behavior and showed a prolonged expression time with a high transfection efficiency. Qiao Xie, Lie-ni Jia, Hong-yu Xu, Xiang-gang Hu, Wei Wang, and Jun Jia Copyright © 2016 Qiao Xie et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on Apoptosis, Cellular Adhesion, and Oxidative Damage in Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells of Mice Exposed to Ionizing Radiation Injury Thu, 26 May 2016 13:10:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4147879/ Lycium barbarum has been used for more than 2500 years as a traditional herb and food in China. We investigated the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP) on apoptosis, oxidative damage, and expression of adhesion molecules in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNC) of mice injured by ionizing radiation. Kunming mice were exposed to X-rays; then mice in the LBP groups were continuously injected with various concentrations of LBP intraperitoneally for 14 days. Mice in the control group were continuously injected with normal saline (NS) by the same route for 14 days. A normal group was set up. After 1, 7, and 14 days of treatment, mice were killed and BMNC were extracted. Cell cycle, apoptosis, and the expression of adhesion molecules CD44 and CD49d were detected by flow cytometry. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were identified by colorimetric analyses. LBP significantly decreased the percentage of G0/G1 phase, apoptosis, MDA level, and expression of CD44 and CD49d and distinctly increased the activity of SOD. LBP showed a protective effect on BMNC against ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage and altered the expression of adhesion molecule. Jing Zhou, Hua Pang, Wenbo Li, Qiong Liu, Lu Xu, Qian Liu, and Ying Liu Copyright © 2016 Jing Zhou et al. All rights reserved. A Pilot Study of 18F-FLT PET/CT in Pediatric Lymphoma Thu, 26 May 2016 13:05:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmi/2016/6045894/ We performed an observational pilot study of 18F-FLT PET/CT in pediatric lymphoma. Eight patients with equivocal 18F-FDG PET/CT underwent imaging with 18F-FLT PET/CT. No immediate adverse reactions to 18F-FLT were observed. Compared to 18F-FDG, 18F-FLT uptake was significantly higher in bone marrow and liver (18F-FLT SUV and , versus 18F-FDG SUV and , resp., ). In total, 15 lesions were evaluated with average 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT SUVs of and , respectively. Nonspecific uptake in reactive lymph nodes and thymus was observed. Future studies to assess the clinical utility of 18F-FLT PET/CT in pediatric lymphoma are planned. Danny L. Costantini, Reza Vali, Susan McQuattie, Jeffrey Chan, Angela Punnett, Shiela Weitzman, Amer Shammas, and Martin Charron Copyright © 2016 Danny L. Costantini et al. All rights reserved. On Certain Properties for Two Classes of Generalized Convex Functions Thu, 26 May 2016 13:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2016/4652038/ Two classes of generalized convex functions in the sense of Beckenbach are considered. For both classes, we show that the existence of support curves implies their generalized convexity and obtain an extremum property of these functions. Furthermore, we establish Hadamard’s inequality for them. Mohamed S. S. Ali Copyright © 2016 Mohamed S. S. Ali. All rights reserved. Improving Energy Efficiency in QoS-Constrained Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 26 May 2016 12:58:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/1576038/ Energy saving is often achieved via “squeezing” other application-sensitive Quality of Service (QoS) parameters such as delay and throughput. Accordingly, energy-saving methods must consider those QoS parameters. In this paper, we survey the most recent work on energy efficiency in WSNs and we discuss the impacts of these methods on the QoS provided. Moreover, we propose a novel divide-and-conquer procedure to deal with the trade-off between energy consumption and other QoS parameters. The idea is to tackle a certain source of energy consumption to minimize the drawn energy. Subsequently, this energy-saving method is refined to consider other service qualities. To support the correctness of our claim, three energy-saving methods, taking the QoS issues into consideration, are given as examples. The first method exploits a so-called Fuzzy transform for shrinking the wireless traffic with highly precise lossy data compression. In the second method, the sensing module is targeted by employing reliable virtual sensors. Such sensors compensate the unavailability of main energy-hungry sensors during sleep periods. The third method exploits a self-adaptive mechanism to improve the QoS parameters via deliberately reducing the lifetime below the maximum time and exploiting design-time knowledge. Mohamed Abdelaal, Oliver Theel, Christian Kuka, Peilin Zhang, Yang Gao, Vasilisa Bashlovkina, Daniela Nicklas, and Martin Fränzle Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Abdelaal et al. All rights reserved. The LINA Study: Higher Sensitivity of Infant Compared to Maternal Eosinophil/Basophil Progenitors to Indoor Chemical Exposures Thu, 26 May 2016 12:57:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2016/5293932/ Purpose. Enhanced eosinophil/basophil (Eo/B) progenitor cell levels are known to be associated with allergic inflammation and atopy risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of different indoor exposures on the recruitment and differentiation of Eo/B progenitors in mother-child pairs. Methods. In 68 mother-child pairs of the LINA study peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used to assess Eo/B colony forming units (CFUs). Information about disease outcomes and indoor exposures was obtained from questionnaires. Indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by passive sampling. Results. Infant’s Eo/B CFUs were positively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke, disinfectants, or VOCs. In contrast, for maternal Eo/B CFUs, only a few associations were seen. Higher numbers of infant Eo/B CFUs were observed in children with wheezing symptoms within the second year of life. Conclusions. We demonstrate that infant’s hematopoietic cells seem to respond with more sensitivity to environmental exposure compared to maternal cells. At least in infants, an activation of these hematopoietic cells by environmental exposure could contribute to an enhanced risk for the development of respiratory outcomes. Friederike Hörnig, Tibor Kohajda, Stefan Röder, Gunda Herberth, Martin von Bergen, Michael Borte, Ulrike Diez, Ulrike Rolle-Kampczyk, Jan-C. Simon, Judah A. Denburg, Irina Lehmann, and Kristin M. Junge Copyright © 2016 Friederike Hörnig et al. All rights reserved. Uroplakin II Expression in Breast Carcinomas Showing Apocrine Differentiation: Putting Some Emphasis on Invasive Pleomorphic Lobular Carcinoma as a Potential Mimic of Urothelial Carcinoma at Metastatic Sites Thu, 26 May 2016 12:56:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/2940496/ Uroplakin II antibody is exclusively specific for urothelial carcinoma. Nonurothelial carcinoma has not been reported to be immunoreactive for uroplakin II. In the present study, we hypothesized that breast carcinoma showing apocrine differentiation, such as invasive pleomorphic lobular carcinoma (IPLC) and apocrine carcinoma (AC), stains positive for uroplakin II. We identified 6 cases of IPLC between 2000 and 2014 by searching a computerized pathological database. We randomly selected 10 cases of each classic invasive lobular carcinoma (cILC) and AC and five cases of apocrine metaplasia (AM) that coexisted in a surgically resected breast carcinoma specimen. Immunohistochemistry was performed for uroplakin II, GATA3, CK7, CK20, and other representative markers positive for urothelial carcinoma. All cases of IPLC, AC, and AM, except those of cILC, showed immunoreactivity for uroplakin II. Poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma sometimes shows similar morphology to IPLC with the following immunophenotype: CK7+, CK20−, GATA3+, and uroplakin II+. In the present study, this immunophenotype was observed in all the cases of IPLC and AC. Therefore, when studying metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma showing the aforementioned immunophenotype, we should consider the possibility of it being IPLC in addition to metastatic urothelial carcinoma. Shogo Tajima and Kenji Koda Copyright © 2016 Shogo Tajima and Kenji Koda. All rights reserved. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6 Thu, 26 May 2016 12:56:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2016/3149815/ The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.%) has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate groups possess the ability of biodegradation. The physical-mechanical properties of sample and molecular mass reduce after 28 days of incubation. Nhi Dinh Bui, Ngo Dinh Vu, Thao Thi Minh, Huong Thi Thanh Dam, Regina Romanovna Spiridonova, and Semenovich Alexandr Sirotkin Copyright © 2016 Nhi Dinh Bui et al. All rights reserved. Iterative Forward-Backward Pursuit Algorithm for Compressed Sensing Thu, 26 May 2016 12:51:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/5940371/ It has been shown that iterative reweighted strategies will often improve the performance of many sparse reconstruction algorithms. Iterative Framework for Sparse Reconstruction Algorithms (IFSRA) is a recently proposed method which iteratively enhances the performance of any given arbitrary sparse reconstruction algorithm. However, IFSRA assumes that the sparsity level is known. Forward-Backward Pursuit (FBP) algorithm is an iterative approach where each iteration consists of consecutive forward and backward stages. Based on the IFSRA, this paper proposes the Iterative Forward-Backward Pursuit (IFBP) algorithm, which applies the iterative reweighted strategies to FBP without the need for the sparsity level. By using an approximate iteration strategy, IFBP gradually iterates to approach the unknown signal. Finally, this paper demonstrates that IFBP significantly improves the reconstruction capability of the FBP algorithm, via simulations including recovery of random sparse signals with different nonzero coefficient distributions in addition to the recovery of a sparse image. Feng Wang, Jianping Zhang, Guiling Sun, and Tianyu Geng Copyright © 2016 Feng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Approximate Multidegree Reduction of -Bézier Curves Thu, 26 May 2016 12:46:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8140427/ Besides inheriting the properties of classical Bézier curves of degree , the corresponding -Bézier curves have a good performance in adjusting their shapes by changing shape control parameter. In this paper, we derive an approximation algorithm for multidegree reduction of -Bézier curves in the -norm. By analysing the properties of -Bézier curves of degree , a method which can deal with approximating -Bézier curve of degree by -Bézier curve of degree is presented. Then, in unrestricted and , constraint conditions, the new control points of approximating -Bézier curve can be obtained by solving linear equations, which can minimize the least square error between the approximating curves and the original ones. Finally, several numerical examples of degree reduction are given and the errors are computed in three conditions. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective and easy to implement. Gang Hu, Huanxin Cao, and Suxia Zhang Copyright © 2016 Gang Hu et al. All rights reserved. A Dual-Band Printed End-Fire Antenna with DSPSL Feeding Thu, 26 May 2016 12:06:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/9845392/ A novel dual-band printed end-fired antenna with double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) feeding is presented. The DSPSL acts in wideband transition using balanced transmission. Two different modes of the parasitic patches allow the antenna to work in different bands. The printed antenna is designed as a quasi-Yagi structure to achieve directivity in the lower band, and the parallel rectangular patches serve as the parasitic director. These patches act as radiation patches with end-fire direction characteristics in the upper band. The measured bandwidths were 18.3% for the lower frequency band (2.28–2.74 GHz) and 12.6% for the upper frequency band (5.46–6.2 GHz). Daofeng Ye, Yuanxin Li, Zhixi Liang, and Yunliang Long Copyright © 2016 Daofeng Ye et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Mechanical Properties of a Nanostructured Surface Layer on 316L Stainless Steel Thu, 26 May 2016 12:05:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/7517616/ A nanostructured surface layer (NSSL) was generated on a 316L stainless steel plate through surface nanocrystallization (SNC). The grains of the surface layer were refined to nanoscale after SNC treatment. Moreover, the microstructure and mechanical properties of NSSL were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), through nanoindentation, and through reverse analysis of finite element method (FEM). TEM results showed that the grains in the NSSL measured 8 nm. In addition, these nanocrystalline grains took the form of random crystallographic orientation and were roughly equiaxed in shape. In situ SEM observations of the tensile process confirmed that the motions of the dislocations were determined from within the material and that the motions were blocked by the NSSL, thus improving overall yielding stress. Meanwhile, the nanohardness and the elastic modulus of the NSSL, as well as those of the matrix, were obtained with nanoindentation technology. The reverse analysis of FEM was conducted with MARC software, and the process of nanoindentation on the NSSL and the matrix was simulated. The plastic mechanical properties of NSSL can be derived from the simulation by comparing the results of the simulation and of actual nanoindentation. F. C. Lang, Y. M. Xing, J. Zhu, and Y. R. Zhao Copyright © 2016 F. C. Lang et al. All rights reserved. Clonal Heterogeneity in the Neuronal and Glial Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem/Progenitor Cells Thu, 26 May 2016 11:56:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/1290561/ Cellular heterogeneity presents an important challenge to the development of cell-based therapies where there is a fundamental requirement for predictable and reproducible outcomes. Transplanted Dental Pulp Stem/Progenitor Cells (DPSCs) have demonstrated early promise in experimental models of spinal cord injury and stroke, despite limited evidence of neuronal and glial-like differentiation after transplantation. Here, we report, for the first time, on the ability of single cell-derived clonal cultures of murine DPSCs to differentiate in vitro into immature neuronal-like and oligodendrocyte-like cells. Importantly, only DPSC clones with high nestin mRNA expression levels were found to successfully differentiate into Map2 and NF-positive neuronal-like cells. Neuronally differentiated DPSCs possessed a membrane capacitance comparable with primary cultured striatal neurons and small inward voltage-activated K+ but not outward Na+ currents were recorded suggesting a functionally immature phenotype. Similarly, only high nestin-expressing clones demonstrated the ability to adopt Olig1, Olig2, and MBP-positive immature oligodendrocyte-like phenotype. Together, these results demonstrate that appropriate markers may be used to provide an early indication of the suitability of a cell population for purposes where differentiation into a specific lineage may be beneficial and highlight that further understanding of heterogeneity within mixed cellular populations is required. Fraser I. Young, Vsevolod Telezhkin, Sarah J. Youde, Martin S. Langley, Maria Stack, Paul J. Kemp, Rachel J. Waddington, Alastair J. Sloan, and Bing Song Copyright © 2016 Fraser I. Young et al. All rights reserved. The Application of MsPSO in the Rockfill Parameter Inversion of CFRD Thu, 26 May 2016 11:40:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1096967/ An intelligent algorithm that simultaneously analyzes multiple rockfill parameters is proposed. First, the paper introduces the operation and monitoring condition of the Shuibuya concrete-faced rockfill dam (CFRD). Then the constitutive rockfill models and the FEM analysis procedure are introduced in this paper. Third, the MsPSO intelligent algorithm was adopted to inverse the rockfill parameters. The recalculated displacement of Shuibuya CFRD using the inversed rockfill parameters is presented, and a satisfactory result was obtained, indicating that the inversion method is correct and effective. The method developed in this paper can be adopted in any geotechnical engineering parameter inversion. Ye Zhu and Shichun Chi Copyright © 2016 Ye Zhu and Shichun Chi. All rights reserved. Impact of Antioxidants on Cardiolipin Oxidation in Liposomes: Why Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Serves as an Apoptotic Signal? Thu, 26 May 2016 10:42:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/8679469/ Molecules of mitochondrial cardiolipin (CL) get selectively oxidized upon oxidative stress, which triggers the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In a chemical model most closely resembling the mitochondrial membrane—liposomes of pure bovine heart CL—we compared ubiquinol-10, ubiquinol-6, and alpha-tocopherol, the most widespread naturally occurring antioxidants, with man-made, quinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants. Lipid peroxidation was induced by addition of an azo initiator in the absence and presence of diverse antioxidants, respectively. The kinetics of CL oxidation was monitored via formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm. We found that natural ubiquinols and ubiquinol-based amphiphilic antioxidants were equally efficient in protecting CL liposomes from peroxidation; the chromanol-based antioxidants, including alpha-tocopherol, were 2-3 times less efficient. Amphiphilic antioxidants, but not natural ubiquinols and alpha-tocopherol, were able, additionally, to protect the CL bilayer from oxidation by acting from the water phase. We suggest that the previously reported therapeutic efficiency of mitochondrially targeted amphiphilic antioxidants is owing to their ability to protect those CL molecules that are inaccessible to natural hydrophobic antioxidants, being trapped within respiratory supercomplexes. The high susceptibility of such occluded CL molecules to oxidation may have prompted their recruitment as apoptotic signaling molecules by nature. Alexey V. Lokhmatikov, Natalia Voskoboynikova, Dmitry A. Cherepanov, Maxim V. Skulachev, Heinz-Jürgen Steinhoff, Vladimir P. Skulachev, and Armen Y. Mulkidjanian Copyright © 2016 Alexey V. Lokhmatikov et al. All rights reserved. A Case Report of Isolated Cuboid Nutcracker Fracture Thu, 26 May 2016 09:38:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/3264172/ Isolated cuboid fractures are very rare, since they typically occur in combination with midfoot fractures or dislocations. A 61-year-old man presented at our hospital with pain and swelling on the outside of his right foot. The lateral column of his right foot was shortened by approximately 6.5 mm on X-ray. CT showed displacement of the joint surface between the cuboid and the fourth metatarsal, with a 3.5 mm depression. An MRI revealed no other injuries. Based on these findings, we diagnosed the patient with an isolated nutcracker fracture of the cuboid. Using a 1.9 mm arthroscope, we examined the Lisfranc joint. Then the depressed fragments were elevated until the regular joint line was restored. A bone biopsy needle was then used to fill in the large defect with artificial bone. In this case, we did not plate the fracture. Six months after surgery, patient could walk without pain. We report a very rare case of isolated nutcracker fracture of the cuboid. In addition, we suggest our new treatment plan of this fracture. Takaaki Ohmori, Shinichi Katsuo, Chiaki Sunayama, Katsunori Mizuno, Tomohiro Ojima, Kotaro Yamakado, Tomonari Ando, Shin Watanabe, Seigaku Hayashi, and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya Copyright © 2016 Takaaki Ohmori et al. All rights reserved. HIV Infection and Osteoarticular Tuberculosis: Strange Bedfellows Thu, 26 May 2016 09:35:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2016/5718423/ We report the case of a 47-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis and HIV infection presenting with a 3-week history of a painful swollen knee, increased serum inflammatory markers, and a low CD4 lymphocyte count. The diagnosis of TB arthritis was made by synovial fluid culture, GeneXpert/PCR, and confirmed by histopathology of a synovial biopsy. A mini literature review suggests that although HIV infection is associated with extrapulmonary TB, osteoarticular TB is a relatively unusual presentation in an HIV positive patient. The diagnostic utility of the GeneXpert test is explored. We also describe the patient’s good response to an intra-articular corticosteroid injection in combination with standard anti-TB therapy. B. Hodkinson, N. Osman, and S. Botha-Scheepers Copyright © 2016 B. Hodkinson et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Identification of Sex in Phoenix dactylifera Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat Markers Thu, 26 May 2016 09:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4530846/ Early sex identification of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) at seedling stage is an economically desirable objective, which will significantly increase the profits of seed based cultivation. The utilization of molecular markers at this stage for early and rapid identification of sex is important due to the lack of morphological markers. In this study, a total of two hundred Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) primers were screened among male and female Date palm plants to identify putative sex-specific marker, out of which only two primers (IS_A02 and IS_A71) were found to be associated with sex. The primer IS_A02 produced a unique band of size 390 bp and was found clearly in all female plants, while it was absent in all male plants. Contrary to this, the primer IS_A71 produced a unique band of size 380 bp and was clearly found in all male plants, whereas it was absent in all the female plants. Subsequently, these specific fragments were excised, purified, and sequenced for the development of sequence specific markers further in future for the implementation on dioecious Date Palm for sex determination. These markers are efficient, highly reliable, and reproducible for sex identification at the early stage of seedling. Abdulhafed A. Al-Ameri, Fahad Al-Qurainy, Abdel-Rhman Z. Gaafar, Salim Khan, and M. Nadeem Copyright © 2016 Abdulhafed A. Al-Ameri et al. All rights reserved. On-Treatment Elevation in Hepatic Transaminases during HCV Treatment with Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Dasabuvir, Ritonavir, and Ribavirin: A Case Series Thu, 26 May 2016 09:27:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/6151570/ Eradication of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now possible with all oral antiviral medications, including the combination of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, dasabuvir, and ritonavir (PrOD) with or without ribavirin. While high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) can be achieved, a small subset of patients experience on-treatment liver enzyme elevations, in particular women using concurrent estradiol-containing oral contraceptive medications (OCPs). Herein, we describe four cases of liver enzyme elevations within 2-3 weeks of PrOD initiation in African-American men infected with HCV genotype 1a or 1b. Three patients with varying degrees of hepatic fibrosis received a full treatment course without medication modification, achieved SVR, and experienced resolution of liver enzyme abnormalities. One patient with cirrhosis was switched mid-treatment to an alternate HCV regimen, experienced subsequent resolution of liver enzyme abnormalities, and achieved SVR. In summary, these cases suggest that all HCV patients treated with PrOD, independent of gender or concurrent medications, should have laboratory monitoring for liver enzyme elevations, with a particular emphasis on early monitoring in cirrhotic patients. Madelyne Bean, Lydia Tang, Shyam Kottilil, Kimberly L. Beavers, and Eric G. Meissner Copyright © 2016 Madelyne Bean et al. All rights reserved. ZnO Nanocrystals as Anode Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries Thu, 26 May 2016 09:23:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/8056302/ ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized via a thermal decomposition method. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence were used to investigate the composition and nanostructure of the material. Compared with commercial ZnO nanoparticles, ZnO nanocrystals showed higher lithium storage capacity and better cycling characteristics and exhibited a reversible discharge capacity of 500 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 200 mA g−1. Wenhui Zhang, Lijuan Du, Zongren Chen, Juan Hong, and Lu Yue Copyright © 2016 Wenhui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Association of Cognitive Abilities and Brain Lateralization among Primary School Children in Kuwait Thu, 26 May 2016 09:19:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/neuroscience/2016/6740267/ Background. Many studies have explored the cognitive variation between left- and right-handed individuals; however, the differences remain poorly understood. Aim of the Work. To assess the association between brain lateralization indicated by handedness and cognitive abilities. Material and Methods. A total of 217 students aged between 7 and 10 years of both genders were identified for the study. Males and females were equally distributed. All left-handed students were chosen. An equal group with right-handed students was randomly selected. Handedness was assessed using traditional writing hand approach as well as the WatHand Cabient Test and the Grooved Pegboard Test. Cognition was measured using Cambridge University’s CANTAB eclipse cognitive battery. Pearson Correlation Coefficient Test “” was calculated to measure the strength of association between quantitative data. Results. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities (, ), visual memory (, ), and better scores in reaction time tests which incorporated elements of visual memory (, ). Left-handed children proved to have better simple reaction times (, ). Conclusion. Right-handed children had superior visuospatial abilities and left-handed children have better simple reaction times. Jasem Y. Al-Hashel, Samar Farouk Ahmed, Hanouf Al-Mutairi, Shahd Hassan, Nora Al-Awadhi, and Mariam Al-Saraji Copyright © 2016 Jasem Y. Al-Hashel et al. All rights reserved. Magnetically Triggered Monodispersed Nanocomposite Fabricated by Microfluidic Approach for Drug Delivery Thu, 26 May 2016 08:58:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2016/1219469/ Responsive microgel poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) or PNIPAM is a gel that can swell or shrink in response to external stimuli (temperature, pH, etc.). In this work, a nanocomposite gel is developed consisting of PNIPAM and magnetic iron oxide nanobeads for controlled release of liquids (like drugs) upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field. Microparticles of the nanocomposite are fabricated efficiently with a monodisperse size distribution and a diameter ranging from 20 to 500 µm at a rate of up to 1 kHz using a simple and inexpensive microfluidic system. The nanocomposite is heated through magnetic losses, which is exploited for a remotely stimulated liquid release. The efficiency of the microparticles for controlled drug release applications is tested with a solution of Rhodamine B as a liquid drug model. In continuous and pulsatile mode, a release of 7% and 80% was achieved, respectively. Compared to external thermal actuation that heats the entire surrounding or embedded heaters that need complex fabrication steps, the magnetic actuation provides localized heating and is easy to implement with our microfluidic fabrication method. O. Yassine, E. Q. Li, A. Alfadhel, A. Zaher, M. Kavaldzhiev, S. T. Thoroddsen, and J. Kosel Copyright © 2016 O. Yassine et al. All rights reserved. Sclerostin Antibody Therapy for the Treatment of Osteoporosis: Clinical Prospects and Challenges Thu, 26 May 2016 08:38:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2016/6217286/ It is estimated that over 200 million adults worldwide have osteoporosis, a disease that has increasing socioeconomic impact reflected by unsustainable costs associated with disability, fracture management, hospital stays, and treatment. Existing therapeutic treatments for osteoporosis are associated with a variety of issues relating to use, clinical predictability, and health risks. Consequently, additional novel therapeutic targets are increasingly sought. A promising therapeutic candidate is sclerostin, a Wnt pathway antagonist and, as such, a negative regulator of bone formation. Sclerostin antibody treatment has demonstrated efficacy and superiority compared to other anabolic treatments for increasing bone formation in both preclinical and clinical settings. Accordingly, it has been suggested that sclerostin antibody treatment is set to achieve market approval by 2017 and aggressively compete as the gold standard for osteoporotic treatment by 2021. In anticipation of phase III trial results which may potentially signify a significant step in achieving market approval here, we review the preclinical and clinical emergence of sclerostin antibody therapies for both osteoporosis and alternative applications. Potential clinical challenges are also explored as well as ongoing developments that may impact on the eventual clinical application of sclerostin antibodies as an effective treatment of osteoporosis. Claire MacNabb, D. Patton, and J. S. Hayes Copyright © 2016 Claire MacNabb et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Salt Solution on Morphological Changes in a Geosynthetic Clay Liner Thu, 26 May 2016 08:32:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/6349407/ Morphological variations of geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) samples, hydrated with two different permeates, distilled water and NaCl solution (100 mM concentration), were observed in detail using microscopic analysis. After the GCL samples were hydrated with the NaCl solution, they were observed with an optical microscope. While the surface of the treated GCL samples was similar to the surface of the untreated GCL, a crystal deposit was found on the surface of the treated samples. Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), a more solid appearance was observed for the bentonite particles contained in the GCL after the sample was hydrated with distilled water in comparison to the GCL sample that was hydrated with the NaCl solution. It appears that salt solution hydration results in less swelling of the bentonite particles. Furthermore, the energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) results showed that distilled water hydration had no effect on the distribution of the elements contained in the GCL samples. However, bound chlorine was observed, which demonstrated that the bentonite particles had absorbed the NaCl solution. In addition, changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the hydrated GCL samples were also observed. Mochamad Arief Budihardjo Copyright © 2016 Mochamad Arief Budihardjo. All rights reserved. Fibrinolytic Treatment after Transient Ischaemic Attack Caused by Prosthetic Mitral Valve Thrombosis Thu, 26 May 2016 08:28:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/6809263/ Prosthetic valve thrombosis is one of the most severe complications after surgical valve replacement. There are many possible presentations: from asymptomatic to life-threatening complications. We report on a 61-year-old female patient with prosthetic replacement of the aortic and mitral valve in the in-house department of cardiac surgery 3 months ago. The patient was suffering from aphasia during 5 minutes in domesticity. After her presentation in the emergency room, the echocardiographic examination revealed a thrombotic formation of the prosthetic mitral valve. At presentation, the anticoagulation was outside the effective range (INR: 1.7). A successful thrombolytic therapy with the plasminogen activator urokinase was begun with complete resolution of the thrombus. Cornel Koban, Michael Neuß, Grit Tambor, Frank Hölschermann, and Christian Butter Copyright © 2016 Cornel Koban et al. All rights reserved. Hematopoietic Effects of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Radiotherapy-Induced Myelosuppression Mice Thu, 26 May 2016 08:24:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5789381/ Paeonia lactiflora root (baishao in Chinese) is a commonly used herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin (AF) are two major active constituents of P. lactiflora. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the hematopoietic effects of PF and AF on myelosuppression mice induced by radiotherapy and to explore the underlying mechanism. The finding indicated that PF and AF significantly increased the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and reversed the atrophy of thymus. Furthermore, PF and AF increased the levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) and reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and increased the level of colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in plasma. Lastly, PF and AF not only enhanced the mRNA levels of GM-CSF and G-CSF in the spleens, but also increased the protein levels of G-CSF and GM-CSF in bone marrow. Our results suggest that PF and AF may promote the recovery of bone marrow hemopoietic function in a myelosuppressed mouse model. Yingli Zhu, Linyuan Wang, Zhihui Yang, Jingxia Wang, Wei Li, Jianyu Zhou, and Jianjun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yingli Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Pregnancy Desire, Partner Serodiscordance, and Partner HIV Disclosure among Reproductive Age HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Clinic Thu, 26 May 2016 08:20:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2016/8048457/ Women comprise 25% of the US HIV epidemic, with many women of reproductive age. There is a need for providers to address the reproductive needs and desires of women with HIV given that effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV into a chronic disease. This cross-sectional study shows high rates of partner serodiscordance (61%) and moderate HIV disclosure to partners (61%). Patients surveyed reported practitioners discuss condoms (94%) and contraception (71%) more often than pregnancy desire (38%). In our sample, 44% of the surveyed women intended future pregnancy, whereas women who did not intend future pregnancy cited HIV/health and serodiscordance as the most common reasons (56% and 35%, resp.). There was no difference in the knowledge of mother-to-child transmission risk between women who intended or did not intend future pregnancy (). These results underline the need for provider training in reproductive counseling to promote risk reduction and education. Corinne M. Rhodes, Susan Cu-Uvin, and Aadia I. Rana Copyright © 2016 Corinne M. Rhodes et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Particle Size on the Wear Property of Magnetorheological Fluid Thu, 26 May 2016 08:17:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/4740986/ Aiming to study the effect of particle size on the wear property of magnetorheological fluid (MRF), experiment materials, preparation process, and test methods are elaborated, and three different MRF samples consisting of particles of different size are prepared. Test experiments are carried out and the effect of particle size on the wear property of MRF is discussed. Moreover, the microstructures of particles extracted from MRF obtained before and after the wear experiments are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Experimental results show that the particle size has a significant effect on wear property of MRF. Furthermore, the MRF with particles of 1.5–2.8 μm diameter on average is good for the requirement of engineering applications. Qiuxiang Zhang, Xinhua Liu, Yankun Ren, Lifeng Wang, and Yuan Hu Copyright © 2016 Qiuxiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Control Problem Investigation for Linear Time-Invariant Systems of Fractional Order with Lumped Parameters Described by Equations with Riemann-Liouville Derivative Thu, 26 May 2016 08:12:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/4873083/ This paper studies two optimal control problems for linear time-invariant systems of fractional order with lumped parameters whose dynamics is described by equations which contain Riemann-Liouville derivative. The first problem is to find control with minimal norm and the second one is to find control with minimal control time at given restriction for control norm. The problem setting with nonlocal initial conditions is considered which differs from other known settings for integer-order systems and fractional-order systems described in terms of equations with Caputo derivative. Admissible controls are allowed to belong to the class of functions which are -integrable on half segment. The basic investigation approach is the moment method. The correctness and solvability of moment problem are validated for considered problem setting for the system of arbitrary dimension. It is shown that corresponding conditions are analogous to those derived for systems which are described in terms of equations with Caputo derivative. For several particular cases of one- and two-dimensional systems the posed problems are solved explicitly. The dependencies of basic values from derivative index and control time are analyzed. The comparison is performed of obtained results with known results for analogous integer-order systems and fractional-order systems which are described by equations with Caputo derivative. V. A. Kubyshkin and S. S. Postnov Copyright © 2016 V. A. Kubyshkin and S. S. Postnov. All rights reserved. Off-Site Lime Stabilisation as an Option to Treat Pit Latrine Faecal Sludge for Emergency and Existing On-Site Sanitation Systems Thu, 26 May 2016 08:03:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2016/2717304/ Off-site lime stabilisation for treating faecal sludge was assessed by undertaking small-scale (35 L) and large-scale (600 L) field trials in Blantyre, Malawi. Hydrated lime was dosed to maintain pH 10, pH 10.5, pH 11, pH 11.5, and pH 12 depending on the buffer capacity of the faecal sludge in the four replica small-scale field trials. Significant reduction of E. coli to below the detection limit of 104 CFU/100 mL within 1 hour of treatment was reported for pH > 11. Based on the small-scale findings, large-scale field trials were conducted and greater than removal of E. coli was observed under pH 12 conditions. Therefore, based on the study, off-site lime stabilisation by dosing lime in the range of 10–35% w/w (dry solid basis), depending on the buffer capacity and solids content of the sludge to maintain pH > 11, can be used to sanitise faecal sludge during emergencies, as well as for existing on-site sanitation systems. Wilson Greya, Bernard Thole, Catherine Anderson, Flavius Kamwani, Jan Spit, and Grover Mamani Copyright © 2016 Wilson Greya et al. All rights reserved. Potential Role of Epigenetic Mechanism in Manganese Induced Neurotoxicity Thu, 26 May 2016 08:02:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2548792/ Manganese is a vital nutrient and is maintained at an optimal level (2.5–5 mg/day) in human body. Chronic exposure to manganese is associated with neurotoxicity and correlated with the development of various neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease. Oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death has been well established mechanism in manganese induced toxicity. Oxidative stress has a potential to alter the epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Epigenetic insight of manganese neurotoxicity in context of its correlation with the development of parkinsonism is poorly understood. Parkinson’s disease is characterized by the -synuclein aggregation in the form of Lewy bodies in neuronal cells. Recent findings illustrate that manganese can cause overexpression of -synuclein. -Synuclein acts epigenetically via interaction with histone proteins in regulating apoptosis. -Synuclein also causes global DNA hypomethylation through sequestration of DNA methyltransferase in cytoplasm. An individual genetic difference may also have an influence on epigenetic susceptibility to manganese neurotoxicity and the development of Parkinson’s disease. This review presents the current state of findings in relation to role of epigenetic mechanism in manganese induced neurotoxicity, with a special emphasis on the development of Parkinson’s disease. Prashant Tarale, Tapan Chakrabarti, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Pravin Naoghare, Amit Bafana, and Kannan Krishnamurthi Copyright © 2016 Prashant Tarale et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Genomics of Herpesviridae Family to Look for Potential Signatures of Human Infecting Strains Thu, 26 May 2016 07:59:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2016/9543274/ Herpesviridae family is one of the significant viral families which comprises major pathogens of a wide range of hosts. This family includes at least eight species of viruses which are known to infect humans. This family has evolved 180–220 million years ago and the present study highlights that it is still evolving and more genes can be added to the repertoire of this family. In addition, its core-genome includes important viral proteins including glycoprotein B and helicase. Most of the infections caused by human herpesviruses have no definitive cure; thus, search for new therapeutic strategies is necessary. The present study finds core-genome of human herpesviruses that differs from that of Herpesviridae family and nonhuman herpes strains of this family and might be a putative target for vaccine development. The phylogenetic reconstruction based upon the protein sequences of core gene set of Herpesviridae family reveals the sharp splits of its different subfamilies and supports the hypothesis of coevolution of viruses with their hosts. In addition, data mining for cis-elements in the genomes of human herpesviruses results in the prediction of numerous regulatory elements which can be used for regulating the expression of viral based vectors implicated in gene therapies. Vikas Sharma, Fauzul Mobeen, and Tulika Prakash Copyright © 2016 Vikas Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Classification of Error-Diffused Halftone Images Based on Spectral Regression Kernel Discriminant Analysis Thu, 26 May 2016 07:56:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/am/2016/4985313/ This paper proposes a novel algorithm to solve the challenging problem of classifying error-diffused halftone images. We firstly design the class feature matrices, after extracting the image patches according to their statistics characteristics, to classify the error-diffused halftone images. Then, the spectral regression kernel discriminant analysis is used for feature dimension reduction. The error-diffused halftone images are finally classified using an idea similar to the nearest centroids classifier. As demonstrated by the experimental results, our method is fast and can achieve a high classification accuracy rate with an added benefit of robustness in tackling noise. Zhigao Zeng, Zhiqiang Wen, Shengqiu Yi, Sanyou Zeng, Yanhui Zhu, Qiang Liu, and Qi Tong Copyright © 2016 Zhigao Zeng et al. All rights reserved. An Impulsive Three-Species Model with Square Root Functional Response and Mutual Interference of Predator Thu, 26 May 2016 07:53:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3897234/ An impulsive two-prey and one-predator model with square root functional responses, mutual interference, and integrated pest management is constructed. By using techniques of impulsive perturbations, comparison theorem, and Floquet theory, the existence and global asymptotic stability of prey-eradication periodic solution are investigated. We use some methods and sufficient conditions to prove the permanence of the system which involve multiple Lyapunov functions and differential comparison theorem. Numerical simulations are given to portray the complex behaviors of this system. Finally, we analyze the biological meanings of these results and give some suggestions for feasible control strategies. Zhen Wang, Yuanfu Shao, Xianjia Fang, and Xiangmin Ma Copyright © 2016 Zhen Wang et al. All rights reserved. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome Thu, 26 May 2016 07:53:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2016/2576280/ Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary. Gerald Okanandu Udigwe, George Uchenna Eleje, Eric Chukwudi Ihekwoaba, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu Udegbunam, Richard Obinwanne Egeonu, and Ayodele Obianuju Okwuosa Copyright © 2016 Gerald Okanandu Udigwe et al. All rights reserved. Cellular Blue Nevus Diagnosed following Excision of Melanoma: A Challenge in Diagnosis Thu, 26 May 2016 07:51:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2016/8107671/ A case of a 41-year-old woman with a history of nodular melanoma (NM), associated with an indurated dome-shaped blue-black nodule with a diameter of 1.2 cm in the gluteal region, is presented. Clinical diagnosis of the lesion, present from birth, was blue nevus. Recently, the nodule has been showing a mild enlargement and thus complete resection was performed. Histological analysis revealed a pigmented lesion with an expansive pattern of extension into the dermis and the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The lesion displayed an alveolar pattern as well as a pigmented dendritic cell pattern. The histology was consistent with cellular blue nevus (CBN); however, the history of NM which was excised one year earlier, as well as the clinical information about the slow growing lesion, included a differential diagnosis of CBN, borderline melanocytic tumor, and malignant blue nevus. Additional immunohistochemical (HMB-45, p16, and Ki-67) and molecular (BRAF V600E mutation) analyses were performed on both lesions: the CBN-like and the previously excised NM. Along with lesion history and histological analyses, p16 staining and BRAF were useful diagnostic tools for confirming the benign nature of CBN in this case. Nives Jonjić, Andrea Dekanić, Nedeljka Glavan, Larisa Prpić-Massari, and Blaženka Grahovac Copyright © 2016 Nives Jonjić et al. All rights reserved.