Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Accumulation of Extracellular Hyaluronan by Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Promotes Tumor Growth and Modulates the Pancreatic Cancer Microenvironment Thu, 24 Jul 2014 18:42:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/817613/ Extensive accumulation of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is found in pancreatic cancer. The role of hyaluronan synthases 2 and 3 (HAS2, 3) was investigated in pancreatic cancer growth and the tumor microenvironment. Overexpression of HAS3 increased hyaluronan synthesis in BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells. In vivo, overexpression of HAS3 led to faster growing xenograft tumors with abundant extracellular hyaluronan accumulation. Treatment with pegylated human recombinant hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) removed extracellular hyaluronan and dramatically decreased the growth rate of BxPC-3 HAS3 tumors compared to parental tumors. PEGPH20 had a weaker effect on HAS2-overexpressing tumors which grew more slowly and contained both extracellular and intracellular hyaluronan. Accumulation of hyaluronan was associated with loss of plasma membrane E-cadherin and accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin, suggesting disruption of adherens junctions. PEGPH20 decreased the amount of nuclear hypoxia-related proteins and induced translocation of E-cadherin and β-catenin to the plasma membrane. Translocation of E-cadherin was also seen in tumors from a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer and in a human non-small cell lung cancer sample from a patient treated with PEGPH20. In conclusion, hyaluronan accumulation by HAS3 favors pancreatic cancer growth, at least in part by decreasing epithelial cell adhesion, and PEGPH20 inhibits these changes and suppresses tumor growth. Anne Kultti, Chunmei Zhao, Netai C. Singha, Susan Zimmerman, Ryan J. Osgood, Rebecca Symons, Ping Jiang, Xiaoming Li, Curtis B. Thompson, Jeffrey R. Infante, Michael A. Jacobetz, David A. Tuveson, Gregory I. Frost, H. Michael Shepard, and Zhongdong Huang Copyright © 2014 Anne Kultti et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Amphiregulin Induced MMP-13 Production in Human Osteoarthritis Synovial Fibroblast Thu, 24 Jul 2014 18:42:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/759028/ Osteoarthritis (OA) belongs to a group of degenerative diseases. Synovial inflammation, cartilage abrasion, and subchondral sclerosis are characteristics of OA. Researchers do not fully understand the exact etiology of OA. However, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are responsible for cartilage matrix degradation, play a pivotal role in the progression of OA. Amphiregulin (AREG) binds to the EGF receptor (EGFR) and activates downstream proteins. AREG is involved in a variety of pathological processes, such as the development of tumors, inflammatory diseases, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the relationship between AREG and MMP-13 in OA synovial fibroblasts (SFs) remains unclear. We investigated the signaling pathway involved in AREG-induced MMP-13 production in SFs. AREG caused MMP-13 production in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The results of using pharmacological inhibitors and EGFR siRNA to block EGFR revealed that the EGFR receptor was involved in the AREG-mediated upregulation of MMP-13. AREG-mediated MMP-13 production was attenuated by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. The stimulation of cells by using AREG activated p65 phosphorylation and p65 translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Our results provide evidence that AREG acts through the EGFR and activates PI3K, Akt, and finally NF-kappaB on the MMP-13 promoter, thus contributing to cartilage destruction during osteoarthritis. Yi-Te Chen, Chun-Han Hou, Sheng-Mou Hou, and Ju-Fang Liu Copyright © 2014 Yi-Te Chen et al. All rights reserved. Auricular Electroacupuncture Reduced Inflammation-Related Epilepsy Accompanied by Altered TRPA1, pPKCα, pPKCε, and pERk1/2 Signaling Pathways in Kainic Acid-Treated Rats Thu, 24 Jul 2014 18:41:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/493480/ Background. Inflammation is often considered to play a crucial role in epilepsy by affecting iron status and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the curative effect of auricular acupuncture and somatic acupuncture on kainic acid- (KA-) induced epilepsy in rats. Methods. We established an epileptic seizure model in rats by KA (12 mg, ip). The 2 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at auricular and applied at Zusanli and Shangjuxu (ST36-ST37) acupoints for 20 min for 3 days/week for 6 weeks beginning on the day following the KA injection. Results. The electrophysiological results indicated that neuron overexcitation occurred in the KA-treated rats. This phenomenon could be reversed among either the auricular EA or ST36-ST37 EA treatment, but not in the sham-control rats. The Western blot results revealed that TRPA1, but not TRPV4, was upregulated by injecting KA and could be attenuated by administering auricular or ST36-ST37 EA, but not in the sham group. In addition, potentiation of TRPA1 was accompanied by increased PKCα and reduced PKCε. Furthermore, pERK1/2, which is indicated in inflammation, was also increased by KA. Furthermore, the aforementioned mechanisms could be reversed by administering auricular EA and could be partially reversed by ST36-ST37 EA. Conclusions. These results indicate a novel mechanism for treating inflammation-associated epilepsy and can be translated into clinical therapy. Yi-Wen Lin and Ching-Liang Hsieh Copyright © 2014 Yi-Wen Lin and Ching-Liang Hsieh. All rights reserved. Detecting Epistatic Interactions in Metagenome-Wide Association Studies by metaBOOST Thu, 24 Jul 2014 18:41:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/398147/ Material and Methods. We recall the definition of epistasis and extend it for metagenomic biomarkers and then we describe the overview of our method metaBOOST and provide detailed information about each step of metaBOOST. Results. We describe the data sources for both simulation studies and real metagenomic datasets. Then, we describe the procedure of simulation studies and provide results for it. After that, we conduct real datasets studies and report the results. Conclusions and Discussion. Finally, we conclude our method and discuss some possible improvements for the future. Mengmeng Wu and Rui Jiang Copyright © 2014 Mengmeng Wu and Rui Jiang. All rights reserved. Effects of Annealing on TiN Thin Film Growth by DC Magnetron Sputtering Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:09:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/373847/ We have reviewed the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) thin films on stainless steel substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering method and annealing at different annealing temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C for 120 min in nitrogen/argon atmospheres. Effects of annealing temperatures on the structural and the optical properties of TiN films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Our experimental studies reveal that the annealing temperature appreciably affected the structures, crystallite sizes, and reflection of the films. By increasing the annealing temperature to 700°C crystallinity and reflection of the film increase. These results suggest that annealed TiN films can be good candidate for tokamak first wall due to their structural and optical properties. Azadeh Jafari, Z. Ghoranneviss, A. Salar Elahi, M. Ghoranneviss, N. Fasihi Yazdi, and A. Rezaei Copyright © 2014 Azadeh Jafari et al. All rights reserved. Analyzing Density Operator in Thermal State for Complicated Time-Dependent Optical Systems Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:05:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ao/2014/141076/ Density operator of oscillatory optical systems with time-dependent parameters is analyzed. In this case, a system is described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. Invariant operator theory is introduced in order to describe time-varying behavior of the system. Due to the time dependence of parameters, the frequency of oscillation, so-called a modified frequency of the system, is somewhat different from the natural frequency. In general, density operator of a time-dependent optical system is represented in terms of the modified frequency. We showed how to determine density operator of complicated time-dependent optical systems in thermal state. Usually, density operator description of quantum states is more general than the one described in terms of the state vector. Jeong Ryeol Choi, Ji Nny Song, and Yeontaek Choi Copyright © 2014 Jeong Ryeol Choi et al. All rights reserved. Multipoint Iterative Methods for Finding All the Simple Zeros in an Interval Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:04:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/601205/ Two new families of multipoint without memory iterative methods with eighth- and sixteenth-orders are constructed using the symbolic software Mathematica. The key idea in constructing such methods is based on producing some generic suitable functions to reduce the functional evaluations and increase the order of convergence along the computational efficiency. Again by applying Mathematica, we design a hybrid algorithm to capture all the simple real solutions of nonlinear equations in an interval. The application of the new schemes in producing fractal pictures is also furnished. T. Lotfi, F. Soleymani, S. Sharifi, S. Shateyi, and F. Khaksar Haghani Copyright © 2014 T. Lotfi et al. All rights reserved. Design of Tunable Monopole Arm Planar Spiral Antenna for Cognitive Radio Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:03:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aee/2014/593194/ This paper presents a spiral antenna design operating in the frequency range of 1–15 GHz having both selective notch bands and wideband response. The main feed arm of spiral antenna is configured as rectangular monopole of width quarter wavelength to achieve impedance matching with standard 50 Ω excitation. Frequency tuning in the design is achieved by placing varactor diode at an appropriate position along the spiral arms and in the ground plane. The design offers a peak gain of 3.4 dB (simulated) and 3 dB (measured). The unique frequency response of antenna makes its suitable to be used for front-end system of cognitive radio for sensing the spectrum in various modes. Rahul Yadav Copyright © 2014 Rahul Yadav. All rights reserved. Optimization Method for Girder of Wind Turbine Blade Thu, 24 Jul 2014 14:01:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/898736/ This paper presents a recently developed numerical multidisciplinary optimization method for design of wind turbine blade. The objective was the highest possible blade weight under specified atmospheric conditions, determined by the design giving girder layer and location parameter. Wind turbine blade on box-section beams girder is calculated by ply thickness, main girder and trailing edge. In this study, a realistic 30 m blade from a 1.2 MW wind turbine model of blade girder parameters is established. The optimization evolves a structure which transforms along the length of the blade, changing from a design with spar caps at the maximum thickness and a trailing edge mass to a design with spar caps toward the tip. In addition, the cross-section structural properties and the modal characteristics of a 62 m rotor blade were predicted by the developed beam finite element. In summary, these findings indicate that the conventional structural layout of a wind turbine blade is suboptimal under the static load conditions, suggesting an opportunity to reduce blade weight and cost. Yuqiao Zheng, Rongzhen Zhao, and Hong Liu Copyright © 2014 Yuqiao Zheng et al. All rights reserved. A 3-Arm, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Heat-Sensitive Moxibustion Therapy to Determine Superior Effect among Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:26:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/154941/ Systematic reviews of moxibustion for LDH have identified ponderable evidence, especially for heat-sensitive moxibustion (HSM). Therefore, we designed and carried out the large sample trial to evaluate it. 456 patients were recruited from 4 centers in China and were randomly divided into three groups by the ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 to HSM (152) group, conventional moxibustion (152) group, and conventional drug plus acupuncture (152) group. Compared with usual care, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean M-JOA score at 2 weeks and 6 months for HSM (3.8 ± 2.6 versus 8.5 ± 2.9; 3.7 ± 2.2 versus 10.1 ± 2.9) and conventional moxibustion (7.9 ± 3.0 versus 8.5 ± 2.9; 8.9 ± 3.1 versus 10.1 ± 2.9). Compared with conventional moxibustion group, HSM group showed greater improvement in all the outcomes. The mean dose of moxibustion was 41.13 ± 5.26 (range 21–60) minutes in the HSM group. We found that HSM was more effective in treating patients with LDH, compared with conventional moxibustion and conventional drug plus acupuncture. This finding indicated that the application of moxibustion on the heat-sensitive points is a good moxibustion technique in treating disease. Rixin Chen, Mingren Chen, Tongsheng Su, Meiqi Zhou, Jianhua Sun, Jun Xiong, Zhenhai Chi, Dingyi Xie, and Bo Zhang Copyright © 2014 Rixin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Some New Lacunary Strong Convergent Vector-Valued Sequence Spaces Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:23:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/858504/ We introduce some vector-valued sequence spaces defined by a Musielak-Orlicz function and the concepts of lacunary convergence and strong ()-convergence, where is an infinite matrix of complex numbers. We also make an effort to study some topological properties and some inclusion relations between these spaces. M. Mursaleen, A. Alotaibi, and Sunil K. Sharma Copyright © 2014 M. Mursaleen et al. All rights reserved. The TIR Domain Containing Locus of Enterococcus faecalis Is Predominant among Urinary Tract Infection Isolates and Downregulates Host Inflammatory Response Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:52:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmicro/2014/918143/ Based on Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain structure homology, we detected a previously uncharacterized gene encoding for a TIR domain containing protein (Tcp) in the genome of Enterococcus faecalis. We assigned this gene the name tcpF (as in Tcp of E. faecalis). Screening of E. faecalis samples revealed that tcpF is more common in isolates from urinary tract infections (UTIs) than in human faecal flora. tcpF alleles showed moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) among UTI isolates. Infection of mouse RAW264.7 macrophages with a tcpF knock-out mutant led to elevated cytokine response compared to the isogenic wild type E. faecalis strain. In silico analysis predicted significant tertiary structure homology to the TIR domain of human TLR1 (TLR1-TIR). When transiently expressed in cultured eukaryotic cells, TcpF caused suppression of TLR2-dependent NF-κB activation suggesting for TcpF a role as a factor in E. faecalis that benefits colonization by modulating the host’s immune responses. Thomas Daniel Kraemer, Orlando Daniel Quintanar Haro, Eugen Domann, Trinad Chakraborty, and Svetlin Tchatalbachev Copyright © 2014 Thomas Daniel Kraemer et al. All rights reserved. Applications of the Exponential Function of the Euclidean Motion Group to the Theory of Gearing Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:51:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/869580/ The present paper provides a first step to a new approach to the theory of gearing, which uses modern differential geometry in order to ensure a strict and coordinate-independent formulation. Here, we are mainly concerned with a basic equation, namely, the equation of meshing, of two rotating surfaces in mesh. Since we are able to solve this equation by the time parameter, we derive parameterizations of the mating pinion from a bevel gear as well as a parameterization for gears produced by special machine tools. Baozhen Lei, Harald Löwe, and Xunwei Wang Copyright © 2014 Baozhen Lei et al. All rights reserved. Transparent Electrodes with Nanotubes and Graphene for Printed Optoelectronic Applications Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:40:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/143094/ We report here on printed electroluminescent structures containing transparent electrodes made of carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets. Screen-printing and spray-coating techniques were employed. Electrodes and structures were examined towards optical parameters using spectrophotometer and irradiation meter. Electromechanical properties of transparent electrodes are exterminated with cyclical bending test. Accelerated aging process was conducted according to EN 62137 standard for reliability tests of electronics. We observed significant negative influence of mechanical bending on sheet resistivity of ITO, while resistivity of nanotube and graphene based electrodes remained stable. Aging process has also negative influence on ITO based structures resulting in delamination of printed layers, while those based on carbon nanomaterials remained intact. We observe negligible changes in irradiation for structures with carbon nanotube electrodes after accelerated aging process. Such materials demonstrate a high application potential in general purpose electroluminescent devices. Marcin Słoma, Grzegorz Wróblewski, Daniel Janczak, and Małgorzata Jakubowska Copyright © 2014 Marcin Słoma et al. All rights reserved. Multifeature Fusion Vehicle Detection Algorithm Based on Choquet Integral Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/701058/ Vision-based multivehicle detection plays an important role in Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) and Blind Spot Detection Systems (BSDS). The performance of these systems depends on the real-time capability, accuracy, and robustness of vehicle detection methods. To improve the accuracy of vehicle detection algorithm, we propose a multifeature fusion vehicle detection algorithm based on Choquet integral. This algorithm divides the vehicle detection problem into two phases: feature similarity measure and multifeature fusion. In the feature similarity measure phase, we first propose a taillight-based vehicle detection method, and then vehicle taillight feature similarity measure is defined. Second, combining with the definition of Choquet integral, the vehicle symmetry similarity measure and the HOG + AdaBoost feature similarity measure are defined. Finally, these three features are fused together by Choquet integral. Being evaluated on public test collections and our own test images, the experimental results show that our method has achieved effective and robust multivehicle detection in complicated environments. Our method can not only improve the detection rate but also reduce the false alarm rate, which meets the engineering requirements of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Wenhui Li, Peixun Liu, Ying Wang, and Hongyin Ni Copyright © 2014 Wenhui Li et al. All rights reserved. Theoretical Study on Electronic Structure and Optical Performance of Nickel and Nitrogen Codoped Rutile Titanium Dioxide Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:32:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/168276/ The nickel doped, nitrogen doped and nickel + nitrogen codoped rutile titanium dioxide have been investigated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The electronic structure and optical performance of different ions doping models are researched through the obtained results, which reflects that the band gap of nickel and nitrogen codoped system declines apparently; the decrease of electron-hole pairs separation and charge carriers recombination rate becomes more desirable. Moreover, the optical absorption curves of nitrogen and nickel codoped rutile titanium dioxide demonstrate the higher photoresponse for visible-light than that of nickel or nitrogen single doped. The above results could provide theoretical basis for further developing of titanium dioxide photocatalyst and related experimental studies. Fei Wang, Lei Feng, Dongmei Zhang, Qingguo Tang, Jinsheng Liang, and Dan Feng Copyright © 2014 Fei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of MMP-2 Expression with siRNA Increases Baseline Cardiomyocyte Contractility and Protects against Simulated Ischemic Reperfusion Injury Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:30:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/810371/ Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) significantly contribute to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, namely, by the degradation of contractile proteins. However, due to the experimental models adopted and lack of isoform specificity of MMP inhibitors, the cellular source and identity of the MMP(s) involved in I/R injury remain to be elucidated. Using isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes, subjected to chemically induced I/R-like injury, we show that specific inhibition of MMP-2 expression and activity using MMP-2 siRNA significantly protected cardiomyocyte contractility from I/R-like injury. This was also associated with increased expression of myosin light chains 1 and 2 (MLC1/2) in comparison to scramble siRNA transfection. Moreover, the positive effect of MMP-2 siRNA transfection on cardiomyocyte contractility and MLC1/2 expression levels was also observed under control conditions, suggesting an important additional role for MMP-2 in physiological sarcomeric protein turnover. This study clearly demonstrates that intracellular expression of MMP-2 plays a significant role in sarcomeric protein turnover, such as MLC1 and MLC2, under aerobic (physiological) conditions. In addition, this study identifies intracellular/autocrine, cardiomyocyte-produced MMP-2, rather than paracrine/extracellular, as responsible for the degradation of MLC1/2 and consequent contractile dysfunction in cardiomyocytes subjected to I/R injury. Han-Bin Lin, Virgilio J. J. Cadete, Bikramjit Sra, Jolanta Sawicka, Zhicheng Chen, Lane K. Bekar, Francisco Cayabyab, and Grzegorz Sawicki Copyright © 2014 Han-Bin Lin et al. All rights reserved. Man with a Forehead Mass: Detection of a Forehead Pseudoaneurysm with Bedside Ultrasonography Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:29:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2014/647175/ A vascular pseudoaneurysm can present similarly to an abscess; yet incision and drainage of a pseudoaneurysm can lead to uncontrolled bleeding and expose the patient to further morbidity. This is a case of a patient with a forehead pseudoaneurysm who presented to our emergency room after blunt head trauma. Here we review different diagnostic modalities as well as some of the treatment options that are described in the literature. Amin Abdi, Erick Armijo, Dina Seif, and Tarina Kang Copyright © 2014 Amin Abdi et al. All rights reserved. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey) Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:27:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/352654/ The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. Savaş Topal and Mehmet Özkul Copyright © 2014 Savaş Topal and Mehmet Özkul. All rights reserved. EVD Dualdating Based Online Subspace Learning Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:26:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/429451/ Conventional incremental PCA methods usually only discuss the situation of adding samples. In this paper, we consider two different cases: deleting samples and simultaneously adding and deleting samples. To avoid the NP-hard problem of downdating SVD without right singular vectors and specific position information, we choose to use EVD instead of SVD, which is used by most IPCA methods. First, we propose an EVD updating and downdating algorithm, called EVD dualdating, which permits simultaneous arbitrary adding and deleting operation, via transforming the EVD of the covariance matrix into a SVD updating problem plus an EVD of a small autocorrelation matrix. A comprehensive analysis is delivered to express the essence, expansibility, and computation complexity of EVD dualdating. A mathematical theorem proves that if the whole data matrix satisfies the low-rank-plus-shift structure, EVD dualdating is an optimal rank-k estimator under the sequential environment. A selection method based on eigenvalues is presented to determine the optimal rank k of the subspace. Then, we propose three incremental/decremental PCA methods: EVDD-IPCA, EVDD-DPCA, and EVDD-IDPCA, which are adaptive to the varying mean. Finally, plenty of comparative experiments demonstrate that EVDD-based methods outperform conventional incremental/decremental PCA methods in both efficiency and accuracy. Bo Jin, Zhongliang Jing, and Haitao Zhao Copyright © 2014 Bo Jin et al. All rights reserved. The Fence Methods Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:13:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/as/2014/830821/ This paper provides an overview of a recently developed class of strategies for model selection, known as the fence methods. It also offers directions of future research as well as challenging problems. Jiming Jiang Copyright © 2014 Jiming Jiang. All rights reserved. Optimal Finite-Time State Estimation for Discrete-Time Switched Systems under Switching Frequency Constraint Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:09:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/512485/ The state estimation problem for a class of switched linear systems which only switches in some short interval is addressed. Besides the asymptotic stability of error dynamics, the boundness of error state is a significant issue for short-time switched systems. By introducing the concept of finite-time stability, the state estimation procedure is formulated to determine appropriate observer gains ensuring the error dynamics is finite-time stable in the short-time switching intervals of interest. Optimal finite-time observers are designed through iterative algorithms to minimize the bound of error state, in the cases with and without disturbances. Particularly, when the total activation time is known, a less conservative result can be derived and an optimization problem can be solved with the help of the genetic algorithm. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the theoretical findings in this paper. Lin Du, Weiming Xiang, and Yongchi Zhao Copyright © 2014 Lin Du et al. All rights reserved. Capacity of κ-μ Shadowed Fading Channels Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:07:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/975109/ The ergodic capacity of fading channels modeled with a κ-μ shadowed distribution is investigated to derive closed-form expressions. The κ-μ shadowed distribution is of particular interest because it contains, as special cases, other classical ones like one-side Gaussian, Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, κ-μ, and Rician shadowed distributions. The paper discusses the physical meaning of the distribution parameter variations and also their impact on the channel capacity. These results can be used to study the behavior of different channels like the ones in underwater acoustic communications, land mobile satellite systems, body centric communications, and other wireless communication applications. The analytical closed-form expression results are validated with numerical simulations. Celia García-Corrales, Francisco J. Cañete, and José F. Paris Copyright © 2014 Celia García-Corrales et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Analysis of an -Galerkin Mixed Finite Element Method for Time Fractional Telegraph Equation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:04:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/371413/ We discuss and analyze an -Galerkin mixed finite element (-GMFE) method to look for the numerical solution of time fractional telegraph equation. We introduce an auxiliary variable to reduce the original equation into lower-order coupled equations and then formulate an -GMFE scheme with two important variables. We discretize the Caputo time fractional derivatives using the finite difference methods and approximate the spatial direction by applying the -GMFE method. Based on the discussion on the theoretical error analysis in -norm for the scalar unknown and its gradient in one dimensional case, we obtain the optimal order of convergence in space-time direction. Further, we also derive the optimal error results for the scalar unknown in -norm. Moreover, we derive and analyze the stability of -GMFE scheme and give the results of a priori error estimates in two- or three-dimensional cases. In order to verify our theoretical analysis, we give some results of numerical calculation by using the Matlab procedure. Jinfeng Wang, Meng Zhao, Min Zhang, Yang Liu, and Hong Li Copyright © 2014 Jinfeng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Flexural Toughness Properties of Reinforced Steel Fibre Incorporated Alkali Activated Slag Concrete Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:56:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ace/2014/719436/ The influence of steel fibre addition on the flexural properties of geopolymer based cementitious matrix was investigated in the present study. Slag based geopolymer mixtures were prepared with different binder and aggregate combinations. Strength gain and hardened properties of different geopolymer concrete mixtures were evaluated using accelerated curing techniques subjected to hot air oven and steam curing. Further, the steel fibre additions on the mechanical strength properties of a high strength geopolymer mixture were studied. A comprehensive evaluation on the post-crack toughness properties was assessed using four-point bend test. Test results exhibited that a geopolymer concrete of maximum compressive strength of 56.6 MPa can be achieved with steam curing. Experimental observations also demonstrated that the steel fibre inclusions in geopolymer concrete provided adequate improvement on post-crack toughness properties and showed higher composite performance with increased volume fraction of steel fibres. Srinivasan Karunanithi and Sivakumar Anandan Copyright © 2014 Srinivasan Karunanithi and Sivakumar Anandan. All rights reserved. Performance-Based Evaluation of Large Steel-Framed Structures in the Overall Fire Process Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:56:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/604936/ This paper proposes a systematic analysis of fire hazards within an oversized steel-framed building that is taller and wider than usual, using a performance-based approach. We put forth both the method and the performance criteria for performance-based fire design of oversized steel-framed buildings and quantitatively evaluate the hazard factors (smoke temperature, smoke visibility, smoke toxicity, and structural collapse) in fire condition. FDS large eddy simulation and a modified temperature rise model of oversized steel structures were proposed for the quantitative analysis of hazard factors. Furthermore, we also studied evacuation process from oversized buildings and found that the Pathfinder model (developed based on water conservation model and behavior model) can accurately predict the evacuation process from oversized buildings based on our experimental study of an evacuation from a stadium. By comparing the time of occurrence of fire hazard factors (smoke temperature, smoke visibility, smoke toxicity, and structural collapse) and the time needed for safe evacuation, we could conduct a quantitative fire risk assessment on personal evacuation. And the time of occurrence of fire hazard factors can also provide a theoretical reference for emergency rescuers. Guoqing Zhu, Guowei Zhang, Guanglin Yuan, and Qingtao Li Copyright © 2014 Guoqing Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Chemical Reactions on Unsteady Free Convective and Mass Transfer Flow from a Vertical Cone with Heat Generation/Absorption in the Presence of VWT/VWC Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:55:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/849570/ A mathematical model for the effects of chemical reaction and heat generation/absorption on unsteady laminar free convective flow with heat and mass transfer over an incompressible viscous fluid past a vertical permeable cone with nonuniform surface temperature and concentration is considered here. The dimensionless governing boundary layer equations of the flow that are transient, coupled, and nonlinear partial differential equations are solved by an efficient, accurate, and unconditionally stable finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicholson type. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles have been studied for various parameters, namely, chemical reaction parameter , the heat generation and absorption parameter , Schmidt number Sc, Prandtl number , buoyancy ratio parameter , surface temperature power law exponent , and surface concentration power law exponent . The local as well as average skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are discussed and analyzed graphically. The present results are compared with available results in open literature and are found to be in excellent agreement. Bapuji Pullepu, P. Sambath, and K. K. Viswanathan Copyright © 2014 Bapuji Pullepu et al. All rights reserved. Association between Peak Neutrophil Count, Clopidogrel Loading Dose, and Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Patients with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:54:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/482763/ Inflammation plays an important role in plaque development and left ventricular remodeling during acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Clopidogrel may exhibit some anti-inflammatory properties and high loading dose of clopidogrel results in improved clinical outcomes in patients with AMI. 357 patients who received successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention from January 2008 to March 2011 in Peking University Third Hospital were included in this study. Different loading dose of clopidogrel (300 mg, 450 mg, or 600 mg) was given at the discretion of the clinician. Neutrophils reached their peak values on the first day after AMI. Higher levels of peak neutrophil and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were found in patients of low clopidogrel loading dose group (300 mg or 450 mg). After adjusting for the related confounders, a logistic regression model showed that low clopidogrel loading dose remained an independent predictor of low LVEF (LVEF ≤ 50%) [OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03–3.79, P = 0.04]. Low clopidogrel loading dose was associated with higher peak neutrophil count and poor left ventricular systolic function, suggesting an important role of clopidogrel loading dose in the improvement of left ventricular function and high loading dose may exhibit better anti-inflammatory properties. Xinyu Wang, Haiyi Yu, Zhaoping Li, Liuning Li, Youyi Zhang, and Wei Gao Copyright © 2014 Xinyu Wang et al. All rights reserved. Boundary Layer Flow due to the Vibration of a Sphere Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:54:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/191606/ Boundary layer flow of the Newtonian fluid that is caused by the vibration of inner sphere while the outer sphere is at rest is calculated. Vishik-Lyusternik (Nayfeh refers to this method as the method of composite expansions) method is employed to construct an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in the limit of high-frequency vibrations for Reynolds number of . The effect of the Stokes drift of fluid particles is also considered. Muhammad Adil Sadiq Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Adil Sadiq. All rights reserved. Some Hermite-Hadamard Type Inequalities for Harmonically s-Convex Functions Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:53:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/279158/ We establish some estimates of the right-hand side of Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for functions whose derivatives absolute values are harmonically s-convex. Several Hermite-Hadamard type inequalities for products of two harmonically s-convex functions are also considered. Feixiang Chen and Shanhe Wu Copyright © 2014 Feixiang Chen and Shanhe Wu. All rights reserved. Expert System for Competences Evaluation 360° Feedback Using Fuzzy Logic Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:53:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/789234/ Performance evaluation (PE) is a process that estimates the employee overall performance during a given period, and it is a common function carried out inside modern companies. PE is important because it is an instrument that encourages employees, organizational areas, and the whole company to have an appropriate behavior and continuous improvement. In addition, PE is useful in decision making about personnel allocation, productivity bonuses, incentives, promotions, disciplinary measures, and dismissals. There are many performance evaluation methods; however, none is universal and common to all companies. This paper proposes an expert performance evaluation system based on a fuzzy logic model, with competences 360° feedback oriented to human behavior. This model uses linguistic labels and adjustable numerical values to represent ambiguous concepts, such as imprecision and subjectivity. The model was validated in the administrative department of a real Mexican manufacturing company, where final results and conclusions show the fuzzy logic method advantages in comparison with traditional 360° performance evaluation methodologies. Alberto Alfonso Aguilar Lasserre, Marina Violeta Lafarja Solabac, Roberto Hernandez-Torres, Rubén Posada-Gomez, Ulises Juárez-Martínez, and Gregorio Fernández Lambert Copyright © 2014 Alberto Alfonso Aguilar Lasserre et al. All rights reserved. Self-Assembly of Rice Bran Globulin Fibrils in Electrostatic Screening: Nanostructure and Gels Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:52:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/951240/ The effects of various ionic strengths and protein concentrations on the fibrils structure and gel properties of rice bran globulin (RBG) at pH 2.0 were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), rheometer, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). AFM images showed the morphology of assembling RBG fibrils from strand beads to becoming branch clustered, when electrostatic repulsive forces attenuated gradually with increasing ionic strength. NaCl seems to accelerate the kinetics of fibrils formation, resulting in a significant increase in Th T fluorescence intensity. The increased ionic strengths promote particle size increasing and zeta potential decreasing synchronously. The percolation model be used to calculate theoretical RBG gels concentration at various ionic strengths (0–500 mM), which decreased from 15.17 ± 0.63 to 2.26 ± 0.27 wt%. SEM images exhibited a granular mesh-like gel structure. A more homogenous structure occurred in low ionic strength. This study elucidates properties of RBG fibrils and gels as a bioactive material. Lihua Huang, Yehui Zhang, and Haibin Li Copyright © 2014 Lihua Huang et al. All rights reserved. Runoff Potentiality of a Watershed through SCS and Functional Data Analysis Technique Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:50:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/379763/ Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN), soil conservation service (SCS), and functional data analysis (FDA) techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling. M. I. Adham, S. M. Shirazi, F. Othman, S. Rahman, Z. Yusop, and Z. Ismail Copyright © 2014 M. I. Adham et al. All rights reserved. Five Canalled and Three-Rooted Primary Second Mandibular Molar Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:48:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/216491/ A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of root canal procedures. Morphological variations such as additional root canals in human deciduous dentition are rare. A mandibular second primary molar with more than four canals is an interesting example of anatomic variations, especially when three of these canals are located in the distal root. This case shows a rare anatomic configuration and points out the importance of looking for additional canals. Haridoss Selvakumar, Swaminathan Kavitha, Rajendran Bharathan, and Jacob Sam Varghese Copyright © 2014 Haridoss Selvakumar et al. All rights reserved. In Situ Study of Thermal Stability of Copper Oxide Nanowires at Anaerobic Environment Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:47:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/670849/ Many metal oxides with promising electrochemical properties were developed recently. Before those metal oxides realize the use as an anode in lithium ion batteries, their thermal stability at anaerobic environment inside batteries should be clearly understood for safety. In this study, copper oxide nanowires were investigated as an example. Several kinds of in situ experiment methods including in situ optical microscopy, in situ Raman spectrum, and in situ transmission electron microscopy were adopted to fully investigate their thermal stability at anaerobic environment. Copper oxide nanowires begin to transform as copper(I) oxide at about 250°C and finish at about 400°C. The phase transformation proceeds with a homogeneous nucleation. Lihui Zhang, Qiong Feng, Anmin Nie, Jiabin Liu, Hongtao Wang, and Youtong Fang Copyright © 2014 Lihui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Infrared-Mediated Drug Elution Activity of Gold Nanorod-Grafted TiO2 Nanotubes Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:47:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/750813/ The purpose of this research was to prepare gold nanorod- (GNR-) grafted TiO2 nanotubes by thiolactic acid treatment and evaluate remote-controlled drug elution and antibacterial activity by infrared (IR) light irradiation. Tetracycline used as an antibiotic was loaded into GNR-grafted TiO2 nanotubes by using 2 w/v% polylactic acid solutions. A near-IR laser (830 nm) was used for remote-controlled IR light irradiation. Results of SEM, TEM, XRD, and EDX revealed that GNR chemically bonded to the whole surface of the TiO2 nanotubes. An antibiotic release test revealed that on-off drug elution was triggered effectively by the photothermal effect of GNR grafted on TiO2 nanotubes. Furthermore, an antibacterial agar zone test indicated that the annihilated zone of Streptococcus mutans in the experimental group with IR light irradiation was significantly larger than that of the corresponding group without IR light irradiation (). Therefore, GNR-grafted TiO2 nanotubes would be expected to extend the limited usage of TiO2, which show photocatalytic activity only within the ultraviolet (UV) to IR region, thereby allowing the development of novel fusion technologies in the field of implant materials. Kyung-Suk Moon, Ji-Myung Bae, Sungho Jin, and Seunghan Oh Copyright © 2014 Kyung-Suk Moon et al. All rights reserved. An Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students and Interns Awareness of Radiation Exposure to Common Diagnostic Imaging Procedures Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:46:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ara/2014/426909/ Objectives. To evaluate the level of knowledge about the radiation exposure to diagnostic imaging procedures among the final-year medical students and interns and to suggest how education could be improved. Material and Methods. All 355 final-year medical students and interns from Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa were included in the study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of their actual knowledge on ionizing radiation and on their preferred method of learning. All questions were in multiple choice formats ranging from 4 to 7 choices. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical software. Results. A total of 343 completed questionnaires were received. Up to 78.9% of respondents underestimated or do not know the radiation dose from commonly requested radiological procedures. Surprisingly, 245 (71.4%) and 254 (79.3%) students incorrectly believed that ultrasound and MRI, respectively, emit ionizing radiation or they do not know if they emit radiation or not. Both interns and medical students did not have significant difference in their knowledge of ionizing radiation. A combination of tutorials or workshops (29.7%) and learning modules (19.8%) combined were their first and last preferred methods of teaching for future radiation awareness, respectively.  Conclusion. This study has clearly shown that awareness of ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging is lacking among senior medical students and interns. The results highlight the need for improved education to minimize unnecessary exposure of patients. Seife Teferi Dellie, Daniel Admassie, and Yenework Ewnetu Copyright © 2014 Seife Teferi Dellie et al. All rights reserved. Critically Reflexive Theory: A Proposal for Nursing Education Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:45:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anurs/2014/594360/ Nursing is a discipline in transition. As the complexity and acuity of patients increase, nurses are taking on a more comprehensive role in health care leadership and patient outcomes. As the discipline has evolved so has the curricular framework of nursing educational programs, moving from being based on a specific nursing theory, to a general metaparadigm, to the current focus on meeting curricular content standards developed by national accrediting agencies. When considering the skills needed to fully engage in critical thinking and patient advocacy there may be room for an additional curricular focus: that of metacognitive development based on critical theory and constructivism. The empowerment of students via metacognitive and self-evaluative practices also supports the critical theory pedagogy. If graduating nurses are presented with a cohesive and comprehensive curriculum that meets the need for competent and critically reflexive nurses the discipline of nursing can continue to expand in function and voice. The use of metacognition, constructivism, competency, and critical pedagogies in a unified and broad curricular framework allows for the development of these essential skills in contemporary nursing practice. This paper presents this innovative curricular framework that embodies these various teaching and learning perspectives. Jayne Josephsen Copyright © 2014 Jayne Josephsen. All rights reserved. OrclassWeb: A Tool Based on the Classification Methodology ORCLASS from Verbal Decision Analysis Framework Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:45:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/238168/ The decision making is present in every activity of the human world, either in simple day-by-day problems or in complex situations inside of an organization. Sometimes emotions and reasons become hard to separate; therefore decision support methods were created to help decision makers to make complex decisions, and Decision Support Systems (DSS) were created to aid the application of such methods. The paper presents the development of a new tool, which reproduces the procedure to apply the Verbal Decision Analysis (VDA) methodology ORCLASS. The tool, called OrclassWeb, is software that supports the process of the mentioned DSS method and the paper provides proof of concepts, that which presents its reliability with ORCLASS. Thais Cristina Sampaio Machado, Plácido Rogerio Pinheiro, and Isabelle Tamanini Copyright © 2014 Thais Cristina Sampaio Machado et al. All rights reserved. Difference in Early Activation of NF-κB and MCP-1 in Acinar-Cell-Rich versus Fibrotic Human Pancreas Exposed to Surgical Trauma and Hypoxia Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:44:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2014/460363/ Objectives. Previously we have shown that a pancreas with over 40% acinar cells is exposed to postoperative pancreatitis and other complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Our aim was to analyze the expression of NF-κB and MCP-1 in the cut edge of human pancreas after PD in both acinar-cell-rich and fibrotic pancreata. Methods. Several pancreatic samples from six patients, three with acinar-cell-rich and three with fibrotic pancreata, were exposed to surgical trauma in PD, and thereafter to hypoxemia for 15 minutes, 2–2.5 hours, 4 hours, or 6 hours, to mimic postoperative conditions of the pancreatic remnant in a patient. Immunohistochemical analysis of inflammation markers (NF-κB, MCP-1) was performed. Results. In the acinar-cell-rich pancreata, intra-acinar NF-κB and MCP-1 expression increased from mild at 15 minutes to high during the first 4 hours, whereas in ductal cells MCP-1 staining was highly intense at both time points. Acinar cell NF-κB and MCP-1 expression and ductal cell MCP-1 expression were also observed in the fibrotic pancreata, but the activation remained low throughout the 6 hours. Conclusions. In acinar-cell-rich pancreas, an extensive inflammatory cascade begins almost immediately after surgical trauma. Fibrosis may limit the progression of inflammatory process in pancreas. Matias Laaninen, Merja Bläuer, Juhani Sand, Isto Nordback, and Johanna Laukkarinen Copyright © 2014 Matias Laaninen et al. All rights reserved. Generalized Models for Rock Joint Surface Shapes Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:43:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/171873/ Generalized models of joint surface shapes are the foundation for mechanism studies on the mechanical effects of rock joint surface shapes. Based on extensive field investigations of rock joint surface shapes, generalized models for three level shapes named macroscopic outline, surface undulating shape, and microcosmic roughness were established through statistical analyses of 20,078 rock joint surface profiles. The relative amplitude of profile curves was used as a borderline for the division of different level shapes. The study results show that the macroscopic outline has three basic features such as planar, arc-shaped, and stepped; the surface undulating shape has three basic features such as planar, undulating, and stepped; and the microcosmic roughness has two basic features such as smooth and rough. Shigui Du, Yunjin Hu, and Xiaofei Hu Copyright © 2014 Shigui Du et al. All rights reserved. Takayasu’s Arteritis and Crohn’s Disease in a Young Hispanic Female Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:41:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/246852/ Takayasu’s arteritis (TA) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are chronic inflammatory granulomatous disorders of undetermined etiology. TA is a large vessel vasculitis with a predilection for the aorta and its branches in young women of Asian descent; whereas CD has characteristic gastrointestinal manifestations more prevalent in young Caucasians. We describe a case of both diseases in a young Hispanic female, review the literature, and impart new insight on possible genetic linkage and the role of interleukin 12 B (IL-12B) as the common autoimmune mechanism and potential therapeutic target in this rare disease combination. Namrata Singh, Shireesh Saurabh, and Irene J. Tan Copyright © 2014 Namrata Singh et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption Behaviors of 17α-Ethinylestradiol in Sediment-Water System in Northern Taihu Lake, China Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:41:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/371075/ Adsorption behavior of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in northern Taihu Lake sediment was analyzed by using batch equilibrium experiment. Freundlich isotherm could describe the adsorption thermodynamic behavior of EE2 in sediment. Sediment organic matter (SOM) contents had important impacts on the adsorption capacity for EE2. The pH values also influenced the adsorption capacity for EE2. Increase of pH value could decrease the EE2 adsorption, which might be due to the electrostatic repulsion between the anionic form of EE2 and sediments with negative charge under high pH values. Competitive effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on EE2 adsorption were further analyzed. The results showed that low concentration BPA did not have significant influences on EE2 adsorption. However, high concentration BPA could reduce EE2 adsorption, which might be due to the similar molecular diameter of BPA with adsorption sites and one more benzene ring with a hydroxyl group in BPA. These results provide primary information of EE2 adsorption in sediment-water system in Taihu Lake, which is useful for the environmental risk assessment and management of EE2 in studied area. Yonghua Wang, Liangfeng Hu, Qiuying Wang, Guanghua Lu, and Yi Li Copyright © 2014 Yonghua Wang et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Water-Based Liquid Scintillator: An Independent Analysis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:39:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2014/250646/ The water-based liquid scintillator (WbLS) is a new material currently under development. It is based on the idea of dissolving the organic scintillator in water using special surfactants. This material strives to achieve the novel detection techniques by combining the Cerenkov rings and scintillation light, as well as the total cost reduction compared to pure liquid scintillator (LS). The independent light yield measurement analysis for the light yield measurements using three different proton beam energies (210 MeV, 475 MeV, and 2000 MeV) for water, two different WbLS formulations (0.4% and 0.99%), and pure LS conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, is presented. The results show that a goal of ~100 optical photons/MeV, indicated by the simulation to be an optimal light yield for observing both the Cerenkov ring and the scintillation light from the proton decay in a large water detector, has been achieved. D. Beznosko, A. Batyrkhanov, A. Duspayev, A. Iakovlev, and M. Yessenov Copyright © 2014 D. Beznosko et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Morphology and Composition of Inorganic Fillers in Dental Alginates Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:38:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/178064/ Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Archimedes’ Principle were used to determine the characteristics of inorganic filler particles in five dental alginates, including Cavex ColorChange (C), Hydrogum 5 (H5), Hydrogum (H), Orthoprint (O), and Jeltrate Plus (JP). The different alginate powders (0.5 mg) were fixed on plastic stubs and sputter coated with carbon for EDX analysis, then coated with gold, and observed using SEM. Volume fractions were determined by weighing a sample of each material in water before and after calcining at 450°C for 3 h. The alginate materials were mainly composed of silicon (Si) by weight (C—81.59%, H—79.89%, O—78.87%, H5—77.95%, JP—66.88%, wt). The filler fractions in volume (vt) were as follows: H5—84.85%, JP—74.76%, H—70.03%, O—68.31%, and C—56.10%. The tested materials demonstrated important differences in the inorganic elemental composition, filler fraction, and particle morphology. Ricardo Danil Guiraldo, Sandrine Bittencourt Berger, Rafael Leonardo Xediek Consani, Simonides Consani, Rodrigo Varella de Carvalho, Murilo Baena Lopes, Luciana Lira Meneghel, Fabiane Borges da Silva, and Mário Alexandre Coelho Sinhoreti Copyright © 2014 Ricardo Danil Guiraldo et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Directional Broadcast Algorithm Based on Brownian Motion Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:34:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/725916/ Several broadcast algorithms have been developed in recent years. However, the problem of reducing routing overhead in ad hoc networks is always to be concerned. This paper proposes an improved directional broadcast algorithm based on Brownian motion for AODV protocol (DBB-AODV). We bring Brownian motion into network model and gain the distribution of the nodes which encountered destination before. This algorithm uses encounter records to predict the direction to destination and forwards RREQ packets with reasonable probability according to the distribution just mentioned. Simulation results indicate that DBB-AODV saves up to 20% of average routing overhead compared to the probabilistic protocol and about 80% of the blind flooding. Shibao Li, Linlin Lou, Yu Wang, Lu Sun, and Li Hong Copyright © 2014 Shibao Li et al. All rights reserved. Palmitoleic Acid (N-7) Attenuates the Immunometabolic Disturbances Caused by a High-Fat Diet Independently of PPARα Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:30:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/582197/ Palmitoleic acid (PMA) has anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. Here we tested whether these effects of PMA on glucose homeostasis and liver inflammation, in mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD), are PPAR- dependent. C57BL6 wild-type (WT) and PPAR--knockout (KO) mice fed with a standard diet (SD) or HFD for 12 weeks were treated after the 10th week with oleic acid (OLA, 300 mg/kg of b.w.) or PMA 300 mg/kg of b.w. Steatosis induced by HFD was associated with liver inflammation only in the KO mice, as shown by the increased hepatic levels of IL1-beta, IL-12, and TNF-; however, the HFD increased the expression of TLR4 and decreased the expression of IL1-Ra in both genotypes. Treatment with palmitoleate markedly attenuated the insulin resistance induced by the HFD, increased glucose uptake and incorporation into muscle in vitro, reduced the serum levels of AST in WT mice, decreased the hepatic levels of IL1-beta and IL-12 in KO mice, reduced the expression of TLR-4 and increased the expression of IL-1Ra in WT mice, and reduced the phosphorylation of NF 𝜅B (p65) in the livers of KO mice. We conclude that palmitoleate attenuates diet-induced insulin resistance, liver inflammation, and damage through mechanisms that do not depend on PPAR-. Camila O. Souza, Alexandre A. S. Teixeira, Edson A. Lima, Helena A. P. Batatinha, Lara M. Gomes, Milena Carvalho-Silva, Isabella T. Mota, Emilio L. Streck, Sandro M. Hirabara, and José C. Rosa Neto Copyright © 2014 Camila O. Souza et al. All rights reserved. Childhood Renal Tumor: A Report from a Chinese Children’s Cancer Group Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:29:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/894341/ Here we investigated the establishment of multicenter cooperative treatment groups in China, as well as radiotherapy compliance and effectiveness among children with renal tumors. Medical records were reviewed for 316 children with renal tumors diagnosed by a multicenter cooperative group from 14 hospitals in China from 1998 to 2012. Median patient age was 29.5 months (range, 2–173 months old), and male-to-female ratio was 1.4 : 1. After a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 1–177 months), five-year event-free survival rates were 72% overall; 76.1% for favorable histology (251 cases); 59% for unfavorable histology (27 cases); and 91%, 75%, 71%, 53%, and 48.5%, respectively for Stages I, II, III, IV, and V. Following standardized criteria, radiation therapy was indicated for 153 patients, among whom five-year event-free survival was 72.8% for the 95 who received radiation and 24% for the 58 patients who did not. Our results are reasonable but can be further improved and show the feasibility of a multicenter cooperative group model for childhood renal tumor treatment in China. Radiation therapy is important for stage III and IV patients but remains difficult to implement in some parts of China. Government management departments and medical professionals must pay attention to this situation. This clinical trial is registered with ChiCTR-PRCH-14004372. Jiaoyang Cai, Ci Pan, Qin Lu, Jie Yan, Xiuli Ju, Futian Ma, Yiping Zhu, Qiuling Liu, Lirong Sun, Lian Jiang, Lizhi Cao, Fu Li, Zhigang Liu, Lijing Qiao, Dongsheng Huang, Xin Tian, and Jingyan Tang Copyright © 2014 Jiaoyang Cai et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics of a Stochastic Multigroup SEIR Epidemic Model Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:27:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/258915/ To be more precise about the real world activity, a stochastic multigroup SEIR epidemic model is formulated. we define the basic reproduction number and show that it is a sharp threshold for the dynamics of SDE model. If , the disease-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable; and if , the disease persists and there exists a globally asymptotically stable stationary distribution. Numerical simulation examples are carried out to substantiate the analytical results. Xiaojing Zhong and Feiqi Deng Copyright © 2014 Xiaojing Zhong and Feiqi Deng. All rights reserved. Peptide-Ligand Binding Modeling of siRNA with Cell-Penetrating Peptides Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:26:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/257040/ The binding affinity of a series of cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) was modeled through docking and making use of the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, lipophilic contacts, and the number of sp3 molecular orbital hybridization carbons. The new ranking of the peptides is consistent with the experimentally determined efficiency in the downregulation of luciferase activity, which includes the peptides’ ability to bind and deliver the siRNA into the cell. The predicted structures of the complexes of peptides to siRNA were stable throughout 10 ns long, explicit water molecular dynamics simulations. The stability and binding affinity of peptide-siRNA complexes was related to the sidechains and modifications of the CPPs, with the stearyl and quinoline groups improving affinity and stability. The reranking of the peptides docked to siRNA, together with explicit water molecular dynamics simulations, appears to be well suited to describe and predict the interaction of CPPs with siRNA. Alfonso T. García-Sosa, Indrek Tulp, Kent Langel, and Ülo Langel Copyright © 2014 Alfonso T. García-Sosa et al. All rights reserved. A Review on the Modified Finite Point Method Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:26:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/350364/ The objective of this paper is to make a review on recent advancements of the modified finite point method, named MFPM hereafter. This MFPM method is developed for solving general partial differential equations. Benchmark examples of employing this method to solve Laplace, Poisson, convection-diffusion, Helmholtz, mild-slope, and extended mild-slope equations are verified and then illustrated in fluid flow problems. Application of MFPM to numerical generation of orthogonal grids, which is governed by Laplace equation, is also demonstrated. Nan-Jing Wu, Boe Shiun Chen, and Ting-Kuei Tsay Copyright © 2014 Nan-Jing Wu et al. All rights reserved. Design of Synthesizable, Retimed Digital Filters Using FPGA Based Path Solvers with MCM Approach: Comparison and CAD Tool Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:25:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vlsi/2014/280701/ Retiming is a transformation which can be applied to digital filter blocks that can increase the clock frequency. This transformation requires computation of critical path and shortest path at various stages. In literature, this problem is addressed at multiple points. However, very little attention is given to path solver blocks in retiming transformation algorithm which takes up most of the computation time. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing the speed of path solvers in retiming transformation by introducing high level synthesis of path solver algorithm architectures on FPGA and a computer aided design tool. Filters have their combination blocks as adders, multipliers, and delay elements. Avoiding costly multipliers is very much needed for filter hardware implementation. This can be achieved efficiently by using multiplierless MCM technique. In the present work, retiming which is a high level synthesis optimization method is combined with multiplierless filter implementations using MCM algorithm. It is seen that retiming multiplierless designs gives better performance in terms of operating frequency. This paper also compares various retiming techniques for multiplierless digital filter design with respect to VLSI performance metrics such as area, speed, and power. Deepa Yagain and A. Vijaya Krishna Copyright © 2014 Deepa Yagain and A. Vijaya Krishna. All rights reserved. A Partition-Based Active Contour Model Incorporating Local Information for Image Segmentation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:19:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/840305/ Active contour models are always designed on the assumption that images are approximated by regions with piecewise-constant intensities. This assumption, however, cannot be satisfied when describing intensity inhomogeneous images which frequently occur in real world images and induced considerable difficulties in image segmentation. A milder assumption that the image is statistically homogeneous within different local regions may better suit real world images. By taking local image information into consideration, an enhanced active contour model is proposed to overcome difficulties caused by intensity inhomogeneity. In addition, according to curve evolution theory, only the region near contour boundaries is supposed to be evolved in each iteration. We try to detect the regions near contour boundaries adaptively for satisfying the requirement of curve evolution theory. In the proposed method, pixels within a selected region near contour boundaries have the opportunity to be updated in each iteration, which enables the contour to be evolved gradually. Experimental results on synthetic and real world images demonstrate the advantages of the proposed model when dealing with intensity inhomogeneity images. Jiao Shi, Jiaji Wu, Anand Paul, Licheng Jiao, and Maoguo Gong Copyright © 2014 Jiao Shi et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Fluoroscopy Assisted Minimally Invasive Transplantation of Allogenic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Embedded in HyStem Reduces the Progression of Nucleus Pulposus Degeneration in the Damaged Intervertebral Disc: A Preliminary Study in Rabbits” Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:19:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/527298/ Rifa Aquidah Subhan, Puvanan Karunanithi, Murali Malliga Raman, Balaji Raghavendran Hanumantha Rao, Shani Samuel, Basri Johan Jeet Abdullah, Azlina Amir Abbas, Jamal Azmi Mohamed, and Tunku Kamarul Copyright © 2014 Rifa Aquidah Subhan et al. All rights reserved. PSO-RBF Neural Network PID Control Algorithm of Electric Gas Pressure Regulator Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/731368/ The current electric gas pressure regulator often adopts the conventional PID control algorithm to take drive control of the core part (micromotor) of electric gas pressure regulator. In order to further improve tracking performance and to shorten response time, this paper presents an improved PID intelligent control algorithm which applies to the electric gas pressure regulator. The algorithm uses the improved RBF neural network based on PSO algorithm to make online adjustment on PID parameters. Theoretical analysis and simulation result show that the algorithm shortens the step response time and improves tracking performance. Yuanchang Zhong, Xu Huang, Pu Meng, and Fachuan Li Copyright © 2014 Yuanchang Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Stochastic Signal Processing for Sound Environment System with Decibel Evaluation and Energy Observation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:17:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/208612/ In real sound environment system, a specific signal shows various types of probability distribution, and the observation data are usually contaminated by external noise (e.g., background noise) of non-Gaussian distribution type. Furthermore, there potentially exist various nonlinear correlations in addition to the linear correlation between input and output time series. Consequently, often the system input and output relationship in the real phenomenon cannot be represented by a simple model using only the linear correlation and lower order statistics. In this study, complex sound environment systems difficult to analyze by using usual structural method are considered. By introducing an estimation method of the system parameters reflecting correlation information for conditional probability distribution under existence of the external noise, a prediction method of output response probability for sound environment systems is theoretically proposed in a suitable form for the additive property of energy variable and the evaluation in decibel scale. The effectiveness of the proposed stochastic signal processing method is experimentally confirmed by applying it to the observed data in sound environment systems. Akira Ikuta and Hisako Orimoto Copyright © 2014 Akira Ikuta and Hisako Orimoto. All rights reserved. N-Screen Aware Multicriteria Hybrid Recommender System Using Weight Based Subspace Clustering Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:15:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/679849/ This paper presents a recommender system for N-screen services in which users have multiple devices with different capabilities. In N-screen services, a user can use various devices in different locations and time and can change a device while the service is running. N-screen aware recommendation seeks to improve the user experience with recommended content by considering the user N-screen device attributes such as screen resolution, media codec, remaining battery time, and access network and the user temporal usage pattern information that are not considered in existing recommender systems. For N-screen aware recommendation support, this work introduces a user device profile collaboration agent, manager, and N-screen control server to acquire and manage the user N-screen devices profile. Furthermore, a multicriteria hybrid framework is suggested that incorporates the N-screen devices information with user preferences and demographics. In addition, we propose an individual feature and subspace weight based clustering (IFSWC) to assign different weights to each subspace and each feature within a subspace in the hybrid framework. The proposed system improves the accuracy, precision, scalability, sparsity, and cold start issues. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and prove the aforementioned statements. Farman Ullah, Ghulam Sarwar, and Sungchang Lee Copyright © 2014 Farman Ullah et al. All rights reserved. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: Roles in Embryo Implantation and in Nonhormonal Contraception Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:10:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/201514/ Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) plays an indispensible role in embryo implantation. Aberrant LIF production is linked to implantation failure. LIF regulates multiple processes prior to and during implantation such as uterine transformation into a receptive state, decidualization, blastocyst growth and development, embryo-endometrial interaction, trophoblast invasion, and immune modulation. Due to its critical role, LIF has been a target for a nonhormonal contraception. In this review, we summarize up-to-date information on the role of LIF in implantation and its role in contraception. Naguib Salleh and Nelli Giribabu Copyright © 2014 Naguib Salleh and Nelli Giribabu. All rights reserved. Biomedical Data Integration, Modeling, and Simulation in the Era of Big Data and Translational Medicine Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:01:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/731546/ Bairong Shen, Andrew E. Teschendorff, Degui Zhi, and Junfeng Xia Copyright © 2014 Bairong Shen et al. All rights reserved. Recent Trends in Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry for Molecular PET Imaging Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:27:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/890540/ Olaf Prante, Roland Haubner, Patrick Riss, and Bernd Neumaier Copyright © 2014 Olaf Prante et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Trajectory Cluster Analysis to Evaluate the Long-Range Transport of Black Carbon Aerosol in the South-Eastern Baltic Region Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:13:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/137694/ Trajectory cluster analysis and source-receptor models (the potential source contribution function (PSCF), concentration weighted trajectories (CWT), and trajectory source apportionment (TSA)) were applied to investigate the source-receptor relationship for the aerosol black carbon (BC) measured at the coastal site (Preila, 55.55°N, 21.04°E) during 2013. The main sources and paths of advection to the south-eastern Baltic region and its relation to black carbon concentration were identified. The 72 h backward trajectories of air masses arriving at Preila from January to December 2013 were determined and were categorized by clustering them into six clusters. Subsequently, BC levels at Preila associated with each air mass cluster during this period were analyzed. The PSCF and CWT analysis shows that, on high BC concentration days, the air masses commonly originated and passed over southern regions of Europe before arriving at Preila in winter, while a strong impact of wildfires was observed in spring. Steigvilė Byčenkienė, Vadimas Dudoitis, and Vidmantas Ulevicius Copyright © 2014 Steigvilė Byčenkienė et al. All rights reserved. Cytotoxic Effects of Newly Synthesized Palladium(II) Complexes of Diethyldithiocarbamate on Gastrointestinal Cancer Cell Lines Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:12:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bri/2014/813457/ As a part of a drug development program to discover novel therapeutic and more effective palladium (Pd) based anticancer drugs, a series of water-soluble Pd complexes have been synthesized by interaction between [Pd (phen)(H2O)2(NO3)2] and alkylenebisdithiocarbamate(al-bis-dtc) disodium salts. This study was undertaken to examine the possible cytotoxic effect of three novel complexes (0.125–64 µg/mL) on human gastric carcinoma (AGS), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (Kyse-30), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. The cytotoxicity was examined using cell proliferation and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) assay. In order to examine the effects of new Pd(II) complexes on cell cycle status, we performed cell cycle analysis. The complexes were found to have completely lethal effects on the cell lines, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values obtained for the cell lines were much lower in comparison with cisplatin. We demonstrated that the three new Pd(II) complexes are able to induce G2/M phase arrest in AGS and HepG2; in addition, the Pd(II) complexes caused an S phase arrest in Kyse-30 cell line. Our results indicate that newly synthesized Pd(II) complexes may provide a novel class of chemopreventive compounds for anticancer therapy. Shahram Hadizadeh, Nowruz Najafzadeh, Mohammad Mazani, Mojtaba Amani, Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi, and Ali Niapour Copyright © 2014 Shahram Hadizadeh et al. All rights reserved. TRPV1 Activation Attenuates High-Salt Diet-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fibrosis through PPAR-δ Upregulation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:10:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2014/491963/ High-salt diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis are associated with increased reactive oxygen species production. Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a specific receptor for capsaicin, exerts a protective role in cardiac remodeling that resulted from myocardial infarction, and peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors δ (PPAR-δ) play an important role in metabolic myocardium remodeling. However, it remains unknown whether activation of TRPV1 could alleviate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis and the effect of cross-talk between TRPV1 and PPAR-δ on suppressing high-salt diet-generated oxidative stress. In this study, high-salt diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis are characterized by significant enhancement of HW/BW%, LVEDD, and LVESD, decreased FS and EF, and increased collagen deposition. These alterations were associated with downregulation of PPAR-δ, UCP2 expression, upregulation of iNOS production, and increased oxidative/nitrotyrosine stress. These adverse effects of long-term high-salt diet were attenuated by chronic treatment with capsaicin. However, this effect of capsaicin was absent in TRPV1−/− mice on a high-salt diet. Our finding suggests that chronic dietary capsaicin consumption attenuates long-term high-salt diet-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. This benefit effect is likely to be caused by TRPV1 mediated upregulation of PPAR-δ expression. Feng Gao, Yi Liang, Xiang Wang, Zongshi Lu, Li Li, Shanjun Zhu, Daoyan Liu, Zhencheng Yan, and Zhiming Zhu Copyright © 2014 Feng Gao et al. All rights reserved. Solving Fractional Diffusion Equation via the Collocation Method Based on Fractional Legendre Functions Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:08:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcmp/2014/381074/ A formulation of the fractional Legendre functions is constructed to solve the generalized time-fractional diffusion equation. The fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense. The method is based on the collection Legendre and path following methods. Analysis for the presented method is given and numerical results are presented. Muhammed Syam and Mohammed Al-Refai Copyright © 2014 Muhammed Syam and Mohammed Al-Refai. All rights reserved. Snowfall in the Northwest Iberian Peninsula: Synoptic Circulation Patterns and Their Influence on Snow Day Trends Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:08:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/480275/ In recent decades, a decrease in snowfall attributed to the effects of global warming (among other causes) has become evident. However, it is reasonable to investigate meteorological causes for such decrease, by analyzing changes in synoptic scale patterns. On the Iberian Peninsula, the Castilla y León region in the northwest consists of a central plateau surrounded by mountain ranges. This creates snowfalls that are considered both an important water resource and a transportation risk. In this work, we develop a classification of synoptic situations that produced important snowfalls at observation stations in the major cities of Castilla y León from 1960 to 2011. We used principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster techniques to define four synoptic patterns conducive to snowfall in the region. Once we confirmed homogeneity of the series and serial correlation of the snowfallday records at the stations from 1960 to 2011, we carried out a Mann-Kendall test. The results show a negative trend at most stations, so there are a decreased number of snowfall days. Finally, variations in these meteorological variables were related to changes in the frequencies of snow events belonging to each synoptic pattern favorable for snowfall production at the observatory locations. Andrés Merino, Sergio Fernández, Lucía Hermida, Laura López, José Luis Sánchez, Eduardo García-Ortega, and Estíbaliz Gascón Copyright © 2014 Andrés Merino et al. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Decision Making Policies and Coordination Mechanisms in Hierarchical Organizations: Results of an Agent-Based Simulation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:08:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/875146/ This paper analyses how different coordination modes and different multiobjective decision making approaches interfere with each other in hierarchical organizations. The investigation is based on an agent-based simulation. We apply a modified NK-model in which we map multiobjective decision making as adaptive walk on multiple performance landscapes, whereby each landscape represents one objective. We find that the impact of the coordination mode on the performance and the speed of performance improvement is critically affected by the selected multiobjective decision making approach. In certain setups, the performances achieved with the more complex multiobjective decision making approaches turn out to be less sensitive to the coordination mode than the performances achieved with the less complex multiobjective decision making approaches. Furthermore, we present results on the impact of the nature of interactions among decisions on the achieved performance in multiobjective setups. Our results give guidance on how to control the performance contribution of objectives to overall performance and answer the question how effective certain multiobjective decision making approaches perform under certain circumstances (coordination mode and interdependencies among decisions). Stephan Leitner and Friederike Wall Copyright © 2014 Stephan Leitner and Friederike Wall. All rights reserved. A Full Ranking for Decision Making Units Using Ideal and Anti-Ideal Points in DEA Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:07:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/282939/ We propose a procedure for ranking decision making units in data envelopment analysis, based on ideal and anti-ideal points in the production possibility set. Moreover, a model has been introduced to compute the performance of a decision making unit for these two points through using common set of weights. One of the best privileges of this method is that we can make ranking for all decision making units by solving only three programs, and also solving these programs is not related to numbers of decision making units. One of the other advantages of this procedure is to rank all the extreme and nonextreme efficient decision making units. In other words, the suggested ranking method tends to seek a set of common weights for all units to make them fully ranked. Finally, it was applied for different sets holding real data, and then it can be compared with other procedures. A. Barzegarinegad, G. Jahanshahloo, and M. Rostamy-Malkhalifeh Copyright © 2014 A. Barzegarinegad et al. All rights reserved. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients Having Surgery Are Less Associated with Glaucoma Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:07:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/838912/ Objective. To investigate if different treatment strategy of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was associated glaucoma risk in Taiwanese population. Methods. Population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted using data sourced from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. We included 2528 OSA patients and randomly selected and matched 10112 subjects without OSA as the control cohort. The risk of glaucoma in OSA patients was investigated based on the managements of OSA (without treatment, with surgery, with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, and with multiple modalities). The multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) after adjusting for sex, age, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery disease. Results. The adjusted HR of glaucoma for OSA patients was 1.88 (95% CI: 1.46–2.42), compared with controls. For patients without treatment, the adjusted HR was 2.15 (95% CI: 1.60–2.88). For patients with treatments, the adjusted HRs of glaucoma were not significantly different from controls, except for those with CPAP (adjusted HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.09–2.49). Conclusions. OSA is associated with an increased risk of glaucoma. However, surgery reduces slightly the glaucoma hazard for OSA patients. Hsin-Yi Chen, Yue-Cune Chang, Che-Chen Lin, Fung-Chang Sung, and Wen-Chi Chen Copyright © 2014 Hsin-Yi Chen et al. All rights reserved. Strategy of Surgical Management of Peripheral Neuropathy Form of Diabetic Foot Syndrome in Ghana Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:06:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2014/185023/ Introduction. Foot disorders such as ulceration, infection, and gangrene which are often due to diabetes mellitus are some major causes of morbidity and high amputation. Aim. This study aims to use a group of methods for the management of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) in order to salvage the lower limb so as to reduce the rate of high amputations of the lower extremity. Materials and Methods. A group of different advanced methods for the management of DFU such as sharp debridement of ulcers, application of vacuum therapy, and other forms of reconstructive plastic surgical procedures were used. Data collection was done at 3 different hospitals where the treatments were given. Results. Fifty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the current study: females (68.51%) and males (31.49%) with different stages of PEDIS classification. They underwent different methods of surgical management: debridement, vacuum therapy (some constructed from locally used materials), and skin grafting giving good and fast results. Only 4 had below knee amputations. Conclusion. Using advanced surgical wound management including reconstructive plastic surgical procedures, it was possible to reduce the rate of high amputations of the lower limb. W. M. Rdeini, P. Agbenorku, and V. A. Mitish Copyright © 2014 W. M. Rdeini et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Models of the Dynamics of Vitreous Substitutes Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:05:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/672926/ We discuss some aspects of the fluid dynamics of vitreous substitutes in the vitreous chamber, focussing on the flow induced by rotations of the eye bulb. We use simple, yet not trivial, theoretical models to highlight mechanical concepts that are relevant to understand the dynamics of vitreous substitutes and also to identify ideal properties for vitreous replacement fluids. We first recall results by previous authors, showing that the maximum shear stress on the retina grows with increasing viscosity of the fluid up to a saturation value. We then investigate how the wall shear stress changes if a thin layer of aqueous humour is present in the vitreous chamber, separating the retina from the vitreous replacement fluid. The theoretical predictions show that the existence of a thin layer of aqueous is sufficient to substantially decrease the shear stress on the retina. We finally discuss a theoretical model that predicts the stability conditions of the interface between the aqueous and a vitreous substitute. We discuss the implications of this model to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of emulsion in the vitreous chamber, showing that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters relevant for the human eye. Krystyna Isakova, Jan O. Pralits, Rodolfo Repetto, and Mario R. Romano Copyright © 2014 Krystyna Isakova et al. All rights reserved. Apoptosis-Inducing Effect of Three Medicinal Plants on Oral Cancer Cells KB and ORL-48 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:05:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/125353/ Brucea javanica, Azadirachta indica, and Typhonium flagelliforme are medicinal plants commonly used to treat conditions associated with tumour formation. This study aimed to determine the antiproliferative activity of these plants extracts on KB and ORL-48 oral cancer cell lines and to suggest their mode of cell death. The concentration producing 50% cell inhibition (IC50) was determined and the activity was examined under an inverted microscope. Immunohistochemistry fluorescent staining method (TUNEL) was performed to indicate the mechanism of cell death and the fragmented DNA band pattern produced was obtained for verification. Compared to Azadirachta sp. and Typhonium sp., the antiproliferative activity of Brucea sp. extract was the most potent on both KB and ORL-48 cells with IC50 of 24.37 ± 1.75 and 6.67 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. Signs of cell attrition were observed 24 hr after treatment. Green fluorescent spots indicating cell death by apoptosis were observed in images of both cells following treatment with all the three extracts. DNA fragments harvested from Brucea-treated cells produced bands in a ladder pattern suggesting the apoptotic effect of the extract. It is thus concluded that Brucea sp. extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on ORL-48 cells and their action mechanism is via apoptosis. Mohd Zabidi Majid, Zuraiza Mohamad Zaini, and Fathilah Abdul Razak Copyright © 2014 Mohd Zabidi Majid et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Big Integer Multiplication and Squaring Algorithms for Cryptographic Applications Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:04:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/107109/ Public-key cryptosystems are broadly employed to provide security for digital information. Improving the efficiency of public-key cryptosystem through speeding up calculation and using fewer resources are among the main goals of cryptography research. In this paper, we introduce new symbols extracted from binary representation of integers called Big-ones. We present a modified version of the classical multiplication and squaring algorithms based on the Big-ones to improve the efficiency of big integer multiplication and squaring in number theory based cryptosystems. Compared to the adopted classical and Karatsuba multiplication algorithms for squaring, the proposed squaring algorithm is 2 to 3.7 and 7.9 to 2.5 times faster for squaring 32-bit and 8-Kbit numbers, respectively. The proposed multiplication algorithm is also 2.3 to 3.9 and 7 to 2.4 times faster for multiplying 32-bit and 8-Kbit numbers, respectively. The number theory based cryptosystems, which are operating in the range of 1-Kbit to 4-Kbit integers, are directly benefited from the proposed method since multiplication and squaring are the main operations in most of these systems. Shahram Jahani, Azman Samsudin, and Kumbakonam Govindarajan Subramanian Copyright © 2014 Shahram Jahani et al. All rights reserved. A Primal Analysis System of Brain Neurons Data Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:02:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/348526/ It is a very challenging work to classify the 86 billions of neurons in the human brain. The most important step is to get the features of these neurons. In this paper, we present a primal system to analyze and extract features from brain neurons. First, we make analysis on the original data of neurons in which one neuron contains six parameters: room type, , , coordinate range, total number of leaf nodes, and fuzzy volume of neurons. Then, we extract three important geometry features including rooms type, number of leaf nodes, and fuzzy volume. As application, we employ the feature database to fit the basic procedure of neuron growth. The result shows that the proposed system is effective. Dong-Mei Pu, Da-Qi Gao, and Yu-Bo Yuan Copyright © 2014 Dong-Mei Pu et al. All rights reserved. miRNA Transcriptome of Hypertrophic Skeletal Muscle with Overexpressed Myostatin Propeptide Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:02:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/328935/ MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an imperative role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell metabolism through regulation of gene expression. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy that results from myostatin depression by its propeptide provides an interesting model to understand how miRNA transcriptome is involved in myostatin-based fiber hypertrophy. This study employed Solexa deep sequencing followed by Q-PCR methods to analyze miRNA transcriptome of skeletal muscle of myostatin propeptide transgenic mice in comparison with their littermate controls. A total of 461 mature known and 69 novel miRNAs were reported from this study. Fifty-seven miRNAs were expressed differentially between transgenic and littermate controls, of which most abundant miRNAs, miR-133a and 378a, were significantly differentially expressed. Expression profiling was validated on 8 known and 2 novel miRNAs. The miRNA targets prediction and pathway analysis showed that FST, SMAD3, TGFBR1, and AcvR1a genes play a vital role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in the myostatin propeptide transgenic mice. It is predicted that miR-101 targeted to TGFBR1 and SMAD3, miR-425 to TGFBR2 and FST, and miR-199a to AcvR2a and TGF-β genes. In conclusion, the study offers initial miRNA profiling and methodology of miRNA targets prediction for myostatin-based hypertrophy. These differentially expressed miRNAs are proposed as candidate miRNAs for skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Ruheena Javed, Lu Jing, Jinzeng Yang, Xinyun Li, Jianhua Cao, and Shuhong Zhao Copyright © 2014 Ruheena Javed et al. All rights reserved. Describing the Access Network by means of Router Buffer Modelling: A New Methodology Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:01:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/238682/ The behaviour of the routers’ buffer may affect the quality of service (QoS) of network services under certain conditions, since it may modify some traffic characteristics, as delay or jitter, and may also drop packets. As a consequence, the characterization of the buffer is interesting, especially when multimedia flows are transmitted and even more if they transport information with real-time requirements. This work presents a new methodology with the aim of determining the technical and functional characteristics of real buffers (i.e., behaviour, size, limits, and input and output rate) of a network path. It permits the characterization of intermediate buffers of different devices in a network path across the Internet. Luis Sequeira, Julián Fernández-Navajas, Jose Saldana, José Ramón Gállego, and María Canales Copyright © 2014 Luis Sequeira et al. All rights reserved. N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone-Mediated Quorum Sensing with Special Reference to Use of Quorum Quenching Bacteria in Membrane Biofouling Control Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:59:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/162584/ Membrane biofouling remains a severe problem to be addressed in wastewater treatment systems affecting reactor performance and economy. The finding that many wastewater bacteria rely on N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing to synchronize their activities essential for biofilm formations; the quenching bacterial quorum sensing suggests a promising approach for control of membrane biofouling. A variety of quorum quenching compounds of both synthetic and natural origin have been identified and found effective in inhibition of membrane biofouling with much less environmental impact than traditional antimicrobials. Work over the past few years has demonstrated that enzymatic quorum quenching mechanisms are widely conserved in several prokaryotic organisms and can be utilized as a potent tool for inhibition of membrane biofouling. Such naturally occurring bacterial quorum quenching mechanisms also play important roles in microbe-microbe interactions and have been used to develop sustainable nonantibiotic antifouling strategies. Advances in membrane fabrication and bacteria entrapment techniques have allowed the implication of such quorum quenching bacteria for better design of membrane bioreactor with improved antibiofouling efficacies. In view of this, the present paper is designed to review and discuss the recent developments in control of membrane biofouling with special emphasis on quorum quenching bacteria that are applied in membrane bioreactors. Harshad Lade, Diby Paul, and Ji Hyang Kweon Copyright © 2014 Harshad Lade et al. All rights reserved. Myocardial Gene Expression of T-bet, GATA-3, Ror-t, FoxP3, and Hallmark Cytokines in Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: An Essentially Unopposed TH1-Type Response Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:56:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/914326/ Background. Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), a late consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy with prognosis worse than those of noninflammatory etiology (NIC). Although the T cell-rich myocarditis is known to play a pathogenetic role, the relative contribution of each of the functional T cell subsets has never been thoroughly investigated. We therefore assessed gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors involved in differentiation and effector function of each functional T cell subset (1/2/17/Treg) in CCC, NIC, and heart donor myocardial samples. Methods and Results. Quantitative PCR showed markedly upregulated expression of IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, and minor increases of GATA-3; FoxP3 and CTLA-4; IL-17 and IL-18 in CCC as compared with NIC samples. Conversely, cytokines expressed by 2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) or associated with Treg (TGF-β and IL-10) were not upregulated in CCC myocardium. Expression of 1-related genes such as T-bet, IFN-γ, and IL-18 correlated with ventricular dilation, FoxP3, and CTLA-4. Conclusions. Results are consistent with a strong local 1-mediated response in most samples, possibly associated with pathological myocardial remodeling, and a proportionally smaller FoxP3+CTLA4+ Treg cell population, which is unable to completely curb IFN-γ production in CCC myocardium, therefore fueling inflammation. Luciana Gabriel Nogueira, Ronaldo Honorato Barros Santos, Alfredo Inácio Fiorelli, Eliane Conti Mairena, Luiz Alberto Benvenuti, Edimar Alcides Bocchi, Noedir Antonio Stolf, Jorge Kalil, and Edecio Cunha-Neto Copyright © 2014 Luciana Gabriel Nogueira et al. All rights reserved. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Potential, and Computational Studies Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:52:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/172791/ We report the synthesis and biological assessment of 1,3,4-oxadiazole substituted 24 derivatives as novel, potential antibacterial agents. The structures of the newly synthesized derivatives were established by the combined practice of UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry. Further these synthesized derivatives were subjected to antibacterial activity against all the selected microbial strains in comparison with amoxicillin and cefixime. The antibacterial activity of synthesized derivatives was correlated with their physicochemical and structural properties by QSAR analysis using computer assisted multiple regression analysis and four sound predictive models were generated with good , , and Fischer statistic. The derivatives with potent antibacterial activity were subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the active derivatives and amino acid residues existing in the active site of peptide deformylase to assess their antibacterial potential as peptide deformylase inhibitor. Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Anu Kajal, Vipin Saini, and Deo Nanadan Prasad Copyright © 2014 Suman Bala et al. All rights reserved. SOM Neural Network Fault Diagnosis Method of Polymerization Kettle Equipment Optimized by Improved PSO Algorithm Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:49:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/937680/ For meeting the real-time fault diagnosis and the optimization monitoring requirements of the polymerization kettle in the polyvinyl chloride resin (PVC) production process, a fault diagnosis strategy based on the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network is proposed. Firstly, a mapping between the polymerization process data and the fault pattern is established by analyzing the production technology of polymerization kettle equipment. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm with a new dynamical adjustment method of inertial weights is adopted to optimize the structural parameters of SOM neural network. The fault pattern classification of the polymerization kettle equipment is to realize the nonlinear mapping from symptom set to fault set according to the given symptom set. Finally, the simulation experiments of fault diagnosis are conducted by combining with the industrial on-site historical data of the polymerization kettle and the simulation results show that the proposed PSO-SOM fault diagnosis strategy is effective. Jie-sheng Wang, Shu-xia Li, and Jie Gao Copyright © 2014 Jie-sheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Beamforming Transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under Time-Varying Channels Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:37:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/920937/ The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes. Heejung Yu and Taejoon Kim Copyright © 2014 Heejung Yu and Taejoon Kim. All rights reserved. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:36:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/630320/ A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. Bahri Sahin, Huseyin Yilmaz, Yasin Ust, Ali Fuat Guneri, Bahadir Gulsun, and Eda Turan Copyright © 2014 Bahri Sahin et al. All rights reserved. New Neumann System Associated with a 3 × 3 Matrix Spectral Problem Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:34:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2014/708603/ The nonlinearization approach of Lax pair is applied to the case of the Neumann constraint associated with a 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem, from which a new Neumann system is deduced and proved to be completely integrable in the Liouville sense. As an application, solutions of the first nontrivial equation related to the 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem are decomposed into solving two compatible Hamiltonian systems of ordinary differential equations. Fang Li and Liping Lu Copyright © 2014 Fang Li and Liping Lu. All rights reserved. Effects of Extract from Cole Pollen on Lipid Metabolism in Experimental Hyperlipidemic Rats Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:33:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/982498/ In order to evaluate the effects of extract by SCE (supercritical carbon dioxide extraction) from cole pollen on lipid metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats, the experimental hyperlipidemic rats were established by providing with high fat diets, and randomized into six groups. After four weeks of perfusion diets into stomach, the rats were executed, and lipid levels of serum and hepatic tissue were detected. The serum levels of TC and TG were significantly lower in the pollen extract groups and MC group than in HFC group. Hepatic TC levels were decreased in rats fed pollen extract and lovastatin compared with HFC group. A higher concentration of HDL-C and apoAI in hepatic tissue was measured after intake of the pollen extract compared to the HFC group (). LCAT activity in serum of pollen extract groups was significantly higher than that in HFC group, and also HMG-CoA reductase showed decreasing tendency in pollen extract groups. The contents of DHA in pollen extract groups were found higher than those in HFC group. Cole pollen extract enriched in alpha-linolenic acid is likely to be a novel source of ALA which is probably responsible for favorable lipid changes through promoting transportation, excretion, and metabolism of cholesterol in hepatic tissue and serum. Yue Geng, Wen-li Tu, Jing-jing Zhang, Liang Zhang, and Jian Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yue Geng et al. All rights reserved. A Selection Model to Logistic Centers Based on TOPSIS and MCGP Methods: The Case of Airline Industry Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:33:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/470128/ The location selection of a logistics center is a crucial decision relating to cost and benefit analysis in airline industry. However, it is difficult to be solved because there are many conflicting and multiple objectives in location problems. To solve the problem, this paper integrates fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) and multichoice goal programming (MCGP) to obtain an appropriate logistics center from many alternative locations for airline industry. The proposed method in this paper will offer the decision makers (DMs) to set multiple aspiration levels for the decision criteria. A numerical example of application is also presented. Kou-Huang Chen, Chin-Nung Liao, and Li-Chun Wu Copyright © 2014 Kou-Huang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Best Proximity Point for --Proximal Contractive Multimaps Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:32:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/181598/ We extend the notions of --proximal contraction and -proximal admissibility to multivalued maps and then using these notions we obtain some best proximity point theorems for multivalued mappings. Our results extend some recent results by Jleli and those contained therein. Some examples are constructed to show the generality of our results. Muhammad Usman Ali, Tayyab Kamran, and Naseer Shahzad Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Usman Ali et al. All rights reserved. Chitosan Oligosaccharides Attenuate Ocular Inflammation in Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Anterior Uveitis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:31:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/827847/ We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (EAAU) in rats. EAAU was induced in Lewis rats by footpad and intraperitoneal injections of melanin-associated antigen. The rats received intraperitoneal injections of low-dose (5 mg/kg) or high-dose (10 mg/kg) COS or PBS daily after the immunization. The effects of COS were evaluated by determining the clinical scores and the morphology of the iris/ciliary body (ICB). The expression of inflammatory mediators was evaluated using western blot, immunofluorescence, and ELISA. Treatment with COS significantly attenuated the clinical scores and the leukocyte infiltration in the ICB in a dose-dependent manner. COS effectively reduced the expression of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, iNOS, MCP-1, RANTES, fractalkine, and ICAM-1). Moreover, COS decreased the IκB degradation and p65 presence in the ICB, which resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB/DNA binding activity. In an in vitro study, sensitized spleen-derived lymphocytes of the COS-treated group showed less chemotaxis toward their aqueous humor and decreased secretion of the above inflammatory mediators in the culture media. COS treated EAAU by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and reducing the expression of inflammatory mediators. COS might be a potential treatment for acute anterior uveitis. I-Mo Fang, Chang-Hao Yang, and Chung-May Yang Copyright © 2014 I-Mo Fang et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of US Blood Donors: A 20-Year Study” Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:31:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jce/2014/301314/ Farnaz Vahidnia, Nora V. Hirschler, Maria Agapova, Artina Chinn, Michael P. Busch, and Brian Custer Copyright © 2014 Farnaz Vahidnia et al. All rights reserved. Innervation of a Prefabricated Flap: A New Experimental Model Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:27:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/549819/ Introduction. Flap innervation by neoaxonogenesis is a promising field of investigation. The authors evaluated the possibility of innervating an acellular collagen scaffold as component of a potential prefabricated flap. Materials and Methods. Collagen matrix sheets were implanted around the femoral bundle of a murine model to produce two flaps on proximal and distal nerve stumps based on a flow-through model. After thirty days, nerve regeneration and integration into the collagen matrix were evaluated. The specimens were microscopically analyzed to study Schwann cell colonization and axonal integration with the matrix. Axonal count and density were assessed and statistically evaluated. Results. Qualitative structural and ultrastructural evaluation indicated integration, with axonal fibers merged within the collagen matrix, along with a newly formed vascular network on the proximal flap. Wallerian degeneration occurred inside the distal chamber. Axonal count and density did not show statistically significant differences between the nerve inside the proximal flap and the control side. Conclusions. Innervation of an acellular matrix can be obtained by direct nerve stump implantation. The flow-through system was relatively easy to build and reliable to provide adequate blood supply. The collagen scaffold may be a promising support or further studies of preinnervated microsurgical flaps. Marco Romeo, Giuseppe Cuccia, Shan Shan Qiu, Stefania Raimondo, Stefano Geuna, and Bernardo Hontanilla Copyright © 2014 Marco Romeo et al. All rights reserved. A User Authentication Scheme Using Physiological and Behavioral Biometrics for Multitouch Devices Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:27:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/781234/ With the rapid growth of mobile network, tablets and smart phones have become sorts of keys to access personal secured services in our daily life. People use these devices to manage personal finances, shop on the Internet, and even pay at vending machines. Besides, it also helps us get connected with friends and business partners through social network applications, which were widely used as personal identifications in both real and virtual societies. However, these devices use inherently weak authentication mechanism, based upon passwords and PINs that is not changed all the time. Although forcing users to change password periodically can enhance the security level, it may also be considered annoyances for users. Biometric technologies are straightforward because of the simple authentication process. However, most of the traditional biometrics methodologies require diverse equipment to acquire biometric information, which may be expensive and not portable. This paper proposes a multibiometric user authentication scheme with both physiological and behavioral biometrics. Only simple rotations with fingers on multitouch devices are required to enhance the security level without annoyances for users. In addition, the user credential is replaceable to prevent from the privacy leakage. Chorng-Shiuh Koong, Tzu-I Yang, and Chien-Chao Tseng Copyright © 2014 Chorng-Shiuh Koong et al. All rights reserved. Transfusion-Dependent Anaemia: An Overlooked Complication of Paraoesophageal Hernias Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:25:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/479240/ Introduction. A paraoesophageal hernia (PH) may be one reason for iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) but is often overlooked as a cause. We aimed to assess the incidence and resolution of transfusion-dependent IDA in patients presenting for hiatal hernia surgery. Methods. We analysed a prospective database of patients undergoing laparoscopic hiatal repair in order to identify patients with severe IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion. Results. Of 138 patients with PH managed over a 4-year period, 7 patients (5.1%; M : F 2 : 5; median age 62 yrs (range 57–82)) with IDA requiring red cell/iron transfusion were identified. Preoperatively, 3/7 patients underwent repetitive and unnecessary diagnostic endoscopic investigations prior to surgery. Only 2/7 ever demonstrated gastric mucosal erosions (Cameron ulcers). All patients were cured from anaemia postoperatively. Discussion. PH is an important differential diagnosis in patients with IDA, even those with marked anaemia and no endoscopically identifiable mucosal lesions. Early recognition can avoid unnecessary additional diagnostic endoscopies. Laparoscopic repair is associated with low morbidity and results in resolution of anaemia. Richard J. E. Skipworth, Ralph F. Staerkle, Steven Leibman, and Garett S. Smith Copyright © 2014 Richard J. E. Skipworth et al. All rights reserved. Discrete Fractional COSHAD Transform and Its Application Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:24:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/567414/ In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in finding methods to construct orthogonal transforms. This interest is driven by the large number of applications of the orthogonal transforms in image analysis and compression, especially for colour images. Inspired by this motivation, this paper first introduces a new orthogonal transform known as a discrete fractional COSHAD (FrCOSHAD) using the Kronecker product of eigenvectors and the eigenvalues of the COSHAD kernel functions. Next, this study discusses the properties of the FrCOSHAD kernel function, such as angle additivity. Using the algebra of quaternions, the study presents quaternion COSHAD/FrCOSHAD transforms to represent colour images in a holistic manner. This paper also develops an inverse polynomial reconstruction method (IPRM) in the discrete COSHAD/FrCOSHAD domains. This method can effectively recover a piecewise smooth signal from the finite set of its COSHAD/FrCOSHAD coefficients, with high accuracy. The convergence theorem has proved that the partial sum of COSHAD provides a spectrally accurate approximation to the underlying piecewise smooth signal. The experimental results verify the numerical stability and accuracy of the proposed methods. Hongqing Zhu, Zhiguo Gui, Yu Zhu, and Zhihua Chen Copyright © 2014 Hongqing Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Sequence Alignment Tools: One Parallel Pattern to Rule Them All? Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:22:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/539410/ In this paper, we advocate high-level programming methodology for next generation sequencers (NGS) alignment tools for both productivity and absolute performance. We analyse the problem of parallel alignment and review the parallelisation strategies of the most popular alignment tools, which can all be abstracted to a single parallel paradigm. We compare these tools to their porting onto the FastFlow pattern-based programming framework, which provides programmers with high-level parallel patterns. By using a high-level approach, programmers are liberated from all complex aspects of parallel programming, such as synchronisation protocols, and task scheduling, gaining more possibility for seamless performance tuning. In this work, we show some use cases in which, by using a high-level approach for parallelising NGS tools, it is possible to obtain comparable or even better absolute performance for all used datasets. Claudia Misale, Giulio Ferrero, Massimo Torquati, and Marco Aldinucci Copyright © 2014 Claudia Misale et al. All rights reserved. Technique of Coaxial Frame in Reflection for the Characterization of Single and Multilayer Materials with Correction of Air Gap Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:22:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/324727/ Techniques based on fixture probes in reflection are used in microwave reflectometry as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of skin cancers, for complex permittivity measurements on liquid samples and oil shale, and for complex dielectric permittivity of animals’ organs and tissues measurements in microwave band for the needs of modern veterinary medicine. In this work, we have developed a technique to characterize multilayer materials in a broadband frequency range. A coaxial probe in reflection has been specially developed for microelectronic substrate. Using SMA connector, loss tangent of 10−4 and relative permittivity have been measured with an error of 0.145%. The extension of the coaxial probe in reflection technique to multilayer substrates such as Delrin and Teflon permitted to measure bilayer material provided the good knowledge of electrical parameters and dimensions of one layer. In the coaxial transmission line method, a factor that greatly influences the accuracy of the results is the air gaps between the material under test and the coaxial test fixture. In this paper, we have discussed the influence of the air gaps (using samples of 0.5 mm air gaps) and the measures that can be taken to minimize that influence when material is measured. The intrinsic values thus determined have been experimentally verified. We have described the structure of the test fixture, its calibration issues, and the experimental results. Finally, electromagnetism simulations showed that the best results can be obtained. Zarral Lamia, Djahli Farid, and Ndagijimana Fabien Copyright © 2014 Zarral Lamia et al. All rights reserved. The N-Terminal Domain of Human DNA Helicase Rtel1 Contains a Redox Active Iron-Sulfur Cluster Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:20:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/285791/ Human telomere length regulator Rtel1 is a superfamily II DNA helicase and is essential for maintaining proper length of telomeres in chromosomes. Here we report that the N-terminal domain of human Rtel1 (RtelN) expressed in Escherichia coli cells produces a protein that contains a redox active iron-sulfur cluster with the redox midpoint potential of −248 ± 10 mV (pH 8.0). The iron-sulfur cluster in RtelN is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide, indicating that reactive oxygen/nitrogen species may modulate the DNA helicase activity of Rtel1 via modification of its iron-sulfur cluster. Purified RtelN retains a weak binding affinity for the single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) DNA in vitro. However, modification of the iron-sulfur cluster by hydrogen peroxide or nitric oxide does not significantly affect the DNA binding activity of RtelN, suggesting that the iron-sulfur cluster is not directly involved in the DNA interaction in the N-terminal domain of Rtel1. Aaron P. Landry and Huangen Ding Copyright © 2014 Aaron P. Landry and Huangen Ding. All rights reserved. A Fixed Point Theorem for Multivalued Mappings with -Distance Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:20:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/497092/ We mainly study fixed point theorem for multivalued mappings with -distance using Wardowski’s technique on complete metric space. Let be a metric space and let be a family of all nonempty bounded subsets of . Define by Considering -distance, it is proved that if is a complete metric space and is a multivalued certain contraction, then has a fixed point. Özlem Acar and Ishak Altun Copyright © 2014 Özlem Acar and Ishak Altun. All rights reserved. Predictors of Middle School Students’ Interest in Participating in an Incentive-Based Tobacco Prevention and Cessation Program in Connecticut Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:20:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jad/2014/915652/ Behavioral incentives have been used to encourage smoking cessation in older adolescents, but the acceptability of incentives to promote a smoke-free lifestyle in younger adolescents is unknown. To inform the development of novel, effective, school-based interventions for youth, we assessed middle school students’ interest in participating in an incentive-based tobacco abstinence program. We surveyed 988 students (grades 6–8) attending three Connecticut middle schools to determine whether interest in program participation varied as a function of (1) intrapersonal factors (i.e., demographic characteristics (sex, age, race), smoking history, and trait impulsivity) and/or (2) aspects of program design (i.e., prize type, value, and reward frequency). Primary analyses were conducted using multiple regression. A majority of students (61.8%) reported interest in program participation. Interest did not vary by gender, smoking risk status, or offering cash prizes. However, younger students, non-Caucasian students, behaviorally impulsive students, and students with higher levels of self-regulation were more likely to report interest. Inexpensive awards (e.g., video games) offered monthly motivated program interest. In sum, middle school students reported high levels of interest in an incentive-based program to encourage a tobacco-free lifestyle. These formative data can inform the design of effective, incentive-based smoking cessation and prevention programs in middle schools. Meghan E. Morean, Deepa R. Camenga, Grace Kong, Dana A. Cavallo, Ty S. Schepis, and Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin Copyright © 2014 Meghan E. Morean et al. All rights reserved. Geochemical Modeling of Trivalent Chromium Migration in Saline-Sodic Soil during Lasagna Process: Impact on Soil Physicochemical Properties Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:18:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/272794/ Trivalent Cr is one of the heavy metals that are difficult to be removed from soil using electrokinetic study because of its geochemical properties. High buffering capacity soil is expected to reduce the mobility of the trivalent Cr and subsequently reduce the remedial efficiency thereby complicating the remediation process. In this study, geochemical modeling and migration of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil (high buffering capacity and alkaline) during integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation, called the Lasagna process, were investigated. The remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in addition to the impacts of the Lasagna process on the physicochemical properties of the soil was studied. Box-Behnken design was used to study the interaction effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil pH, electroosmotic volume, soil electrical conductivity, current, and remedial efficiency of trivalent Cr in saline-sodic soil that was artificially spiked with Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb, Hg, phenol, and kerosene. Overall desirability of 0.715 was attained at the following optimal conditions: voltage gradient 0.36 V/cm; polarity reversal rate 17.63 hr; soil pH 10.0. Under these conditions, the expected trivalent Cr remedial efficiency is 64.75 %. Salihu Lukman, Alaadin Bukhari, Muhammad H. Al-Malack, Nuhu D. Mu’azu, and Mohammed H. Essa Copyright © 2014 Salihu Lukman et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:15:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/204840/ Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Xiaochen Yang, Xingjiang Xiong, Heran Wang, and Jie Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaochen Yang et al. All rights reserved. Microstructural and Mössbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Nanoparticles Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/540319/ Zinc substituted magnesium ferrite powders have been prepared by a sol-gel autocombustion method. XRD patterns show that the specimens with and 0.7 exhibit single-phase spinel structure, and more content of Zn in specimens is favorable for the synthesis of pure Mg-Zn ferrites. Room temperature Mössbauer spectra of annealed at 800°C display transition from ferrimagnetic behavior to super paramagnetic behavior with increase in zinc concentration. The Mössbauer spectras of Mg0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 annealed at different temperatures display the magnetic phase change of the ferrite particles. Jinpei Lin, Yun He, Qing Lin, Ruijun Wang, and Henian Chen Copyright © 2014 Jinpei Lin et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Ventilation Weaning in Inclusion Body Myositis: Feasibility of Isokinetic Inspiratory Muscle Training as an Adjunct Therapy Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:04:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2014/902541/ Inclusion body myositis is a rare myopathy associated with a high rate of respiratory complications. This condition usually requires prolonged mechanical ventilation and prolonged intensive care stay. The unsuccessful weaning is mainly related to respiratory muscle weakness that does not promptly respond to immunosuppressive therapy. We are reporting a case of a patient in whom the use of an inspiratory muscle-training program which started after a two-week period of mechanical ventilation was associated with a successful weaning in one week and hospital discharge after 2 subsequent weeks. Leonardo Cordeiro de Souza, Josué Felipe Campos, Leandro Possidente Daher, Priscila Furtado da Silva, Alex Ventura, Pollyana Zamborlini do Prado, Daniele Brasil, Debora Mendonça, and Jocemir Ronaldo Lugon Copyright © 2014 Leonardo Cordeiro de Souza et al. All rights reserved. Edgeworth Expansion Based Model for the Convolutional Noise pdf Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:00:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/951927/ Recently, the Edgeworth expansion up to order 4 was used to represent the convolutional noise probability density function (pdf) in the conditional expectation calculations where the source pdf was modeled with the maximum entropy density approximation technique. However, the applied Lagrange multipliers were not the appropriate ones for the chosen model for the convolutional noise pdf. In this paper we use the Edgeworth expansion up to order 4 and up to order 6 to model the convolutional noise pdf. We derive the appropriate Lagrange multipliers, thus obtaining new closed-form approximated expressions for the conditional expectation and mean square error (MSE) as a byproduct. Simulation results indicate hardly any equalization improvement with Edgeworth expansion up to order 4 when using optimal Lagrange multipliers over a nonoptimal set. In addition, there is no justification for using the Edgeworth expansion up to order 6 over the Edgeworth expansion up to order 4 for the 16QAM and easy channel case. However, Edgeworth expansion up to order 6 leads to improved equalization performance compared to the Edgeworth expansion up to order 4 for the 16QAM and hard channel case as well as for the case where the 64QAM is sent via an easy channel. Yonatan Rivlin and Monika Pinchas Copyright © 2014 Yonatan Rivlin and Monika Pinchas. All rights reserved. Antidepressant Fluoxetine Modulates the In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Buffalo Brain Cystatin: A Thermodynamic Study Using UV and Fluorescence Techniques Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:59:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/btri/2014/319397/ Cystatins constitute a superfamily of homologous proteins. The major role of cystatins is to regulate the unwanted proteolysis and to protect the organism against endogenous proteases released from lysosomes, invading microorganisms and parasites that use cysteine proteases to enter the body. Imbalance in regulation of proteolytic activity may lead to a wide range of human diseases. An enormous progress has been made in understanding of protein degradation process under normal and pathological conditions; infact proteases are now clearly viewed as important drug targets. Fluoxetine a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is an antidepressant. It is used to treat major depressive disorders. In the present study binding of fluoxetine to cystatin was studied by UV and fluorescence quenching technique. Intrinsic fluorescence of fluoxetine complexed with purified buffalo brain cystatin (BC) was measured by selectively exciting the tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed on complex formation. When cystatin was added to fluoxetine solutions at a molar ratio of 1 : 0.5, it not only quenched more than half of its fluorescence but also reduced the activity of cystatin. Stern-Volmer plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25°C showed the quenching of fluorescence to be a collisional phenomenon. Our results suggest the prime binding site for fluoxetine on BC to be at or near tryptophan residues. Fluoxetine quenched the fluorescence by a static process, which specifically indicates the formation of a complex. Fakhra Amin and Bilqees Bano Copyright © 2014 Fakhra Amin and Bilqees Bano. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Hypertension and Right Heart Dysfunction in Chronic Lung Disease Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:58:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/739674/ Group 3 pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic lung disease (CLD), including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, and sleep-disordered breathing. Development of PH is associated with poor prognosis and may progress to right heart failure, however, in the majority of the patients with CLD, PH is mild to moderate and only a small number of patients develop severe PH. The pathophysiology of PH in CLD is multifactorial and includes hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, pulmonary vascular remodeling, small vessel destruction, and fibrosis. The effects of PH on the right ventricle (RV) range between early RV remodeling, hypertrophy, dilatation, and eventual failure with associated increased mortality. The golden standard for diagnosis of PH is right heart catheterization, however, evidence of PH can be appreciated on clinical examination, serology, radiological imaging, and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment of PH in CLD focuses on management of the underlying lung disorder and hypoxia. There is, however, limited evidence to suggest that PH-specific vasodilators such as phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, and prostanoids may have a role in the treatment of patients with CLD and moderate-to-severe PH. Amirmasoud Zangiabadi, Carmine G. De Pasquale, and Dimitar Sajkov Copyright © 2014 Amirmasoud Zangiabadi et al. All rights reserved. Antiviral Action of Synthetic Stigmasterol Derivatives on Herpes Simplex Virus Replication in Nervous Cells In Vitro Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:56:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/947560/ Polyfunctionalized stigmasterol derivatives, (22S,23S)-22,23-dihydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (compound 1) and (22S,23S)-3β-bromo-5α,22,23-trihydroxystigmastan-6-one (compound 2), inhibit herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication and spreading in human epithelial cells derived from ocular tissues. Both compounds reduce the incidence and severity of lesions in a murine model of herpetic stromal keratitis when administered in different treatment modalities. Since encephalitis caused by HSV-1 is another immunopathology of viral origin, we evaluate here the antiviral effect of both compounds on HSV-1 infected nervous cell lines as well as their anti-inflammatory action. We found that both stigmasterol derivatives presented low cytotoxicity in the three nervous cell lines assayed. Regarding the antiviral activity, in all cases both compounds prevented HSV-1 multiplication when added after infection, as well as virus propagation. Additionally, both compounds were able to hinder interleukin-6 and Interferon-gamma secretion induced by HSV-1 infection in Neuro-2a cells. We conclude that compounds 1 and 2 have exerted a dual antiviral and anti-inflammatory effect in HSV-1 infected nervous cell lines, which makes them interesting molecules to be further studied. Erina Petrera, Analía G. Níttolo, and Laura E. Alché Copyright © 2014 Erina Petrera et al. All rights reserved. A Facile Synthesis of Graphene-WO3 Nanowire Clusters with High Photocatalytic Activity for O2 Evolution Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:55:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/943537/ In the present work, graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) techniques. The photocatalytic oxygen (O2) evolution properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by measuring the amount of evolved O2 from water splitting. The graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters exhibited enhanced performance compared to pure WO3 nanowire clusters for O2 evolution. The amount of evolved O2 from water splitting after 8 h for the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters is ca. 0.345 mmol/L, which is more than 1.9 times as much as that of the pure WO3 nanowire clusters (ca. 0.175 mmol/L). The high photocatalytic activity of the graphene-WO3 nanowire clusters was attributed to a high charge transfer rate in the presence of graphene. M.-J. Zhou, N. Zhang, and Z. H. Hou Copyright © 2014 M.-J. Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Cationic Polyene Phospholipids as DNA Carriers for Ocular Gene Therapy Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:54:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/703253/ Recent success in the treatment of congenital blindness demonstrates the potential of ocular gene therapy as a therapeutic approach. The eye is a good target due to its small size, minimal diffusion of therapeutic agent to the systemic circulation, and low immune and inflammatory responses. Currently, most approaches are based on viral vectors, but efforts continue towards the synthesis and evaluation of new nonviral carriers to improve nucleic acid delivery. Our objective is to evaluate the efficiency of novel cationic retinoic and carotenoic glycol phospholipids, designated C20-18, C20-20, and C30-20, to deliver DNA to human retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells. Liposomes were produced by solvent evaporation of ethanolic mixtures of the polyene compounds and coformulated with 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) or cholesterol (Chol). Addition of DNA to the liposomes formed lipoplexes, which were characterized for binding, size, biocompatibility, and transgene efficiency. Lipoplex formulations of suitable size and biocompatibility were assayed for DNA delivery, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using RPE cells and a GFP-encoding plasmid. The retinoic lipoplex formulation with DOPE revealed a transfection efficiency comparable to the known lipid references 3β-[N-(N′,N′-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl]-cholesterol (DC-Chol) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EPC) and GeneJuice. The results demonstrate that cationic polyene phospholipids have potential as DNA carriers for ocular gene therapy. Susana Machado, Sofia Calado, Diogo Bitoque, Ana Vanessa Oliveira, Christer L. Øpstad, Muhammad Zeeshan, Hans-Richard Sliwka, Vassilia Partali, Michael D. Pungente, and Gabriela A. Silva Copyright © 2014 Susana Machado et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Control of Investment-Reinsurance Problem for an Insurer with Jump-Diffusion Risk Process: Independence of Brownian Motions Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:53:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/194962/ This paper investigates the excess-of-loss reinsurance and investment problem for a compound Poisson jump-diffusion risk process, with the risk asset price modeled by a constant elasticity of variance (CEV) model. It aims at obtaining the explicit optimal control strategy and the optimal value function. Applying stochastic control technique of jump diffusion, a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is established. Moreover, we show that a closed-form solution for the HJB equation can be found by maximizing the insurer’s exponential utility of terminal wealth with the independence of two Brownian motions and . A verification theorem is also proved to verify that the solution of HJB equation is indeed a solution of this optimal control problem. Then, we quantitatively analyze the effect of different parameter impacts on optimal control strategy and the optimal value function, which show that optimal control strategy is decreasing with the initial wealth and decreasing with the volatility rate of risk asset price. However, the optimal value function is increasing with the appreciation rate of risk asset. De-Lei Sheng, Ximin Rong, and Hui Zhao Copyright © 2014 De-Lei Sheng et al. All rights reserved. Robust Exponential Stability of Impulsive Stochastic Neural Networks with Leakage Time-Varying Delay Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:46:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/831027/ This paper investigates mean-square robust exponential stability of the equilibrium point of stochastic neural networks with leakage time-varying delays and impulsive perturbations. By using Lyapunov functions and Razumikhin techniques, some easy-to-test criteria of the stability are derived. Two examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the results. Chunge Lu and Linshan Wang Copyright © 2014 Chunge Lu and Linshan Wang. All rights reserved. Simplified Adaptive Robust Motion Control with Varying Boundary Discontinuous Projection of Hydraulic Actuator Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:44:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/714589/ This paper deals with the high performance adaptive robust motion control of electrohydraulic servo system driven by dual vane hydraulic rotary actuator. The recently developed adaptive robust control theory is used to handle the nonlinearities and modelling uncertainties in hydraulic systems. Aside from the difficulty of handling parametric variations, the traditional adaptive robust controller (ARC) is also a little complicated in practice. To address these challenging issues, a simplified adaptive robust control with varying boundary discontinuous projection is developed to enhance the robustness of the closed-loop system, based on the features of hydraulic rotary actuator. Compared with previous ARC controller, the resulting controller has a simple algorithm for more suitable implementation and can handle parametric variations via nonlinear robust design. The controller theoretically achieves a guaranteed transient performance and final tracking accuracy in the presence of both parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities. Extensive simulation results are obtained for a hydraulic rotary actuator to verify the high performance nature of proposed control strategy. Cungui Yu and Xianwei Qi Copyright © 2014 Cungui Yu and Xianwei Qi. All rights reserved. A Shocking Complication of a Pneumothorax: Chest Tube-Induced Arrhythmias and Review of the Literature Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:43:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2014/681572/ We describe a patient with a recent chest tube insertion leading to atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate that led to multiple inappropriate internal cardiac defibrillator (ICD) shocks. This is the first reported case of this occurring in a patient with an ICD leading to inappropriate shocks. Our elderly patient with emphysema presented with a spontaneous pneumothorax and developed rapid atrial fibrillation following emergency tube thoracostomy. The patient had a single lead ICD and received multiple inappropriate shocks for the rapid ventricular rate in the therapy zone. Although medical treatment helped stabilize the patient, resolution of the atrial fibrillation occurred only after the chest tube was removed. In a patient with a chest tube or other intrathoracic catheters, maintaining a high index of suspicion that chest tube insertions can cause secondary life threatening cardiovascular complications needs to be considered. In such patients, removal of the device proves to be the most prudent treatment action. Shaun Cardozo and Kevin Belgrave Copyright © 2014 Shaun Cardozo and Kevin Belgrave. All rights reserved. Almost Periodic Solution of a Discrete Schoener’s Competition Model with Delays Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:40:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jde/2014/256094/ We consider an almost periodic discrete Schoener’s competition model with delays. By means of an almost periodic functional hull theory and constructing a suitable Lyapunov function, sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a unique strictly positive almost periodic solution which is globally attractive. An example together with numerical simulation indicates the feasibility of the main result. Hui Zhang, Yingqi Li, Bin Jing, Xiaofeng Fang, and Jing Wang Copyright © 2014 Hui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Holistic Diagnosis of Rising Damp and Salt Attack in Two Residential Buildings in Kumasi, Ghana Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:38:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcen/2014/398627/ Rising damp is one of the most severe phenomena that leads to decay and deterioration of both old and modern types of buildings. This study employed a holistic approach to dampness investigation and sought to examine the problem of rising damp in the walls of two residential apartments in Kumasi, Ghana. The study sought to determine the types of soluble salts and their concentrations in the soils and accumulated percentages in the walls over time and whether there exists any linkage between the salts in the walls and those in the ground. Results from the geotechnical survey of the building sites found that the soils on site 1 consisted of silty sandy gravel with some clay particles and those on site 2 consisted of silty sandy soil with some clay and traces of gravel. The study identified several groups of salts in the walls of the buildings, with the most damaging and dangerous being magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride, and sodium sulphate salts. Similar salts were identified in the soil samples from the trial pits. The results therefore indicate a linkage between the salts found in the ground and those found in the walls and therefore confirm the presence of rising dampness. Kofi Agyekum, Joshua Ayarkwa, and Christian Koranteng Copyright © 2014 Kofi Agyekum et al. All rights reserved. The Importance of the Prenyl Group in the Activities of Osthole in Enhancing Bone Formation and Inhibiting Bone Resorption In Vitro Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:35:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/921954/ Osteoporosis treatment always aimed at keeping the balance of bone formation and bone resorption. Recently, prenyl group in natural products has been proposed as an active group to enhance the osteogenesis process. Osthole has both the prenyl group and bone-protective activities, but the relationship is still unknown. In this study we found that osthole exerted a potent ability to promote proliferation and osteogenic function of rat bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts, including improved cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, enhanced secretion of collagen-I, bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osteopontin, stimulated mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix, OPG (osteoprotegerin), RANKL (receptor activator for nuclear factor-B ligand), and the ratio of OPG/RANKL, as well as increasing the formation of mineralized nodules. However, 7-methoxycoumarin had no obvious effects. Osthole also inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption to a greater extent than 7-methoxycoumarin, as shown by a lower tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and lower number and smaller area of resorption pits. Our findings demonstrate that osthole could be a potential agent to stimulate bone formation and inhibit bone resorption, and the prenyl group plays an important role in these bone-protective effects. Yuan-Kun Zhai, Ya-Lei Pan, Yin-Bo Niu, Chen-Rui Li, Xiang-Long Wu, Wu-Tu Fan, Ting-Li Lu, Qi-Bing Mei, and Cory J. Xian Copyright © 2014 Yuan-Kun Zhai et al. All rights reserved. Synthesized Attributes of Water Use by Regional Vegetation: A Key to Cognition of “Water Pump” Viewpoint Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:32:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/954849/ Recently, the frequent seasonal drought in Southwest China has brought considerable concerns and continuous heated arguments on the “water pump” viewpoint (i.e., the water demand from Hevea spp. and Eucalyptus spp. can be treated as a water pump) once again. However, such viewpoint just focused on water consumption from vegetation transpiration and its ecoenvironment impacts, which had not considered other attributes of vegetation, namely, water saving and drought resistance, and hydrological regulation (water conservation) into consideration. Thus, in this paper, the synthesized attributes of regional vegetation water use had been mainly discussed. The results showed that the study on such aspects as the characters of water consumption from vegetation transpiration, the potential of water saving and drought resistance, and the effects of hydrological regulation in Southwest China lagged far behind, let alone the report on synthesized attributes of water utilization with the organic combination of the three aspects above or the paralleled analysis. Accordingly, in this paper, the study on the synthesized attributes of water use by regional vegetation in Southwest China was suggested, and the objectives of such a special study were clarified, targeting the following aspects: (i) characters of water consumption from transpiration of regional typical artificial vegetation; (ii) potential of water saving and drought resistance of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iii) effects of hydrological regulation of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iv) synthesized attributes of water use by regional typical artificial vegetation. It is expected to provide a new idea for the scientific assessment on the regional vegetation ecoenvironment effects and theoretical guidance for the regional vegetation reconstruction and ecological restoration. Xin-hui Huang, Fu-ke Yu, Xiao-ying Li, Yuan Zheng, Hua Yuan, Jian-gang Ma, Yan-xia Wang, Dan-hui Qi, and Hong-bo Shao Copyright © 2014 Xin-hui Huang et al. All rights reserved. Computerized Neuropsychological Assessment in Aging: Testing Efficacy and Clinical Ecology of Different Interfaces Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:30:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/804723/ Digital technologies have opened new opportunities for psychological testing, allowing new computerized testing tools to be developed and/or paper and pencil testing tools to be translated to new computerized devices. The question that rises is whether these implementations may introduce some technology-specific effects to be considered in neuropsychological evaluations. Two core aspects have been investigated in this work: the efficacy of tests and the clinical ecology of their administration (the ability to measure real-world test performance), specifically (1) the testing efficacy of a computerized test when response to stimuli is measured using a touch-screen compared to a conventional mouse-control response device; (2) the testing efficacy of a computerized test with respect to different input modalities (visual versus verbal); and (3) the ecology of two computerized assessment modalities (touch-screen and mouse-control), including preference measurements of participants. Our results suggest that (1) touch-screen devices are suitable for administering experimental tasks requiring precise timings for detection, (2) intrinsic nature of neuropsychological tests should always be respected in terms of stimuli presentation when translated to new digitalized environment, and (3) touch-screen devices result in ecological instruments being proposed for the computerized administration of neuropsychological tests with a high level of preference from elderly people. Matteo Canini, Petronilla Battista, Pasquale Anthony Della Rosa, Eleonora Catricalà, Christian Salvatore, Maria Carla Gilardi, and Isabella Castiglioni Copyright © 2014 Matteo Canini et al. All rights reserved. Optical Characterization of Nanomaterials Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:28:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/739212/ Mun Seok Jeong, Gon Namkoong, Clare C. Byeon, Jong Su Kim, and Hong Seok Lee Copyright © 2014 Mun Seok Jeong et al. All rights reserved. Immunomodulation by Gut Microbiota: Role of Toll-Like Receptor Expressed by T Cells Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:22:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/586939/ A close relationship exists between gut microbiota and immune responses. An imbalance of this relationship can determine local and systemic immune diseases. In fact the immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis with the microbiota that normally resides in the gut, while, at the same time, the gut microbiota influences the immune system, modulating number and function of effector and regulatory T cells. To achieve this aim, mutual regulation between immune system and microbiota is achieved through several mechanisms, including the engagement of toll-like receptors (TLRs), pathogen-specific receptors expressed on numerous cell types. TLRs are able to recognize ligands from commensal or pathogen microbiota to maintain the tolerance or trigger the immune response. In this review, we summarize the latest evidences about the role of TLRs expressed in adaptive T cells, to understand how the immune system promotes intestinal homeostasis, fights invasion by pathogens, and is modulated by the intestinal microbiota. Mariagrazia Valentini, Alessia Piermattei, Gabriele Di Sante, Giuseppe Migliara, Giovanni Delogu, and Francesco Ria Copyright © 2014 Mariagrazia Valentini et al. All rights reserved. Novel Techniques to Speed Up the Computation of the Automorphism Group of a Graph Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:19:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/934637/ Graph automorphism (GA) is a classical problem, in which the objective is to compute the automorphism group of an input graph. Most GA algorithms explore a search tree using the individualization-refinement procedure. Four novel techniques are proposed which increase the performance of any algorithm of this type by reducing the depth of the search tree and by effectively pruning it. We formally prove that a GA algorithm that uses these techniques correctly computes the automorphism group of an input graph. Then, we describe how these techniques have been incorporated into the GA algorithm conauto, as conauto-2.03, with at most an additive polynomial increase in its asymptotic time complexity. Using a benchmark of different graph families, we have evaluated the impact of these techniques on the size of the search tree, observing a significant reduction both when they are applied individually and when all of them are applied together. This is also reflected in a reduction of the running time, which is substantial for some graph families. Finally, we have compared the search tree size of conauto-2.03 against those of other popular GA algorithms, observing that, in most cases, conauto explores less nodes than these algorithms. José Luis López-Presa, Luis F. Chiroque, and Antonio Fernández Anta Copyright © 2014 José Luis López-Presa et al. All rights reserved. FLT3 Gene Mutation in Childhood Acute Leukemia: A Preliminary Study Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/njos/2014/735453/ Introduction. FLT3 is a tyrosine kinase receptor involved in the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. There are two types of common FLT3 gene mutation, internal tandem duplication and the D835 mutation, which are known to be associated with a poor clinical outcome in acute leukemia patients. Methods. This study evaluates the incidence of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) in 38 pediatric patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. DNA extraction was done from archive bone marrow samples to determine FLT3-ITD mutations using polymerase chain reaction. Results. In this pediatric series, the age ranges were 2–14 years. However, no FLT3-ITD mutations were detected in any of the samples. Conclusion. This preliminary study suggested that the incidence of FLT3 gene mutation most probably was very low in pediatrics patients diagnosed with acute leukemia. A further study with larger number of patient samples is necessary to confirm the findings and to further appreciate the prognostic value of FLT3-ITD mutation among pediatrics patients. Zefarina Zulkafli, Zuraida Zainun, Mohd Nazri Hassan, Wan Suriana Wan Ab Rahman, Nurul Azhan Othman, Selamah Ghazali, and Rosline Hassan Copyright © 2014 Zefarina Zulkafli et al. All rights reserved. Cubic Bezier Curve Approach for Automated Offline Signature Verification with Intrusion Identification Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:17:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/928039/ Authentication is a process of identifying person’s rights over a system. Many authentication types are used in various systems, wherein biometrics authentication systems are of a special concern. Signature verification is a basic biometric authentication technique used widely. The signature matching algorithm uses image correlation and graph matching technique which provides false rejection or acceptance. We proposed a model to compare knowledge from signature. Intrusion in the signature repository system results in copy of the signature that leads to false acceptance. Our approach uses a Bezier curve algorithm to identify the curve points and uses the behaviors of the signature for verification. An analyzing mobile agent is used to identify the input signature parameters and compare them with reference signature repository. It identifies duplication of signature over intrusion and rejects it. Experiments are conducted on a database with thousands of signature images from various sources and the results are favorable. Arun Vijayaragavan, J. Visumathi, and K. L. Shunmuganathan Copyright © 2014 Arun Vijayaragavan et al. All rights reserved. Bilateral Persistent Pupillary Membrane with Tetralogy of Fallot: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:09:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2014/581273/ Case Report. A 15-year-old boy presented to the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital with the complain of bilateral vision blurring associated with severe glare and photophobia. On ophthalmological examination, uncorrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/100 in the left eye, and there was no improvement with pinhole testing. The slit-lamp examination showed persistent pupillary membranes (PPM) in both eyes. According to the history obtained from his parents, he had received cardiac surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) 8 years ago. Conclusion. This patient is unique because this is the first reported case of bilateral PPM with congenital heart anomaly in the literature. Bilaterality of the eye anomaly strengthens the possibility of an uncommon association between PPM and TOF, rather than local failure in embryonic development. A. Altun, S. A. Kurna, E. Bozkurt, G. Erdogan, G. Altun, O. O. Olcaysu, and S. F. Aki Copyright © 2014 A. Altun et al. All rights reserved. Stability Analysis of a System of Exponential Difference Equations Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:08:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2014/375890/ We study the boundedness character and persistence, existence and uniqueness of positive equilibrium, local and global behavior, and rate of convergence of positive solutions of the following system of exponential difference equations: , , where the parameters , and for and initial conditions , and are positive real numbers. Furthermore, by constructing a discrete Lyapunov function, we obtain the global asymptotic stability of the positive equilibrium. Some numerical examples are given to verify our theoretical results. Q. Din, K. A. Khan, and A. Nosheen Copyright © 2014 Q. Din et al. All rights reserved. Instance Transfer Learning with Multisource Dynamic TrAdaBoost Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:08:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/282747/ Since the transfer learning can employ knowledge in relative domains to help the learning tasks in current target domain, compared with the traditional learning it shows the advantages of reducing the learning cost and improving the learning efficiency. Focused on the situation that sample data from the transfer source domain and the target domain have similar distribution, an instance transfer learning method based on multisource dynamic TrAdaBoost is proposed in this paper. In this method, knowledge from multiple source domains is used well to avoid negative transfer; furthermore, the information that is conducive to target task learning is obtained to train candidate classifiers. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed algorithm improves the capability that weight entropy drifts from source to target instances by means of adding the dynamic factor, and the classification effectiveness is better than single source transfer. Finally, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has higher classification accuracy. Qian Zhang, Haigang Li, Yong Zhang, and Ming Li Copyright © 2014 Qian Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Roughness in Lattice Ordered Effect Algebras Thu, 24 Jul 2014 08:00:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/542846/ Many authors have studied roughness on various algebraic systems. In this paper, we consider a lattice ordered effect algebra and discuss its roughness in this context. Moreover, we introduce the notions of the interior and the closure of a subset and give some of their properties in effect algebras. Finally, we use a Riesz ideal induced congruence and define a function in a lattice ordered effect algebra and build a relationship between it and congruence classes. Then we study some properties about approximation of lattice ordered effect algebras. Xiao Long Xin, Xiu Juan Hua, and Xi Zhu Copyright © 2014 Xiao Long Xin et al. All rights reserved. The Parameters of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Are Critical to Its Regenerative Effects When Applied Just after a Sciatic Crush Lesion in Mice Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:56:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/572949/ We investigated the effect of two frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) applied immediately after lesion on peripheral nerve regeneration after a mouse sciatic crush injury. The animals were anesthetized and subjected to crushing of the right sciatic nerve and then separated into three groups: nontreated, Low-TENS (4 Hz), and High-TENS (100 Hz). The animals of Low- and High-TENS groups were stimulated for 2 h immediately after the surgical procedure, while the nontreated group was only positioned for the same period. After five weeks the animals were euthanized, and the nerves dissected bilaterally for histological and histomorphometric analysis. Histological assessment by light and electron microscopy showed that High-TENS and nontreated nerves had a similar profile, with extensive signs of degeneration. Conversely, Low-TENS led to increased regeneration, displaying histological aspects similar to control nerves. High-TENS also led to decreased density of fibers in the range of 6–12 μm diameter and decreased fiber diameter and myelin area in the range of 0–2 μm diameter. These findings suggest that High-TENS applied just after a peripheral nerve crush may be deleterious for regeneration, whereas Low-TENS may increase nerve regeneration capacity. Diana Cavalcante Miranda de Assis, Êmyle Martins Lima, Bruno Teixeira Goes, João Zugaib Cavalcanti, Alaí Barbosa Paixão, Marcos André Vannier-Santos, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez, and Abrahão Fontes Baptista Copyright © 2014 Diana Cavalcante Miranda de Assis et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Soluble Syndecan-1 in Pleural Malignancies Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:55:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/419853/ Background. The distinction between malignant and benign pleural effusions is a diagnostic challenge today and measuring soluble biomarkers could add to the diagnostic accuracy. Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan involved in various cellular functions and is cleaved from the cell surface in a regulated manner. The shed fragment, which can be recovered in effusion supernatant and in serum, retains its binding capacities, but often with different functions and signalling properties than the cell-bound form. Aim. This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera from patients with pleural malignancies. Study Design. Using two cohorts of patients, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of soluble syndecan-1 in pleural effusions and sera, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Results. In pleural effusions, syndecan-1 distinguished malignant and benign diseases, with an odds ratio of 8.59 (95% CI 3.67 to 20.09). Furthermore, syndecan-1 in pleural effusions predicted a survival difference for patients with pleural metastatic disease and malignant mesothelioma of 11.2 and 9.2 months, respectively. However, no such effects were seen when syndecan-1 was measured in serum. Conclusion. Soluble syndecan-1 is a promising candidate biomarker for the cytopathological diagnosis and prognostication of malignant pleural effusions. Filip Mundt, Ghazal Heidari-Hamedani, Gustav Nilsonne, Muzaffer Metintas, Anders Hjerpe, and Katalin Dobra Copyright © 2014 Filip Mundt et al. All rights reserved. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:55:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/543051/ After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient’s life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician’s treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. Chang-Seop Park Copyright © 2014 Chang-Seop Park. All rights reserved. Prescribed Burning and Clear-Cutting Effects on Understory Vegetation in a Pinus canariensis Stand (Gran Canaria) Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:52:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/215418/ Prescribed fires are a powerful tool for reducing fire hazards by decreasing amounts of fuel. The main objective is to analyze the effects of prescribed burning on the understory vegetation composition as well as on the soil characteristics of a reforested stand of Pinus canariensis. The study attempts to identify the effects of the preburning treatment of cutting understory vegetation on the floristic parameters of the vegetation community. This study was carried out for two years following a prescribed fire in a Canarian pine stand. Cutting and burning treatment affected species composition and increased diversity. Burnt and cut plots were characterized by a diverse array of herbaceous species and by a lower abundance of Teline microphylla (endemic legume), although burning apparently induced its germination. Cut treatment was more consistently differentiated from the control plots than burnt treatment. Soil K decreased after both treatments, pH slightly decreased after cutting, while P and Ca increased after fire. From an ecological point of view, prescribed burning is a better management practice than cutting the woody species of the understory. However, long-term studies would be necessary to evaluate the effects of fire intensity, season and frequency in which the prescribed burning is applied. José Ramón Arévalo, Silvia Fernández-Lugo, Celia García-Domínguez, Agustín Naranjo-Cigala, Federico Grillo, and Leonor Calvo Copyright © 2014 José Ramón Arévalo et al. All rights reserved. Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:46:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/181072/ The ethanol crude extracts (ECE) and their subfractions from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves were prepared and their phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. Moreover, the effective HPLC procedure for simultaneous quantification of twelve compounds in Z. bungeanum leaves was established. The correlation between the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity was also discussed. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had the highest total phenolic (97.29 mmol GAE/100 g) and flavonoid content (67.93 mmol QE/100 g), while the greatest total alkaloid content (4.39 mmol GAE/100 g) was observed in the chloroform fraction (CF). Twelve compounds were quantified by RP-HPLC assay. EAF exhibited the highest content of quercitrin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, quercetin, sesamin, and nitidine chloride (125.21, 54.95, 24.36, 26.24, and 0.20 mg/g); acetone fraction (AF) contained the highest content of chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, and trifolin (5.87, 29.94, 98.33, and 31.24 mg/g), while kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, xanthyletin, and sesamin were rich in CF. EAF and AF exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging abilities and reducing power (FRAP), whereas CF exhibited significant antifungal activity. Moreover, EAF also showed stronger antibacterial activity. In conclusion, Z. bungeanum leaves have health benefits when consumed and could be served as an accessible source for production of functional food ingredients and medicinal exploration. Yujuan Zhang, Ziwen Luo, Dongmei Wang, Fengyuan He, and Dengwu Li Copyright © 2014 Yujuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. High-Strength Bolt Corrosion Fatigue Life Model and Application Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:38:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/567318/ The corrosion fatigue performance of high-strength bolt was studied. Based on the fracture mechanics theory and the Gerberich-Chen formula, the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture crack model and the fatigue life model were established. The high-strength bolt crack depth and the fatigue life under corrosion environment were quantitatively analyzed. The factors affecting high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life were discussed. The result showed that the high-strength bolt corrosion fracture biggest crack depth reduces along with the material yield strength and the applied stress increases. The material yield strength was the major factor. And the high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life reduced along with the increase of material strength, the applied stress or stress amplitude. The stress amplitude influenced the most, and the material yield strength influenced the least. Low bolt strength and a low stress amplitude level could extend high-strength bolt corrosion fatigue life. Wang Hui-li and Qin Si-feng Copyright © 2014 Wang Hui-li and Qin Si-feng. All rights reserved. A Closed-Loop Supply Chain Problem with Retailing and Recycling Competition Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:37:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/509825/ We investigate a durable product retailing and recycling problem in a closed-loop supply chain consisting of a single manufacturer and two competitive retailers, in which the manufacturer collects used products via retailers from the consumers and has sufficient channel power over the retailers to act as a Stackelberg leader; the retailers compete in retail products and recycling used products. In order to analyze the impact of retailing and recycling competitions on the profits of the manufacturer and the competitive retailers, two collection models (coordinated collection (Model C) and decentralized collection (Model D)) are established, respectively. Then, based on game theory, we derive the optimal retail price, the optimal repurchase price, and the optimal profits of the manufacturer and the retailers. The managerial insights demonstrate that more intense retailing competition induces the increase of the manufacturer's profits in both forward and reverse channels and retailers' profits in the forward channel and the decrease of retailers' profits in the reverse channel, while more intense recycling competition induces the decrease of the profits of the manufacturer and retailers in both forward and reverse channels. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed models. Chuanchao Xu, Bo Li, Yanfei Lan, and Yi Tang Copyright © 2014 Chuanchao Xu et al. All rights reserved. FLUKA Monte Carlo for Basic Dosimetric Studies of Dual Energy Medical Linear Accelerator Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:35:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jra/2014/343979/ General purpose Monte Carlo code for simulation of particle transport is used to study the basic dosimetric parameters like percentage depth dose and dose profiles and compared with the experimental measurements from commercial dual energy medical linear accelerator. Varian Clinac iX medical linear accelerator with dual energy photon beams (6 and 15 MV) is simulated using FLUKA. FLAIR is used to visualize and edit the geometry. Experimental measurements are taken for 100 cm source-to-surface (SSD) in 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 PTW water phantom using 0.12 cc cylindrical ionization chamber. Percentage depth dose for standard square field sizes and dose profiles for various depths are studied in detail. The analysis was carried out using ROOT (a DATA analysis frame work developed at CERN) system. Simulation result shows good agreement in percentage depth dose and beam profiles with the experimental measurements for Varian Clinac iX dual energy medical linear accelerator. K. Abdul Haneefa, T. Siji Cyriac, M. M. Musthafa, R. Ganapathi Raman, V. T. Hridya, A. Siddhartha, and K. K. Shakir Copyright © 2014 K. Abdul Haneefa et al. All rights reserved. Auricular Point Acupressure to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:35:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/375173/ This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) pilot study was designed to (1) assess the feasibility and tolerability of an easily administered, auricular point acupressure (APA) intervention and (2) provide an initial assessment of effect size as compared to a sham treatment. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to receive either the real or sham APA treatment. All participants were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Self-report measures were obtained at baseline, weekly during treatment, at end-of-intervention (EOI), and at a 1-month follow-up. A dropout rate of 26% in the real APA group and 50% in the sham group was observed. The reduction in worst pain from baseline to EOI was 41% for the real and 5% for the sham group with a Cohen’s effect size of 1.22 . Disability scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) decreased in the real group by 29% and were unchanged in the sham group (+3%) . Given the high dropout rate, results must be interpreted with caution; nevertheless, our results suggest that APA may provide an inexpensive and effective complementary approach for the management of back pain in older adults, and further study is warranted. Chao Hsing Yeh, Natalia E. Morone, Lung-Chang Chien, Yuling Cao, Huijuan Lu, Juan Shen, Leah Margolis, Shreya Bhatnagar, Samuel Hoffman, Zhan Liang, Ronald M. Glick, and Lorna Kwai-Ping Suen Copyright © 2014 Chao Hsing Yeh et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Acupuncture on Leucopenia, Neutropenia, NK, and B Cells in Cancer Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:34:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/217397/ Chemotherapy is one of most significant therapeutic approaches to cancer. Immune system functional state is considered a major prognostic and predictive impact on the success of chemotherapy and it has an important role on patients’ psychoemotional state and quality of life. In Chinese medicine, chemotherapy is understood as “toxic cold” that may induce a progressive hypofunctional state of immune system, thus compromising the fast recovery of immunity during chemotherapy. In this study, we performed a standardized acupuncture and moxibustion protocol to enhance immunity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and to assess if the improvement of immunity status correlates with a better psychoemotional state and quality of life. Irene Pais, Nuno Correia, Isabel Pimentel, Maria José Teles, Esmeralda Neves, Júlia Vasconcelos, Judite Guimarães, Nancy Azevedo, António Moreira Pinto, Jorge Machado, Thomas Efferth, and Henry J. Greten Copyright © 2014 Irene Pais et al. All rights reserved. Cephalometric Investigation of First Cervical Vertebrae Morphology and Hyoid Position in Young Adults with Different Sagittal Skeletal Patterns Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:33:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/159784/ The aim of this retrospective study was to examine hyoid bone position and C1 (atlas) morphology in males and females and analyze these parameters with respect to different sagittal skeletal patterns via cephalometry, with the goal of identifying cephalometric norms. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 120 individuals (average age: 21.1 ± 2.9 years) were classified according to their ANB angle (Class I, II, or III) and used to assess 14 parameters. Class I and II patients showed significant differences in Hy-NSL, Hy-PD, Hy-CVT, Lum, and a-p measurements. These parameters were consistently larger in males than in females. Intergroup comparisons among males showed significant differences in the SNA, ANB, Hy-CVT, X, and Z measurements. The hyoid was positioned more inferiorly and anteriorly and was more prominent in males than in females in all groups. Among participants exhibiting a Class I skeletal pattern, C1 was also larger in the anterior-posterior direction in males than in females. In the sagittal plane, the hyoid was positioned similarly in males with either Class I or III skeletal patterns but was positioned posteriorly in males with a Class II skeletal pattern. In addition, the vertical position of C1 varied with sagittal skeletal pattern in males. Seher Gündüz Arslan, Neval Dildeş, and Jalen Devecioglu Kama Copyright © 2014 Seher Gündüz Arslan et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Specific Cognitive Domains, Fear of Falling, and Falls in People with Multiple Sclerosis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:33:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/281760/ The primary aim was to examine the relationship between seven definite aspects of cognition measured by a computerized cognitive testing tool on the history falls in people with mild to moderate MS (PwMS). Secondary aims focused on whether cognition performance is correlated to fear of falling, walking velocity, and a patient-rated measure of walking ability. One hundred and one PwMS were included in the study analysis. Fifty-two had a history of at least one fall during the past year. Outcome measures included a computerized cognitive test battery designed to evaluate multiple cognitive domains, gait speed, and self-reported questionnaires; 12-item MS walking scale (MSWS-12); and Falls Efficacy Scale International. Significant differences between fallers and nonfallers were exhibited in attention and verbal function, scoring 7.5% () and 6.2% (), respectively, below the parallel scores of the nonfallers. Attention was the only cognitive component significantly correlated with the MSWS-12 self-reported questionnaire. Fear of falling was significantly correlated with 6 (out of 7) definite cognitive variables. The present findings support the concept that when evaluating and attempting to reduce fall risk, emphasis should be placed not only on traditional fall risk factors like muscle strength and motor function, but also on cognitive function. Alon Kalron Copyright © 2014 Alon Kalron. All rights reserved. An Efficient Algorithm for Maximizing Range Sum Queries in a Road Network Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:32:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/541602/ Given a set of positive-weighted points and a query rectangle r (specified by a client) of given extents, the goal of a maximizing range sum (MaxRS) query is to find the optimal location of r such that the total weights of all the points covered by r are maximized. All existing methods for processing MaxRS queries assume the Euclidean distance metric. In many location-based applications, however, the motion of a client may be constrained by an underlying (spatial) road network; that is, the client cannot move freely in space. This paper addresses the problem of processing MaxRS queries in a road network. We propose the external-memory algorithm that is suited for a large road network database. In addition, in contrast to the existing methods, which retrieve only one optimal location, our proposed algorithm retrieves all the possible optimal locations. Through simulations, we evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Tien-Khoi Phan, HaRim Jung, and Ung-Mo Kim Copyright © 2014 Tien-Khoi Phan et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Peripheral Cytokines as a Chemical Mediator for Postconcussion Like Sickness Behaviour in Trauma and Perioperative Patients: Literature Review Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:24:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/673464/ Neurology Research International Copyright © 2014 Neurology Research International. All rights reserved. T-Cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma in a Child Presenting as Rapid Thyroid Enlargement Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:23:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2014/368590/ The majority of lymphomas of the head and neck in children present as an enlarged cervical lymph node; however, malignant lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a case of a 12-year-old child who was admitted to our hospital because of a history of rapidly progressive anterior neck swelling. Histopathological studies revealed this case to be T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. We performed chemotherapy and the patient has kept recurrence-free survival for 18 months after the beginning of the treatment. This is the 2nd case of T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in the thyroid gland in a child. Shintaro Yoshihara, Muneo Nakaya, and Tomoya Ichikawa Copyright © 2014 Shintaro Yoshihara et al. All rights reserved. An Automatic High Efficient Method for Dish Concentrator Alignment Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:21:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/712590/ Alignment of dish concentrator is a key factor to the performance of solar energy system. We propose a new method for the alignment of faceted solar dish concentrator. The isosceles triangle configuration of facet’s footholds determines a fixed relation between light spot displacements and foothold movements, which allows an automatic determination of the amount of adjustments. Tests on a 25 kW Stirling Energy System dish concentrator verify the feasibility, accuracy, and efficiency of our method. Yong Wang, Song Li, Jinshan Xu, Yijiang Wang, Xu Cheng, Changgui Gu, Shengyong Chen, and Bin Wan Copyright © 2014 Yong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Epitope-Based Peptides for the Utility of Vaccine Development from Fusion and Glycoprotein of Nipah Virus Using In Silico Approach Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:20:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abi/2014/402492/ This study aims to design epitope-based peptides for the utility of vaccine development by targeting glycoprotein G and envelope protein F of Nipah virus (NiV) that, respectively, facilitate attachment and fusion of NiV with host cells. Using various databases and tools, immune parameters of conserved sequence(s) from G and F proteins of different isolates of NiV were tested to predict probable epitope(s). Binding analyses of the peptides with MHC class-I and class-II molecules, epitope conservancy, population coverage, and linear B cell epitope prediction were analyzed. Predicted peptides interacted with seven or more MHC alleles and illustrated population coverage of more than 99% and 95%, for G and F proteins, respectively. The predicted class-I nonamers, SLIDTSSTI and EWISIVPNF, superimposed on the putative decameric B cell epitopes, were also identified as core sequences of the most probable class-II 15-mer peptides GPKVSLIDTSSTITI and EWISIVPNFILVRNT. These peptides were further validated for their binding to specific HLA alleles using in silico docking technique. Our in silico analysis suggested that the predicted epitopes, either GPKVSLIDTSSTITI or EWISIVPNFILVRNT, could be a better choice as universal vaccine component against NiV irrespective of different isolates which may elicit both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. M. Sadman Sakib, Md. Rezaul Islam, A. K. M. Mahbub Hasan, and A. H. M. Nurun Nabi Copyright © 2014 M. Sadman Sakib et al. All rights reserved. Iterative Algorithms for Mixed Equilibrium Problems, System of Quasi-Variational Inclusion, and Fixed Point Problem in Hilbert Spaces Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:19:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/271208/ We introduce a new iterative algorithm for approximating a common element of the set of solutions for mixed equilibrium problems, the set of solutions of a system of quasi-variational inclusion, and the set of fixed points of an infinite family of nonexpansive mappings in a real Hilbert space. Strong convergence of the proposed iterative algorithm is obtained. Our results generalize, extend, and improve the results of Peng and Yao, 2009, Qin et al. 2010 and many authors. Poom Kumam and Thanyarat Jitpeera Copyright © 2014 Poom Kumam and Thanyarat Jitpeera. All rights reserved. Availability Allocation of Networked Systems Using Markov Model and Heuristics Algorithm Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:19:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/315385/ It is a common practice to allocate the system availability goal to reliability and maintainability goals of components in the early design phase. However, the networked system availability is difficult to be allocated due to its complex topology and multiple down states. To solve these problems, a practical availability allocation method is proposed. Network reliability algebraic methods are used to derive the availability expression of the networked topology on the system level, and Markov model is introduced to determine that on the component level. A heuristic algorithm is proposed to obtain the reliability and maintainability allocation values of components. The principles applied in the AGREE reliability allocation method, proposed by the Advisory Group on Reliability of Electronic Equipment, and failure rate-based maintainability allocation method persist in our allocation method. A series system is used to verify the new algorithm, and the result shows that the allocation based on the heuristic algorithm is quite accurate compared to the traditional one. Moreover, our case study of a signaling system number 7 shows that the proposed allocation method is quite efficient for networked systems. Ruiying Li, Xiaoxi Liu, and Ning Huang Copyright © 2014 Ruiying Li et al. All rights reserved. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:18:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/307160/ Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR), involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF), and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 EU member states trying to evaluate the different legislation paths adopted over the last 15 years and highlighting those EU countries with no specific legislation in place and MAR is covered by a general health Law and those countries in which there are no laws in this field but only “guidelines.” The second aim of this work has been to compare MAR legislation and embryo research in EU countries, which derive from different origins ranging from an extremely prohibitive approach versus a liberal one, going through a cautious regulatory approach. Francesco Paolo Busardò, Matteo Gulino, Simona Napoletano, Simona Zaami, and Paola Frati Copyright © 2014 Francesco Paolo Busardò et al. All rights reserved. On Some Classes of Double Difference Sequences of Interval Numbers Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:18:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/516956/ The aim of this paper is to introduce some interval valued double difference sequence spaces by means of Musielak-Orlicz function . We also determine some topological properties and inclusion relations between these double difference sequence spaces. S. A. Mohiuddine, Kuldip Raj, and Abdullah Alotaibi Copyright © 2014 S. A. Mohiuddine et al. All rights reserved. Tailored PVA/ECM Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:17:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/762189/ Articular cartilage lesions are a particular challenge for regenerative medicine due to cartilage low self-ability repair in case of damage. Hence, a significant goal of musculoskeletal tissue engineering is the development of suitable structures in virtue of their matrix composition and biomechanical properties. The objective of our study was to design in vitro a supporting structure for autologous chondrocyte growth. We realized a biohybrid composite scaffold combining a novel and nonspecific extracellular matrix (ECM), which is decellularized Wharton’s jelly ECM, with the biomechanical properties of the synthetic hydrogel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Wharton’s jelly ECM was tested for its ability in promoting scaffold colonization by chondrocytes and compared with polyvinyl alcohol itself and the more specific decellularized cartilage matrix. Our preliminary evidences highlighted the chance of using Wharton’s jelly ECM in combination with PVA hydrogels as an innovative and easily available scaffold for cartilage restoration. Elena Stocco, Silvia Barbon, Daniele Dalzoppo, Silvano Lora, Leonardo Sartore, Marcella Folin, Pier Paolo Parnigotto, and Claudio Grandi Copyright © 2014 Elena Stocco et al. All rights reserved. Interleukin-17 Gene Polymorphisms Contribute to Cancer Risk Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:16:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/128490/ Epidemiological studies have suggested that interleukin-17 (IL-17) polymorphisms are associated with cancer risk. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain a precise conclusion. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association of the IL-17A rs2275913GA and IL-17F rs763780TC polymorphisms with cancer risk. Publication bias and sensitivity analyses were performed to ensure the statistical power. Overall, 10 relevant case-control studies involving 4,516 cases and 5,645 controls were included. The pooled ORs with 95% CIs indicated that the IL-17A rs2275913GA polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk (for A versus G: OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.16–1.41, , %; for GA versus GG: OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02–1.23, P = 0.015, %; for AA versus GG: OR = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.38–2.41, , %; for GA + AA versus GG: OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.13–1.34, , %; for AA versus GG + GA: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.27–2.07, , %). Succeeding analysis of HWE and stratified analysis of gastric cancer and the Asian (and Chinese) population revealed similar results. The IL-17F rs763780T>C polymorphism was also significantly associated with gastric cancer development. Overall, the present meta-analysis suggests that IL-17 polymorphisms increase the risk of developing cancer, particularly gastric cancer, in the Asian (and Chinese) population. Yu-Ming Niu, Hua Yuan, and Yu Zhou Copyright © 2014 Yu-Ming Niu et al. All rights reserved. A Numerical Convolution Representation of Potential for a Disk Surface Density in 3D Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:15:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/693537/ This study presents a numerical convolution representation of a potential induced from a disk of surface density, which has often been investigated in the center region of galaxies. The advantage of this representation is to release the softening length for the -body method and artificial boundary conditions for the spectral methods. With the help of fast Fourier transform, the computational complexity is only , where is the number of zones in one dimension. Numerical results show an almost second order of accuracy on a Cartesian coordinate system. A comparison study also demonstrates that this method can calculate the potential for disk surface density based on the uniform grids. Chien-Chang Yen Copyright © 2014 Chien-Chang Yen. All rights reserved. Massive Periocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma Engulfing the Globe: A Rare Case Report Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:15:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2014/641086/ The eyelid tumors are rare neoplasms in head and neck oncological practice. The maximum incidence is after sixty years and most of the tumors are situated in the lower eyelid and medial canthus. A wide range of clinical presentations contribute to a high risk of misdiagnosis. The factors such as very large lesions, incomplete excision, histopathologic features such as poor differentiation, multicentric origin, pagetoid spread, and delayed diagnosis are associated with poor prognosis. Because of different tissues at eyelid level, a variety of tumor types and subtypes can arise, but most of them are carcinomas. A rare case of eyelid carcinoma spreading and engulfing the whole of globe which was treated by orbital exenteration and postoperative radiotherapy is presented with a disease-free follow-up of 10 months which, considering its size, is extremely rare. The early diagnosis and proper treatment of such rare tumors still remain the mainstay to predict favourable prognosis. Rajender Singh Arora, Anirudh Bhattacharya, Dwarkadas Adwani, and Sidak Singh Arora Copyright © 2014 Rajender Singh Arora et al. All rights reserved. Cytokines and Chemokines: Disease Models, Mechanisms, and Therapies Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:14:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/296356/ Salahuddin Ahmed, Charles J. Malemud, Alisa E. Koch, Mohammad Athar, and Dennis D. Taub Copyright © 2014 Salahuddin Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. An Existence Theorem for a Nonlocal Global Pandemic Model for Insect-Borne Diseases Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:14:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijde/2014/187685/ We construct and analyze a nonlocal global pandemic model that comprises a system of two nonlocal integrodifferential equations (functional differential equations) and an ordinary differential equation. This model was constructed by considering a spherical coordinate transformation of a previously established epidemiology model that can be applied to insect-borne diseases, like yellow fever. This transformation amounts to a nonlocal boundary value problem on the unit sphere and therefore can be interpreted as a global pandemic model for insect-borne diseases. We ultimately show that a weak solution to the weak formulation of this model exists using a fixed point argument, which calls upon the construction of a weak formulation and the existence and uniqueness of an auxiliary problem. John R. Cannon and Daniel J. Galiffa Copyright © 2014 John R. Cannon and Daniel J. Galiffa. All rights reserved. Development and Application of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Optical Amplification Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:11:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/495381/ Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) along the interface between a metal and a dielectric has attracted significant attention due to its unique optical properties, which has inspired a plethora of fascinating applications in photonics and optoelectronics. However, SPPs suffer from large attenuation because of the ohmic losses in the metal layer. It has become the main bottom-neck problem for the development of high performance plasmonic devices. This limitation can be overcome by providing the material adjacent to the metal with optical gain. In this paper, a review of gain compensation to SPPs is presented. We focus on the spontaneous radiation amplification and simulated radiation amplification. The ohmic loss of metal was greatly improved by introducing optical gain. Then we introduce several gain mediums of dye doped, quantum dots, erbium ion, and semiconductor to compensate optical loss of SPPs. Using gain medium mentioned above can compensate losses and achieve many potential applications, for example, laser, amplifier, and LRSPP discussed. Tong Zhang and Feng Shan Copyright © 2014 Tong Zhang and Feng Shan. All rights reserved. Repeated Batch Fermentation Biotechnology for the Biosynthesis of Lipid and Gamma-Linolenic Acid by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:09:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/831783/ The biosynthesis of biomedical products including lipid and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) by Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 was studied in repeated batch fermentation. Three key process variables, namely, glucose concentration, ammonium tartrate concentration, and harvesting time, were optimized using response surface methodology. Repeated batch fermentation was carried out by the cultivation of Cunninghamella bainieri 2A1 in nitrogen-limited medium with various nitrogen concentration (1–4 g/L) and glucose concentration (20–40 g/L) at three time intervals (12 h, 24 h, and 48 h). Experimental results showed that the highest lipid concentration of 6.2 g/L and the highest GLA concentration of 0.4 g/L were obtained in optimum conditions, where 20.2 g/L glucose, 2.12 g/L ammonium tartrate, and 48 h harvesting time were utilized. Statistical results showed that the interaction between glucose and ammonium tartrate concentration had highly significant effects on lipid and GLA biosynthesis (). Moreover, harvesting time had a significant interaction effect with glucose and ammonium tartrate concentration on lipid production (). Marjan Ganjali Dashti, Peyman Abdeshahian, Wan Mohtar Wan Yusoff, Mohd Sahaid Kalil, and Aidil Abdul Hamid Copyright © 2014 Marjan Ganjali Dashti et al. All rights reserved. A Numerical Study for Flow Excitation and Performance of Rampressor Inlet considering Rotor Motion Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:04:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/963234/ A unique supersonic compressor rotor with high pressure ratio, termed the Rampressor, is presented by Ramgen Power Systems, Inc. (RPS). In order to obtain the excitation characteristic and performance of Rampressor inlet flow field under external excitation, compression inlet flow of Rampressor is studied with considering Rampressor rotor whirling. Flow excitation characteristics and performance of Rampressor inlet are analyzed under different frequency and amplitude of Rampressor rotor whirling. The results indicate that the rotor whirling has a significant effect for flow excitation characteristics and performance of Rampressor inlet. The effect of rotor whirling on the different inlet location excitation has a definite phase difference. Inlet excitation becomes more complex along with the inlet flow path. More frequency components appear in the excitation spectrum of Rampressor inlet with considering Rampressor rotor whirling. The main frequency component is the fundamental frequency, which is caused by the rotor whirling. Besides the fundamental frequency, the double frequency components are generated due to the coupling between inlet compression flow of Rampressor rotor and rotor whirling, especially in the subsonic diffuser of Rampressor rotor inlet. With the increment of rotor whirling frequency and whirling amplitude, the complexity of Rampressor inlet excitation increases, and the stability of Rampressor inlet performance deteriorates. Weijia Kang, Zhansheng Liu, Jiangbo Lu, Yu Wang, and Yanyang Dong Copyright © 2014 Weijia Kang et al. All rights reserved. Note on the Persistence of a Nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra Competitive System with Infinite Delay and Feedback Controls Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:03:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2014/682769/ We study a nonautonomous Lotka-Volterra competitive system with infinite delay and feedback controls. We establish a series of criteria under which a part of -species of the systems is driven to extinction while the remaining part of the species is persistent. Particularly, as a special case, a series of new sufficient conditions on the persistence for all species of system are obtained. Several examples together with their numerical simulations show the feasibility of our main results. Chunling Shi, Yiqin Wang, Xiaoying Chen, and Yuli Chen Copyright © 2014 Chunling Shi et al. All rights reserved. Formalization of Function Matrix Theory in HOL Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:01:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/201214/ Function matrices, in which elements are functions rather than numbers, are widely used in model analysis of dynamic systems such as control systems and robotics. In safety-critical applications, the dynamic systems are required to be analyzed formally and accurately to ensure their correctness and safeness. Higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving is a promise technique to match the requirement. This paper proposes a higher-order logic formalization of the function vector and the function matrix theories using the HOL theorem prover, including data types, operations, and their properties, and further presents formalization of the differential and integral of function vectors and function matrices. The formalization is implemented as a library in the HOL system. A case study, a formal analysis of differential of quadratic functions, is presented to show the usefulness of the proposed formalization. Zhiping Shi, Zhenke Liu, Yong Guan, Shiwei Ye, Jie Zhang, and Hongxing Wei Copyright © 2014 Zhiping Shi et al. All rights reserved. Three Dimensional Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:57:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/643737/ Ki-Il Kim, Hannan Xiao, Sana Ullah, and Aneel Rahim Copyright © 2014 Ki-Il Kim et al. All rights reserved. Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:53:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/604152/ Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. Luara de Sousa Monteiro, Katherine Xavier Bastos, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz, and Marianna Vieira Sobral Copyright © 2014 Luara de Sousa Monteiro et al. All rights reserved. Improved Crosstalk Reduction on Multiview 3D Display by Using BILS Algorithm Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:41:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/428602/ In multiview three-dimensional (3D) displays, crosstalk is one of the most annoying artefacts degrading the quality of the 3D image. In this paper, we present a system-introduced crosstalk measurement method and derive an improved crosstalk reduction method. The proposed measurement method is applied to measure the exact crosstalk among subpixels corresponding to different view images and the obtained results are very effective for crosstalk reduction method. Furthermore, an improved crosstalk reduction method is proposed to alleviate crosstalk by searching for the optimal integral intensity values of subpixels on the synthetic image. The derived algorithm based on modified Schnorr-Euchner strategy is implemented to seek the optimal solution to this box-constrained integer least squares (BILS) problem, such that the Euclidean distance between solution and its target decreases substantially. The method we develop is applicable to both multiview 3D parallax barrier displays and multiview 3D lenticular displays. Both simulation and experimental results indicate that the derived method is capable of improving 3D image quality more effectively than the existing method on multiview 3D displays. Xiaoyan Wang and Chunping Hou Copyright © 2014 Xiaoyan Wang and Chunping Hou. All rights reserved. Pregnancy Differentially Regulates the Collagens Types I and III in Left Ventricle from Rat Heart Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:41:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/984785/ The pathologic cardiac remodeling has been widely documented; however, the physiological cardiac remodeling induced by pregnancy and its reversion in postpartum are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the changes in collagen I (Col I) and collagen III (Col III) mRNA and protein levels in left ventricle from rat heart during pregnancy and postpartum. Col I and Col III mRNA expression in left ventricle samples during pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed by using quantitative PCR. Data obtained from gene expression show that Col I and Col III in left ventricle are upregulated during pregnancy with reversion in postpartum. In contrast to gene expression, the protein expression evaluated by western blot showed that Col I is downregulated and Col III is upregulated in left ventricle during pregnancy. In conclusion, the pregnancy differentially regulates collagens types I and III in heart; this finding could be an important molecular mechanism that regulates the ventricular stiffness in response to blood volume overload present during pregnancy which is reversed in postpartum. Sarai Limon-Miranda, Diana G. Salazar-Enriquez, Jesus Muñiz, Mario V. Ramirez-Archila, Enrique A. Sanchez-Pastor, Felipa Andrade, Jose G. Soñanez-Organis, Edgar F. Moran-Palacio, and Adolfo Virgen-Ortiz Copyright © 2014 Sarai Limon-Miranda et al. All rights reserved. Heat Shock Proteins at the Crossroads between Cancer and Alzheimer’s Disease Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:37:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/239164/ Heat shock proteins 70 and heat shock proteins 90 (Hsp70/90) have been implicated in many crucial steps of carcinogenesis: stabilizing oncogenic proteins, inhibiting programmed cell death and replicative senescence, induction of tumor angiogenesis, and activation of the invasion and metastasis. Plenty of cancer related proteins have the ability of regulating the expression of Hsp70/90 through heat shock factor 1. Cancer and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have plenty of overlapping regions in molecular genetics and cell biology associated with Hsp70/90. The Hsp70, as a protein stabilizer, has a cellular protection against neurodegeneration of the central nervous system, while Hsp90 promote neurodegenerative disorders indirectly through regulating the expression of Hsp70 and other chaperones. All these make existing anticancer drugs target Hsp70/90 which might be used in AD therapy. Hao Wang, Meng-Shan Tan, Rui-Chun Lu, Jin-Tai Yu, and Lan Tan Copyright © 2014 Hao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Recovery of Ga(III) by Raw and Alkali Treated Citrus limetta Peels Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:23:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/968402/ Alkali treated Citrus limetta peels were used for recovery of Ga(III) from its aqueous solution. The raw and alkali treated peels were characterized for functional groups. The efficiency of adsorption increased from 47.62 mg/g for raw peels to 83.33 mg/g for alkali treated peels. Between pH 1 and 3, the adsorption increased and thereafter decreased drastically. The adsorption followed pseudosecond order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit for the experimental data. Desorption studies showed 95.28% desorption after 3 cycles for raw peels while it was 89.51% for alkali treated peels. Simulated Bayer liquor showed 39.57% adsorption for gallium ions on raw peels which was enhanced to 41.13% for alkali treated peels. Sachin C. Gondhalekar and Sanjeev R. Shukla Copyright © 2014 Sachin C. Gondhalekar and Sanjeev R. Shukla. All rights reserved. Beyond Networks: Health, Crime, and Migration in Mexico Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:20:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/971739/ Two rounds of a longitudinal survey from Mexico, representative at the national, urban, rural, and regional level, are used to examine the determinants of local, domestic, and international migration. Aside from the typical covariates in the migration decision, this study considers health conditions, crime, and individual’s perspectives on life as explanatory variables. Coefficient estimates for most health variables do not offer significant support to the healthy migrant hypothesis. In terms of crime, the results suggest that females respond to worsening safety conditions in Mexico by migrating domestically, but not abroad. The decision to migrate domestically or abroad for males is not statistically correlated with increases in crime. Overall, having access to international migration networks continues to play a significant role in the decision to migrate to the US. Jose N. Martinez Copyright © 2014 Jose N. Martinez. All rights reserved. Biodemographic Analyses of Longitudinal Data on Aging, Health, and Longevity: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ager/2014/957073/ Biodemography became one of the most innovative and fastest growing areas in demography. This progress is fueled by the growing variability and amount of relevant data available for analyses as well as by methodological developments allowing for addressing new research questions using new approaches that can better utilize the potential of these data. In this review paper, we summarize recent methodological advances in biodemography and their diverse practical applications. Three major topics are covered: (1) computational approaches to reconstruction of age patterns of incidence of geriatric diseases and other characteristics such as recovery rates at the population level using Medicare claims data; (2) methodological advances in genetic and genomic biodemography and applications to research on genetic determinants of longevity and health; and (3) biodemographic models for joint analyses of time-to-event data and longitudinal measurements of biomarkers collected in longitudinal studies on aging. We discuss how such data and methodology can be used in a comprehensive prediction model for joint analyses of incomplete datasets that take into account the wide spectrum of factors affecting health and mortality transitions including genetic factors and hidden mechanisms of aging-related changes in physiological variables in their dynamic connection with health and survival. Konstantin G. Arbeev, Igor Akushevich, Alexander M. Kulminski, Svetlana V. Ukraintseva, and Anatoliy I. Yashin Copyright © 2014 Konstantin G. Arbeev et al. All rights reserved. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/871657/ Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. Izzuddin Aziz, Muhammad Danial Che Ramli, Nurul Suraya Mohd Zain, and Junedah Sanusi Copyright © 2014 Izzuddin Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Elemene Injection Induced Autophagy Protects Human Hepatoma Cancer Cells from Starvation and Undergoing Apoptosis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/637528/ Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. In an in vivo experiment, we found that apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively inhibits VEGFR2, combined with elemene injection (Ele) for the treatment of H22 solid tumor in mice resulted in worse effectiveness than apatinib alone. Moreover, Ele could protect HepG2 cells from death induced by serum-free starvation. Further data on the mechanism study revealed that Ele induced protective autophagy and prevented human hepatoma cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. Proapoptosis effect of Ele was enhanced when proautophagy effect was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Above all, Ele has the effect of protecting cancer cells from death either in apatinib induced nutrient deficient environment or in serum-free induced starvation. A combination of elemene injection with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma. Yan Lin, Keming Wang, Chunping Hu, Lin Lin, Shukui Qin, and Xueting Cai Copyright © 2014 Yan Lin et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Clustering Model Based on Set Pair Analysis for the Energy Consumption Forecast in China Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/191242/ The energy consumption forecast is important for the decision-making of national economic and energy policies. But it is a complex and uncertainty system problem affected by the outer environment and various uncertainty factors. Herein, a novel clustering model based on set pair analysis (SPA) was introduced to analyze and predict energy consumption. The annual dynamic relative indicator (DRI) of historical energy consumption was adopted to conduct a cluster analysis with Fisher’s optimal partition method. Combined with indicator weights, group centroids of DRIs for influence factors were transferred into aggregating connection numbers in order to interpret uncertainty by identity-discrepancy-contrary (IDC) analysis. Moreover, a forecasting model based on similarity to group centroid was discussed to forecast energy consumption of a certain year on the basis of measured values of influence factors. Finally, a case study predicting China’s future energy consumption as well as comparison with the grey method was conducted to confirm the reliability and validity of the model. The results indicate that the method presented here is more feasible and easier to use and can interpret certainty and uncertainty of development speed of energy consumption and influence factors as a whole. Mingwu Wang, Dongfang Wei, Jian Li, Hui Jiang, and Juliang Jin Copyright © 2014 Mingwu Wang et al. All rights reserved. Physiological Responses to Nutrient Accumulation in Trees Seedlings Irrigated with Municipal Effluent in Indian Desert Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physiology/2014/545967/ Leaf water potential (), net photosynthesis rate (), transpiration rate (), stomatal conductance (), and water use efficiency (WUE) are greatly influenced by the nutrient composition of water which is used for irrigating trees. The above-mentioned physiological variables and foliage mineral concentrations were observed for Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia nilotica, and Dalbergia sissoo plants irrigated with municipal effluent (ME) at 1/2 PET (potential evapotranspiration; T1), 1 PET (T2), and 2 PET (T3) rates and the control plants irrigated with canal water at 1PET (T4). Increased mineral concentrations in order T1 < T2 < T3 enhanced , , , and . Relatively greater increase in than reduced WUE. Available nutrient in ME enhanced physiological function in T2, whereas reduced quantity of water lowered it in T1 than in T4 plants. Differential minerals uptake increased concentrations of N and P in D. sissoo, Mn in E. camaldulensis, and the rest in A. nilotica. was more sensitive to environment than . Enhanced mineral concentration through ME was beneficial but its differential uptake and accumulation influenced physiological functions and WUE. E. camaldulensis is better for high and continuous loading of effluent and A. nilotica is best for high nutrient uptake. D. sissoo is efficient water user. G. Singh, Madhulika Bhati, T. R. Rathod, and U. K. Tomar Copyright © 2014 G. Singh et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Approximate Solutions for a General Class of Nonlinear Delay Differential Equations Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/631416/ We use the polynomial least squares method (PLSM), which allows us to compute analytical approximate polynomial solutions for a very general class of strongly nonlinear delay differential equations. The method is tested by computing approximate solutions for several applications including the pantograph equations and a nonlinear time-delay model from biology. The accuracy of the method is illustrated by a comparison with approximate solutions previously computed using other methods. Bogdan Căruntu and Constantin Bota Copyright © 2014 Bogdan Căruntu and Constantin Bota. All rights reserved. Model and Topological Characteristics of Power Distribution System Security Region Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/327078/ As an important tool of transmission system dispatching, the region-based method has just been introduced into distribution area with the ongoing smart distribution grid initiatives. First, a more accurate distribution system security region (DSSR) model is proposed. The proposed model is based on detailed feeder-interconnected topology, and both substation transformer and feeder N-1 contingencies are considered. Second, generic characteristics of DSSR are discussed and mathematically proved. That is, DSSR is a dense set of which boundary has no suspension and can be expressed by several union subsurfaces. Finally, the results from both a test case and a practical case demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach; the shape of DSSR is also illustrated by means of 2- and 3-dimensional visualization. Moreover, the DSSR-based assessment and control are preliminary illustrated to show the application of DSSR. The researches in this paper are fundamental work to develop new security region theory for future distribution systems. Jun Xiao, Guo-qiang Zu, Xiao-xu Gong, and Cheng-shan Wang Copyright © 2014 Jun Xiao et al. All rights reserved. 18F-Labeled Silicon-Based Fluoride Acceptors: Potential Opportunities for Novel Positron Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/454503/ Background. Over the recent years, radiopharmaceutical chemistry has experienced a wide variety of innovative pushes towards finding both novel and unconventional radiochemical methods to introduce fluorine-18 into radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET). These “nonclassical” labeling methodologies based on silicon-, boron-, and aluminium-18F chemistry deviate from commonplace bonding of an [18F]fluorine atom (18F) to either an aliphatic or aromatic carbon atom. One method in particular, the silicon-fluoride-acceptor isotopic exchange (SiFA-IE) approach, invalidates a dogma in radiochemistry that has been widely accepted for many years: the inability to obtain radiopharmaceuticals of high specific activity (SA) via simple IE. Methodology. The most advantageous feature of IE labeling in general is that labeling precursor and labeled radiotracer are chemically identical, eliminating the need to separate the radiotracer from its precursor. SiFA-IE chemistry proceeds in dipolar aprotic solvents at room temperature and below, entirely avoiding the formation of radioactive side products during the IE. Scope of Review. A great plethora of different SiFA species have been reported in the literature ranging from small prosthetic groups and other compounds of low molecular weight to labeled peptides and most recently affibody molecules. Conclusions. The literature over the last years (from 2006 to 2014) shows unambiguously that SiFA-IE and other silicon-based fluoride acceptor strategies relying on 18F− leaving group substitutions have the potential to become a valuable addition to radiochemistry. Vadim Bernard-Gauthier, Carmen Wängler, Esther Schirrmacher, Alexey Kostikov, Klaus Jurkschat, Bjoern Wängler, and Ralf Schirrmacher Copyright © 2014 Vadim Bernard-Gauthier et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2014/437567/ This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method. Lei Wang, Chen Chen, and Tao Shen Copyright © 2014 Lei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Influence of the Wave Form on the Material Response Delay Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/538127/ To model damping effects in structural dynamics, the literature provides a wide range of alternatives. The different models claim different advantages and fields of use where they are useful but, in the end, the compliance of the model with the experimental results, within a given tolerance, is the ultimate criterion for assessing its quality. In the present paper, the behaviour of a simple steel specimen is studied, taking as a focus the time response of the material. Since the harmonic response is well established, the authors propose to submit the specimen to a trapezoidal periodic load and study the behaviour of the response to the load changes. A simple setup was used, using a steel specimen loaded in the linear regime. A carefull test procedure was carried out in order to characterize the dissipation in a quasi-static periodic load. The experimental results show that the response delay to a ramp load depends on the durations of both the previous flat and the ramp itself. J. R. Azinheira, L. Reis, and A. M. R. Ribeiro Copyright © 2014 J. R. Azinheira et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Haptoglobin Genotypes in Chagas Disease Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2014/793646/ Although the number of people infected with T. cruzi is on the rise, host genetic and immune components that are crucial in the development of the Chagas disease have been discovered. We investigated the frequency of polymorphisms in the gene encoding haptoglobin of patients with chronic Chagas disease. The results suggest that while the HP1-1 genotype may confer protection against infection and the development of chronic Chagas disease due to the rapid metabolism of the Hp1-1-Hb complex and its anti-inflammatory activity, the presence of HP2-2 genotype may increase susceptibility towards a chronic condition of the disease due to a slow metabolism of the Hp2-2-Hb complex, lower antioxidant activity, and increased inflammatory reactivity, which lead to cell damage and a deterioration of the cardiac function. Finally, correlations between HP genotypes in different age groups and cardiac manifestations suggest that HP polymorphism could influence the prognosis of this infectious disease. This study shows some of the relevant aspects of the haptoglobin gene polymorphism and its implications in the T. cruzi infection. Ninomar Mundaray Fernández and Mercedes Fernández-Mestre Copyright © 2014 Ninomar Mundaray Fernández and Mercedes Fernández-Mestre. All rights reserved. Progress in the Identification of Dengue Virus Entry/Fusion Inhibitors Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/825039/ Dengue fever, a reemerging disease, is putting nearly 2.5 billion people at risk worldwide. The number of infections and the geographic extension of dengue fever infection have increased in the past decade. The disease is caused by the dengue virus, a flavivirus that uses mosquitos Aedes sp. as vectors. The disease has several clinical manifestations, from the mild cold-like illness to the more serious hemorrhagic dengue fever and dengue shock syndrome. Currently, there is no approved drug for the treatment of dengue disease or an effective vaccine to fight the virus. Therefore, the search for antivirals against dengue virus is an active field of research. As new possible receptors and biological pathways of the virus biology are discovered, new strategies are being undertaken to identify possible antiviral molecules. Several groups of researchers have targeted the initial step in the infection as a potential approach to interfere with the virus. The viral entry process is mediated by viral proteins and cellular receptor molecules that end up in the endocytosis of the virion, the fusion of both membranes, and the release of viral RNA in the cytoplasm. This review provides an overview of the targets and progress that has been made in the quest for dengue virus entry inhibitors. Carolina De La Guardia and Ricardo Lleonart Copyright © 2014 Carolina De La Guardia and Ricardo Lleonart. All rights reserved. Studying the Complex Expression Dependences between Sets of Coexpressed Genes Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/940821/ Organisms simplify the orchestration of gene expression by coregulating genes whose products function together in the cell. The use of clustering methods to obtain sets of coexpressed genes from expression arrays is very common; nevertheless there are no appropriate tools to study the expression networks among these sets of coexpressed genes. The aim of the developed tools is to allow studying the complex expression dependences that exist between sets of coexpressed genes. For this purpose, we start detecting the nonlinear expression relationships between pairs of genes, plus the coexpressed genes. Next, we form networks among sets of coexpressed genes that maintain nonlinear expression dependences between all of them. The expression relationship between the sets of coexpressed genes is defined by the expression relationship between the skeletons of these sets, where this skeleton represents the coexpressed genes with a well-defined nonlinear expression relationship with the skeleton of the other sets. As a result, we can study the nonlinear expression relationships between a target gene and other sets of coexpressed genes, or start the study from the skeleton of the sets, to study the complex relationships of activation and deactivation between the sets of coexpressed genes that carry out the different cellular processes present in the expression experiments. Mario Huerta, Oriol Casanova, Roberto Barchino, Jose Flores, Enrique Querol, and Juan Cedano Copyright © 2014 Mario Huerta et al. All rights reserved. Splenic Metastasis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2014/798948/ Metastasis from various neoplasms to the spleen is very rare and most of the cases are found at autopsy. We report a patient presenting with uterine cervical cancer with splenic metastases. A 49-year-old woman presenting with genital bleeding was referred to our hospital and diagnosed with stage IIB cervical cancer. She underwent concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) consisting of 50 Gy whole pelvis irradiation, high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy 24 Gy/4 fractions and six weeks of paclitaxel and carboplatin administration. Ten months after the initial therapy, CT revealed recurrence at spleen. Although she received 5 courses of nedaplatin, enlargement of the tumor was noticed. She underwent a splenectomy and the result of histology was compatible with metastasis of cervical cancer. Shigeki Taga, Mari Sawada, Aya Nagai, Dan Yamamoto, and Ryoji Hayase Copyright © 2014 Shigeki Taga et al. All rights reserved. Predicting Click-Through Rates of New Advertisements Based on the Bayesian Network Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/818203/ Most classical search engines choose and rank advertisements (ads) based on their click-through rates (CTRs). To predict an ad’s CTR, historical click information is frequently concerned. To accurately predict the CTR of the new ads is challenging and critical for real world applications, since we do not have plentiful historical data about these ads. Adopting Bayesian network (BN) as the effective framework for representing and inferring dependencies and uncertainties among variables, in this paper, we establish a BN-based model to predict the CTRs of new ads. First, we built a Bayesian network of the keywords that are used to describe the ads in a certain domain, called keyword BN and abbreviated as KBN. Second, we proposed an algorithm for approximate inferences of the KBN to find similar keywords with those that describe the new ads. Finally based on the similar keywords, we obtain the similar ads and then calculate the CTR of the new ad by using the CTRs of the ads that are similar with the new ad. Experimental results show the efficiency and accuracy of our method. Zhipeng Fang, Kun Yue, Jixian Zhang, Dehai Zhang, and Weiyi Liu Copyright © 2014 Zhipeng Fang et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of Wing Boxes under Pure Bending Load Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/274748/ Two full-scale wing boxes with different types of butt joints were investigated under pure bending load, and numerical methods, including global analysis and detailed analysis, were proposed to determine the reasons for failure of the wing boxes. Wing boxes were tested under bending loads applied by a multichannel force control system. The experimental results showed that the region of the butt joint was the weakest location of the wing boxes, and the damage loads were far less than the design load. The global analysis and detailed analysis were carried out on the wing boxes, focusing on the region of the butt joint, to determine the reasons for failure. Global analysis in explicit dynamic modulus was adopted to simulate the loading process of the two wing boxes. Meanwhile, detailed finite element models created in Patran/Nastran were used to evaluate the stability. Comparing experimental results with numerical counterparts, it is shown that the failure of the wing boxes is induced by local buckling occurring around the butt joint. In addition, the wing box that uses butt joints with lap jointed sheets is more rigid than that without lap jointed sheets, and the stress distribution is more uniform. The numerical analysis proposed by the paper can help with structure design in preliminary assessment. Peiyan Wang, Shile Yao, Xinmei Wang, and Zhufeng Yue Copyright © 2014 Peiyan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Improving the Bin Packing Heuristic through Grammatical Evolution Based on Swarm Intelligence Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/545191/ In recent years Grammatical Evolution (GE) has been used as a representation of Genetic Programming (GP) which has been applied to many optimization problems such as symbolic regression, classification, Boolean functions, constructed problems, and algorithmic problems. GE can use a diversity of searching strategies including Swarm Intelligence (SI). Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is an algorithm of SI that has two main problems: premature convergence and poor diversity. Particle Evolutionary Swarm Optimization (PESO) is a recent and novel algorithm which is also part of SI. PESO uses two perturbations to avoid PSO’s problems. In this paper we propose using PESO and PSO in the frame of GE as strategies to generate heuristics that solve the Bin Packing Problem (BPP); it is possible however to apply this methodology to other kinds of problems using another Grammar designed for that problem. A comparison between PESO, PSO, and BPP’s heuristics is performed through the nonparametric Friedman test. The main contribution of this paper is proposing a Grammar to generate online and offline heuristics depending on the test instance trying to improve the heuristics generated by other grammars and humans; it also proposes a way to implement different algorithms as search strategies in GE like PESO to obtain better results than those obtained by PSO. Marco Aurelio Sotelo-Figueroa, Héctor José Puga Soberanes, Juan Martín Carpio, Héctor J. Fraire Huacuja, Laura Cruz Reyes, and Jorge Alberto Soria-Alcaraz Copyright © 2014 Marco Aurelio Sotelo-Figueroa et al. All rights reserved. Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in the Neurovascular Protective Effects of Angiotensin Antagonism Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2014/560491/ Background and Purpose. Oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity have been identified as key mediators of early vascular damage after ischemic stroke. Somewhat surprisingly, the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker, candesartan, has been shown to acutely increase MMP activity while providing neurovascular protection. We aimed to determine the contribution of MMP and nitrative stress to the effects of angiotensin blockade in experimental stroke. Methods. Wistar rats (n = 9–14/group; a total of 99) were treated in a factorial design with candesartan 1 mg/kg IV, alone or in combination with either a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, FeTPPs, 30 mg/kg IP or GM6001 50 mg/kg IP (MMP inhibitor). Neurological deficit, infarct, size and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) were measured after 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and 21 h of reperfusion. MMP activity and nitrotyrosine expression were also measured. Results. Candesartan reduced infarct size and HT when administered alone () and in combination with FeTPPs (). GM6001 did not significantly affect HT when administered alone, but the combination with candesartan caused increased HT () and worsened neurologic score (). Conclusions. Acute administration of candesartan reduces injury after stroke despite increasing MMP activity, likely by an antioxidant mechanism. Tauheed Ishrat, Anna Kozak, Ahmed Alhusban, Bindu Pillai, Maribeth H. Johnson, Azza B. El-Remessy, Adviye Ergul, and Susan C. Fagan Copyright © 2014 Tauheed Ishrat et al. All rights reserved. Randomized Controlled Trial of Strain-Specific Probiotic Formulation (Renadyl) in Dialysis Patients Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/568571/ Background. Primary goal of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of Renadyl in end-stage renal disease patients was to assess the safety and efficacy of Renadyl measured through improvement in quality of life or reduction in levels of known uremic toxins. Secondary goal was to investigate the effects on several biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Methods. Two 2-month treatment periods separated by 2-month washout and crossover, with physical examinations, venous blood testing, and quality of life questionnaires completed at each visit. Data were analyzed with SAS V9.2. Results. 22 subjects (79%) completed the study. Observed trends were as follows (none reaching statistical significance): decline in WBC count , and reductions in levels of C-reactive protein , and total indoxyl glucuronide , . No statistically significant changes were observed in other uremic toxin levels or measures of QOL. Conclusions. Renadyl appeared to be safe to administer to ESRD patients on hemodialysis. Stability in QOL assessment is an encouraging result for a patient cohort in such advanced stage of kidney disease. Efficacy could not be confirmed definitively, primarily due to small sample size and low statistical power—further studies are warranted. Ranganathan Natarajan, Bohdan Pechenyak, Usha Vyas, Pari Ranganathan, Alan Weinberg, Peter Liang, Mary C. Mallappallil, Allen J. Norin, Eli A. Friedman, and Subodh J. Saggi Copyright © 2014 Ranganathan Natarajan et al. All rights reserved. New Perspectives on Antiacne Plant Drugs: Contribution to Modern Therapeutics Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/301304/ Acne is a common but serious skin disease, which affects approximately 80% adolescents and young adults in 11–30 age group. 42.5% of men and 50.9% of women continue to suffer from this disease into their twenties. Bacterial resistance is now at the alarming stage due to the irrational use of antibiotics. Hence, search for new lead molecule/bioactive and rational delivery of the existing drug (for better therapeutic effect) to the site of action is the need of the hour. Plants and plant-derived products have been an integral part of health care system since time immemorial. Therefore, plants that are currently used for the treatment of acne and those with a high potential are summarized in the present review. Most active plant extracts, namely, P. granatum, M. alba, A. anomala, and M. aquifolium exhibit minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the range of 4–50 µg/mL against P. acnes, while aromatic oils of C. obovoides, C. natsudaidai, C. japonica, and C. nardus possess MICs 0.005–0.6 μL/mL and phytomolecules such as rhodomyrtone, pulsaquinone, hydropulsaquinone, honokiol, magnolol, xanthohumol lupulones, chebulagic acid and rhinacanthin-C show MIC in the range of 0.5–12.5 μg/mL. Novel drug delivery strategies of important plant leads in the treatment of acne have also been discussed. Priyam Sinha, Shruti Srivastava, Nidhi Mishra, and Narayan Prasad Yadav Copyright © 2014 Priyam Sinha et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of the E-Selectin rs5361 (561A>C) Polymorphism and Soluble Protein Concentration in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Association with Circulating Levels Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/158367/ Introduction. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a complex disease where genetic and environmental factors are involved. E-selectin gene is a candidate for ACS progression due to its contribution in the inflammatory process and endothelial function. The rs5361 (561A>C) polymorphism in the E-selectin gene has been linked to changes in gene expression, affinity for its receptor, and plasmatic levels; therefore it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the rs5361 polymorphism with ACS and to measure serum levels of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin). Materials and Methods. 283 ACS patients and 205 healthy subjects (HS) from Western Mexico were included. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the rs5361 polymorphism. The sE-selectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of the rs5361 polymorphism showed statistical differences between groups. The sE-selectin levels were significantly higher in ACS patients compared to HS (54.58 versus 40.41 ng/ml, . The C allele had no effect on sE-selectin levels. Conclusions. The rs5361 E-selectin gene polymorphism is not a susceptibility marker for ACS in Western Mexico population. However, sE-selectin may be a biological marker of ACS. Elena Sandoval-Pinto, Jorge Ramon Padilla-Gutiérrez, Emmanuel Valdes-Alvarado, Ilian Janet García-González, Angelica Valdez-Haro, Jose Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Hector Enrique Flores-Salinas, Fernando Rivas, and Yeminia Valle Copyright © 2014 Elena Sandoval-Pinto et al. All rights reserved. Implicit Numerical Solutions for Solving Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/159107/ To realize the applications of stochastic differential equations with jumps, much attention has recently been paid to the construction of efficient numerical solutions of the equations. Considering the fact that the use of the explicit methods often results in instability and inaccurate approximations in solving stochastic differential equations, we propose two implicit methods, the θ-Taylor method and the balanced θ-Taylor method, for numerically solving the stochastic differential equation with jumps and prove that the numerical solutions are convergent with strong order 1.0. For a linear scalar test equation, the mean-square stability regions of the methods are derived. Finally, numerical examples are given to evaluate the performance of the methods. Ying Du and Changlin Mei Copyright © 2014 Ying Du and Changlin Mei. All rights reserved. A Newton-Based Extremum Seeking MPPT Method for Photovoltaic Systems with Stochastic Perturbations Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/938526/ Microcontroller based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) has been the most popular MPPT approach in photovoltaic systems due to its high flexibility and efficiency in different photovoltaic systems. It is well known that PV systems typically operate under a range of uncertain environmental parameters and disturbances, which implies that MPPT controllers generally suffer from some unknown stochastic perturbations. To address this issue, a novel Newton-based stochastic extremum seeking MPPT method is proposed. Treating stochastic perturbations as excitation signals, the proposed MPPT controller has a good tolerance of stochastic perturbations in nature. Different from conventional gradient-based extremum seeking MPPT algorithm, the convergence rate of the proposed controller can be totally user-assignable rather than determined by unknown power map. The stability and convergence of the proposed controller are rigorously proved. We further discuss the effects of partial shading and PV module ageing on the proposed controller. Numerical simulations and experiments are conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed MPPT algorithm. Heng Li, Jun Peng, Weirong Liu, Zhiwu Huang, and Kuo-Chi Lin Copyright © 2014 Heng Li et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Analysis of Connective Tissue Sheaths of Sural Nerve in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/870930/ One of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic neuropathy. It may be provoked by metabolic and/or vascular factors, and depending on duration of disease, various layers of nerve may be affected. Our aim was to investigate influence of diabetes on the epineurial, perineurial, and endoneurial connective tissue sheaths. The study included 15 samples of sural nerve divided into three groups: diabetic group, peripheral vascular disease group, and control group. After morphological analysis, morphometric parameters were determined for each case using ImageJ software. Compared to the control group, the diabetic cases had significantly higher perineurial index () and endoneurial connective tissue percentage (). The diabetic group showed significantly higher epineurial area (), as well as percentage of endoneurial connective tissue (), in relation to the peripheral vascular disease group. It is obvious that hyperglycemia and ischemia present in diabetes lead to substantial changes in connective tissue sheaths of nerve, particularly in peri- and endoneurium. Perineurial thickening and significant endoneurial fibrosis may impair the balance of endoneurial homeostasis and regenerative ability of the nerve fibers. Future investigations should focus on studying the components of extracellular matrix of connective tissue sheaths in diabetic nerves. Braca Kundalić, Slađana Ugrenović, Ivan Jovanović, Natalija Stefanović, Vladimir Petrović, Jasen Kundalić, Vesna Stojanović, Vladimir Živković, and Vladimir Antić Copyright © 2014 Braca Kundalić et al. All rights reserved. Thou Shalt Not Think: Editors’ Voice in an English Textbook to Propagate Vested Agendas Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2014/806320/ Textbooks, particularly in developing countries, are used as a tool to propagate the agendas of state and other groups in power. This paper informs the reader on the issue of how a tertiary level English textbook used editors’ voice to form the opinion of its readers by shaping facts and perspectives depicted in the texts. The editors of the textbook not only censored the information to block autonomous learning, but also attempted to misrepresent the themes of various texts to meet the censorship guidelines set by the textbook-board and/or the state. The paper aims to raise the question of learner autonomy and learners’ right to access information in its original form to be interpreted independently in the schematic background of each individual. By pointing out the issue and initiating the discussion, the paper hopes to bring awareness in the less explored area of the use of language power in the Pakistani educational context. Jabreel Asghar Copyright © 2014 Jabreel Asghar. All rights reserved. Subgeometric Ergodicity under Random-Time State-Dependent Drift Conditions Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jps/2014/519276/ Motivated by possible applications of Lyapunov techniques in the stability of stochastic networks, subgeometric ergodicity of Markov chains is investigated. In a nutshell, in this study we take a look at -ergodic general Markov chains, subgeometrically ergodic at rate , when the random-time Foster-Lyapunov drift conditions on a set of stopping times are satisfied. Mokaedi V. Lekgari Copyright © 2014 Mokaedi V. Lekgari. All rights reserved. An Intelligent System for Identifying Acetylated Lysine on Histones and Nonhistone Proteins Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/528650/ Lysine acetylation is an important and ubiquitous posttranslational modification conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This process, which is dynamically and temporally regulated by histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases, is crucial for numerous essential biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, cellular signaling, and stress response. Since the experimental identification of lysine acetylation sites within proteins is time-consuming and laboratory-intensive, several computational approaches have been developed to identify candidates for experimental validation. In this work, acetylated protein data collected from UniProtKB were categorized into histone or nonhistone proteins. Support vector machines (SVMs) were applied to build predictive models by using amino acid pair composition (AAPC) as a feature in a histone model. We combined BLOSUM62 and AAPC features in a nonhistone model. Furthermore, using maximal dependence decomposition (MDD) clustering can enhance the performance of the model on a fivefold cross-validation evaluation to yield a sensitivity of 0.863, specificity of 0.885, accuracy of 0.880, and MCC of 0.706. Additionally, the proposed method is evaluated using independent test sets resulting in a predictive accuracy of 74%. This indicates that the performance of our method is comparable with that of other acetylation prediction methods. Cheng-Tsung Lu, Tzong-Yi Lee, Yu-Ju Chen, and Yi-Ju Chen Copyright © 2014 Cheng-Tsung Lu et al. All rights reserved. Resveratrol, a Natural Antioxidant, Has a Protective Effect on Liver Injury Induced by Inorganic Arsenic Exposure Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/617202/ Resveratrol (Rev) can ameliorate cytotoxic chemotherapy-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is a known cytotoxic environmental toxicant and a potent chemotherapeutic agent. However, the mechanisms by which resveratrol protects the liver against the cytotoxic effects of As2O3 are not known. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the mechanisms involved in the action of resveratrol using a cat model in which hepatotoxicity was induced by means of As2O3 treatment. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol, administered using a clinically comparable dose regimen, reversed changes in As2O3-induced morphological and liver parameters and resulted in a significant improvement in hepatic function. Resveratrol treatment also improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuated As2O3-induced increases in reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde production. In addition, resveratrol attenuated the As2O3-induced reduction in the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione and the retention of arsenic in liver tissue. These findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby resveratrol modulates As2O3-induced changes in liver function and tissue morphology. They also provide a stronger rationale for the clinical utilization of resveratrol for the reduction of As2O3-induced hepatotoxicity. Zhigang Zhang, Li Gao, Yanyan Cheng, Jing Jiang, Yan Chen, Huijie Jiang, Hongxiang Yu, Anshan Shan, and Baojing Cheng Copyright © 2014 Zhigang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Adverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2014/696089/ Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity’s impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS) as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question “Did you have spasticity following your stroke?” on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days or did not have spasticity data available were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (, to 0.645) after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model’s changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors. S. R. Belagaje, C. Lindsell, C. J. Moomaw, K. Alwell, M. L. Flaherty, D. Woo, K. Dunning, P. Khatri, O. Adeoye, D. Kleindorfer, J. Broderick, and B. Kissela Copyright © 2014 S. R. Belagaje et al. All rights reserved. Vesicoovarian Fistula on an Endometriosis Abscessed Cyst Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2014/240596/ We report the case of a patient who developed a vesicoovarian fistula on an endometriosis abscessed cyst. The patient presented with an advanced endometriosis stage IV complicated with a right ovarian abscessed cyst of 10 cm. A first coelioscopy with cystectomy was realized. After surgery, a voiding cystography highlighted a fistula between the ovarian abscess and the bladder. A second surgery by median laparotomy was realized with the resection of the right ovarian abscess and the resection of vesical fistula. C. Tran, M. Even, M. Carbonnel, F. Preaux, F. Isnard, A. Rault, M. Rouanne, and J. M. Ayoubi Copyright © 2014 C. Tran et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Simulation of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes at the Ignition of Liquid Fuel by Concentrated Flux of Radiation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/156150/ The physical and forecasting mathematical models of heat and mass transfer with phase transformations and chemical reactions under heating and following ignition of typical liquid fuel by using concentrated flow of radiation were developed. The influence scales of energy absorption process by means of gas-vapor mixture and liquid on ignition characteristics were established. The ignition delay time dependencies on the concentrated luminous power and radius of its coverage were determined. Olga V. Vysokomornaya, Genii V. Kuznetsov, and Pavel A. Strizhak Copyright © 2014 Olga V. Vysokomornaya et al. All rights reserved. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/480916/ The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. Zhongxian Chen, Haitao Yu, and Cheng Wen Copyright © 2014 Zhongxian Chen et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between the Severity and Type of Acne Lesions with Serum Zinc Levels in Patients with Acne Vulgaris Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/474108/ Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and acne vulgaris. We aimed to evaluate the serum zinc level in patients with acne vulgaris and compare it with healthy controls. One hundred patients with acne vulgaris and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. Acne severity was classified according to Global Acne Grading System (GAGS). Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. Mean serum level of zinc in acne patients and controls was 81.31 ± 17.63 μg/dl and 82.63 ± 17.49 μg/dl, respectively. Although the mean serum zinc level was lower in acne group, it was not statistically significant (). There was a correlation between serum zinc levels with severity and type of acne lesions. The results of our study suggest that zinc levels may be related to the severity and type of acne lesions in patients with acne vulgaris. Relative decrease of serum zinc level in acne patients suggests a role for zinc in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Majid Rostami Mogaddam, Nastaran Safavi Ardabili, Nasrollah Maleki, and Maedeh Soflaee Copyright © 2014 Majid Rostami Mogaddam et al. All rights reserved. Application of CFD, Taguchi Method, and ANOVA Technique to Optimize Combustion and Emissions in a Light Duty Diesel Engine Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/502902/ Some previous research results have shown that EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate, pilot fuel quantity, and main injection timing closely associated with engine emissions and fuel consumption. In order to understand the combined effect of EGR rate, pilot fuel quantity, and main injection timing on the (oxides of nitrogen), soot, and ISFC (indicated specific fuel consumption), in this study, CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation together with the Taguchi method and the ANOVA (analysis of variance) technique was applied as an effective research tool. At first, simulation model on combustion and emissions of a light duty diesel engine at original baseline condition was developed and the model was validated by test. At last, a confirmation experiment with the best combination of factors and levels was implemented. The study results indicated that EGR is the most influencing factor on . In case of soot emission and ISFC, the greatest influence parameter is main injection timing. For all objectives, pilot fuel quantity is an insignificant factor. Furthermore, the engine with optimized combination reduces by at least 70% for , 20% in soot formation, and 1% for ISFC, in contrast to original baseline engine. Senlin Xiao, Wanchen Sun, Jiakun Du, and Guoliang Li Copyright © 2014 Senlin Xiao et al. All rights reserved. The Collaboration of SMEs through Clusters as Defense against Economic Crisis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecri/2014/407375/ The aim of this paper is to present the realistic solution to the survival problem that SMEs have during the economic crisis. The role of SMEs is very important in the development of the regional and national economy of each country, particularly for small countries like Greece. On the other hand, universities also play a significant role in the national economy, since they provide Know-How and important research in the SMEs. Nevertheless, due to their small size and financial weakness, especially on the grounds of economic crisis, SMEs would not be able to cover on their own the cost of purchase of university research. The author of this working paper suggests the collaboration of SMEs in the form of clusters so as to be able to self-fund and absorb university Know-How at the same time. Ioannis Makedos Copyright © 2014 Ioannis Makedos. All rights reserved. Reliability of a Fully Automated Interpretation of γ-H2AX Foci in Lymphocytes of Moderately Trained Subjects under Resting Conditions Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2014/478324/ Background. Analysis of -H2AX foci is a promising approach to evaluate exercise-induced DNA damage. However, baseline levels and day-to-day variability of -H2AX foci have not been investigated in healthy subjects at rest. Methods. Blood was taken from eight moderately trained healthy males (29 ± 3 yrs, 1.84 ± 0.03 m, and 85 ± 6 kg) at two separate days (M1/M2) after 24-hour exercise cessation. Number of -H2AX foci per 100 lymphocytes (N), number of foci per affected lymphocyte (NAL), percentage of affected lymphocytes (PAL), and diameter (D) of -H2AX foci were analyzed (mean ± SD). Differences between M1 and M2 were analyzed using paired -tests ( = 0.05). Day-to-day variability was evaluated by calculating the coefficients of variation (CV%), bias, and limits of agreement (LoA). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between M1 (N: 7.6 ± 4.4, NAL: 1.2 ± 0.2, PAL: 5.9 ± 2.6%, and D: 0.63 ± 0.07) and M2 (N: 8.4 ± 4.6, NAL: 1.3 ± 0.1, PAL: 6.9 ± 4.2%, and D: 0.66 ± 0.06). CV was calculated to be 98.5% (N), 88.9% (PAL), 11.3% (NAL), and 8.0% (D). Bias (LoA) was 0.75 (−15.2/13.7), −0.02 (−0.36/0.33), −1.0 (−11.9/9.9), and −0.04 (−0.16/0.09), respectively. Conclusions. Background level in healthy subjects is approximately 0.07 to 0.09 -H2AX foci/cell. NAL and D are reliable measures. Juliane Heydenreich, Christoph Otto, Frank Mayer, and Anja Carlsohn Copyright © 2014 Juliane Heydenreich et al. All rights reserved. Harmonic Subtangent Structures Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmath/2014/603078/ The concept of harmonic subtangent structures on almost subtangent metric manifolds is introduced and a Bochner-type formula is proved for this case. Conditions for a subtangent harmonic structure to be preserved by harmonic maps are also given. Adara M. Blaga Copyright © 2014 Adara M. Blaga. All rights reserved.