Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Real Hypersurfaces of Nonflat Complex Projective Planes Whose Jacobi Structure Operator Satisfies a Generalized Commutative Condition Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:43:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2016/3089298/ Real hypersurfaces satisfying the condition have been studied by many authors under at least one more condition, since the class of these hypersurfaces is quite tough to be classified. The aim of the present paper is the classification of real hypersurfaces in complex projective plane satisfying a generalization of under an additional restriction on a specific function. Theocharis Theofanidis Copyright © 2016 Theocharis Theofanidis. All rights reserved. Bounding Regions to Plane Steepest Descent Curves of Quasiconvex Families Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:35:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2016/4873276/ Two-dimensional steepest descent curves (SDC) for a quasiconvex family are considered; the problem of their extensions (with constraints) outside of a convex body is studied. It is shown that possible extensions are constrained to lie inside of suitable bounding regions depending on . These regions are bounded by arcs of involutes of and satisfy many inclusions properties. The involutes of the boundary of an arbitrary plane convex body are defined and written by their support function. Extensions SDC of minimal length are constructed. Self-contracting sets (with opposite orientation) are considered: necessary and/or sufficient conditions for them to be subsets of SDC are proved. Marco Longinetti, Paolo Manselli, and Adriana Venturi Copyright © 2016 Marco Longinetti et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners’ Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:34:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2420568/ Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions () and average chest compression depth (). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, ). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. Jin Hyuck Lee, Youngsuk Cho, Ku Hyun Kang, Gyu Chong Cho, Keun Jeong Song, and Chang Hee Lee Copyright © 2016 Jin Hyuck Lee et al. All rights reserved. Fractional Flow Reserve Assessment of a Significant Coronary Stenosis Masked by a Downstream Serial Lesion Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:33:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/1987238/ Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been recognized as an effective tool to determine functional significance in intermediate coronary lesions and FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves clinical outcomes. However, hemodynamic interaction between serial stenoses within one coronary artery complicates the assessment of functional severity of each individual lesion. We present a case in which FFR measurement by intracoronary bolus injection of adenosine helps to make appropriate revascularization decision in serial stenoses when the procedures are performed systemically and properly. Lawrence Yu-Min Liu, Hsu-Ping Wu, and Po-Lin Lin Copyright © 2016 Lawrence Yu-Min Liu et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of TIVA and Desflurane Added to a Subanaesthetic Dose of Propofol in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: Evaluation of Haemodynamic and Stress Hormone Changes Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:27:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3272530/ Introduction. Increased levels of stress hormones are associated with mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Aim. To compare total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and desflurane added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol. Material and Methods. Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. Fentanyl (3–5 mcg/kg/h) was started in both groups. Patients were divided into two groups. The PD group () received 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) desflurane anaesthesia in addition to propofol infusion (2-3 mg/kg/h), while P group () received propofol infusion (5-6 mg/kg/h) only. Biochemical data, cortisol, and insulin levels were measured preoperatively (T0), after initiation of CPB but before cross-clamping the aorta (T1), after removal of the cross-clamp (T2), and at the 24th postoperative hour (T3). Results. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure levels were significantly higher in PD group than those in P group in T1 and T2 measurements (). CK-MB showed a significant decrease in group P (). When we compared both groups, cortisol levels were significantly higher in PD group than P group (). Conclusion. Stress and haemodynamic responses were better controlled using TIVA than desflurane inhalation added to a subanaesthetic dose of propofol in patients undergoing CABG. Didem Onk, Tülin Akarsu Ayazoğlu, Oruç Alper Onk, Mehmet Aksüt, Murat Günay, Kultigin Turkmen, Aynur Özensoy, Çiğdem Yazıcı Ersoy, and Abdulkadir Çoban Copyright © 2016 Didem Onk et al. All rights reserved. The Plant-Derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) Attenuates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:25:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/5346574/ Background. Elastase mediates important oxidative actions during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, few resources for the inhibition of elastase have been investigated. Our study evaluated the ability of the recombinant plant derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) to modulate elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice were given intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group) and were treated intraperitoneally with rBbKI (ELA-rBbKI and SAL-rBbKI groups). At day 28, the following analyses were performed: (I) lung mechanics, (II) exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), (III) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and (IV) lung immunohistochemical staining. Results. In addition to decreasing mechanical alterations and alveolar septum disruption, rBbKI reduced the number of cells in the BALF and decreased the cellular expression of TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, eNOS, and iNOS in airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. rBbKI decreased the volume proportion of 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in the airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. A reduction in the number of MUC-5-positive cells in the airway walls was also observed. Conclusion. rBbKI reduced elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. rBbKI may be a potential pharmacological tool for COPD treatment. Bruno Tadeu Martins-Olivera, Rafael Almeida-Reis, Osmar Aparecido Theodoro-Júnior, Leandro Vilela Oliva, Natalia Neto dos Santos Nunes, Clarice Olivo, Marlon Vilela de Brito, Carla Máximo Prado, Edna Aparecida Leick, Mílton de Arruda Martins, Maria Luiza Vilela Oliva, Renato Fraga Righetti, and Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério Copyright © 2016 Bruno Tadeu Martins-Olivera et al. All rights reserved. HMBA Enhances Prostratin-Induced Activation of Latent HIV-1 via Suppressing the Expression of Negative Feedback Regulator A20/TNFAIP3 in NF-κB Signaling Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:15:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5173205/ In the past decade, much emphasis has been put on the transcriptional activation of HIV-1, which is proposed as a promised strategy for eradicating latent HIV-1 provirus. Two drugs, prostratin and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), have shown potent effects as inducers for releasing HIV-1 latency when used alone or in combination, although their cellular target(s) are currently not well understood, especially under drug combination. Here, we have shown that HMBA and prostratin synergistically release HIV-1 latency via different mechanisms. While prostratin strongly stimulates HMBA-induced HIV-1 transcription via improved P-TEFb activation, HMBA is capable of boosting NF-κB-dependent transcription initiation by suppressing prostratin-induced expression of the deubiquitinase A20, a negative feedback regulator in the NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, HMBA was able to increase prostratin-induced phosphorylation and degradation of NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, thereby enhancing and prolonging prostratin-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a prerequisite for stimulation of transcription initiation. Thus, by blocking the negative feedback circuit, HMBA functions as a signaling enhancer of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Duchu Chen, Huiping Wang, Jude Juventus Aweya, Yanheng Chen, Meihua Chen, Xiaomeng Wu, Xiaonan Chen, Jing Lu, Ruichuan Chen, and Min Liu Copyright © 2016 Duchu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Sterile Seroma after Drainage of Purulent Muscle Abscess in Crohn’s Disease: Two Cases Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:11:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2016/1516364/ Purulent skeletal muscle abscesses can occur in Crohn’s disease. We report a case of a sterile seroma complicating percutaneous drainage of a purulent skeletal muscle abscess in Crohn’s ileitis. We compare and contrast this case with a similar case we published earlier. We emphasize the importance of recognition and differentiation from a septic purulent abscess. Natasha Shah, Lara Dakhoul, Adam Treitman, Muhammed Tabriz, and Charles Berkelhammer Copyright © 2016 Natasha Shah et al. All rights reserved. Xanthine Oxidase-Derived ROS Display a Biphasic Effect on Endothelial Cells Adhesion and FAK Phosphorylation Wed, 27 Jul 2016 08:11:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/9346242/ In pathological situations such as ischemia-reperfusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by different systems which are involved in endothelial cells injury, ultimately leading to severe organ dysfunctions. The aim of this work was to study the effect of ROS produced by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (Hx-XO) on the adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on the signaling pathways involved. Results show that Hx-XO-derived ROS induced an increase in HUVEC adhesion in the early stages of the process (less than 30 min), followed by a decrease in adhesion in the later stages of the process. Interestingly, Hx-XO-derived ROS induced the same biphasic effect on the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase critical for cell adhesion, but not on ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The biphasic effect was not seen with ERK1/2 where a decrease in phosphorylation only was observed. Wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, inhibited ROS-induced cell adhesion and FAK phosphorylation. Orthovanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, and Resveratrol (Resv), an antioxidant agent, protected FAK and ERK1/2 from dephosphorylation and HUVEC from ROS-induced loss of adhesion. This study shows that ROS could have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on HUVEC adhesion and FAK phosphorylation and suggests that PI3-kinase and tyrosine phosphatase control these effects. Meriem H. Ben-Mahdi, Pham My-Chan Dang, Marie-Anne Gougerot-Pocidalo, Yvonne O’Dowd, Jamel El-Benna, and Catherine Pasquier Copyright © 2016 Meriem H. Ben-Mahdi et al. All rights reserved. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:52:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abb/2016/5728382/ The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth. Nurhat Ozkalayci and Mehmet Yetmez Copyright © 2016 Nurhat Ozkalayci and Mehmet Yetmez. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in 5D Conformally Invariant Gravity Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/5353267/ We explore the possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity, whose action consists of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to the curvature with its potential. Performing dimensional reduction via ADM decomposition, we find that the model allows an exact solution giving rise to the 4D Minkowski vacuum. Exploiting the conformal invariance with Gaussian warp factor, we show that it also admits a solution which implements the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry. We investigate its stability by performing the tensor perturbation and find the resulting system is described by the conformal quantum mechanics. Possible applications to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of time-translational symmetry along the dynamical fifth direction and the brane-world scenario are discussed. Taeyoon Moon and Phillial Oh Copyright © 2016 Taeyoon Moon and Phillial Oh. All rights reserved. Adrenal Neuroblastoma in an Adult: Effect of Radiotherapy on Local Progression after Surgical Removal Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:35:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2016/2657632/ Here, we report the case of a 62-year-old man with neuroblastoma, which is extremely rare in adults. His tumor was resected, but it recurred four months later. Radiotherapy reduced tumor size, and the patient remained in good health three years after surgical tumor removal. The residual tumor and the treatments administered to this patient were evaluated. We have also reviewed the literature. Satoshi Kurokawa, Kentaro Mizuno, Akihiro Nakane, Yoshinobu Moritoki, Hidenori Nishio, Hideyuki Kamisawa, Yasue Kubota, Atsushi Okada, Noriyasu Kawai, Yutaro Hayashi, and Takahiro Yasui Copyright © 2016 Satoshi Kurokawa et al. All rights reserved. Variability and Trend of Annual Maximum Daily Rainfall in Northern Algeria Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:34:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2016/6820397/ The daily rainfall dataset of 35 weather stations covering the north of Algeria was studied for a period up to 43 years, recorded after 1970s. The variability and trends in annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) time series and their contributions in annual rainfall (AR) were investigated. The analysis of the series was based on statistical characteristics, Burn’s seasonality procedure, Mann-Kendall test, and linear regression technique. The contribution of the AMDR to AR analysis was subjected to both the Buishand test and the double mass curve technique. The AMDR characteristics reveal a strong temporal irregularity and have a wide frequency of occurrence in the months of November and December while the maximum intensity occurred in October. The observed phenomenon was so irregular that there was no dominant season and the occurrence of extreme event can arrive at any time of the year. The AMDR trends showed that only six of 35 stations have significant trend. For other stations, no clear trend was highlighted. This result was confirmed by the linear regression procedure. On the contrary, the contribution of AMDR in annual totals exhibited a significant increasing trend for 57% of the sites studied with a growth rate of up to 50%. Abderrahmane Nekkache Ghenim and Abdesselam Megnounif Copyright © 2016 Abderrahmane Nekkache Ghenim and Abdesselam Megnounif. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Plasma Albumin Induces Cytosolic Calcium Oscilations and DNA Synthesis in Human Cultured Astrocytes” Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:22:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2359767/ Lorena Vega-Zelaya, Ivan Herrera-Peco, Guillermo J. Ortega, Rafael G. Sola, and Jesús Pastor Copyright © 2016 Lorena Vega-Zelaya et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “On Two-Level State-Dependent Routing Polling Systems with Mixed Service” Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:08:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7931801/ Guan Zheng, Yang Zhijun, Qian Wenhua, and He Min Copyright © 2016 Guan Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Rare Leiomyoma of the Tunica Dartos: A Case Report with Clinical Relevance for Malignant Transformation and HLRCC Wed, 27 Jul 2016 07:00:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2016/6471520/ Background. Genital leiomyomas fall under the broader category of cutaneous leiomyomas, which are rare smooth muscle neoplasms accounting for 5% of all leiomyomas. Genital leiomyomas arising from the dartos muscle are exceedingly rare with fewer than 30 cases reported in the literature. They are typically benign and adequately treated with simple surgical excision; however, previously reported cases of malignant transformation and a possible link to the hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome warrant closer follow-up. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 47-year-old male refugee from Rwanda found to have a mobile, pea-sized, mildly painful scrotal lesion near the left penoscrotal junction and 1.5 cm indeterminate vascular mass in the right kidney. Surgical excision of the scrotal nodule was performed and the diagnosis of a dartoic leiomyoma was rendered. The presence of moderate nuclear atypia, rare mitotic activity, and close surgical margins prompted a wide reexcision. We report the surgical approach, pathologic findings, and clinical follow-up related to this scrotal lesion. Conclusion. Scrotal leiomyomas demonstrate a high rate of recurrence and pose a risk for malignant transformation. They may also indicate an underlying autosomal dominant syndrome associated with increased risk for development of an aggressive form of renal cell carcinoma. When discovered, management should include surgical excision, screening for syndromic features, and routine follow-up. Robert C. Bell, Evan T. Austin, Stacy J. Arnold, Frank C. Lin, Jonathan R. Walker, and Brandon T. Larsen Copyright © 2016 Robert C. Bell et al. All rights reserved. The Significance of Habitat Characteristics to the Spatial Distribution of Local Avian Assemblage at Gannoruwa Mountain Forest Reserve, Kandy, Sri Lanka Wed, 27 Jul 2016 06:56:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbd/2016/8148910/ Distribution patterns corresponding to habitat characteristics in tropical forests have not been largely studied. Natural forest structure as well as the anthropogenic alterations to the forests equally affects the distribution patterns of wet zone avifauna. The study reveals the importance of % canopy closure, distance from the forest edge, tree density, diversity, and elevation to the community composition of local forest birds inhabiting Gannoruwa Forest Reserve, Sri Lanka. The most important factors resulting in the study for shaping the avian distribution pattern are distance from the edge,elevation, and the % canopy closure. With the increase of favouring resources to the avian fauna at the edges and the juxtaposition of the edge, many forest loving species were observed to move towards the edge. The pattern is proven advantageous, but harmful in the long run. Thus, it is advisable that the conservation plans should focus on habitat destruction and the anthropogenic disturbance along forest edges. D. G. R. M. M. Kaushalya Rathnayake, I. Sandunika Ileperuma Arachchi, Buwaneka S. Pathirana, and S. Wickramasinghe Copyright © 2016 D. G. R. M. M. Kaushalya Rathnayake et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Novel Pyrimethanil Grafted Chitosan Derivatives with Enhanced Antifungal Activity Wed, 27 Jul 2016 06:45:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8196960/ In this study, three pyrimethanil grafted chitosan (PML-g-CS) derivatives were obtained. The structures of the conjugates were confirmed by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and EA. The grafting ratios were measured by HPLC. Antifungal properties of pyrimethanil grafted chitosan (PML-g-CS) derivatives against the plant pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Gibberella zeae were investigated at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/L. The PML-g-CS derivatives showed enhanced antifungal activity in comparison with chitosan. The PML-g-CS-1 showed the best antifungal activity against R. solani, whose antifungal index was 58.32%. The PML-g-CS-2 showed the best antifungal activity against G. zeae, whose antifungal index was 53.48%. The conjugation of chitosan and pyrimethanil showed synergistic effect. The PML-g-CS derivatives we developed showed potential for further study and application in crop protection. Yan Li, Song Liu, Yukun Qin, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, and Pengcheng Li Copyright © 2016 Yan Li et al. All rights reserved. Expressions of Endocan in Patients with Meningiomas and Gliomas Wed, 27 Jul 2016 06:44:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/7157039/ Objective. Endocan has been shown to be a marker for several cancers and may show degree of malignancy. The aim of this study is to assess tissue levels of endocan in common brain tumors, namely, meningiomas, low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Patients and Methods. Endocan was assayed by commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in a total of 50 brain tumors (20 meningiomas, 19 LGGs, and 20 HGGs) and 15 controls. The results were compared to control brain tissues. Results. Each tumor group showed significant higher levels of endocan compared to controls (). In addition, endocan levels showed steady increase from the least (meningiomas) to the most (HGGs) malignant tumors and positive correlation was noted between the degree of malignancy and endocan level (). Conclusion. Endocan, a vital molecule for angiogenesis, is expressed in common brain tumors and results suggest that endocan could be a marker for malignancy. Pinar Atukeren, Ahmad Kunbaz, Okan Turk, Rahsan Kemerdere, Mustafa Onur Ulu, Nursel Turkmen Inanir, and Taner Tanriverdi Copyright © 2016 Pinar Atukeren et al. All rights reserved. Overexpression of β-Catenin Induces Cisplatin Resistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Wed, 27 Jul 2016 06:18:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5378567/ Abnormal expression of -catenin contributes to tumor development, progression, and metastasis in various cancers. However, little is known about the relationship between abnormal expression of -catenin and cisplatin chemotherapy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study aimed to investigate the effect of -catenin on OSCC cisplatin resistance and evaluated the drug susceptibility of stable cell lines with -catenin knockin and knockdown. In this study, we found that higher expression level of -catenin can be observed in CDDP-treated cell lines as compared with the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of -catenin increased in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner with the cisplatin treatment. More importantly, the nuclear translocation of -catenin could also be observed by confocal microscope analysis. Stable cell lines with CTNNB1 knockin and knockdown were established to further investigate the potential role and mechanism of -catenin in the chemoresistance of OSCC in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicated that overexpression of -catenin promoted cisplatin resistance in OSCC in vitro and in vivo. We confirmed that GSK-3β, C-myc, Bcl-2, P-gp, and MRP-1 were involved in -catenin-mediated drug resistance. Our findings indicate that the Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway may play important roles in cisplatin resistance in OSCC. Long Li, Hai-Chao Liu, Cheng Wang, Xiqiang Liu, Feng-Chun Hu, Nan Xie, Lanhai Lü, Xiaohua Chen, and Hong-Zhang Huang Copyright © 2016 Long Li et al. All rights reserved. Use of a Rigid Curved Laryngoscope for Removal of a Fish Bone in the Hypopharynx Wed, 27 Jul 2016 05:51:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/9689521/ Foreign body ingestion is a commonly encountered clinical problem. In particular, sharp foreign bodies lodged in the esophagus or hypopharynx can cause complications and require urgent removal. Removal by flexible esophagogastroduodenoscopy or rigid esophagoscopy is the treatment of choice and has high success rates, but cases in which these methods are unsuccessful must be treated with an external incision. A 62-year-old man was referred for a fish bone lodged in the hypopharynx that could not be removed by flexible esophagogastroduodenoscopy. We removed the bone transorally using a specially designed rigid curved laryngoscope. Based on our experience, this method may have clear practical value due to advantages of a wide field of view and use of multiple rigid forceps. Indications may be limited, but this novel method may reduce the limitations of noninvasive removal of foreign bodies. Hiroshi Sakaida, Kazuki Chiyonobu, Hajime Ishinaga, and Kazuhiko Takeuchi Copyright © 2016 Hiroshi Sakaida et al. All rights reserved. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Educated Macrophages Ameliorate LPS-Induced Systemic Response Wed, 27 Jul 2016 05:50:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3735452/ Both bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have immunomodulatory effects. The goal of this study was to determine whether ASCs-educated macrophages could directly ameliorate LPS-induced systemic response in a mouse model. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cocultured with ASCs in a Transwell system for 2 days to educate macrophages. Mice were divided into 5 groups: control, LPS, LPS + ASCs, LPS + untreated macrophages, and LPS + educated macrophages. Educated macrophages decreased lung inflammation, weight loss, pulmonary edema, and inflammatory cytokine response. In vitro, ASCs increased expression of M2 macrophages independent of direct cell-to-cell contact when macrophages were treated with LPS or serum from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When macrophages were cultured with serum from ARDS patients who were treated with ASCs or placebo in our previous clinical trial, there was no difference in M2 macrophage levels before and after ASCs treatment indicating a suboptimal response to the treatment protocol. ASCs also reduced the levels of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines in vitro which were mimicked by IL-10 and blocked by antibodies for IL-10 and IL-10 receptor supporting the notion that educated macrophages exert their anti-inflammatory effects via IL-10-dependent mechanisms. Yaoqin Hu, Chaojin Qin, Guoping Zheng, Dengming Lai, Huikang Tao, Yan Zhang, Guanguan Qiu, Menghua Ge, Lanfang Huang, Lina Chen, Baoli Cheng, Qiang Shu, and Jianguo Xu Copyright © 2016 Yaoqin Hu et al. All rights reserved. Unusual Late Onset of Parenchymal Neuro-Behçet Disease Tue, 26 Jul 2016 17:39:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/5720319/ Neuro-Behçet disease (NBD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder characterized by oral lesions, genital lesions, uveitis, and neurological deficits. If left untreated, it may lead to worsening neurological function and can be fatal. Here we present a case of a 52-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Behçet disease (BD) as a teenager and had a relatively mild disease course. Decades later after her initial DB diagnosis, she presented to our hospital with a chief complaint of headache. She did not have focal neurological deficits or any active mucosal lesions. Upon further investigation, the patient was found to have multiple inflammatory changes on neuroimaging and abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), consistent with the diagnosis of NBD. She was treated with intravenous corticosteroid therapy and her symptoms resolved. Although our patient presented with minimal symptoms decades after her initial diagnosis, any neurological complaint warranted a thorough investigation for a proper diagnosis and treatment given the multisystem involvement of BD. Wai Wai Miller, Demetrios Konstas, Chetan Gandhy, and Derrick Robertson Copyright © 2016 Wai Wai Miller et al. All rights reserved. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Pattern Evaluation Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition Filter via Nonlinear Approaches Tue, 26 Jul 2016 15:45:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4750643/ Good quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the mainstay of treatment for managing patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Assessment of the quality of the CPR delivered is now possible through the electrocardiography (ECG) signal that can be collected by an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluates a nonlinear approximation of the CPR given to the asystole patients. The raw ECG signal is filtered using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and the CPR-related intrinsic mode functions (IMF) are chosen to be evaluated. In addition, sample entropy (SE), complexity index (CI), and detrended fluctuation algorithm (DFA) are collated and statistical analysis is performed using ANOVA. The primary outcome measure assessed is the patient survival rate after two hours. CPR pattern of 951 asystole patients was analyzed for quality of CPR delivered. There was no significant difference observed in the CPR-related IMFs peak-to-peak interval analysis for patients who are younger or older than 60 years of age, similarly to the amplitude difference evaluation for SE and DFA. However, there is a difference noted for the CI (). The results show that patients group younger than 60 years have higher survival rate with high complexity of the CPR-IMFs amplitude differences. Muammar Sadrawi, Wei-Zen Sun, Matthew Huei-Ming Ma, Chun-Yi Dai, Maysam F. Abbod, and Jiann-Shing Shieh Copyright © 2016 Muammar Sadrawi et al. All rights reserved. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:54:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/1907521/ Network on Chip (NoC) reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC). The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC) approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER. D. Muralidharan and R. Muthaiah Copyright © 2016 D. Muralidharan and R. Muthaiah. All rights reserved. New Inner Product Quasilinear Spaces on Interval Numbers Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:42:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/2619271/ Primarily we examine the new example of quasilinear spaces, namely, “ interval space.” We obtain some new theorems and results related to this new quasilinear space. After giving some new notions of quasilinear dependence-independence and basis on quasilinear functional analysis, we obtain some results on interval space related to these concepts. Secondly, we present , and quasilinear spaces and we research some algebraic properties of these spaces. We obtain some new results and provide an important contribution to the improvement of quasilinear functional analysis. Hacer Bozkurt and Yılmaz Yilmaz Copyright © 2016 Hacer Bozkurt and Yılmaz Yilmaz. All rights reserved. Biology of Beige Adipocyte and Possible Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:34:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/9542061/ All mammals own two main forms of fat. The classical white adipose tissue builds up energy in the form of triglycerides and is useful for preventing fatigue during periods of low caloric intake and the brown adipose tissue instead of inducing fat accumulation can produce energy as heat. Since adult humans possess significant amounts of active brown fat depots and their mass inversely correlates with adiposity, brown fat might play an important role in human obesity and energy homeostasis. New evidence suggests two types of thermogenic adipocytes with distinct developmental and anatomical features: classical brown adipocytes and beige adipocytes. Beige adipocyte has recently attracted special interest because of its ability to dissipate energy and the possible ability to differentiate itself from white adipocytes. Importantly, adult human brown adipocyte appears to be mainly composed of beige-like adipocytes, making this cell type an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and obesity-related diseases. Because many epigenetic changes can affect beige adipocyte differentiation, the knowledge of the circumstances that affect the development of beige adipocyte cells may be important for therapeutic strategies. In this review we discuss some recent observations arising from the great physiological capacity of these cells and their possible role as ways to treat obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. Fernando Lizcano and Diana Vargas Copyright © 2016 Fernando Lizcano and Diana Vargas. All rights reserved. Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk Profile in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:23:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/8173905/ Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), metabolic syndrome (MS), and other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population at high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. 1302 subjects were enrolled from the Huai’an Diabetes Prevention Program. Results. BCAAs levels were positively correlated with MS, its components, and CV risk profile. The odds ratio (OR) for MS among subjects in the fourth quartile of BCAAs levels showed a 2.17-fold increase compared with those in the first quartile. BCAAs were independently associated with high Framingham risk score even after adjusting for MS and its components (). Additionally, the OR for high CV risk was 3.20-fold () in participants in the fourth BCAAs quartile with MS compared with participants in the first BCAAs quartile without MS. Conclusions. Increased BCAAs levels are independent risk factors of MS and CVD in addition to the traditional factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. The development of CVD in MS patients with high level BCAAs is accelerated. Intervention studies are needed to investigate whether the strategy of BCAAs reduction has impacts on endpoints in patients with higher CV risk. This study is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-14005029. Wen Hu, Luning Sun, Yingyun Gong, Ying Zhou, Panpan Yang, Zhengqin Ye, Jinxiang Fu, Aijie Huang, Zhenzhen Fu, Weinan Yu, Yang Zhao, Tao Yang, and Hongwen Zhou Copyright © 2016 Wen Hu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Flavonoid in Medicinal Plant Extract Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:17:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2016/4696803/ Infrared (IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been developed for simple analysis of flavonoid in the medicinal plant extract. Flavonoid was extracted from medicinal plant leaves by ultrasonication and maceration. IR spectra of selected medicinal plant extract were correlated with flavonoid content using chemometrics. The chemometric method used for calibration analysis was Partial Last Square (PLS) and the methods used for classification analysis were Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies (SIMCA), and Support Vector Machines (SVM). In this study, the calibration of NIR model that showed best calibration with and RMSEC value was 0.9916499 and 2.1521897, respectively, while the accuracy of all classification models (LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) was 100%. and RMSEC of calibration of FTIR model were 0.8653689 and 8.8958149, respectively, while the accuracy of LDA, SIMCA, and SVM was 86.0%, 91.2%, and 77.3%, respectively. PLS and LDA of NIR models were further used to predict unknown flavonoid content in commercial samples. Using these models, the significance of flavonoid content that has been measured by NIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry was evaluated with paired samples -test. The flavonoid content that has been measured with both methods gave no significant difference. Lestyo Wulandari, Yuni Retnaningtyas, Nuri, and Hilmia Lukman Copyright © 2016 Lestyo Wulandari et al. All rights reserved. Estimate of Impact on the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Older Thai People by the Provision of Dentures through the Royal Project Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:16:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2016/1976013/ Purpose. To estimate the impact of the provision of dentures to Thai older people by the Royal Project on their oral health-related quality of life. Methods. A purposive cross-sectional study of a sample of 812 subjects was conducted. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP) measure was used to assess the oral health-related quality of life. Results. Four groups of older people with different tooth types were studied. 216 (26.6%) had natural teeth (NT). 189 (23.3%) had natural and replaced teeth (NRT). 167 (20.6%) had below the minimum number of teeth but had no dentures (Edent) and 240 were edentate with complete dentures provided by the Royal Project (ECD) (29.6%). Overall, 36.5% had at least one oral impact. Eating was the most affected oral impact. When compared to the group with natural teeth (NT), the Edent group was significantly more likely to report having impacts on eating OR = 6.5 (3.9–10.9), speaking clearly OR = 43.7 (12.7–15.07), emotional stability OR = 16.5 (6.0–45.6), and social contacts OR = 4.6 (2.2–9.5) (). Conclusion. Those who are edentulous are much more likely to have an oral impact on their daily performances than those provided dentures. Provision of dentures may lead to improvement of considerable oral impacts. Patcharawan Srisilapanan, Narumanas Korwanich, Sutha Jienmaneechotchai, Supranee Dalodom, Nontalee Veerachai, Warangkana Vejvitee, and Jeffrey Roseman Copyright © 2016 Patcharawan Srisilapanan et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Vinasse Application in the Structure and Composition of the Bacterial Community of the Soil under Sugarcane Cultivation Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:11:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmicro/2016/2349514/ Although the use of vinasse as a waste helps replenish soil nutrients and improves the quality of the sugarcane crop, it is known that vinasse residues alter the diversity of bacteria naturally present in the soil. The actual impacts of vinasse application on the selection of bacterial taxa are not understood because no studies have addressed this phenomenon directly. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from four soil types showed that the soil planted with sugarcane and fertilized with vinasse has a high diversity of bacteria compared to other biomes, where Acidobacteria were the second most abundant phylum. Although the composition and structure of bacterial communities differ significantly in the four environments (Libshuff’s test), forest soils and soil planted with sugarcane without vinasse fertilizer were similar to each other because they share at least 28 OTUs related to Rhizobiales, which are important agents involved in nitrogen fixation. OTUs belonging to Actinomycetales were detected more often in the soil that had vinasse applied, indicating that these groups are more favored by this type of land management. Wellington Pine Omori, André Ferreira de Camargo, Karla Cristina Stropa Goulart, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo Lemos, and Jackson Antônio Marcondes de Souza Copyright © 2016 Wellington Pine Omori et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:08:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4685246/ Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works synergistically with other bioactive compounds. Muhammad Shahzad Aslam, Muhammad Syarhabil Ahmad, Awang Soh Mamat, Muhammad Zamharir Ahmad, and Faridah Salam Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Shahzad Aslam et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Rubberized Bitumen Blending Methods on Permanent Deformation of SMA Rubberized Asphalt Mixtures Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:06:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/4395063/ This study aims at comparing the permanent deformation of Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) rubberized asphalt mixtures produced by the wet process. In this study, rubberized binders were prepared using two different blending methods, namely, continuous blend and terminal blend. To study the creep behaviour of control and rubberized asphalt mixtures, the dynamic creep test was performed using Universal Materials Testing Apparatus (UMATTA) at different temperatures and stress levels. Zhou three-stage creep model was utilized to evaluate the deformation characteristics of the mixtures. In all test conditions, the highest resistance to permanent deformation is showed by the rubberized mixtures produced with continuous blend binders. This study also reveals that the permanent deformation of rubberized mixtures cannot be predicted based on the characteristics of the rubberized binders. Herda Yati Katman, Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim, Mohamed Rehan Karim, Suhana Koting, and Nuha Salim Mashaan Copyright © 2016 Herda Yati Katman et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Online Review Promptness in a B2C System Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:03:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3849153/ Web 2.0 technologies have attracted an increasing number of active online writers and viewers. A deeper understanding of when customers will review and what motivates them to write online reviews is of both theoretical and practical significance. In this paper, we present a novel methodological framework, which consists of theoretical modeling and text-mining technologies, to study the relationships among customers’ review promptness, their review opinions, and their review motivations. We first study customers’ online “purchase-review” behavior dynamics; then, we introduce the LDA method to mine customers’ opinion from their review text; finally, we propose a theoretical model to explore some motivations for those people publishing review online. The analytical and experimental results with real data from a Chinese B2C website demonstrate that the behavior dynamics of customers’ online review are influenced by the multidimensional motivations, and some of them can be observed from their review behaviors, such as review promptness. Junqiang Zhang, Liangqiang Li, and Yu Qian Copyright © 2016 Junqiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. VR-Cluster: Dynamic Migration for Resource Fragmentation Problem in Virtual Router Platform Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:47:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/3976965/ Network virtualization technology is regarded as one of gradual schemes to network architecture evolution. With the development of network functions virtualization, operators make lots of effort to achieve router virtualization by using general servers. In order to ensure high performance, virtual router platform usually adopts a cluster of general servers, which can be also regarded as a special cloud computing environment. However, due to frequent creation and deletion of router instances, it may generate lots of resource fragmentation to prevent platform from establishing new router instances. In order to solve “resource fragmentation problem,” we firstly propose VR-Cluster, which introduces two extra function planes including switching plane and resource management plane. Switching plane is mainly used to support seamless migration of router instances without packet loss; resource management plane can dynamically move router instances from one server to another server by using VR-mapping algorithms. Besides, three VR-mapping algorithms including first-fit mapping algorithm, best-fit mapping algorithm, and worst-fit mapping algorithm are proposed based on VR-Cluster. At last, we establish VR-Cluster protosystem by using general X86 servers, evaluate its migration time, and further analyze advantages and disadvantages of our proposed VR-mapping algorithms to solve resource fragmentation problem. Xianming Gao, Baosheng Wang, and Xiaozhe Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xianming Gao et al. All rights reserved. Riesz Transform Characterization of Weighted Hardy Spaces Associated with Schrödinger Operators Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:45:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/2856103/ We characterize the weighted local Hardy spaces related to the critical radius function and weights by localized Riesz transforms ; in addition, we give a characterization of weighted Hardy spaces via Riesz transforms associated with Schrödinger operator , where is a Schrödinger operator on () and is a nonnegative function satisfying the reverse Hölder inequality. Hua Zhu Copyright © 2016 Hua Zhu. All rights reserved. Studying Radiation and Reaction Effects on Unsteady MHD Non-Newtonian (Walter’s B) Fluid in Porous Medium Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:43:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2016/9262518/ This paper describes the studied effects of thermal radiation and chemical reaction on unsteady MHD non-Newtonian (obeying Walter’s B model) fluid in porous medium. The resulting problems are solved numerically. Graphical results for various interesting parameters are presented. Also the effects of the different parameters on the skin-friction and the heat fluxes are obtained and discussed numerically. Gamal M. Abdel-Rahman Rashed and Faiza M. N. El-fayez Copyright © 2016 Gamal M. Abdel-Rahman Rashed and Faiza M. N. El-fayez. All rights reserved. Pentobarbital-Induced Myocardial Stunning in Status Epilepticus Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Case Report and Literature Review Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:38:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2016/1765165/ Introduction. Mild hypotension is a well-recognized complication of intravenous pentobarbital; however fulminant cardiopulmonary failure has not been previously reported. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman developed pentobarbital-induced cardiopulmonary failure that was successfully treated with maximal medical management including arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She made an excellent cardiopulmonary and neurological recovery. Discussion and Conclusion. Pentobarbital is underrecognized as a potential cause of myocardial stunning. The mechanism involves direct myocardial depression and inhibition of autonomic neuroanatomical structures including the medulla and hypothalamus. Early recognition and implementation of aggressive cardiopulmonary support are essential to optimize the likelihood of a favorable outcome. Tapan Kavi, Donna Molaie, Michael Nurok, Axel Rosengart, and Shouri Lahiri Copyright © 2016 Tapan Kavi et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Crown Ether and Alcohol on Unsaturation and Molar Mass of Poly(propylene oxide)s Prepared by Use of Potassium t-Butoxide: Reinvestigation of Chain Transfer Reactions Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:26:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2016/3727062/ Potassium t-butoxide dissolved in tetrahydrofuran effectively initiates homogeneous polymerization of propylene oxide at room temperature. Unsaturation and molar mass () of the polymers prepared depend on the presence of additives, such as macrocyclic ligand 18-crown-6 (L) and t-butanol. Application of the ligand alone results in distinct increase of unsaturation and decrease of , whereas use of t-BuOH leads to simultaneous decrease of unsaturation and . Activation of t-BuOK/t-BuOH system with the ligand causes further decrease of unsaturation, that is, from 12.0 to 3.5 mol % for OK/OH (1/3) and OK/OH/L (1/3/2) systems, respectively. Unexpectedly, of the polymers obtained does not practically change (~4800). This result differs from that reported earlier for neat PO polymerization initiated potassium 1-methoxy-2-propoxide/1-methoxy-2-propanol, in which in the presence of the same ligand increases to ~12 400 for the same ratio of reagents. The mechanism of studied processes was discussed. Zbigniew Grobelny, Andrzej Swinarew, Justyna Jurek-Suliga, Kinga Skrzeczyna, Jadwiga Gabor, and Marta Łężniak Copyright © 2016 Zbigniew Grobelny et al. All rights reserved. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Landscape in Lung Cancer: Therapeutical Implications Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:26:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/9214056/ Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease responsible for the most cases of cancer-related deaths. The majority of patients are clinically diagnosed at advanced stages, with a poor survival rate. For this reason, the identification of oncodrivers and novel biomarkers is decisive for the future clinical management of this pathology. The rise of high throughput technologies popularly referred to as “omics” has accelerated the discovery of new biomarkers and drivers for this pathology. Within them, tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs) have proven to be of importance as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools and, due to their molecular nature, as therapeutic targets. Along this review, the role of TKRs in the different lung cancer histologies, research on improvement of anti-TKR therapy, and the current approaches to manage anti-TKR resistance will be discussed. A. Quintanal-Villalonga, Luis Paz-Ares, Irene Ferrer, and S. Molina-Pinelo Copyright © 2016 A. Quintanal-Villalonga et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Results after Decolonization Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:24:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ipid/2016/4367156/ Protocols for the screening and decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) have become widely adopted. The goals of this study were to determine: (1) whether implementation of a screening protocol followed by decolonization with mupirocin/vancomycin and chlorhexidine reduces the risk of revision compared with no screening protocol (i.e., chlorhexidine alone) and (2) whether clinical criteria could reliably predict colonization with MSSA and/or MRSA. Electronic medical records of primary patients undergoing TJA that were screened (,927) and were not screened (,751) for Staphylococcus aureus at least 4 days prior to surgery, respectively, were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received chlorhexidine body wipes preoperatively. Patients carrying MSSA and MRSA were treated preoperatively with mupirocin and vancomycin, respectively, along with the standard preoperative antibiotics and chlorhexidine body wipes. Screened patients were 50% less likely to require revision due to prosthetic joint infection compared to those not screened (). Multivariate regression models were poorly accurate in predicting colonization with MSSA (AUC = 0.58) and MRSA (AUC = 0.62). These results support the routine screening and decolonization of S. aureus prior to TJA. Tennison L. Malcolm, Le Don Robinson, Alison K. Klika, Deepak Ramanathan, Carlos A. Higuera, and Trevor G. Murray Copyright © 2016 Tennison L. Malcolm et al. All rights reserved. Economic Modeling of Heart Failure Telehealth Programs: When Do They Become Cost Saving? Tue, 26 Jul 2016 13:08:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijta/2016/3289628/ Telehealth programs for congestive heart failure have been shown to be clinically effective. This study assesses clinical and economic consequences of providing telehealth programs for CHF patients. A Markov model was developed and presented in the context of a home-based telehealth program on CHF. Incremental life expectancy, hospital admissions, and total healthcare costs were examined at periods ranging up to five years. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses were also conducted on clinical performance parameters. The base case analysis yielded cost savings ranging from 2832 to 5499 and 0.03 to 0.04 life year gain per patient over a 1-year period. Applying telehealth solution to a low-risk cohort with no prior admission history would result in 2502 cost increase per person over the 1-year time frame with 0.01 life year gain. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the cost savings were most sensitive to patient risk, baseline cost of hospital admission, and the length-of-stay reduction ratio affected by the telehealth programs. In sum, telehealth programs can be cost saving for intermediate and high risk patients over a 1- to 5-year window. The results suggested the economic viability of telehealth programs for managing CHF patients and illustrated the importance of risk stratification in such programs. Sheena Xin Liu, Rui Xiang, Charles Lagor, Nan Liu, and Kathleen Sullivan Copyright © 2016 Sheena Xin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Design of Adaptive Switching Controller for Robotic Manipulators with Disturbance Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:52:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7364216/ Two adaptive switching control strategies are proposed for the trajectory tracking problem of robotic manipulator in this paper. The first scheme is designed for the supremum of the bounded disturbance for robot manipulator being known; while the supremum is not known, the second scheme is proposed. Each proposed scheme consists of an adaptive switching law and a PD controller. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, it is shown that two new schemes can guarantee tracking performance of the robotic manipulator and be adapted to the alternating unknown loads. Simulations for two-link robotic manipulator are carried out and show that the two schemes can avoid the overlarge input torque, and the feasibility and validity of the proposed control schemes are proved. Zhen Yang, Shumin Fei, Fang Wang, Jiaguo Lv, and Xishang Dong Copyright © 2016 Zhen Yang et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:40:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/2016/6239434/ Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil). Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68%) were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7%) were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted), parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population. Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra da Silva, Gilberto Fontes, Célia Dias dos Santos, Rafael Vital dos Santos, and Eliana Maria Mauricio da Rocha Copyright © 2016 Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra da Silva et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Acinetobacter Septic Pulmonary Embolism in an Infant Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:40:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/5241571/ Case Characteristics. An 11-month-old girl presented with fever and breathlessness for 5 days. Patient had respiratory distress with bilateral coarse crepitations. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse infiltrations in the right lung with thick walled cavities in mid and lower zone. Computed tomography showed multiple cystic spaces and emboli. Blood culture grew Acinetobacter species. Intervention. Patient was treated with Meropenem and Vancomycin. Outcome. Complete clinical and radiological recovery was seen in child. Message. Blood cultures and CT of the chest are invaluable in the evaluation of a patient with suspected septic pulmonary embolism. With early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, complete recovery can be expected in patients with septic pulmonary embolism. Poonam Wade, Anitha Ananthan, Jane David, and Radha Ghildiyal Copyright © 2016 Poonam Wade et al. All rights reserved. Isolation of 4,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid as a Pigmentation Inhibitor Occurring in Artemisia capillaris Thunberg and Its Validation In Vivo Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:38:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7823541/ There is a continual need to develop novel and effective melanogenesis inhibitors for the prevention of hyperpigmentation disorders. The plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg (Oriental Wormwood) was screened for antipigmentation activity using murine cultured cells (B16-F10 malignant melanocytes). Activity-based fractionation using HPLC and NMR analyses identified the compound 4,5--dicaffeoylquinic acid as an active component in this plant. 4,5--Dicaffeoylquinic acid significantly reduced melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner in the melanocytes. In addition, 4,5--dicaffeoylquinic acid treatment reduced the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1. Significantly, we could validate the antipigmentation activity of this compound in vivo, using a zebrafish model. Moreover, 4,5--dicaffeoylquinic acid did not show toxicity in this animal model. Our discovery of 4,5--dicaffeoylquinic acid as an inhibitor of pigmentation that is active in vivo shows that this compound can be developed as an active component for formulations to treat pigmentation disorders. Nadia Tabassum, Ji-Hyung Lee, Soon-Ho Yim, Galzad Javzan Batkhuu, Da-Woon Jung, and Darren R. Williams Copyright © 2016 Nadia Tabassum et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Supplements of Potential Concern during Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:24:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4382687/ Objective. While many Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) are unlikely to interact negatively with conventional oncology treatment, some ingestible CAM substances have biological activities that may reduce the effectiveness of chemotherapy or radiation. This study surveyed women with breast cancer in order to document the extent to which women with breast cancer use these CAM substances of concern concurrently with conventional treatments. Methods. A total of 398 women completed a survey describing their use of CAM at various time points in their cancer treatment. This report focuses on a subsample of 250 women receiving chemotherapy or radiation who reported using specific one or more of several chemotherapies. Results. Of those participating, 104 (43.7%) of those receiving chemotherapy () and 45 (32.3%) of those receiving radiation (139; 58.4% of all patients) reported using one or more CAM substances that could be cause for concern when taken concurrently. Conclusion. Research is needed to understand the real risks associated with CAM and conventional polypharmacy. If risks associated with CAM conventional polypharmacy use prove to be substantial then improved systems to assure all women get advice regarding herb and supplement use during breast cancer treatment appear to be needed. Erin Sweet, Fred Dowd, May Zhou, Leanna J. Standish, and M. Robyn Andersen Copyright © 2016 Erin Sweet et al. All rights reserved. A Data Mining Classification Approach for Behavioral Malware Detection Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:22:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/8069672/ Data mining techniques have numerous applications in malware detection. Classification method is one of the most popular data mining techniques. In this paper we present a data mining classification approach to detect malware behavior. We proposed different classification methods in order to detect malware based on the feature and behavior of each malware. A dynamic analysis method has been presented for identifying the malware features. A suggested program has been presented for converting a malware behavior executive history XML file to a suitable WEKA tool input. To illustrate the performance efficiency as well as training data and test, we apply the proposed approaches to a real case study data set using WEKA tool. The evaluation results demonstrated the availability of the proposed data mining approach. Also our proposed data mining approach is more efficient for detecting malware and behavioral classification of malware can be useful to detect malware in a behavioral antivirus. Monire Norouzi, Alireza Souri, and Majid Samad Zamini Copyright © 2016 Monire Norouzi et al. All rights reserved. A Critical Review on Wind Turbine Power Curve Modelling Techniques and Their Applications in Wind Based Energy Systems Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:20:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jen/2016/8519785/ Power curve of a wind turbine depicts the relationship between output power and hub height wind speed and is an important characteristic of the turbine. Power curve aids in energy assessment, warranty formulations, and performance monitoring of the turbines. With the growth of wind industry, turbines are being installed in diverse climatic conditions, onshore and offshore, and in complex terrains causing significant departure of these curves from the warranted values. Accurate models of power curves can play an important role in improving the performance of wind energy based systems. This paper presents a detailed review of different approaches for modelling of the wind turbine power curve. The methodology of modelling depends upon the purpose of modelling, availability of data, and the desired accuracy. The objectives of modelling, various issues involved therein, and the standard procedure for power performance measurement with its limitations have therefore been discussed here. Modelling methods described here use data from manufacturers’ specifications and actual data from the wind farms. Classification of modelling methods, various modelling techniques available in the literature, model evaluation criteria, and application of soft computing methods for modelling are then reviewed in detail. The drawbacks of the existing methods and future scope of research are also identified. Vaishali Sohoni, S. C. Gupta, and R. K. Nema Copyright © 2016 Vaishali Sohoni et al. All rights reserved. Caspian Sea Tidal Modelling Using Coastal Tide Gauge Data Tue, 26 Jul 2016 12:04:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jgr/2016/6416917/ The purpose of this paper is to model tidal conditions in the Caspian Sea using data from coastal tide gauges of Anzali, Noshahr, and Neka Ports. Harmonic analysis method was used to identify and examine 40 tidal components. The results illustrate that the annual (Sa) and semiannual solar (Ssa) components on all of the ports listed have the highest range in comparison with the other components which are, respectively, 16 cm, 18 cm, and 15 cm for annual components and 2.8 cm, 5.4 cm, and 3.7 cm for semiannual components. Mahmoud Pirooznia, Seyyed Rouhollah Emadi, and Mehdi Najafi Alamdari Copyright © 2016 Mahmoud Pirooznia et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Friction Welded Tube Yoke and Tube Joint Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:54:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/8918253/ This paper deals with the friction welding of the tube yoke and the tube of the drive shaft used in light commercial vehicles. Tube yoke made from hot forged microalloyed steel and the tube made from cold drawn steel, with a ratio (thickness/outside diameter ratio) of less than 0.1, were successfully welded by friction welding method. Hardness distributions on both sides of the welded joint across the welding interface were determined and the microstructure of the joint was investigated. Furthermore, joint strength was tested under tensile, static torsional, and torsional fatigue loadings. The tested data were analyzed by Weibull distribution. The maximum hardness value along the welded joint was detected as 553 Hv1. The lowest detected tensile strength of the joint was 13% less than the base materials’ tensile strength. The torsional load carrying capacity of the friction welded thin walled tubular joint without any damage was obtained as 4.252,5 Nm in 95% confidence interval. After conducting fully reversed torsional fatigue tests, the fatigue life of friction welded tubular joints was detected as 220.066,3 cycles. Efe Işık and Çiçek Özes Copyright © 2016 Efe Işık and Çiçek Özes. All rights reserved. A Comprehensive Taxonomy and Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 Attacks Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:42:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/7165952/ The IEEE 802.15.4 standard has been established as the dominant enabling technology for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With the proliferation of security-sensitive applications involving WSNs, WSN security has become a topic of great significance. In comparison with traditional wired and wireless networks, WSNs possess additional vulnerabilities which present opportunities for attackers to launch novel and more complicated attacks against such networks. For this reason, a thorough investigation of attacks against WSNs is required. This paper provides a single unified survey that dissects all IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC layer attacks known to date. While the majority of existing references investigate the motive and behavior of each attack separately, this survey classifies the attacks according to clear metrics within the paper and addresses the interrelationships and differences between the attacks following their classification. The authors’ opinions and comments regarding the placement of the attacks within the defined classifications are also provided. A comparative analysis between the classified attacks is then performed with respect to a set of defined evaluation criteria. The first half of this paper addresses attacks on the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY layer, whereas the second half of the paper addresses IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer attacks. Yasmin M. Amin and Amr T. Abdel-Hamid Copyright © 2016 Yasmin M. Amin and Amr T. Abdel-Hamid. All rights reserved. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:29:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2016/4203783/ The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient () measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0–20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with (). The values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0–20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. Yuki Kojima, Kazuo Oki, Kosuke Noborio, and Masaru Mizoguchi Copyright © 2016 Yuki Kojima et al. All rights reserved. Metric Identification of the Same People from Images: How Reliable Is It? Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:28:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/janthro/2016/1760313/ Ratios have been applied to humans to identify individuals from images. These attempts have been proven unsuccessful, as camera angle, height, and distortions of the image affected the results. The anharmonic ratio is a ratio of ratios; it has proved successful in the identification of objects from images, as it is not affected by any distortions. The anharmonic ratio was applied to the human body and face to identify individuals from their images. Faces and bodies of twenty South Australian males aged 16–65 years were measured using standard anthropometric techniques. Participants were photographed in high quality images and recorded by standard surveillance camera (low quality images). Ten ratios were calculated from manual measurements and from all images. An Euclidean distance showed ratios incorrectly identified individuals 64.3% of the time between images of different quality. Variation of ratios between individuals is low so that standard deviations of ratios are of the magnitude similar to technical errors of measurements. Therefore participants cannot be isolated based on ratios. Ratios are an unreliable method for identification. Teghan Lucas, Jaliya Kumaratilake, and Maciej Henneberg Copyright © 2016 Teghan Lucas et al. All rights reserved. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode Tue, 26 Jul 2016 11:15:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/5691735/ Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers’ demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case. Kang Zhou, Shiwei He, and Rui Song Copyright © 2016 Kang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Stability of a Quartic Functional Equation in Restricted Domains Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:03:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/1804206/ Let be a real normed space and a Banach space and . We prove the Ulam-Hyers stability theorem for the quartic functional equation in restricted domains. As a consequence we consider a measure zero stability problem of the above inequality when . Jaeyoung Chung and Yu-Min Ju Copyright © 2016 Jaeyoung Chung and Yu-Min Ju. All rights reserved. A Similarity Classifier with Bonferroni Mean Operators Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:03:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/afs/2016/7173054/ A similarity classifier based on Bonferroni mean based operators is introduced. The new Bonferroni mean based variant of the similarity classifier is also extended to cover a new Bonferroni-OWA variant. The new Bonferroni-OWA based similarity classifier raises the question of how to accomplish the weighting needed and for this reason we also examine a number of linguistic quantifiers for weight generation. The new proposed similarity classifier variants are tested on four real world medical research related data sets. The results are compared with results from two previously presented similarity classifiers, one based on the generalized mean and another based on an arithmetic mean operator. The results show that comparatively better classification accuracy can be reached with the proposed new similarity classifier variants. Onesfole Kurama, Pasi Luukka, and Mikael Collan Copyright © 2016 Onesfole Kurama et al. All rights reserved. Financial and Performance Analyses of Microcontroller Based Solar-Powered Autorickshaw for a Developing Country Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:03:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2016/5246435/ This paper presents a case study to examine the economic viability and performance analysis of a microcontroller based solar powered battery operated autorickshaw (m-SBAR), for the developing countries, which is compared with different types of rickshaws such as pedal rickshaw (PR), battery operated autorickshaw (BAR), and solar-powered battery operated autorickshaw (SBAR), available in Bangladesh. The BAR consists of a rickshaw structure, a battery bank, a battery charge controller, a DC motor driver, and a DC motor whereas the proposed m-SBAR contains additional components like solar panel and microcontroller based DC motor driver. The complete design considered the local radiation data and load profile of the proposed m-SBAR. The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) analysis, Net Present Worth, payback periods, and Benefit-to-Cost Ratio methods have been used to evaluate the financial feasibility and sensitivity analysis of m-SBAR, grid-powered BAR, and PR. The numerical analysis reveals that LCOE and Benefit-to-Cost Ratio of the proposed m-SBAR are lower compared to the grid-powered BAR. It has also been found that microcontroller based DC motor control circuit reduces battery discharge rate, improves battery life, and controls motor speed efficiency. Abu Raihan Mohammad Siddique and M. Shamim Kaiser Copyright © 2016 Abu Raihan Mohammad Siddique and M. Shamim Kaiser. All rights reserved. Lymphedema in Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome: Is It Possible to Normalize? Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:02:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2016/5230634/ The aim of this study is to report the results of intensive therapy of lymphedema associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. A 24-year-old female patient reported that her family had observed edema in her right leg and port wine stains from birth. For ten years, they consulted with different specialists in the region but the prognosis did not change and no specific treatment was found. In 2014, at the age of 24, with massive lymphedema, a leg ulcer, and recurrent infections, she started treatment at the Clínica Godoy in São José do Rio Preto. She was evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, water displacement volumetry, and bioimpedance. Intensive therapy (8 hours daily) was proposed using Manual Lymphatic Therapy (Godoy & Godoy), Cervical Stimulation Therapy, Mechanical Lymphatic Therapy, a grosgrain stocking adjusted several times a day, and the use of Unna boot in the region of the ulcer. The volume of edema was reduced by about 44% within the first week with further reductions in the following weeks and healing of the ulcer. Subsequently, it was possible to control and maintain the reduction in swelling with less intense treatment. It is possible to reduce and maintain the treatment results of lymphedema associated with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy, Angela Río, Paloma Domingo Garcia, and Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy Copyright © 2016 Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy et al. All rights reserved. Driving a Semiautonomous Mobile Robotic Car Controlled by an SSVEP-Based BCI Tue, 26 Jul 2016 10:00:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/4909685/ Brain-computer interfaces represent a range of acknowledged technologies that translate brain activity into computer commands. The aim of our research is to develop and evaluate a BCI control application for certain assistive technologies that can be used for remote telepresence or remote driving. The communication channel to the target device is based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials. In order to test the control application, a mobile robotic car (MRC) was introduced and a four-class BCI graphical user interface (with live video feedback and stimulation boxes on the same screen) for piloting the MRC was designed. For the purpose of evaluating a potential real-life scenario for such assistive technology, we present a study where 61 subjects steered the MRC through a predetermined route. All 61 subjects were able to control the MRC and finish the experiment (mean time 207.08 s, SD 50.25) with a mean (SD) accuracy and ITR of 93.03% (5.73) and 14.07 bits/min (4.44), respectively. The results show that our proposed SSVEP-based BCI control application is suitable for mobile robots with a shared-control approach. We also did not observe any negative influence of the simultaneous live video feedback and SSVEP stimulation on the performance of the BCI system. Piotr Stawicki, Felix Gembler, and Ivan Volosyak Copyright © 2016 Piotr Stawicki et al. All rights reserved. Cervical Spine Involvement in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:58:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jsm/2016/1590161/ Background. There is a lack of scientific evidence in the literature on the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI; however, its involvement is clinically accepted. Objective. This paper reviews evidence for the involvement of the cervical spine in mTBI symptoms, the mechanisms of injury, and the efficacy of therapy for cervical spine with concussion-related symptoms. Methods. A keyword search was conducted on PubMed, ICL, SportDiscus, PEDro, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases for articles published since 1990. The reference lists of articles meeting the criteria (original data articles, literature reviews, and clinical guidelines) were also searched in the same databases. Results. 4,854 records were screened and 43 articles were retained. Those articles were used to describe different subjects such as mTBI’s signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and treatments of the cervical spine. Conclusions. The hypothesis of cervical spine involvement in post-mTBI symptoms and in PCS (postconcussion syndrome) is supported by increasing evidence and is widely accepted clinically. For the management and treatment of mTBIs, few articles were available in the literature, and relevant studies showed interesting results about manual therapy and exercises as efficient tools for health care practitioners. Michael Morin, Pierre Langevin, and Philippe Fait Copyright © 2016 Michael Morin et al. All rights reserved. Nanodeserts: A Conjecture in Nanotechnology to Enhance Quasi-Photosynthetic CO2 Absorption Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:56:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2016/5027879/ This paper advances “nanodeserts” as a conjecture on the possibility of developing the hierarchical structured polymeric nanomaterials for enhancing abiotic CO2 fixation in the soil-groundwater system beneath deserts (termed as quasi-photosynthetic CO2 absorption). Arid and semiarid deserts ecosystems approximately characterize one-third of the Earth’s land surface but play an unsung role in the carbon cycling, considering the huge potentials of such CO2 absorption to expand insights to the long-sought missing CO2 sink and the naturally unneglectable turbulence in temperature sensitivities of soil respiration it produced. “Nanodeserts” as a reconciled concept not only indicate a conjecture in nanotechnology to enhance quasi-photosynthetic CO2 absorption, but also aim to present to the desert researchers a better understanding of the footprints of abiotic CO2 transport, conversion, and assignment in the soil-groundwater system beneath deserts. Meanwhile, nanodeserts allow a stable temperature sensitivity of soil respiration in deserts by largely reducing the CO2 release above the deserts surface and highlighting the abiotic CO2 fixation beneath deserts. This may be no longer a novelty in the future. Wenfeng Wang, Xi Chen, Yifan Zhang, Jianjun Yu, Tianyi Ma, Zhihan Lv, Jing Zhang, Fanyu Zeng, and Hui Zou Copyright © 2016 Wenfeng Wang et al. All rights reserved. On the Synchronization of Two Eccentric Rotors with Common Rotational Axis: Theory and Experiment Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:32:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/6973597/ We study synchronization of two eccentric rotors (ERs) with common rotational axis in the vibration system of the far-resonant spatial motion. We deduce the dimensionless coupling equation of two ERs with applying the average method of small parameters. We convert the synchronization problem into the existence and stability of solving the zero solutions for the dimensionless coupling equations. By introducing the synchronization torque and the difference between the residual torques of two motors, we obtain the synchronization condition that two ERs achieve the synchronized motion. We derive the stability condition of the synchronized motion, which satisfies Routh-Hurwitz criterion. We discuss numerically the choosing motion feature of the vibration system, which indicates that the vibration system has two steady motion modes. The synchronization torque forces the phase difference to approach when the structural parameters of the vibration system satisfy the condition of the spatial cone motion, and the synchronization torque drives the phase difference to approach zero when those satisfy the condition of the spatial circle motion. Finally, through the comparison and analysis of experimental data, the structural parameters of the vibration system satisfying the above two conditions can guarantee the synchronization stability for two ERs. Xiaozhe Chen, Xiangxi Kong, Xueliang Zhang, Lingxuan Li, and Bangchun Wen Copyright © 2016 Xiaozhe Chen et al. All rights reserved. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:29:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/7424239/ We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children’s Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. Mary Kay Kenney and Gopal K. Singh Copyright © 2016 Mary Kay Kenney and Gopal K. Singh. All rights reserved. Index Based Hidden Outlier Detection in Metric Space Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:28:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/8048246/ Useless and noise information occupies large amount of big data, which increases our difficulty to extract worthy information. Therefore outlier detection attracts much attention recently, but if two points are far from other points but are relatively close to each other, they are less likely to be detected as outliers because of their adjacency to each other. In this situation, outliers are hidden by each other. In this paper, we propose a new perspective of hidden outlier. Experimental results show that it is more accurate than existing distance-based definitions of outliers. Accordingly, we exploit a candidate set based hidden outlier detection (HOD) algorithm. HOD algorithm achieves higher accuracy with comparable running time. Further, we develop an index based HOD (iHOD) algorithm to get higher detection speed. Honglong Xu, Rui Mao, Hao Liao, He Zhang, Minhua Lu, and Guoliang Chen Copyright © 2016 Honglong Xu et al. All rights reserved. Improving the Friction Durability of Magnetic Head-Disk Interfaces by Thin Lubricant Films Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:27:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/9614046/ Nanowear and viscoelasticity were evaluated to study the nanotribological properties of lubricant films of Z-tetraol, D-4OH, and A20H, including their retention and replenishment properties. For A20H and thick Z-tetraol-coated disks, the disk surface partially protrudes, and the phase lag () increases with friction. This result is consistent with replenishment of the lubricant upon tip sliding. For the D-4OH-coated disk, the value decreases with tip sliding, similar to the case for the unlubricated disk. The durability of the lubricant-coated magnetic disks was then evaluated by load increase and decrease friction tests. The friction force of the unlubricated disk rapidly increases after approximately 30 reciprocating cycles, regardless of the load. The lubrication state can be estimated by mapping the dependence of friction coefficient on the reciprocating cycle number and load. The friction coefficient can be classified into one of four areas. The lowest friction area constitutes fluid lubrication. The second area constitutes the transition to mixed lubrication. The third area constitutes boundary lubrication. The highest friction of the fourth area results from surface fracture. The boundary lubricating area of the A20H lubricant was wide, because of its good retention and replenishment properties. Shojiro Miyake, Shota Suzuki, and Masatoshi Miyake Copyright © 2016 Shojiro Miyake et al. All rights reserved. Extended Prey-Predator Algorithm with a Group Hunting Scenario Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:26:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aor/2016/7325263/ Prey-predator algorithm (PPA) is a metaheuristic algorithm inspired by the interaction between a predator and its prey. In the algorithm, the worst performing solution, called the predator, works as an agent for exploration whereas the better performing solution, called the best prey, works as an agent for exploitation. In this paper, PPA is extended to a new version called nm-PPA by modifying the number of predators and also best preys. In nm-PPA, there will be n best preys and m predators. Increasing the value of n increases the exploitation and increasing the value of m increases the exploration property of the algorithm. Hence, it is possible to adjust the degree of exploration and exploitation as needed by adjusting the values of n and m. A guideline on setting parameter values will also be discussed along with a new way of measuring performance of an algorithm for multimodal problems. A simulation is also done to test the algorithm using well known eight benchmark problems of different properties and different dimensions ranging from two to twelve showing that nm-PPA is found to be effective in achieving multiple solutions in multimodal problems and also has better ability to overcome being trapped in local optimal solutions. Surafel Luleseged Tilahun, Hong Choon Ong, and Jean Medard T. Ngnotchouye Copyright © 2016 Surafel Luleseged Tilahun et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Brain Metabolic Impairment between Chronic Mild/Moderate TBI Patients with and without Visible Brain Lesions Based on MRI Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:25:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3794029/ Introduction. Many patients with mild/moderate traumatic brain injury (m/mTBI) in the chronic stage suffer from executive brain function impairment. Analyzing brain metabolism is important for elucidating the pathological mechanisms associated with their symptoms. This study aimed to determine the differences in brain glucose metabolism between m/mTBI patients with and without visible traumatic brain lesions based on MRI. Methods. Ninety patients with chronic m/mTBI due to traffic accidents were enrolled and divided into two groups based on their MRI findings. Group A comprised 50 patients with visible lesions. Group B comprised 40 patients without visible lesions. Patients underwent FDG-PET scans following cognitive tests. FDG-PET images were analyzed using voxel-by-voxel univariate statistical tests. Results. There were no significant differences in the cognitive tests between Group A and Group B. Based on FDG-PET findings, brain metabolism significantly decreased in the orbital gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and medial thalamus but increased in the parietal and occipital convexity in Group A compared with that in the control. Compared with the control, patients in Group B exhibited no significant changes. Conclusions. These results suggest that different pathological mechanisms may underlie cognitive impairment in m/mTBI patients with and without organic brain damage. Keiichi Ito, Yoshitaka Asano, Yuka Ikegame, and Jun Shinoda Copyright © 2016 Keiichi Ito et al. All rights reserved. On a New Class of -Valent Meromorphic Functions Defined in Conic Domains Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:16:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/6360250/ We define a new class of multivalent meromorphic functions using the generalised hypergeometric function. We derived this class related to conic domain. It is also shown that this new class of functions, under certain conditions, becomes a class of starlike functions. Some results on inclusion and closure properties are also derived. Mohammed Ali Alamri and Maslina Darus Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Ali Alamri and Maslina Darus. All rights reserved. Melioidosis: A Rare Cause of Liver Abscess Tue, 26 Jul 2016 09:15:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihep/2016/5910375/ Case Presentation. This is a case of a 44-year-old male, farmer, known to be diabetic, presenting with two-week history of vague abdominal pain associated with high grade fever. Abdominal CT scan showed localized liver abscess at segment 8 measuring 7.5 × 6.8 × 6.1 cm. Patient subsequently underwent laparoscopic ultrasound guided pigtail insertion for drainage of abscess. Culture studies showed moderate growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei in which the patient completed seven days of IV Meropenem. On follow-up after 12 weeks of oral Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim, taken twice a day, the patient remained asymptomatic with no residual findings based on the abdominal ultrasound. Discussion. Diagnosis of melioidosis, a known “great masquerader,” relies heavily on culture studies. Consensus with regard to the management of liver abscess caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei has not yet been established due to the rarity of cases. Surgical intervention through either a percutaneous or open drainage has shown good outcomes compared to IV antibiotics alone. In Philippines, the possibility of underreporting is highly plausible. This write-up serves not only to report a rare presentation of melioidosis but also to add to the number of cases reported in the country, possibly indicative of disease emergence. Peter Franz M. San Martin, Catherine S. C. Teh, and Ma. Amornetta J. Casupang Copyright © 2016 Peter Franz M. San Martin et al. All rights reserved. A Survey of Channel Measurements and Models for Current and Future Railway Communication Systems Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:53:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/7308604/ Modern society demands cheap, more efficient, and safer public transport. These enhancements, especially an increase in efficiency and safety, are accompanied by huge amounts of data traffic that need to be handled by wireless communication systems. Hence, wireless communications inside and outside trains are key technologies to achieve these efficiency and safety goals for railway operators in a cost-efficient manner. This paper briefly describes nowadays used wireless technologies in the railway domain and points out possible directions for future wireless systems. Channel measurements and models for wireless propagation are surveyed and their suitability in railway environments is investigated. Identified gaps are pointed out and solutions to fill those gaps for wireless communication links in railway environments are proposed. Paul Unterhuber, Stephan Pfletschinger, Stephan Sand, Mohammad Soliman, Thomas Jost, Aitor Arriola, Iñaki Val, Cristina Cruces, Juan Moreno, Juan Pablo García-Nieto, Carlos Rodríguez, Marion Berbineau, Eneko Echeverría, and Imanol Baz Copyright © 2016 Paul Unterhuber et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:41:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/9734181/ Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic) acid, lauric (dodecanoic) acid, myristic (tetradecanoic) acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic) acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid, stearic (octadecanoic) acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic) acid (omega-6), linolenic (octadecatrienoic) acid (omega-3), and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira, Talal Suleiman Mahmoud, Guilherme Nobre L. do Nascimento, Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva, Raphael Sanzio Pimenta, and Paula Benevides de Morais Copyright © 2016 Adriana Idalina Torcato de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Mechanical Behavior and Numerical Simulation of Frozen Soil under Impact Loading Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:40:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3049097/ Split Hopkinson pressure bars (SHBP) were used to perform impact experiments on frozen soil under various impact velocities and temperatures to analyze the effect of these parameters on the mechanical behavior of the soil. Based on the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook constitutive model, the dynamic mechanical properties under impact loading were analyzed. The SHPB experiments of frozen soil were also simulated using the finite element analysis software LS-DYNA, and the simulation results were similar to the experimental results. The temperature effect, strain rate effect, and the destruction process of the frozen soil as well as the propagation process of stress waves in the incident bar, transmission bar, and frozen soil specimen were investigated. This work provides a good theoretical basis and technical support for frozen soil engineering applications. Dan Zhang, Zhiwu Zhu, and Zhijie Liu Copyright © 2016 Dan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Study of Ocean Waves Measured by Collocated HH and VV Polarized X-Band Marine Radars Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:40:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/8257930/ The significant wave height (SWH) retrieved from collocated HH and VV polarized X-band marine radars under different sea states is studied. The SWH are retrieved from different principal components of X-band marine radar image sequence. As compared with the SWH measured by a buoy, the root-mean-square errors of the SWH are 0.32–0.45 m for VV polarization, and they are 0.37–0.60 m for HH polarization. At the wind speeds of 0–5 m/s, the SWH can be derived from VV polarized radar images, while the backscatter of HH polarized radar is too weak to contain wave signals at very low wind speeds (~0–3 m/s). At the wind speeds of 5–18 m/s, the SWH retrieved from VV polarization coincide well with the SWH measured by the buoy, while the SWH retrieved from HH polarization correspond with the changes of the wind speed. At the wind speeds of 18–26 m/s, the influence of wave breaking on HH polarization is more important than that on VV polarization. This indicates that the imaging mechanisms of HH polarized X-band marine radar are different from those of VV polarized X-band marine radar. Zhongbiao Chen, Yijun He, and Wankang Yang Copyright © 2016 Zhongbiao Chen et al. All rights reserved. Combining Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Rapid Recognition of an Hg-Contaminated Plant Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:39:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/3597451/ The feasibility of rapid recognition of an Hg-contaminated plant as a soil pollution indicator was investigated using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics. The stem and leave of a native plant, Miscanthus floridulus (Labill.) Warb. (MFLW), were collected from Hg-contaminated areas () as well as from regular areas (). The samples were dried and crushed and the powders were sieved through an 80-mesh sieve. Reference analysis of Hg levels was performed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The actual Hg contents of contaminated and normal samples were 16.2–30.5 and 0.0–0.1 mg/Kg, respectively. The NIRS measurements of impacted sample powders were collected in the mode of reflectance. The DUPLEX algorithm was utilized to split the NIRS data into representative training and test sets. Different spectral preprocessing methods were performed to remove the unwanted and noncomposition-correlated spectral variations. Classification models were developed using partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA) based on the raw, smoothed, second-order derivative (D2), and standard normal variate (SNV) data, respectively. The prediction accuracy obtained by PLSDA with each data preprocessing option was 100%, indicating pattern recognition of Hg-contaminated MFLW samples using NIRS data was in perfect consistence with the ICP-AES results. NIRS combined with chemometrics will provide a tool to screen the Hg-contaminated MFLW, which can be potentially used as an indicator of soil pollution. Bang-Cheng Tang, Hai-Yan Fu, Qiao-Bo Yin, Zeng-Yan Zhou, Wei Shi, Lu Xu, and Yuan-Bin She Copyright © 2016 Bang-Cheng Tang et al. All rights reserved. PPAR in Cardiovascular Disorders Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:25:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2016/6293629/ Alexander N. Orekhov, Nigora Mukhamedova, Ekaterina A. Ivanova, and Manfredi Rizzo Copyright © 2016 Alexander N. Orekhov et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Consensus Guidelines for CSF and Blood Biobanking for CNS Biomarker Studies Tue, 26 Jul 2016 08:16:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/msi/2016/8304273/ Multiple Sclerosis International Copyright © 2016 Multiple Sclerosis International. All rights reserved. The Role of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in a Child with Sport-Induced Avascular Necrosis of the Scaphoid: A Case Report and Literature Review Tue, 26 Jul 2016 07:58:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/7898090/ Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the scaphoid in children is very rare and there is currently no consensus when conservative or operative treatment is indicated. A 10-year-old boy, practicing karate, presented with acute pain in his left wrist after falling on the outstretched hand. Imaging showed a scaphoid waist fracture with signs of an ongoing AVN. The diagnosis of AVN was confirmed with signal loss of the scaphoid on MRI T1. A dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was performed for further assessment of the proximal pole vascularity and treatment planning. As dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI showed fair perfusion of the proximal pole, an adequate healing potential with conservative treatment was estimated. We achieved union and good function with cast immobilization for fourteen weeks. This case study showed dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to be a valuable tool in assessing whether conservative or operative treatment is indicated to achieve union and good functional outcome. Baris Beytullah Koc, Martijn Schotanus, Bob Jong, and Pieter Tilman Copyright © 2016 Baris Beytullah Koc et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Boundary-Layer/Air Pollution Meteorology Tue, 26 Jul 2016 07:45:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/2825019/ Xiao-Ming Hu, Jianping Huang, Jose D. Fuentes, Renate Forkel, and Ning Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xiao-Ming Hu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Intermediate-State Contributions to Neutrinoless Double β− Decays Tue, 26 Jul 2016 07:04:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/4714829/ A comprehensive analysis of the structure of the nuclear matrix elements (NMEs) of neutrinoless double beta-minus () decays to the ground and first excited states is performed in terms of the contributing multipole states in the intermediate nuclei of transitions. We concentrate on the transitions mediated by the light (l-NMEs) Majorana neutrinos. As nuclear model we use the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) with a realistic two-nucleon interaction based on the Bonn one-boson-exchange matrix. In the computations we include the appropriate short-range correlations, nucleon form factors, and higher-order nucleonic weak currents and restore the isospin symmetry by the isoscalar-isovector decomposition of the particle-particle proton-neutron interaction parameter . Juhani Hyvärinen and Jouni Suhonen Copyright © 2016 Juhani Hyvärinen and Jouni Suhonen. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Effect of Irrigation and Fertilization by Drip Fertigation on Tomato Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Greenhouse Tue, 26 Jul 2016 07:02:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2016/3961903/ The water shortage in China, particularly in Northwest China, is very serious. There is, therefore, great potential for improving the water use efficiency (WUE) in agriculture, particularly in areas where the need for water is greatest. A two-season (2012 and 2013) study evaluated the effects of irrigation and fertilizer rate on tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., cv. “Jinpeng 10”) growth, yield, and WUE. The fertilizer treatment significantly influenced plant height and stem diameter at 23 and 20 days after transplanting in 2012 and 2013, respectively. As individual factors, irrigation and fertilizer significantly affected the leaf expansion rate, but irrigation × fertilizer had no statistically significant effect on the leaf growth rate at 23 days after transplanting in 2012. Dry biomass accumulation was significantly influenced by fertilizer in both years, but there was no significant difference in irrigation treatment in 2012. Our study showed that an increased irrigation level increased the fruit yield of tomatoes and decreased the WUE. The fruit yield and WUE increased with the increased fertilizer rate. WUE was more sensitive to irrigation than to fertilization. An irrigation amount of 151 to 208 mm and a fertilizer amount of 454 to 461 kg·ha−1 (nitrogen fertilizer, 213.5–217 kg·ha−1; phosphate fertilizer, 106.7–108 kg·ha−1; and potassium fertilizer, 133.4–135.6 kg·ha−1) were recommended for the drip fertigation of tomatoes in greenhouse. Wang Xiukang and Xing Yingying Copyright © 2016 Wang Xiukang and Xing Yingying. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Two Different Freezing Media and Two Different Protocols to Preserve Human Spermatozoa from Cryoinjury Tue, 26 Jul 2016 06:16:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrmed/2016/6059757/ It is universally recognized that cryopreservation impairs sperm quality. In order to improve postthawing sperm survival and motility, media of different composition and different protocols have been proposed. However, no clear evidence is available to understand which are the most efficient protocol and medium for sperm cryopreservation. The present study evaluates the efficiency of two different cryopreservation protocols and two common freezing media (FM) containing different cryoprotectants (CPs), TEST Yolk Buffer (TYB) and Sperm Freeze (SF), to preserve human sperm quality. Our data suggest that TYB is better than SF both in terms of postthaw viability and in terms of progressive motility, while the direct addition of FM to the sperm sample resulted in the most efficient protocol in terms of postthaw viability but not in terms of progressive motility. Gemma Fabozzi, Maria Flavia Starita, Emilia Rega, Alessandra Alteri, Antonio Colicchia, Claudio Piscitelli, and Pierluigi Giannini Copyright © 2016 Gemma Fabozzi et al. All rights reserved. Discrete Dynamics in Evolutionary Computation and Its Applications Tue, 26 Jul 2016 06:01:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6043597/ Yong-Hyuk Kim, Ahmed Kattan, Michael Kampouridis, and Yourim Yoon Copyright © 2016 Yong-Hyuk Kim et al. All rights reserved. FP-ABC: Fast and Parallel ABC Based Energy-Efficiency Live VM Allocation Policy in Data Centers Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:57:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2016/9524379/ Virtual machine (VM) technology is one of the energy-efficiency approaches to save energy with acceptable quality of service (QoS). In our previous studies, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) based VM allocation policy can make a good tradeoff between performance and energy consumption. However, there are two problems in state-of-the-art ABC based approaches: () how to find global optimized solutions efficiently; () how to minimize the decision time of VM allocation. To solve these two problems, the idea of simulated annealing is adopted to get a better global optimum, and the idea of gradient descent is applied to accelerate the speed of finding solution space in . Compared with state-of-the-art ABC based policies, the experimental results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently reduces energy consumption and SLA violation. Jianhua Jiang, Yunzhao Feng, Milan Parmar, and Keqin Li Copyright © 2016 Jianhua Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Postoperative Events between Spinal Anesthesia and General Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:33:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9480539/ Background. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually carried out under general anesthesia. There were a few studies which have found spinal anesthesia as a safe alternative. We aimed to evaluate the postoperative events between spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library (from inception to January 2016) for eligible studies. The primary outcome was the visual analogue scale score. Secondary outcomes included postoperative nausea and vomiting and urine retention 24 hours postoperatively. We calculated pooled risk ratios and 95% confidence interval using random- or fixed-effects models. Results. Eight trials involving 723 patients were listed. Meta-analysis showed that patients in spinal anesthesia groups have lower visual analogue scale score 24 hours postoperatively. There were significant decreases in the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in spinal anesthesia group when compared with general anesthesia group (odds ratios: 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.19–0.76; ) with heterogeneity accepted (; ), while urine retention rate was increased in patients with spinal anesthesia (odds ratios: 4.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.24–19.71; ) without any heterogeneity (; ). Conclusions. Spinal anesthesia may be associated with less postoperative pain and postoperative nausea and vomiting compared with general anesthesia. Xian-Xue Wang, Quan Zhou, Dao-Bo Pan, Hui-Wei Deng, Ai-Guo Zhou, Hua-Jing Guo, and Fu-Rong Huang Copyright © 2016 Xian-Xue Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Traditional Chinese Formula Danchaiheji on the Differentiation of Regulatory Dendritic Cells Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:32:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9179470/ Recently, regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs), a newly described dendritic cell subset with potent immunomodulatory function, have attracted increased attention for their utility in treating immune response-related diseases, such as graft-versus-host disease, hypersensitivity, and autoimmune diseases. Danchaiheji (DCHJ) is a traditional Chinese formula that has been used for many years in the clinic. However, whether DCHJ can program dendritic cells towards a regulatory phenotype and the underlying mechanism behind this process remain unknown. Herein, we investigate the effects of traditional Chinese DCHJ on DCregs differentiation and a mouse model of skin transplantation. The current study demonstrates that DCHJ can induce dendritic cells to differentiate into DCregs, which are represented by high CD11b and low CD86 and HLA-DR expression as well as the secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β. In addition, DCHJ inhibited DC migration and T cell proliferation, which correlated with increased IDO expression. Furthermore, DCHJ significantly prolonged skin graft survival time in a mouse model of skin transplantation without any liver or kidney toxicity. The traditional Chinese formula DCHJ has the potential to be a potent immunosuppressive agent with high efficiency and nontoxicity. Yingxi Li, Dan Chen, Xiaodong Wang, Jingzhi Tong, Keqiu Li, Yaqing Jing, and Guang Li Copyright © 2016 Yingxi Li et al. All rights reserved. Performance and Mechanism of UV/Immobilized Cu-TiO2 System to Degradation Histidine Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:17:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/8946019/ More and more attention is paid to dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and some specific categories of amino acids are considered to be the direct precursors of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs). Histidine was chosen to study the efficiency and mechanism of amino acid in UV/Cu-TiO2 system. Moreover, the influences of pH, organics, and inorganic ion on the photocatalytic efficiency were also investigated. The results show that the degradation rate of DON in the UV/Cu-TiO2 system was about 50% after 60 min, and it was much lower than that of histidine (72%), which indicated that a part of degraded histidine was oxidized to other N-containing organics. The optimal pH value was 7.0 for the photodegradation of histidine, and the presence of organic compound and inorganic ion would decrease the degradation performance to some extent. After 6 h irradiation, histidine was totally degraded into , and in the following 2 h, was oxidized to firstly and then was reduced to N2 and overflowed from water, which should be attributed to the doping of Cu in the TiO2 and provided a way to totally degrade the DON from the water. Cheng Liu, Jie Wang, Wei Chen, Zhehao Sun, and Zhen Cao Copyright © 2016 Cheng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Development in Rubber Preparation for Endoscopic Training Simulator Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:16:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/8650631/ Endoscopy is one of the most important procedures in diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal tract problems. While endoscopic procedure has tremendous benefits, physicians require considerable practice and time to develop competency. Current endoscopic training process involves cognitive learning and hands-on training under the supervision of an expert gastroenterologist. Previous studies have shown that fellow involvement prolongs procedural time and incurs additional expenses to the institution. Moreover, the patient also experiences more discomfort and injury risk. Introduction of training simulator into the training process could reduce the involvement of the patients and thus reduce the risk. Porcine model is commonly used for training in endoscopy due to the similar tactile response to a human gastrointestinal tract. However, information on elastic behavior of pig or human gastrointestinal tract for the engineering purposes was limited. In this study, the modulus of elasticity and ultimate tensile stress data of the pig stomach and intestines, small and large intestines, were measured and compared with multiple rubber stomach and intestines models. Based on the experimental results and experienced gastroenterologists feedback, the proposed dipped rubber composition can provide a satisfactory tactile feedback and could be used to simulate a human gastrointestinal tract for an endoscopic simulation training model. D. Surangsrirat, A. Tongkratoke, S. Samphanyuth, T. Sununtachaikul, and A. Pramuanjaroenkij Copyright © 2016 D. Surangsrirat et al. All rights reserved. Focusing on Increasing Velocity during Heavy Resistance Knee Flexion Exercise Boosts Hamstring Muscle Activity in Chronic Stroke Patients Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:07:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2016/6523724/ Background. Muscle strength is markedly reduced in stroke patients, which has negative implications for functional capacity and work ability. Different types of feedback during strength training exercises may alter neuromuscular activity and functional gains. Objective. To compare levels of muscle activity during conditions of blindfolding and intended high contraction speed with a normal condition of high-intensity knee flexions. Methods. Eighteen patients performed unilateral machine knee flexions with a 10-repetition maximum load. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the quadrics and hamstring muscles and normalized to maximal EMG (nEMG) of the nonparetic limb. Results. For the paretic leg, the speed condition showed higher values of muscle activity compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for both biceps femoris and semitendinosus. Likewise, the speed condition showed higher co-contraction values compared with the normal and blindfolded conditions for the vastus lateralis. No differences were observed between exercise conditions for the nonparetic leg. Conclusion. Chronic stroke patients are capable of performing heavy resistance training with intended high speed of contraction. Focusing on speed during the concentric phase elicited higher levels of muscle activity of the hamstrings compared to normal and blindfolded conditions, which may have implications for regaining fast muscle strength in stroke survivors. Jonas Vinstrup, Joaquin Calatayud, Markus D. Jakobsen, Emil Sundstrup, and Lars L. Andersen Copyright © 2016 Jonas Vinstrup et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of the Shear Stress Parameter of a Power-Law Fluid Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:06:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4729063/ We apply the Adomian decomposition method to a power-law problem for solutions that do not change the sign of curvature. In particular we consider solutions with positive curvature. The power series obtained via the Adomian decomposition method is used to estimate the shear stress parameter as well as the instant of time where the solution reaches its terminal point of a steady state. We compare our results with estimates obtained via numerical integrators. More importantly we illustrate that the error is predictable and can be reduced without further effort or using higher order terms in the approximating series. Samer S. Al-Ashhab and Rubayyi T. Alqahtani Copyright © 2016 Samer S. Al-Ashhab and Rubayyi T. Alqahtani. All rights reserved. Tuberous Sclerosis and Bilateral Renal Angiomyolipomas: A Case Report and Literature Review of Emerging Treatment Strategies Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:06:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2016/4595014/ Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare multisystemic genetic disorder associated with the development of benign hamartomas. Angiomyolipomas are one such characteristic finding that may be seen in 55–80% of tuberous sclerosis complex patients. While being normally asymptomatic, they can also cause significant morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex and recently discovered bilateral renal angiomyolipomas, admitted for hematuria who underwent left renal artery embolization; however, worsening renal function necessitated subsequent nephrectomy. Despite still being mainstays of treatment, invasive interventions are now being recommended for specific patient populations as demonstrated in our case. Emerging strategies targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway have been shown to reduce the size of angiomyolipomas and are now used to treat asymptomatic cases >3 cm. Our review discusses these treatment options with the intention of increasing awareness of current recommendations and hopefully leading to increased application of these novel therapies that will reduce the need for invasive interventions. Francois Jo-Hoy, Omar Tolaymat, Ryan Kunjal, and Leighton R. James Copyright © 2016 Francois Jo-Hoy et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Characterization and Comparative Genome Analysis of Brucella melitensis Isolates from India Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:04:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2016/3034756/ Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonotic disease worldwide, with over 500,000 new human infections every year. Brucella melitensis, the most virulent species in humans, primarily affects goats and the zoonotic transmission occurs by ingestion of unpasteurized milk products or through direct contact with fetal tissues. Brucellosis is endemic in India but no information is available on population structure and genetic diversity of Brucella spp. in India. We performed multilocus sequence typing of four B. melitensis strains isolated from naturally infected goats from India. For more detailed genetic characterization, we carried out whole genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis of one of the B. melitensis isolates, Bm IND1. Genome analysis identified 141 unique SNPs, 78 VNTRs, 51 Indels, and 2 putative prophage integrations in the Bm IND1 genome. Our data may help to develop improved epidemiological typing tools and efficient preventive strategies to control brucellosis. Sarwar Azam, Sashi Bhushan Rao, Padmaja Jakka, Veera NarasimhaRao, Bindu Bhargavi, Vivek Kumar Gupta, and Girish Radhakrishnan Copyright © 2016 Sarwar Azam et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:03:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psychiatry/2016/1795901/ Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB) towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli. Lauren R. Godier, Jessica C. Scaife, Sven Braeutigam, and Rebecca J. Park Copyright © 2016 Lauren R. Godier et al. All rights reserved. The Association of Adiposity Indices and Plasma Vitamin D in Young Females in Saudi Arabia Mon, 25 Jul 2016 16:02:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/1215362/ Background. Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. Some evidences indicate its association with metabolic syndrome, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In the current study we aim to study the association of vitamin D level and indicators of adiposity in young Saudi females. Subjects and Methods. 87 young healthy Saudi females were recruited from University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Each subject filled vitamin D questionnaire and had exercise stress test to determine VO2 peak. Body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, and ratios were determined. Blood was analyzed for 25-OH vitamin D, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and differential cholesterol. Results. 25-OH vitamin D/body weight was negatively associated with waist circumference and waist/stature ratio. No significant difference was found between the groups of BMI with regard to the data of questionnaire or 25-OH vitamin D/body weight. Obese and overweight subjects had lower VO2 peak. Conclusion. In young Saudi females we found that the relative value of vitamin D to body weight is a better indicator of vitamin D status particularly in obese subjects and it is negatively associated with adiposity measures of waist circumference and waist/stature ratio. Lubna Ibrahim Al Asoom Copyright © 2016 Lubna Ibrahim Al Asoom. All rights reserved. Self-Healing Many-Core Architecture: Analysis and Evaluation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:32:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vlsi/2016/9767139/ More pronounced aging effects, more frequent early-life failures, and incomplete testing and verification processes due to time-to-market pressure in new fabrication technologies impose reliability challenges on forthcoming systems. A promising solution to these reliability challenges is self-test and self-reconfiguration with no or limited external control. In this work a scalable self-test mechanism for periodic online testing of many-core processor has been proposed. This test mechanism facilitates autonomous detection and omission of faulty cores and makes graceful degradation of the many-core architecture possible. Several test components are incorporated in the many-core architecture that distribute test stimuli, suspend normal operation of individual processing cores, apply test, and detect faulty cores. Test is performed concurrently with the system normal operation without any noticeable downtime at the application level. Experimental results show that the proposed test architecture is extensively scalable in terms of hardware overhead and performance overhead that makes it applicable to many-cores with more than a thousand processing cores. Arezoo Kamran and Zainalabedin Navabi Copyright © 2016 Arezoo Kamran and Zainalabedin Navabi. All rights reserved. Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:29:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1645097/ Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, a family of enzymes central to signal transduction processes including inflammatory responses, are a promising target for antimalarial drug development. Our study shows for the first time that the P. falciparum specific MAP kinase 2 (PfMAP2) is colocalized in the nucleus of all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and is particularly elevated in its phosphorylated form. It was also discovered that PfMAP2 is expressed in its highest quantity during the early trophozoite (ring form) stage and significantly reduced in the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. Although the phosphorylated form of the kinase is always more prevalent, its ratio relative to the nonphosphorylated form remained constant irrespective of the parasites’ developmental stage. We have also shown that the TSH motif specifically renders PfMAP2 genetically divergent from the other plasmodial MAP kinase activation sites using Neighbour Joining analysis. Furthermore, TSH motif-specific designed antibody is crucial in determining the location of the expression of the PfMAP2 protein. However, by using immunoelectron microscopy, PPfMAP2 were detected ubiquitously in the parasitized erythrocytes. In summary, PfMAP2 may play a far more important role than previously thought and is a worthy candidate for research as an antimalarial. Farah Aida Dahalan, Hasidah Mohd Sidek, Mogana Das Murtey, Mohammed Noor Embi, Jamaiah Ibrahim, Lim Fei Tieng, Nurul Aiezzah Zakaria, and Noraishah Mydin Abdul-Aziz Copyright © 2016 Farah Aida Dahalan et al. All rights reserved. Prospects of Organic Farming in Bhutan: A SWOT Analysis Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:27:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aag/2016/1717352/ A study was conducted to investigate the prospects of organic agriculture (OA) in Bhutan from the experts’ perspective, particularly the SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat) aspect. Thirty-five Bhutanese experts were interviewed. The strengths of OA were (i) good alignment of the principles of OA with Bhutan’s development philosophy, (ii) strong policy and political support, (iii) pristine environment, (iv) OA practices similar to traditional farming, and (v) compatibility of OA with the local farming knowledge. The major weaknesses were (i) a lack of awareness of the benefits of OA, (ii) lack of incentives, (iii) shortage of farm labor, (iv) small and irregular supply of organic product, (v) lack of clarity in policy, (vi) limited plant protection materials, and (vii) a lack of coordination between agencies. Opportunities were (i) a huge regional and global organic market, (ii) promoting healthy lifestyle, (iii) sustainable use of resources, (iv) lowering dependence on food and input imports, (v) development of local organic manure suppliers, (vi) creating seed sovereignty, (vii) conserving local crops, (viii) building soil fertility, (ix) introducing premium price for organic products, and (x) addressing unemployment. Threats included (i) increasing incidences of pests and diseases, (ii) decline in sources of organic manure, and (iii) limited sources of organic manures and fertilizers. Sonam Tashi and Kesang Wangchuk Copyright © 2016 Sonam Tashi and Kesang Wangchuk. All rights reserved. Damage Degree Evaluation of Earthquake Area Using UAV Aerial Image Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:25:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/2052603/ An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system and its aerial image analysis method are developed to evaluate the damage degree of earthquake area. Both the single-rotor and the six-rotor UAVs are used to capture the visible light image of ground targets. Five types of typical ground targets are considered for the damage degree evaluation: the building, the road, the mountain, the riverway, and the vegetation. When implementing the image analysis, first the Image Quality Evaluation Metrics (IQEMs), that is, the image contrast, the image blur, and the image noise, are used to assess the imaging definition. Second, once the image quality is qualified, the Gray Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) texture feature, the Tamura texture feature, and the Gabor wavelet texture feature are computed. Third, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is employed to evaluate the damage degree. Finally, a new damage degree evaluation (DDE) index is defined to assess the damage intensity of earthquake. Many experiment results have verified the correctness of proposed system and method. Jinhong Chen, Haoting Liu, Jingchen Zheng, Ming Lv, Beibei Yan, Xin Hu, and Yun Gao Copyright © 2016 Jinhong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Exotropia Is the Main Pattern of Childhood Strabismus Surgery in the South of China: A Six-Year Clinical Review” Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:13:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/8251629/ Onder Ayyildiz, Osman Melih Ceylan, and Fatih Mehmet Mutlu Copyright © 2016 Onder Ayyildiz et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Electroadsorption Desalination with Carbon Nanotube/PAN-Based Carbon Fiber Felt Composites as Electrodes Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:12:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8469373/ The Scientific World Journal Copyright © 2016 The Scientific World Journal. All rights reserved. Two-Stage Mucogingival Surgery with Free Gingival Autograft and Biomend Membrane and Coronally Advanced Flap in Treatment of Class III Millers Recession Mon, 25 Jul 2016 14:11:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/9289634/ Introduction. Gingival recession is an apical shift of the gingival margin with exposure of the root surface. This migration of the marginal tissue leads to esthetic concerns, dentin hypersensitivity, root caries, and cervical wear. It is, paradoxically, a common finding in patients with a high standard of oral hygiene, as well as in periodontally untreated populations with poor oral hygiene. Changing the topography of the marginal soft tissue in order to facilitate plaque control is a common indication for root coverage procedures and forms a major aspect of periodontal plastic surgeries. The regeneration of a new connective tissue attachment to denuded root surface is by allowing the selective coronal regrowth of periodontal ligament cells while excluding the gingival tissues from the root during wound healing by means of a barrier membrane. Case Presentation. This case reports a two-stage surgical technique for treatment of Miller’s class III defect using free gingival autograft and type I absorbable collagen membrane (BioMend®, Zimmer Dental, USA)§. Conclusions. The 6-month follow-up of the case showed a significant increase in attached gingiva suggesting it as a predictable alternative in the treatment of Millers class III defects. Avita Rath, Smrithi Varma, and Renny Paul Copyright © 2016 Avita Rath et al. All rights reserved. A High-Order CFS Algorithm for Clustering Big Data Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:55:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/4356127/ With the development of Internet of Everything such as Internet of Things, Internet of People, and Industrial Internet, big data is being generated. Clustering is a widely used technique for big data analytics and mining. However, most of current algorithms are not effective to cluster heterogeneous data which is prevalent in big data. In this paper, we propose a high-order CFS algorithm (HOCFS) to cluster heterogeneous data by combining the CFS clustering algorithm and the dropout deep learning model, whose functionality rests on three pillars: (i) an adaptive dropout deep learning model to learn features from each type of data, (ii) a feature tensor model to capture the correlations of heterogeneous data, and (iii) a tensor distance-based high-order CFS algorithm to cluster heterogeneous data. Furthermore, we verify our proposed algorithm on different datasets, by comparison with other two clustering schemes, that is, HOPCM and CFS. Results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in clustering heterogeneous data. Fanyu Bu, Zhikui Chen, Peng Li, Tong Tang, and Ying Zhang Copyright © 2016 Fanyu Bu et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl in Detecting Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in a Chinese Population Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:37:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/2064765/ Background. This study aims to evaluate GenoType MTBDRplus and GenoType MTBDRsl for their ability to detect drug-resistant tuberculosis in a Chinese population. Methods. We collected 112 Mycobacteria tuberculosis strains from Jiangsu province, China. The conventional DST and line probe assay were used to detect drug resistance to rifampicin (RFP), isoniazid (INH), ofloxacin (OFX), kanamycin (Km), and ethambutol (EMB). Results. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 50% for RFP and 86.11% and 47.06% for INH, respectively. The most common mutations observed in MTBDRplus were rpoBWT8 omission + MUT3 presence, katGWT omission + MUT1 presence, and inhAWT1 omission + MUT1 presence. For drug resistance to OFX, Km, and EMB, the sensitivity of MTBDRsl was 94.74%, 62.50%, and 58.82%, respectively, while the specificity was 92.59%, 98.81%, and 91.67%, respectively. The most common mutations were gyrAWT3 omission + MUT3C presence, rrsMUT1 presence, embBWT omission + MUT1B presence, and embBWT omission + MUT1A presence. Sequencing analysis found several uncommon mutations. Conclusion. In combination with DST, application of the GenoType MTBDRplus and GenoType MTBDRsl assays might be a useful additional tool to allow for the rapid and safe diagnosis of drug resistance to RFP and OFX. Wei Lu, Yan Feng, Jianming Wang, and Limei Zhu Copyright © 2016 Wei Lu et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics of a Seasonally Forced Phytoplankton-Zooplankton Model with Impulsive Biological Control Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:12:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2560195/ This paper investigates the dynamics of a seasonally forced phytoplankton-zooplankton model with impulsive biological control. It shows that the periodic eradicated solution is unstable. Further, the condition for permanence of the system is established by relations between the model parameters and the intensity of the impulses. The numerical analysis is performed to study the effect of seasonality and impulsive perturbations on plankton dynamics. The numerical results imply that the seasonal forcing can trigger more periodic mode and the impulsive period for control of the size of phytoplankton is more practicable to the system than the impulsive release of zooplankton. These conclusions provide a better understanding of controlling harmful algae blooms. Jianglin Zhao and Yong Yan Copyright © 2016 Jianglin Zhao and Yong Yan. All rights reserved. Off-Axial Tensile Properties of Precontraint PVDF Coated Polyester Fabrics under Different Tensile Rates Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:10:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/9856474/ Two types of Precontraint PVDF coated polyester are taken as the research objects. A series of uniaxial tensile tests were carried out to study the tensile performances of the specimens in eleven in-plane directions including 0°, 5°, 15°, 25°, 35°, 45°, 55°, 65°, 75°, 85°, and 90°, and six tensile rates (10 mm/min, 25 mm/min, 50 mm/min, 100 mm/min, 200 mm/min, and 500 mm/min) were also considered. The corresponding failure modes and fracture mechanisms were discussed, and the relationships between tensile strength and strain at break and tensile rate and off-axial angles were obtained. Results show that the Precontraint PVDF coated woven fabrics are typically anisotropic. With off-axial angle increasing, the tensile strength decreases while the strain at break increases. Three failure modes can be observed, including failure of yarns pulled out, yarns fracture, and mixture failure. With tensile rate increasing, the tensile strength increases slightly while the strain at break decreases. The tensile strength and strain at break show good linear relationship with tensile rate’s logarithm. Lanlan Zhang Copyright © 2016 Lanlan Zhang. All rights reserved. Nanomaterials for Sensing Applications Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:10:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/2083948/ Wen Zeng, Hua Wang, and Zhenyu Li Copyright © 2016 Wen Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Treatment Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:09:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pc/2016/3079684/ Tarun Podder, Daniel Song, Timothy Showalter, and Luc Beaulieu Copyright © 2016 Tarun Podder et al. All rights reserved. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:03:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1069585/ Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. Gang Liu, Guiping Guan, Jun Fang, Yordan Martínez, Shuai Chen, Peng Bin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Ting Gong, Myrlene Carine B. Tossou, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, and Yulong Yin Copyright © 2016 Gang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Multiple Congenital Colonic Stenosis: A Rare Gastrointestinal Malformation” Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:38:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/5353012/ Elisa Zambaiti, Cinzia Chiaramonte, Sergio Salerno, Giuseppe Li Voti, and Fortunato Siracusa Copyright © 2016 Elisa Zambaiti et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Prognostic Factors of Returning to Work after Sick Leave due to Work-Related Common Mental Disorders: A One- and Three-Year Follow-Up Study” Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:37:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8305414/ Bo Netterstrøm, Nanna Hurwitz Eller, and Marianne Borritz Copyright © 2016 Bo Netterstrøm et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism” Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:37:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/2859051/ Ivo Joachim Kruyt, Ann-Louise Mc Dermott, and Myrthe Karianne Sophie Hol Copyright © 2016 Ivo Joachim Kruyt et al. All rights reserved. Existence and Asymptotic Behaviour of Solutions of Differential and Integral Equations in Some Function Spaces 2016 Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:37:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/6521420/ Józef Banaś, Leszek Olszowy, Kishin Sadarangani, Asadollah Aghajani, and Mohamed A. Taoudi Copyright © 2016 Józef Banaś et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Biomedical Imaging: Techniques and Clinical Applications Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:36:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3080965/ Guang Jia, Steven B. Heymsfield, Jinyuan Zhou, Guang Yang, and Yukihisa Takayama Copyright © 2016 Guang Jia et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of the Therapeutic Effect of Total Glucosides of Peony for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:31:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8292486/ Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children; some clinical trials have reported the effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) in the treatment of JIA. However, no systematic review has yet been conducted. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety in patients with JIA enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TGP. We extracted data for studies searched from 8 electronic databases that were searched and also evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies. We assessed the following outcome measures: overall response rate, pain, tender joint count (TJC), swollen joint count (SJC), duration of morning stiffness (DMS), grip strength (GS), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adverse effects (AEs) in short term (4–8 weeks), intermediate term (9–26 weeks), and long term (>26 weeks). The final analysis showed that TGP acted as a unique nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (nonbiologic DMARD), and its therapeutic effects were safe and efficacious for the treatment of JIA with few AEs. However, more high-quality RCTs are needed to confirm these therapeutic effects. Yongsong Cai, Qiling Yuan, Ke Xu, Jialin Zhu, Yuanbo Li, Xiaoqing Wu, Le Yang, Yusheng Qiu, and Peng Xu Copyright © 2016 Yongsong Cai et al. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of New RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Determination of Methyl and Propyl Parabens with Levetiracetam in Pure Form and Pharmaceutical Formulation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:13:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cri/2016/4909547/ A simple and robust high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for the assay for levetiracetam (LTC), methyl paraben (MHB), and propyl paraben (PHB) either in their pure form or in commercial Levepsy® syrup. The method is selective and stability indicating and all chromatographic conditions were studied to obtain adequate separation of LTC, MHB, and PHB from their degradation products and from excipients. The HPLC separation was carried out on a RP C18 Hypersil BDS analytical column (150 mm × 4.6 mm ID) using gradient elution system. The mobile phase flow rate was 1.5 mLmin−1 and the column temperature was kept at 40°C. Complete separation of the studied components was obtained within a cycle time of 8 min. LTC, MHB, and PHB were eluted at 1.56, 5.86, and 7.85 min, respectively. Detection was carried out at 240 nm using a dual wavelength detector. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness, and ruggedness. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of LTC in the presence of parabens in Levepsy syrup. Soad S. Abd El-Hay and Mostafa S. Mohram Copyright © 2016 Soad S. Abd El-Hay and Mostafa S. Mohram. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Dracocephalum heterophyllum in ConA-Induced Acute Hepatitis Mon, 25 Jul 2016 12:07:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/2684321/ Dracocephalum heterophyllum (DH) is a Chinese herbal medicine used in treating hepatitis. However, the protective effects and pharmacological mechanisms of DH in hepatitis are unknown. In this study, we found that pretreatment with DH extract significantly ameliorated liver injury and suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in Concanavalin A- (ConA-) induced hepatitis (CIH). DH recruited more CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to the liver and suppressed infiltration of macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the liver. The present work explores DH as an effective hepatoprotective medicine to inhibit inflammation and liver injury caused by hepatitis. Wei Zheng, Qilan Wang, Xiaohua Lu, Qiangqiang Shi, Junhui Zou, Yanduo Tao, and Pu Wang Copyright © 2016 Wei Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Robot and Neuroscience Technology: Computational and Engineering Approaches in Medicine Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:59:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/5204510/ Hiroki Tamura, Shangce Gao, Qixin Cao, Chuntao Leng, Hui Yu, and Harold Szu Copyright © 2016 Hiroki Tamura et al. All rights reserved. Multicore PSO Operation for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Distributed Photovoltaic System under Partially Shading Condition Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:57:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/9754514/ This paper identifies the partial shading problem of a PV module using the one-diode model and simulating the characteristics exhibiting multiple-peak power output condition that is similar to a PV array. A modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on the suggested search-agent deployment, retracking condition, and multicore operation is proposed in order to continuously locate the global maximum power point for the PV system. Partial shading simulation results for up to 16 modules in series/parallel formats are presented. A distributed PV system consisting of up to 8 a-silicon thin film PV panels and also having a dedicated DC/DC buck converter on each of the modules is tested. The converter reaches its steady state voltage output in 10 ms. However for MPPT operation, voltage, and current measurement interval is set to 20 ms to avoid unnecessary noise from the entire electric circuit. Based on the simulation and experiment results, each core of the proposed PSO operation should control no more than 4 PV modules in order to have the maximum tracking accuracy and minimum overall tracking time. Tracking for the global maximum power point of a distributed PV system under various partial shading conditions can be done within 1.3 seconds. Ru-Min Chao, Ahmad Nasirudin, I-Kai Wang, and Po-Lung Chen Copyright © 2016 Ru-Min Chao et al. All rights reserved. Unilateral Global Bifurcation for Fourth-Order Problems and Its Applications Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:56:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8457098/ We will establish unilateral global bifurcation result for a class of fourth-order problems. Under some natural hypotheses on perturbation function, we show that is a bifurcation point of the above problems and there are two distinct unbounded continua, and , consisting of the bifurcation branch from , where is the th eigenvalue of the linear problem corresponding to the above problems. As the applications of the above result, we study the existence of nodal solutions for the following problems: , , where is a parameter and are given constants; with on any subinterval of ; and is continuous with for We give the intervals for the parameter which ensure the existence of nodal solutions for the above fourth-order Dirichlet problems if or where and We use unilateral global bifurcation techniques and the approximation of connected components to prove our main results. Wenguo Shen Copyright © 2016 Wenguo Shen. All rights reserved. The Effects of Matched Filter on Stable Performance of Semistrapdown Inertially Stabilized Platform Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:55:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8389350/ To enhance the optimization performance of matched filter and further improve line of sight (LOS) stability of platform in inertial space, the proposed matched filter algorithm is conducted by adjusting matched filter coefficients of first-order low pass filter utilizing the regional search method based on invariance principle. The coefficients of the fraction molecule and denominator of proposed regional search algorithm are altered instead of denominator coefficients only being modified. Simulations are performed to verify the validity of inside factors performed with stabilization control model and quartz rate sensor (QRS) mathematical model. The stable angular error is sharply alleviated, so the decoupling accuracy of airborne semistrapdown inertially stabilized platform is largely promoted. The optimization matched filter can effectively increase stability of LOS in inertial space. Feng Liu and Hua Wang Copyright © 2016 Feng Liu and Hua Wang. All rights reserved. An Approximation Mathematical Formula of Pattern Analysis for Distorted Reflector Antennas considering Surface Normal Vector Variation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:54:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/4824873/ An approximation mathematical formula to compute the distorted radiation pattern for reflector antennas is presented. In this approximation formula, besides the phase error caused by the structural deformation being added in the far field integral, the surface normal vector variation is also taken into consideration. The formula is derived by expanding the surface normal vector into a first-order Taylor series and the phase error into a second-order Taylor series. By assembling the integrals including the contributions of both surface normal vector variation and phase error, the far field electrical vector expressed as a function of structural nodal displacements is further obtained in a matrix form. Simulation results of a distorted reflector show the application of this formula. Shuxin Zhang, Guigeng Yang, and Yiqun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Shuxin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rhapontici Radix Ethanol Extract via Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK and Induction of HO-1 in Macrophages Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:53:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/7216912/ Rhapontici Radix (RR) has been used in traditional medicine in East Asia and has been shown to have various beneficial effects. However, its biological properties or mechanism on inflammation-related diseases is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Rhapontici Radix ethanol extract (RRE). The inhibitory effect of RRE on the production of NO, cytokines, inflammatory-related proteins, and mRNAs in LPS-stimulated macrophages was determined by the Griess assay, ELISA, Western blot analysis, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Our results indicate that treatment with RRE significantly inhibited the secretion of NO and inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages without cytotoxicity. We also found that RRE strongly suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and induced HO-1 expression. It also prevented nuclear translocation of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by RRE. These findings suggest that RRE may operate as an effective anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. Our results suggest that RRE has potential value as candidate to inflammatory therapeutic phytomedicine. Yun Hee Jeong, You-Chang Oh, Won-Kyung Cho, Nam-Hui Yim, and Jin Yeul Ma Copyright © 2016 Yun Hee Jeong et al. All rights reserved. One-Step Green Synthesis of Metallic Nanoparticles Using Sodium Alginate Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:51:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/9790345/ Metallic nanoparticles have been focus of research because of their characteristic properties, specifically the LSPR which can have wide applications in biomedical sciences and engineering. Currently, traditional physical and chemical methods can synthesize these nanoparticles but their disadvantages such as costs, time, effectiveness, and toxicity of precursors provide a wide range of problems for the synthesis of these nanoparticles. Recently, some natural polymers and organic compounds have been used for the synthesis of nanoparticles by green methods. In this study, we synthesize copper, silver, and gold nanoparticles using sodium alginate as reducing and stabilizing agent under microwave irradiation. The LSPR for each system was observed by UV-vis spectroscopy. Particle size distribution and zeta potential demonstrate the size and stability for these nanoparticles. FESEM and TEM microscopies have shown the size and morphology of these systems correlated with UV-vis, particle size distribution, and zeta potential analyses. The study demonstrates a rapid, facile, cheaper, and one-step green method of synthesis for these metallic nanoparticles being an alternative to the conventional methods used for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Jesus Valdez and Idalia Gómez Copyright © 2016 Jesus Valdez and Idalia Gómez. All rights reserved. Kinetic Parameters during Bis-GMA and TEGDMA Monomer Polymerization by ATR-FTIR: The Influence of Photoinitiator and Light Curing Source Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:41:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/6524901/ This study aimed to analyze the kinetic parameters of two monomers using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR): 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropyl-1-oxy)-phenyl] propane (Bis-GMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). The following were calculated to evaluate the kinetic parameters: maximum conversion rate (), time at the maximum polymerization rate (), conversion at , and total conversion recorded at the maximum conversion point after 300 s. Camphorquinone (CQ) and phenyl propanedione (PPD) were used in this study as photoinitiators, whereas N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMPT) amine was used as a coinitiator. LED apparatus and halogen lamp were used in turn to evaluate the effect that light source had on the monomer kinetics. The mass concentration ratio for the three resin preparations was 0.7 : 0.3 for Bis-GMA and TEGDMA: R1 (CQ + DMPT), R2 (PPD + DMPT), and R3 (PPD + CQ + DMPT). The PPD association with the CQ photoinitiator altered the polymerization kinetics compared to a resin containing only the CQ photoinitiator. The light sources exhibited no significant differences for of R1 and R3. Resins containing only the PPD initiator exhibited a higher than those containing only CQ. However, the decreased for resins containing the PPD photoinitiator. Aline B. Denis, Cristina A. Diagone, Ana M. G. Plepis, and Rommel B. Viana Copyright © 2016 Aline B. Denis et al. All rights reserved. Surface Modification of Porous Photoelectrode Using Etching Process for Efficiency Enhancement of ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:33:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7403019/ Surface modification of porous ZnO photoelectrode using one- and two-step etching process is investigated for enhancing power conversion efficiency of ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells. ZnO films are modified by the diluted NH4OH solutions for one-step etching process and used as photoelectrode of dye-sensitized solar cells. Rough porous films are observed after one-step etching process. The fabricated cells based on the optimized one-step etched films show a significant increase in short-circuit current density. The short-circuit current density is directly changed with amount of dye adsorption, which is related to specific surface area. The etched films exhibit higher specific surface area over two times than nonetched films. Thus, the large specific surface area is the key success for increasing amount of dye adsorption. Internal electrochemical property of fabricated cells is also improved, indicating that chemical surface of ZnO films is modified in the same time. The DSSCs fabricated on two-step etched films with NH4OH and mixed acid HCl : HNO3 show the maximum power conversion efficiency of 2.26%. Moreover, fill factor is also increased due to better redox process because of the formation of fine porous structure during the etching process. Therefore, these results implied that the roles of etching processes are improving specific surface area and fine porous formation which can provide better dye adsorption and redox process for dye-sensitized solar cell application. Sutthipoj Sutthana, Duangmanee Wongratanaphisan, Atcharawon Gardchareon, Surachet Phadungdhitidhada, Pipat Ruankham, and Supab Choopun Copyright © 2016 Sutthipoj Sutthana et al. All rights reserved. New Applications of a Kind of Infinitesimal-Operator Lie Algebra Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:30:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2016/7639013/ Applying some reduced Lie algebras of Lie symmetry operators of a Lie transformation group, we obtain an invariant of a second-order differential equation which can be generated by a Euler-Lagrange formulism. A corresponding discrete equation approximating it is given as well. Finally, we make use of the Lie algebras to generate some new integrable systems including () and () dimensions. Honwah Tam, Yufeng Zhang, and Xiangzhi Zhang Copyright © 2016 Honwah Tam et al. All rights reserved. Calculating Masses of Pentaquarks Composed of Baryons and Mesons Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:29:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/6480926/ We consider an exotic baryon (pentaquark) as a bound state of two-body systems composed of a baryon (nucleon) and a meson. We used a baryon-meson picture to reduce a complicated five-body problem to simple two-body problems. The homogeneous Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation is solved in configuration space by using one-pion exchange potential. We calculate the masses of pentaquarks and . M. Monemzadeh, N. Tazimi, and Sh. Babaghodrat Copyright © 2016 M. Monemzadeh et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Nano-SiO2 on the Consistency, Setting Time, Early-Age Strength, and Shrinkage of Composite Cement Pastes Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:28:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5283706/ The study outlined the raw materials and mix proportions to prepare composite cement pastes with the addition of silica-based micro- and nanoparticles. The effects of amorphous nano-SiO2 on the early-age properties, including the consistency, setting time, early-age strength, and chemical and autogenous shrinkages, were investigated. Under the condition of the same dosage of superplasticizer used, the consistency of cement paste with nano-SiO2 is higher than that with silica fume. Significant reductions of the initial and final setting times are observed especially for nano-SiO2 addition groups, and the time difference between the initial and final setting times goes up with the increasing proportions of nano-SiO2. The addition of nano-SiO2 is more helpful to the improvement of early-age strengths of the paste with or without fly ash admixed than silica fume additive for the same mass proportion. Both the chemical and autogenous shrinkages of cement paste develop with the increasing amount of micro- or nanolevel silica particles; however, nano-SiO2 plays a more active role than silica fume in inspiring early-age shrinkage. The physical and chemical mechanisms of nano-SiO2 in cement paste are also discussed. Yu Chen, Yi-fan Deng, and Meng-qiang Li Copyright © 2016 Yu Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Adaptation Method for HTTP Streaming of VBR Videos over Mobile Networks Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:52:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/2920850/ Recently, HTTP streaming has become very popular for delivering videos over the Internet. For adaptivity, a provider should generate multiple versions of a video as well as the related metadata. Various adaptation methods have been proposed to support a streaming client in coping with strong bandwidth variations. However, most of existing methods target at constant bitrate (CBR) videos only. In this paper, we present a new method for quality adaptation in on-demand streaming of variable bitrate (VBR) videos. To cope with strong variations of VBR bitrate, we use a local average bitrate as the representative bitrate of a version. A buffer-based algorithm is then proposed to conservatively adapt video quality. Through experiments in the mobile streaming context, we show that our method can provide quality stability as well as buffer stability even under very strong variations of bandwidth and video bitrates. Hung T. Le, Hai N. Nguyen, Nam Pham Ngoc, Anh T. Pham, and Truong Cong Thang Copyright © 2016 Hung T. Le et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Graphene-Based Nanocomposite and Investigations of Its Thermal and Electrical Properties Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:20:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/5135420/ We describe the synthesis of acid functionalized graphene (GE) which is grafted to chitosan (CH) by first reacting the oxidized GE with thionyl chloride to form acyl-chlorinated GE. This product is subsequently dispersed in chitosan and covalently grafted to form GE-chitosan. GE-chitosan is further grafted onto polymetanitroaniline (PMNA) by free radical polymerization conditions to yield GE-CH-PMNA. We have characterized the structure of synthesized GE-CH-PMNA composites by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy, and conductivity measurements. XRD data suggest the strongly crystalline character of the prepared specimen. Our measurement shows that the dielectric constants of these nanocomposites are remarkably enhanced due to interfacial polarization effect. This study demonstrates that functionalized graphene sheets are ideal nanofillers for the development of new polymer composites with high dielectric constant values. Manoj Kumar Pati, Puspalata Pattojoshi, and Gouri Sankar Roy Copyright © 2016 Manoj Kumar Pati et al. All rights reserved. An Audit of the Medical Students’ Perceptions regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:19:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/4806398/ Objective. To record the perceptions of the final year MBBS students of Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) conducted in the year 2016. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted in April 2016 which is in fact a reaudit of our similar survey done back in 2015. A total of 250 final year MBBS students participated by filling in a validated and pretested questionnaire already used by Russel et al. and Khan et al. in similar but separate studies including questions regarding exam content, quality of performance, OSCE validity and reliability, and so forth. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The study group comprised 160 (64%) males and 90 (36%) females. 220 (88%) stated that exam was fair and comprehensive; 94% believed OSCE was more stressful and mentally tougher. 96% of the students considered OSCE as valid and reliable and 87% were happy with its use in clinical competence assessment. Conclusion. Majority of students declared their final year OSCE as fair, comprehensive, standardized, less biased, and reliable format of examination but believed it was more stressful and mentally tougher than traditional examination methods. Abidullah Khan, Maimoona Ayub, and Zakir Shah Copyright © 2016 Abidullah Khan et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Therapy on Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Nondiabetic Glomerular Diseases with Proteinuria Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:17:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2016/4904502/ Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is widely used as a biomarker for acute kidney injury. Cross-sectional studies have shown that NGAL may be elevated in glomerular diseases, but there is limited information on the value of NGAL in predicting treatment response or on the changes of NGAL levels after therapy. We prospectively evaluated the effects of therapy on NGAL in nondiabetic glomerular diseases. Urine NGAL was collected at biopsy and follow-up at 12 months. At baseline, NGAL in glomerular disease patients () correlated with proteinuria, but not with glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After therapy with renin-angiotensin blockers and/or immune modulating agents, change of NGAL correlated with change of proteinuria, but not with change of GFR. NGAL at baseline was not different between patients in complete remission (CR) at follow-up compared to those not in remission (NR). Compared to baseline, NGAL at follow-up decreased in CR (), but not in NR. Change of NGAL was greater in CR than NR. In conclusion, the change of urine NGAL correlated with the change of proteinuria. Baseline NGAL was not a predictor of complete remission. Future studies will be necessary to determine the role of NGAL as a predictor of long term outcome in proteinuric glomerular diseases. Amnuay Sirisopha, Somlak Vanavanan, Anchalee Chittamma, Bunyong Phakdeekitcharoen, Ammarin Thakkinstian, Amornpan Lertrit, Nuankanya Sathirapongsasuti, and Chagriya Kitiyakara Copyright © 2016 Amnuay Sirisopha et al. All rights reserved. Myofibroblastoma of the Breast: Literature Review and Case Report Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:15:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2016/1714382/ Myofibroblastoma of the breast is a rare benign spindle cell tumor. The main aim of this study is to review the literature of this rare tumor. We present a case of a mammary myofibroblastoma occurring in an 82-year-old man, emphasizing the clinical, radiological, and pathological features. The tumor was successfully identified and managed in our hospital. We would like to draw the attention of clinicians to myofibroblastoma as a rare possibility in the differential diagnosis of a breast mass. Mario Metry, Mohamad Shaaban, Magdi Youssef, and Michael Carr Copyright © 2016 Mario Metry et al. All rights reserved. A New Appliance for Improving the Miniscrew Stability Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:07:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/2913032/ The aim of this study is to present a new appliance called stability leg designed as an additional anchorage providing device for increasing primary stability of orthodontic miniscrew. For this purpose, two finite element models (FEMs) with two different cortical layer thicknesses of 1 mm and 2 mm are considered. In order to achieve the stability analysis, these two main models, namely, Model I and Model II, are divided into subgroups according to stability leg lengths. Two types of forces are considered. (1) First force is a constant force of 1 N which is applied to all two models. (2) Second force is defined in the range of 1–4 N. Each of 1, 2.5, and 4 N of the second force is applied with a position angle ranging from 34° to 44°. Results show that stability of a miniscrew with 5 mm leg increases primary stability of the miniscrew. Nurhat Ozkalayci and Mehmet Yetmez Copyright © 2016 Nurhat Ozkalayci and Mehmet Yetmez. All rights reserved. Multiple Circulating Cytokines Are Coelevated in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:04:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3604842/ Inflammatory biomarkers, including cytokines, are associated with COPD, but the association of particular circulating cytokines with systemic pathology remains equivocal. To investigate this, we developed a protein microarray system to detect multiple cytokines in small volumes of serum. Fourteen cytokines were measured in serum from never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and COPD patients (GOLD stages 1–3). Certain individual circulating cytokines (particularly TNFα and IL-1β) were significantly elevated in concentration in the serum of particular COPD patients (and some current/ex-smokers without COPD) and may serve as markers of particularly significant systemic inflammation. However, numerous circulating cytokines were raised such that their combined, but not individual, elevation was significantly associated with severity of disease, and these may be further indicators of, and contributors to, the systemic inflammatory manifestations of COPD. The coelevation of numerous circulating cytokines in COPD is consistent with the insidious development, chronic nature, and systemic comorbidities of the disease. Senthooran Selvarajah, Ian Todd, Patrick J. Tighe, Michelle John, Charlotte E. Bolton, Timothy Harrison, and Lucy C. Fairclough Copyright © 2016 Senthooran Selvarajah et al. All rights reserved. Measurement of Surface Damage through Boundary Detection: An Approach to Assess Durability of Cementitious Composites under Tannery Wastewater Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:02:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5368635/ Concrete structures are often subjected to aggressive aqueous environments which consist of several chemical agents that can react with concrete to produce adverse effects. A Central Effluent Treatment Plant consisting of reinforced concrete structures which is being constructed at Savar, Bangladesh, is an example of such a case. The purpose of this treatment facility is to reduce the environmental pollution created by tannery wastewater. However, tannery wastewater consists of several chemicals such as sulfates, chlorides, and ammonium, which, from the literature, are known to generate detrimental effects on concrete. Evaluation of durability of concrete structures in such environments is therefore imperative. This paper highlights a technique of boundary detection developed through image processing performed using MATLAB. Cement mortar cubes were submerged in simulated tannery wastewater and the images of the surface of cubes were taken at several time intervals. In addition, readings for compressive strength and weight were also taken on the same days. In this paper, an attempt is made to correlate the results from image processing with that of strength and weight loss. It was found, within the scope of this study, that the specimens which suffered greater strength and weight loss also underwent greater loss of surface area. Tanvir Manzur, Khaled Mahmood Ehsan, Sinha Lamia Sultana, and Samira Mahmud Copyright © 2016 Tanvir Manzur et al. All rights reserved. Chemopreventive Properties and Toxicity of Kelulut Honey in Sprague Dawley Rats Induced with Azoxymethane Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:01:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4036926/ Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Colon cancer has been a major problem worldwide. Kelulut honey (KH) is produced by the stingless bees from Trigona species and has strong antioxidant activities that could be one of the potential chemopreventive agents from natural resources. Aim of This Study. This study investigated the chemopreventive properties and toxicity of KH in Sprague Dawley rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Material and Method. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 5 weeks were divided into 4 groups: (G1) untreated group not induced with AOM, (G2) untreated group induced with AOM, (G3) treated group induced with AOM, and (G4) treated group not induced with AOM. Injection of AOM (15 mg/kg) was via intraperitoneal route once a week for two subsequent weeks. The treatment groups were given oral administration of KH (1183 mg/kg body weight) twice daily for 8 weeks. Results. Treatment with KH significantly reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and aberrant crypts (AC) and crypt multiplicity. KH was not toxic to the animals since the level of blood profile parameters, liver enzymes, and kidney functions was in normal range. Conclusions. The current finding shows that KH has chemopreventive properties in rats induced with colorectal cancer and also was found not toxic towards the animals. Latifah Saiful Yazan, Muhamad Firdaus Shyfiq Muhamad Zali, Razana Mohd Ali, Nurul Amira Zainal, Nurulaidah Esa, Sarah Sapuan, Yong Sze Ong, Yin Sim Tor, Banulata Gopalsamy, Fui Ling Voon, and Sharifah Sakinah Syed Alwi Copyright © 2016 Latifah Saiful Yazan et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Mechanical Stretch on Cell Proliferation and Matrix Formation of Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Fibroblast Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:00:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/9842075/ Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts are two major seed cells for ligament tissue engineering. To understand the effects of mechanical stimulation on these cells and to develop effective approaches for cell therapy, it is necessary to investigate the biological effects of various mechanical loading conditions on cells. In this study, fibroblasts and MSCs were tested and compared under a novel Uniflex/Bioflex culture system that might mimic mechanical strain in ligament tissue. The cells were uniaxially or radially stretched with different strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz. The cell proliferation and collagen production were compared to find the optimal parameters. The results indicated that uniaxial stretch (15% at 0.5 Hz; 10% at 1.0 Hz) showed positive effects on fibroblast. The uniaxial strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.5 Hz and 10% strain at 1.0 Hz were favorable for MSCs. Radial strain did not have significant effect on fibroblast. On the contrary, the radial strains (5%, 10%, and 15%) at 0.1 Hz had positive effects on MSCs. This study suggested that fibroblasts and MSCs had their own appropriate mechanical stimulatory parameters. These specific parameters potentially provide fundamental knowledge for future cell-based ligament regeneration. Liguo Sun, Ling Qu, Rui Zhu, Hongguo Li, Yingsen Xue, Xincheng Liu, Jiabing Fan, and Hongbin Fan Copyright © 2016 Liguo Sun et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Persistent Lactic Acidosis in the ICU: Glycogenic Hepatopathy and Mauriac Syndrome Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:59:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2016/6072909/ Mauriac syndrome is a rare disorder that can present with the single feature of glycogenic hepatopathy in children and adults with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. An often underrecognized finding of glycogenic hepatopathy is lactic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Primary treatment of glycogenic hepatopathy is improved long-term blood glucose control. Resolution of symptoms and hepatomegaly will occur with improvement in hemoglobin A1C. We present here a case of a young adult female presenting to the intensive care unit with Mauriac syndrome. This case demonstrates exacerbation of lactic acidosis in a patient with glycogenic hepatopathy treated for diabetic ketoacidosis with high dose insulin and dextrose. Kirsten S. Deemer and George F. Alvarez Copyright © 2016 Kirsten S. Deemer and George F. Alvarez. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Bullet Removal in a Penetrating Abdominal Gunshot Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:58:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/2712439/ Penetrating abdominal trauma has been traditionally treated by exploratory laparotomy. Nowadays laparoscopy has become an accepted practice in hemodynamically stable patient without signs of peritonitis. We report a case of a lower anterior abdominal gunshot patient treated laparoscopically. A 32-year-old male presented to the Emergency Department with complaint of gunshot penetrating injury at left lower anterior abdominal wall. The patient had no symptoms or obvious bleeding and was vitally stable. On examination we identified 1 cm diameter entry wound at the left lower abdominal wall. The imaging studies showed the bullet in the peritoneal cavity but no injured intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal viscera. We decided to remove the bullet laparoscopically. Twenty-four hours after the intervention the patient was discharged. The decision for managing gunshot patients should be based on clinical and diagnostic findings. Anterior abdominal injuries in a stable patient without other health problems can be managed laparoscopically. Christos Stefanou, Nicolaos Zikos, George Pappas-Gogos, Spyridon Koulas, and Ioannis Tsimoyiannis Copyright © 2016 Christos Stefanou et al. All rights reserved. Smooth Adaptive Finite Time Guidance Law with Impact Angle Constraints Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:54:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/5730168/ A smooth guidance law for intercepting a maneuvering target with impact angle constraints is documented based on the nonsingular fast terminal sliding mode control scheme and adaptive control scheme. Different from the traditional adaptive law which is used to estimate the unknown upper bound of the target acceleration, a new adaptive law is proposed to estimate the square of target acceleration bound, which avoids the use of the nonsmooth signum function and therefore ensures the smoothness of the guidance law. The finite time convergence of the guidance system is guaranteed based on the Lyapunov method and the finite time theory. Simulation results indicate that under the proposed guidance law the missile can intercept the target with a better accuracy at a desired impact angle in a shorter time with a completely smooth guidance command compared with the existing adaptive fast terminal sliding mode guidance laws, which shows the superiority of this method. Bin Zhao and Jun Zhou Copyright © 2016 Bin Zhao and Jun Zhou. All rights reserved. Luteolin Prevents H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in H9C2 Cells through Modulating Akt-P53/Mdm2 Signaling Pathway Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:53:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5125836/ Introduction. Luteolin, a falconoid compound in many Chinese herbs and formula, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases. The underlying mechanism of luteolin remains to be further elaborated. Methods. A model of hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced H9C2 cells apoptosis was established. Cell viabilities were examined with an MTT assay. ,-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) and flow cytometry were used to detect ROS level and apoptosis rate, respectively. The expressions of signaling proteins related to apoptosis were analyzed by western blot and mRNA levels were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quercetin was applied as positive drug. Results. Incubation with various concentrations of H2O2 (0, 50, 100, and 200 μM) for 1 h caused dose-dependent loss of cell viability and 100 μM H2O2 reduced the cell viability to approximately 50%. Treatments with luteolin and quercetin protected cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and reduced cellular ROS level and apoptosis rate. Moreover, luteolin could downregulate the expressions of Bax, caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-3, and p53 in apoptotic signaling pathway. Further study showed that the expressions of Akt, Bcl-2, and Mdm2 were upregulated by luteolin. Conclusion. Luteolin protects H9C2 cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis. The protective and antiapoptotic effects of luteolin could be mediated by regulating the Akt-P53/Mdm2 apoptotic pathway. Hong Chang, Chun Li, Kuiyuan Huo, Qiyan Wang, Linghui Lu, Qian Zhang, Yong Wang, and Wei Wang Copyright © 2016 Hong Chang et al. All rights reserved. PMSM Rotor Position Detection Based on Hybrid Optical Encoder and R-Signal Zero-Setting Scheme Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:52:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/2712643/ Rotor position detection is a prerequisite for achieving good control performance of PMSM. For a PMSM control system based on an optical encoder, it is a difficulty to detect rotor position and achieve R-Signal zero-setting. To solve the problem, a hybrid optical encoder is used in the paper by which a scheme for rotor position detection and R-Signal zero-setting is proposed. This encoder can do absolute and incremental rotor position detection simultaneously; here, the former is used for acquiring imprecise rotor position and the latter is for precise rotor position. Firstly, two detection methods of the encoder are analyzed, and a scheme for rotor position detection is proposed: absolute rotor position is used for motor starting before achieving R-Signal zero-setting; once achieving R-Signal zero-setting, incremental rotor position detection that has high precision is adopted. Then a novel scheme for R-Signal zero-setting is emphatically proposed. Finally, the simulation is conducted. Results show that rotor position detection and R-Signal zero-setting can be achieved by the proposed scheme. Yaoqiang Wang, Xiaoyong Ma, Mingdong Wang, and Chong Cao Copyright © 2016 Yaoqiang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Kinetics and Mechanistic Study of Permanganate Oxidation of Fluorenone Hydrazone in Alkaline Medium Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:52:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apc/2016/4526578/ The oxidation kinetics of fluorenone hydrazone (FH) using potassium permanganate in alkaline medium were measured at a constant ionic strength of 0.1 mol dm−3 and at 25°C using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. A first-order kinetics has been monitored in the reaction of FH with respect to [permanganate]. Less-than-unit order dependence of the reaction on [FH] and [OH−] was revealed. No pronounced effect on the reaction rate by increasing ionic strength was recorded. Intervention of free radicals was observed in the reaction. The reaction mechanism describing the kinetic results was illustrated which involves formation of 1 : 1 intermediate complex between fluorenone hydrazones and the active species of permanganate. 9H-Fluorenone as the corresponding ketone was found to be the final oxidation product of fluorenone hydrazone as confirmed by GC/MS analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The expression rate law for the oxidation reaction was deduced. The reaction constants and mechanism have been evaluated. The activation parameters associated with the rate-limiting step of the reaction, along with the thermodynamic quantities of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated and discussed. Ahmed Fawzy, Saleh A. Ahmed, Ismail I. Althagafi, Moataz H. Morad, and Khalid S. Khairou Copyright © 2016 Ahmed Fawzy et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:43:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1785938/ L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. Hanaa H. Abd El Baky and Gamal S. El Baroty Copyright © 2016 Hanaa H. Abd El Baky and Gamal S. El Baroty. All rights reserved. Systemic Sarcoidosis Unmasked by Cushing’s Disease Surgical Treatment Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:41:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/6405840/ Diseases responsive to glucocorticoids, like sarcoidosis, are rarely masked by Cushing’s syndrome. An ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma is a possible cause of Cushing’s syndrome and its resection can make a subclinical sarcoidosis clear. Only few cases of sarcoidosis following the treatment of hypercortisolism are reported in literature. We report a case of sarcoidosis after the resection of an ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma. Daniele Bongetta, Cesare Zoia, Francesco Lombardi, Elisabetta Lovati, Pietro Lucotti, and Paolo Gaetani Copyright © 2016 Daniele Bongetta et al. All rights reserved. Clozapine Can Be the Good Option in Resistant Mania Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:35:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2016/3081704/ Bipolar mood disorder is a mental disorder with a lifetime prevalence rate of about 1% in the general population and there are still a proportion of individuals who suffer from bipolar mood disorders that are resistant to standard treatment. Reporting clozapine responsive mania that was not responding to two previous consecutive atypical antipsychotics and one typical antipsychotic was aimed at. A 17-year-old male manic patient was admitted into the psychiatry inpatient department and was nonresponsive to Risperidone 12 mg daily for 4 weeks, Olanzapine 30 mg daily for 3 weeks, and Haloperidol 30 mg daily for 3 weeks, along with valproate preparation 1500 mg daily. He was started on clozapine as he was nonresponsive to Lithium in previous episodes and did not consent to starting Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT). He responded adequately to 100 mg clozapine and 1500 mg valproate preparation and remission happened within 2 weeks of starting clozapine. Clozapine can be a good option for resistant mania and further RCT based evidences will strengthen the options in treating resistant mania. S. M. Yasir Arafat, S. M. Atikur Rahman, Md. Maruful Haque, Mohsin Ali Shah, Sultana Algin, and Jhunu Shamsun Nahar Copyright © 2016 S. M. Yasir Arafat et al. All rights reserved. Endoscopic Resection for Small Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Comparison of Endoscopic Submucosal Resection with Band Ligation and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:31:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6198927/ Background and Aims. There is no consensus so far regarding the optimal endoscopic method for treatment of small rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). The aim of this study was to compare treatment efficacy, safety, and procedure time between endoscopic submucosal resection with band ligation (ESMR-L) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Methods. We conducted a prospective study of patients who visited Inha University Hospital for endoscopic resection of rectal NET (≦10 mm). Pathological complete resection rate, procedure time, and complications were evaluated. Results. A total of 77 patients were treated by ESMR-L () or ESD (). En bloc resection was achieved in all patients. A significantly higher pathological complete resection rate was observed in the ESMR-L group (53/53, 100%) than in the ESD group (13/24, 54.2%) (). The procedure time of ESD ( min) was significantly longer compared to that of ESMR-L ( min) (). Conclusions. Considering the clinical efficacy, technical difficulty, and procedure time, the ESMR-L method should be considered as the first-line therapy for the small rectal NET (≤10 mm). ESD should be left as a second-line treatment for the fibrotic lesion which could not be removed using the ESMR-L method. Byoung Wook Bang, Jin Seok Park, Hyung Kil Kim, Yong Woon Shin, Kye Sook Kwon, and Joon Mee Kim Copyright © 2016 Byoung Wook Bang et al. All rights reserved. Endobronchial Cartilage Rupture: A Rare Cause of Lobar Collapse Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:20:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/8178129/ Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare clinical condition, which can present in patients with severe emphysema with sudden onset shortness of breath. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset shortness of breath. Chest X-ray showed lung hyperinflation and a right lung field vague small density. Chest Computed Tomography confirmed the presence of right middle lobe collapse. Bronchoscopy revealed partial right middle lobe atelectasis and an endobronchial cartilage rupture. Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare condition that can present as sudden onset shortness of breath due to lobar collapse in patients with emphysema and can be triggered by cough. Bronchoscopic findings include finding a collapsed lung lobe and a visible ruptured endobronchial cartilage. A high index of suspicion, chest imaging, and early bronchoscopy can aid in the diagnosis and help prevent complications. Osama Dasa, Nauman Siddiqui, Mohammed Ruzieh, and Toseef Javaid Copyright © 2016 Osama Dasa et al. All rights reserved. Maximization of Visible Light Communication Capacity Employing Quasi-Linear Preequalization with Peak Power Limitation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:08:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6902152/ We propose quasi-linear preequalization to be used for high speed visible light communication (VLC) system. Compared with zero-forcing preequalization, this kind of preequalization method is more suitable for a real VLC experimental system with peak power limitation. We carry out simulations and experiments to test the performance of quasi-linear preequalization. With this equalizer, the 3 dB bandwidth of the system can be extended from 17 MHz to 450 MHz. We implement 2.32 Gbit/s phosphorescent white light-emitting diode (LED) VLC transmission over 1 m distance with quasi-linear equalizer, bit and power loading OFDM, differential amplification positive intrinsic negative diode (PIN) receivers, and maximum ratio combining algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the highest transmission data rate based on a phosphorescent white LED VLC system. Yingjun Zhou, Jianyang Shi, Zhixin Wang, Junwen Zhang, Xingxing Huang, and Nan Chi Copyright © 2016 Yingjun Zhou et al. All rights reserved. On the Existence of Coincidence and Common Fixed Point of Two Rational Type Contractions and an Application in Dynamical Programming Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:05:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/3690421/ We establish some coincidence point results for self-mappings satisfying rational type contractions in a generalized metric space. Presented coincidence point theorems weaken and extend numerous existing theorems in the literature besides furnishing some illustrative examples for our results. Finally, our results apply, in particular, to the study of solvability of functional equations arising in dynamic programming. Ahmed H. Soliman and Tamer Nabil Copyright © 2016 Ahmed H. Soliman and Tamer Nabil. All rights reserved. Improved Correction of Atmospheric Pressure Data Obtained by Smartphones through Machine Learning Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:53:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/9467878/ A correction method using machine learning aims to improve the conventional linear regression (LR) based method for correction of atmospheric pressure data obtained by smartphones. The method proposed in this study conducts clustering and regression analysis with time domain classification. Data obtained in Gyeonggi-do, one of the most populous provinces in South Korea surrounding Seoul with the size of 10,000 km2, from July 2014 through December 2014, using smartphones were classified with respect to time of day (daytime or nighttime) as well as day of the week (weekday or weekend) and the user’s mobility, prior to the expectation-maximization (EM) clustering. Subsequently, the results were analyzed for comparison by applying machine learning methods such as multilayer perceptron (MLP) and support vector regression (SVR). The results showed a mean absolute error (MAE) 26% lower on average when regression analysis was performed through EM clustering compared to that obtained without EM clustering. For machine learning methods, the MAE for SVR was around 31% lower for LR and about 19% lower for MLP. It is concluded that pressure data from smartphones are as good as the ones from national automatic weather station (AWS) network. Yong-Hyuk Kim, Ji-Hun Ha, Yourim Yoon, Na-Young Kim, Hyo-Hyuc Im, Sangjin Sim, and Reno K. Y. Choi Copyright © 2016 Yong-Hyuk Kim et al. All rights reserved. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Causing Colonic Intussusception Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:52:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/7684364/ Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and is caused by a malignant lesion in about 70% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We present a 64-year-old male patient with right colonic intussusception caused by a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), presenting as a giant pedunculated polyp (54 mm of largest diameter). The patient underwent right colectomy with primary anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy. The diagnosis of intussusception of the colon in adults is difficult because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. In this case, the cause was a rare histological type malignant tumor (MANEC). Marina Morais, André Costa Pinho, Ana Marques, Joanne Lopes, Alexandre Duarte, Pedro Correia da Silva, José Manuel Lopes, and J. Costa Maia Copyright © 2016 Marina Morais et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress as Estimated by Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Levels Amplifies the Alkaline Phosphatase-Dependent Risk for Mortality in ESKD Patients on Dialysis Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:51:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/8490643/ Alkaline phosphatase (Alk-Phos) is a powerful predictor of death in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and oxidative stress is a strong inducer of Alk-Phos in various tissues. We tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress, as estimated by a robust marker of systemic oxidative stress like γ-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase (GGT) levels, may interact with Alk-Phos in the high risk of death in a cohort of 993 ESKD patients maintained on chronic dialysis. In fully adjusted analyses the HR for mortality associated with Alk-Phos (50 IU/L increase) was progressively higher across GGT quintiles, being minimal in patients in the first quintile (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.77–1.03) and highest in the GGT fifth quintile (HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03–1.2) ( for the effect modification = 0.02). These findings were fully confirmed in sensitivity analyses excluding patients with preexisting liver disease, excessive alcohol intake, or altered liver disease biomarkers. GGT amplifies the risk of death associated with high Alk-Phos levels in ESKD patients. This observation is compatible with the hypothesis that oxidative stress is a strong modifier of the adverse biological effects of high Alk-Phos in this population. Claudia Torino, Francesco Mattace-Raso, Jan L. C. M. van Saase, Maurizio Postorino, Giovanni Luigi Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Carmine Zoccali, and PROGREDIRE Study Group Copyright © 2016 Claudia Torino et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Presentation, Risk Factors, and Treatment Modalities of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Tertiary Care Center Experience Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:49:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/1989045/ Objective. To investigate the risk factors, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes in Saudi patients with HCC and propose points for early detection of the disease. Methods. Patients were stratified according to underlying risk factors for the development of HCC. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) was used for cancer staging. Treatment was classified into surgical resection/liver transplantation; locoregional ablation therapy; transarterial embolization; systemic chemotherapy; and best supportive care. Results. A total of 235 patients were included. Males had higher tumor size and incidence of portal vein thrombosis. Viral hepatitis was a risk factor in 75.7%. The most common BCLC stages were B (34.5%) and A (33.6%), and the most common radiological presentation was a single nodule of less than 5 cm. Metastases were present in 13.2%. Overall, 77 patients (32.8%) underwent a potentially curative treatment as the initial therapy. The most commonly utilized treatment modality was chemoembolization with 113 sessions in 71 patients. The overall median survival was months. Conclusion. HCC in Saudi Arabia is associated with high prevalence of HCV. Potentially curative therapies were underutilized in our patients. Cancer stage BCLC-B was the most frequent (34.5%) followed by BCLC-A (33.6%). The overall median survival was shorter than other studies. Abdulrahman A. Aljumah, Hadi Kuriry, Mohammed AlZunaitan, Mohammed Al Ghobain, Mohamed Al Muaikeel, Ashwaq Al Olayan, Fahad Azzumeea, Bader Almutairi, Abduljaleel AlAlwan, and Hamdan AlGhamdi Copyright © 2016 Abdulrahman A. Aljumah et al. All rights reserved. Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Frailty: Novel Therapeutic Technologies Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:47:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7242651/ Grazia D’Onofrio, Zhuowei Yu, and Orestes V. Forlenza Copyright © 2016 Grazia D’Onofrio et al. All rights reserved. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in Nodular Goiter Is Associated with Iodine Deficiency in the Follicular Lumen Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:44:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/2492450/ Objective. It has been testified that iodine regulates thyroid function by controlling thyroid-restricted genes expression and is closely related to diffuse goiter and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of follicular lumen iodine, the main form of iodine reserve in the body, on thyroid-restricted genes in nodular goiter are poorly understood. In this study, correlations between follicular lumen iodine and the expressions of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), its transcription factors TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were investigated. Patients. In this study, 30 resection specimens clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and 30 normal thyroid specimens from adjacent tissues of nodular goiter are used. Measurement. Western blot immunohistochemistry was performed to assay TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in thyrocytes of nodular goiter as well as in extranodular normal thyroid tissues. Meanwhile, follicular lumen iodine of both nodular goiter and extranodular normal thyroid tissues was detected as well. Results. The TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were significantly higher than those in the controls. The iodine content in nodular goiter was significantly lower than those in control tissues. Conclusion. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 is associated with low follicular lumen iodine content in nodular goiter. Huibin Huang, Lijun Chen, Bo Liang, Huiyao Cai, Qingyan Cai, and Yaxiong Shi Copyright © 2016 Huibin Huang et al. All rights reserved. Parametric Study of Fuel Distribution Effects on a Kerosene-Based Scramjet Combustor Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:44:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/7604279/ Generally, the overall performance of scramjet combustor is greatly impacted by the fuel distribution scheme. The current paper mainly conducted a comprehensive parametric study of the impact of fuel distribution on the overall performance of a kerosene-based scramjet combustor. Herein, a 3D supersonic combustor with a recessed cavity and four injection orifices was taken into consideration. The combustor’s performance was analyzed by 3D RANS model. The fuel equivalence ratio for each injection port was taken as the design variables. And the combustion efficiency, the total pressure recovery coefficient, and the drag coefficient were chosen as the objective functions. Some novel data mining methods including DOE technique, Kriging approximation model, interaction analysis, and main effects analysis methods were employed to conduct the parametric study. The distributed fuel injection scheme was optimized by nondominated sorting genetic algorithm. The results show that three objective functions were remarkably affected by both of the total fuel equivalence ratio and the fuel distribution scheme. The objective functions cannot reach the optimal solution at the same time, and there must be a tradeoff among the objective functions. Jun Yang, Xian-yu Wu, and Zhen-guo Wang Copyright © 2016 Jun Yang et al. All rights reserved. Modeling Based Characterization of Thermorheological Properties of Polyurethane ESTANE™ Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:43:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2016/7514974/ Shape-Memory Polymers (SMPs) have the ability to be deformed and memorize this deformation until an external activation stimulus (e.g., heat) is applied. Therefore, they have attracted great interest in many areas, especially for applications where reconfigurable structures are required (e.g., Shape-Memory (SM) stents or micro air vehicles). Nevertheless, prior to technical application, the effective thermomechanical behavior of SMPs must be thoroughly understood. In the current contribution, an assessment of thermorheological properties of the commercially available polyurethane system ESTANE is presented. Thermorheological properties were investigated using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) and complementary uniaxial stress relaxation experiments. Upon material parameter optimization, a finite viscoelastic and incompressible material model was used to model experimentally observed viscoelastic properties. Ehsan Ghobadi, Rakulan Sivanesapillai, Jana Musialak, and Holger Steeb Copyright © 2016 Ehsan Ghobadi et al. All rights reserved. An Adaptive Dynamic Surface Controller for Ultralow Altitude Airdrop Flight Path Angle with Actuator Input Nonlinearity Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:42:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4753241/ In the process of ultralow altitude airdrop, many factors such as actuator input dead-zone, backlash, uncertain external atmospheric disturbance, and model unknown nonlinearity affect the precision of trajectory tracking. In response, a robust adaptive neural network dynamic surface controller is developed. As a result, the aircraft longitudinal dynamics with actuator input nonlinearity is derived; the unknown nonlinear model functions are approximated by means of the RBF neural network. Also, an adaption strategy is used to achieve robustness against model uncertainties. Finally, it has been proved that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded and the tracking error converges to a small residual set asymptotically. Simulation results demonstrate the perfect tracking performance and strong robustness of the proposed method, which is not only applicable to the actuator with input dead-zone but also suitable for the backlash nonlinearity. At the same time, it can effectively overcome the effects of dead-zone and the atmospheric disturbance on the system and ensure the fast track of the desired flight path angle instruction, which overthrows the assumption that system functions must be known. Mao-long Lv, Xiu-xia Sun, Shu-guang Liu, and Dong Wang Copyright © 2016 Mao-long Lv et al. All rights reserved. The Potential Role of 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase-Driven DNA Base Excision Repair in Exercise-Induced Asthma Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:40:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3762561/ Asthma is characterized by reversible airway narrowing, shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and other symptoms driven by chronic inflammatory processes, commonly triggered by allergens. In 90% of asthmatics, most of these symptoms can also be triggered by intense physical activities and severely exacerbated by environmental factors. This condition is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Current theories explaining EIA pathogenesis involve osmotic and/or thermal alterations in the airways caused by changes in respiratory airflow during exercise. These changes, along with existing airway inflammatory conditions, are associated with increased cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) affecting important biomolecules including DNA, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. One of the most abundant oxidative DNA lesions is 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), which is repaired by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) during the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Whole-genome expression analyses suggest a cellular response to OGG1-BER, involving genes that may have a role in the pathophysiology of EIA leading to mast cell degranulation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and bronchoconstriction. Accordingly, this review discusses a potential new hypothesis in which OGG1-BER-induced gene expression is associated with EIA symptoms. KarryAnne K. Belanger, Bill T. Ameredes, Istvan Boldogh, and Leopoldo Aguilera-Aguirre Copyright © 2016 KarryAnne K. Belanger et al. All rights reserved. Surface Modification of Polypropylene Membrane Using Biopolymers with Potential Applications for Metal Ion Removal Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:38:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/2742013/ This work aims to present the modification of polypropylene (PP) membranes using three different biopolymers, chitosan (CHI), potato starch (PS), and cellulose (CEL), in order to obtain three new materials. The modified membranes may be degraded easier than polypropylene ones and could be used as selective membranes for metal ions removal, among other applications. For this purpose, the UV energy induced graft copolymerization reaction among polypropylene membrane, acrylic acid, benzophenone (as photoinitiator), and the biopolymer (CHI, PS, or CEL) was conducted. The results of FT-IR-ATR, XRD, TGA, DSC, SEM, BET, and AFM analyses and mechanical properties clearly indicate the successful modification of the membrane surface. The change of surface wettability was monitored by contact angle. The grafting reaction depends on natural polymer, reaction time, and concentration. In order to prove the potential application of the modified membranes, a preliminary study of sorption of metal ion was carried out. For this purpose, the PP-CHI membrane was chosen because of the high hydrophilicity, proportionate to -OH and NH2; these groups could act as ligands of metal ions, provoking the interaction between PP-CHI and M+ (PP-CHI-M+) and therefore the metal ion removal from water. Omar Alberto Hernández-Aguirre, Alejandra Núñez-Pineda, Melina Tapia-Tapia, and Rosa María Gómez Espinosa Copyright © 2016 Omar Alberto Hernández-Aguirre et al. All rights reserved. Celecoxib Adjunctive Treatment to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Review of Randomized Clinical Add-On Trials Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:37:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3476240/ Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic and debilitating mental disorder. Past literature has reported various hypotheses about the psychopathology of schizophrenia. Recently, a growing literature has been trying to explain the role of inflammation in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the past, numerous immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment options have been proposed for schizophrenia, but sometimes the results were inconsistent. Electronic search was carried out in November 2015. PubMed and Scopus databases have been used to find studies to introduce in this review. Only randomized-placebo-controlled add-on trials were taken into account. In this way, six articles were obtained for the discussion. Celecoxib showed beneficial effects mostly in early stages of schizophrenia. In chronic schizophrenia, the data are controversial, possibly in part for methodological reasons. Stefano Marini, Domenico De Berardis, Federica Vellante, Rita Santacroce, Laura Orsolini, Alessandro Valchera, Gabriella Girinelli, Alessandro Carano, Michele Fornaro, Francesco Gambi, Giovanni Martinotti, and Massimo Di Giannantonio Copyright © 2016 Stefano Marini et al. All rights reserved. Macroscopic Neural Oscillation during Skilled Reaching Movements in Humans Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:36:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/2714052/ The neural mechanism of skilled movements, such as reaching, has been considered to differ from that of rhythmic movement such as locomotion. It is generally thought that skilled movements are consciously controlled by the brain, while rhythmic movements are usually controlled autonomously by the spinal cord and brain stem. However, several studies in recent decades have suggested that neural networks in the spinal cord may also be involved in the generation of skilled movements. Moreover, a recent study revealed that neural activities in the motor cortex exhibit rhythmic oscillations corresponding to movement frequency during reaching movements as rhythmic movements. However, whether the oscillations are generated in the spinal cord or the cortical circuit in the motor cortex causes the oscillations is unclear. If the spinal cord is involved in the skilled movements, then similar rhythmic oscillations with time delays should be found in macroscopic neural activity. We measured whole-brain MEG signals during reaching. The MEG signals were analyzed using a dynamical analysis method. We found that rhythmic oscillations with time delays occur in all subjects during reaching movements. The results suggest that the corticospinal system is involved in the generation and control of the skilled movements as rhythmic movements. Hong Gi Yeom, June Sic Kim, and Chun Kee Chung Copyright © 2016 Hong Gi Yeom et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Small Coronary Artery Fistulas Emptying into the Left Ventricle: A Rare but Challenging Problem Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:35:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/2406250/ A coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an abnormal communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or a great vessel. CAFs are rare based on coronary arteriography and when found they most often empty into the right ventricle and atrium and less often into the high pressure, low compliance left ventricle (LV). A patient who presented with atypical chest pain and was found to have multiple small CAFs originating from the ramus intermedius coronary artery and emptying into the LV is presented. This case highlights the challenges in providing an appropriate therapy for multiple small CAFs emptying into the LV. Omar Kahaly and Konstantinos Dean Boudoulas Copyright © 2016 Omar Kahaly and Konstantinos Dean Boudoulas. All rights reserved. Advanced Imaging and Receipt of Guideline Concordant Care in Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:34:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2016/2182985/ Objective. It is unknown whether advanced imaging (AI) is associated with higher quality breast cancer (BC) care. Materials and Methods. Claims and Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data were linked for women diagnosed with incident stage I-III BC between 2002 and 2008 in western Washington State. We examined receipt of preoperative breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or AI (defined as computed tomography [CT]/positron emission tomography [PET]/PET/CT) versus mammogram and/or ultrasound (M-US) alone and receipt of guideline concordant care (GCC) using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of 5247 women, 67% received M-US, 23% MRI, 8% CT, and 3% PET/PET-CT. In 2002, 5% received MRI and 5% AI compared to 45% and 12%, respectively, in 2008. 79% received GCC, but GCC declined over time and was associated with younger age, urban residence, less comorbidity, shorter time from diagnosis to surgery, and earlier year of diagnosis. Breast MRI was associated with GCC for lumpectomy plus radiation therapy (RT) (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, and ) and AI was associated with GCC for adjuvant chemotherapy for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) BC (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.59, and ). Conclusion. GCC was associated with prior receipt of breast MRI and AI for lumpectomy plus RT and adjuvant chemotherapy for ER+ BC, respectively. Elizabeth Trice Loggers, Diana S. M. Buist, Laura S. Gold, Steven Zeliadt, Rachel Hunter Merrill, Ruth Etzioni, Scott D. Ramsey, Sean D. Sullivan, and Larry Kessler Copyright © 2016 Elizabeth Trice Loggers et al. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Sulfide Protects against Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hippocampus by Upregulation of BDNF-TrkB Pathway Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:33:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/2153745/ Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induces hippocampal oxidative stress. H2S functions as a neuroprotectant against oxidative stress in brain. We have previously shown the upregulatory effect of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that H2S prevents CUMS-generated oxidative stress by upregulation of BDNF-TrkB pathway. We showed that NaHS (0.03 or 0.1 mmol/kg/day) ameliorates the level of hippocampal oxidative stress, including reduced levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), as well as increased level of glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of CUMS-treated rats. We also found that H2S upregulated the level of BDNF and p-TrkB protein in the hippocampus of CUMS rats. Furthermore, inhibition of BDNF signaling by K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, blocked the antioxidant effects of H2S on CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress. These results reveal the inhibitory role of H2S in CUMS-induced hippocampal oxidative stress, which is through upregulation of BDNF/TrkB pathway. Min Hu, Wei Zou, Chun-Yan Wang, Xi Chen, Hui-Ying Tan, Hai-Ying Zeng, Ping Zhang, Hong-Feng Gu, and Xiao-Qing Tang Copyright © 2016 Min Hu et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Female University Students’ Knowledge on Menstruation and Their Menstrual Hygiene Practices: A Study in Tamale, Ghana Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:32:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apm/2016/1056235/ Positive perception about menstruation and good menstrual hygiene practice safeguards the health of postpubescent females by reducing their vulnerability to reproductive and urinary tract infections. Using a questionnaire, a cross-sectional study involving 293 randomly selected female undergraduate students in northern Ghana assessed the relationship between knowledge on menstruation and the practice of safe menstrual hygiene. Data collected was analyzed using GraphPad 5.01. This study found that although majority of respondents (73.4%) were aware of menstruation before menarche, most of them experienced fear and panic when it occurred. Mothers were the first to be informed when menstruation occurred, although teachers first provided them knowledge on menstruation. Respondents’ knowledge on menstruation was average (57.3%) but their menstrual hygiene practice was good (80.2%). Age () and course of study () significantly influenced respondents’ knowledge on menstruation with older students as well as the medical and midwifery students being most knowledgeable. Muslim rather than Christian female students practiced better menstrual hygiene (). Average knowledge score on menstruation indicated a deficit of knowledge on the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system. Increasing knowledge on menstruation had a positive and significant effect on practice of good menstrual hygiene. Evans Paul Kwame Ameade and Helene Akpene Garti Copyright © 2016 Evans Paul Kwame Ameade and Helene Akpene Garti. All rights reserved. Adsorption of 3-Chloroaniline on Potato Skin in Aqueous Solution Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:20:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2016/1972395/ The adsorption behaviour of aromatic amine 3-chloroaniline (3-CA) from aqueous solution on fresh potato skin was investigated. A series of batch experiments were conducted under different experimental conditions of contact time, 3-chloroaniline concentration, weight of potato skin, pH, temperature, and ionic strength using RP-HPLC analysis. Adsorption equilibrium of 3-chloroaniline at concentration of 10 µg/mL on 1 g weight of chopped potato skin was achieved in 24 hours. Using different varieties of potato skin showed that the adsorption of 3-CA on Nicola variety is higher compared to Sante and Maris Peer varieties. Adsorption on potato skin was found to be generally higher compared to cortex and pith tissues. Analysis of adsorption isotherm shows that equilibrium data was fitted to Freundlich model (). Maximum adsorption capacities of 3-chloroaniline were found in the pH range from 3 to 9, whereas low adsorption quantities were found in high acidic and high basic solutions (pH 2 and pH 13, resp.). Adsorption capacity increased with an increase in temperature from 4°C to 30°C but decreased with further increase of temperature to 40°C. Testing the ionic strength showed that increasing the concentration of electrolyte reduces the adsorption efficiency. This study indicated that the fresh potato skin (without any treatment) is possible to use as a new adsorbent for removal of 3-chloroaniline from industrial waste water. Nidhal S. Mohammed, T. H. Flowers, and H. J. Duncan Copyright © 2016 Nidhal S. Mohammed et al. All rights reserved. Review of Research on Template Methods in Preparation of Nanomaterials Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:14:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2302595/ The nanomaterials have been widely used in various fields, such as photonics, catalysis, and adsorption, because of their unique physical and chemical properties. Therefore, their production methods are of utmost importance. Compared with traditional synthetic methods, the template method can effectively control the morphology, particle size, and structure during the preparation of nanomaterials, which is an effective method for their synthesis. The key for the template method is to choose different templates, which are divided into hard template and soft template according to their different structures. In this paper, the effects of different types of templates on the morphology of nanomaterials during their preparation are investigated from two aspects: hard template and soft template, combined with the mechanism of action. Yadian Xie, Duygu Kocaefe, Chunying Chen, and Yasar Kocaefe Copyright © 2016 Yadian Xie et al. All rights reserved. Low CD36 and LOX-1 Levels and CD36 Gene Subexpression Are Associated with Metabolic Dysregulation in Older Individuals with Abdominal Obesity Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:10:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/5678946/ Background. Obesity study in the context of scavenger receptors has been linked to atherosclerosis. CD36 and LOX-1 are important, since they have been associated with atherogenic and metabolic disease but not fat redistribution. The aim of our study was to determinate the association between CD36 and LOX-1 in presence of age and abdominal obesity. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study that included 151 healthy individuals, clinically and anthropometrically classified into two groups by age (<30 and ≥30 years old) and abdominal obesity (according to World Health Organization guidelines). We excluded individuals with any chronic and metabolic illness, use of medication, or smoking. Fasting blood samples were taken to perform determination of CD36 mRNA expression by real-time PCR, lipid profile and metabolic and low grade inflammation markers by routine methods, and soluble scavenger receptors (CD36 and LOX-1) by ELISA. Results. Individuals ≥30 years old with abdominal obesity presented high atherogenic index, lower soluble scavenger receptor levels, and subexpression of CD36 mRNA (54% less). On the other hand, individuals <30 years old with abdominal adiposity presented higher levels in the same parameters, except LOX-1 soluble levels. Conclusion. In this study, individuals over 30 years of age presented low soluble scavenger receptors levels pattern and CD36 gene subexpression, which suggest the chronic metabolic dysregulation in abdominal obesity. Perla-Monserrat Madrigal-Ruíz, Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernández, Sandra-Luz Ruíz-Quezada, Fernanda-Isadora Corona-Meraz, Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado, Eduardo Gómez-Bañuelos, Jorge Castro-Albarran, Flavio Sandoval-García, Luis-Javier Flores-Alvarado, and Beatriz-Teresita Martín-Marquez Copyright © 2016 Perla-Monserrat Madrigal-Ruíz et al. All rights reserved. Micro-CT Imaging of RGD-Conjugated Gold Nanorods Targeting Tumor In Vivo Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:05:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/8368154/ Gold nanomaterials as computed tomography (CT) contrast agents at lower X-ray dosage to get a higher contrast have advantages of longer imaging time and lower toxic side effects compared to current contrast agents. As a receptor for Cyclo (Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys) (RGD) peptide, integrin is overexpressed on some tumor cells and tumor neovasculature. In this paper, we conjugated the RGD peptide on the surface of gold nanorods (AuNRs), designated as RGD-AuNRs, a promising candidate in applications such as tumor targeting and imaging capability for micro-CT imaging. Integrin -positive U87 cells and integrin -negative HT-29 cells were chosen to establish animal models relatedly and then texted the tumor targeting ability and imaging capability of RGD-AuNRs in vitro and in vivo. The MTT assay and stability measurement showed that RGD-conjugation eliminated their cytotoxicity and improved their biocompatibility and stability. Dark-field imaging of U87 cells and HT-29 cells testified the binding affinities and uptake abilities of RGD-AuNRs, and the results showed that RGD-AuNRs were more specifical to U87 cells. The enhanced micro-CT imaging contrast of intramuscular and subcutaneous injection illustrated the feasibility of RGD-AuNRs to be contrast agents. Furthermore, the micro-CT imaging of targeting U87 and HT-29 tumor models verified the targeting abilities of RGD-AuNRs. Xiaochao Qu, Xiaoxiao Li, Jingning Liang, Yanran Wang, Muhan Liu, and Jimin Liang Copyright © 2016 Xiaochao Qu et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Absorptions of CdSeTe Quantum Dots under Ultrafast Laser Radiation Mon, 25 Jul 2016 08:04:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/9138059/ The oil-soluble alloyed CdSeTe quantum dots (QDs) are prepared by the electrostatic method. The basic properties of synthesized CdSeTe QDs are characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and transmission electron microscope. The off-resonant nonlinear optical properties of CdSeTe QDs are studied by femtosecond Z-scan at 1 kHz (low-repetition rate) and 84 MHz (high-repetition rate). Nonlinear absorption coefficients are calculated under different femtosecond laser excitations. Due to the long luminescent lifetime of CdSeTe QDs, under the conditions of high-repetition rate, for open-aperture curve, heat accumulation and bleaching of ground state are responsible for the decrease of two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient. Zhijun Chai, Yachen Gao, Degui Kong, and Wenzhi Wu Copyright © 2016 Zhijun Chai et al. All rights reserved. A Dynamic Model of Human and Livestock Tuberculosis Spread and Control in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:56:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3410320/ We establish a dynamical model for tuberculosis of humans and cows. For the model, we firstly give the basic reproduction number . Furthermore, we discuss the dynamical behaviors of the model. By epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis among humans and livestock from 2007 to 2014 in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, we estimate the parameters of the model and study the transmission trend of the disease in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. The reproduction number in Urumqi for the model is estimated to be 0.1811 (95% confidence interval: 0.123–0.281). Finally, we perform some sensitivity analysis of several model parameters and give some useful comments on controlling the transmission of tuberculosis. Shan Liu, Aiqiao Li, Xiaomei Feng, Xueliang Zhang, and Kai Wang Copyright © 2016 Shan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Novel Intelligent and Sensorless Proportional Valve Control with Self-Learning Ability Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:53:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/8141720/ Linear control is widely used for any fluid or air flows in many automobile, robotics, and hydraulics applications. According to signal level, valve can be controlled linearly. But, for many valves, hydraulics or air is not easy to control proportionally because of flows dynamics. As a conventional solution, electronic driver has up and down limits. After manually settling up and down limits, control unit has proportional blind behavior between two points. This study offers a novel valve control method merging pulse width and amplitude modulation in the same structure. Proposed method uses low voltage AC signal to understand the valve position and uses pulse width modulation for power transfer to coil. DC level leads to controlling the valve and AC signal gives feedback related to core moving. Any amplitude demodulator gives core position as voltage. Control unit makes reconstruction using start and end points to obtain linearization at zero control signal and maximum control signal matched to minimum demodulated amplitude level. Proposed method includes self-learning abilities to keep controlling in hard environmental conditions such as dust, temperature, and corrosion. Thus, self-learning helps to provide precision control for hard conditions. Bayram Akdemir Copyright © 2016 Bayram Akdemir. All rights reserved. Study of a Linear Acoustooptic Laser Modulator Based on All-Fibre Sagnac Interferometer Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:51:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aoe/2016/5606417/ The feasibility of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fibre (PM-PCF) strategy for acoustooptic modulation using all-fibre Sagnac interferometer is demonstrated. The principal constraint to apply the strategy is defined by a linear laser acoustooptic modulator (AOM) for 1550 nm. The intensity of incident acoustic waves over the PM-PCF loop segment affected the signal interference transmission; here, modulation by birefringence variation around was observed. It is discovered that, through mathematical analysis, two operation points in the spectrum, , operate in a linear region, and expressions for spectral gain and sensibility are also discovered. AOM has a bandwidth from 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz, and its dynamic range is from 0.0 to 43.5 dB. G. Trinidad García, E. Molina Flores, B. A. Ramírez Solís, and H. Azucena Coyotecatl Copyright © 2016 G. Trinidad García et al. All rights reserved. Dynamical Performances of a Vibration Absorber for Continuous Structure considering Time-Delay Coupling Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:37:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5039796/ The nonlinear effect incurred by time delay in vibration control is investigated in this study via a vibration absorber coupled with a continuous beam structure. The stability of the vibration absorber coupled structure system with time-delay coupling is firstly studied, which provides a general guideline for the potential time delay to be introduced to the system. Then it is shown that there is a specific region for the time delay which can bring bifurcation modes to the dynamic response of the coupling system, and the vibration energy at low frequencies can be transferred or absorbed due to the bifurcation mode and the vibration in the corresponding frequency range is thus suppressed. The nonlinear mechanism of this vibration suppression incurred by the coupling time delay is discussed in detail, which provides a novel and alternative approach to the analysis, design, and control of vibration absorbers in engineering practice. Xiuting Sun and Youshuo Song Copyright © 2016 Xiuting Sun and Youshuo Song. All rights reserved. On the Stability of Quadratic Functional Equations in -Spaces Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:36:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/5636101/ The Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of quadratic functional equation and orthogonal stability of the Pexiderized quadratic functional equation in -spaces are proved. Xiuzhong Yang Copyright © 2016 Xiuzhong Yang. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of a Pharmacist-Led Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic in Rural Perry County, Alabama Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:36:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcd/2016/4304761/ Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients’ paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. Pilar Z. Murphy, Charles Sands, and Frances Ford Copyright © 2016 Pilar Z. Murphy et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viruses in Health Care Workers of a Northern District in Pakistan: Risk Factors and Preventive Behaviors Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:35:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjidmm/2016/2393942/ Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs) are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp.) as compared to general population (4.7%–38%). The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections. Muhammad Zuhaib Khan, Shahab Saqib, Sayed Irtiza Hussain Shah Gardyzi, and Javaria Qazi Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Zuhaib Khan et al. All rights reserved. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:33:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/1927348/ Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. Xiaopeng Tang, Hu Liu, Shufen Yang, Zuohua Li, Jinfeng Zhong, and Rejun Fang Copyright © 2016 Xiaopeng Tang et al. All rights reserved. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:30:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/4727423/ Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. Sarah C. Xu, Angela C. Gauthier, and Ji Liu Copyright © 2016 Sarah C. Xu et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture Alleviates Depressive-Like Symptoms and Modulates BDNF Signaling in 6-Hydroxydopamine Rats Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:15:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7842362/ Previous studies have identified the beneficial effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on motor behaviors in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the role and potential mechanisms of EA in PD-associated depression remain unclear. In the present study, a rat model of PD with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions in the medial forebrain bundle was treated using EA for 4 weeks. We found that 100 Hz EA improved several motor phenotypes. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemical analysis showed that EA had a minimal impact on the TH-positive profiles of the ipsilateral ventral tegmental area. Compared with the 6-OHDA group, long-term EA stimulation significantly increased sucrose solution consumption and decreased immobility time in the forced swim test. EA treatment did not alter dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels in the striatum and hippocampus. Noticeably, EA treatment reversed the 6-OHDA-induced abnormal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in the midbrain and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that EA at 100-Hz possesses the ability to improve depressive-like symptoms in PD rats, which is, at least in part, due to the distinct effect of EA on the mesostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathways. Moreover, BDNF seems to participate in the effect of EA in PD. Min Sun, Ke Wang, Yan Yu, Wen-Ting Su, Xin-Xin Jiang, Jian Yang, Jun Jia, and Xiao-Min Wang Copyright © 2016 Min Sun et al. All rights reserved. The Fifth Dimension Subgroup for Metabelian 2 Groups Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:13:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjm/2016/5342926/ Given a finite metabelian -group , the object of this paper is to discuss some cases under which . Further, some examples of groups of class , for which but , are discussed. Shalini Gupta Copyright © 2016 Shalini Gupta. All rights reserved. Ewing’s Sarcoma as a Second Malignancy in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:11:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2016/5043640/ Modern multimodal treatment has significantly increased survival for patients affected by hematologic malignancies, especially in childhood. Following remission, however, the risk of developing a further malignancy is an important issue. The long-term estimated risk of developing a sarcoma as a secondary malignancy is increased severalfold in comparison to the general population. Ewing’s sarcoma family encompasses a group of highly aggressive, undifferentiated, intra- and extraosseous, mesenchymal tumors, caused by several types of translocations usually involving the EWSR1 gene. Translocation associated sarcomas, such as Ewing sarcoma, are only rarely encountered as therapy associated secondary tumors. We describe the clinical course and management of three patients from a single institution with Ewing’s sarcoma that followed successfully treated lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The literature on secondary Ewing’s sarcoma is summarized and possible pathogenic mechanisms are critically discussed. Fabian Wolpert, Michael A. Grotzer, Felix Niggli, Dieter Zimmermann, Elisabeth Rushing, and Beata Bode-Lesniewska Copyright © 2016 Fabian Wolpert et al. All rights reserved. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:10:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/4065073/ Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands. Joseph Andrews Alves, Barbara Ciralli Boerner, and Diego Andrés Laplagne Copyright © 2016 Joseph Andrews Alves et al. All rights reserved. A Study of Coordinated Vehicle Traction Control System Based on Optimal Slip Ratio Algorithm Mon, 25 Jul 2016 07:09:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3413624/ Under complicated situations, such as the low slippery road surface and split- road surface, traction control system is the key issue to improve the performance of vehicle acceleration and stability. In this paper, a novel control strategy with engine controller and active pressure controller is presented. First and foremost, an ideal vehicle model is proposed for simulation; then a method for the calculation of optimal slip ratio is also brought. Finally, the scheme of control method with engine controller and active brake controller is presented. From the results of simulation and road tests, it can be concluded that the acceleration performance and stability of a vehicle equipped with traction control system (TCS) can be improved. Gang Liu and LiQiang Jin Copyright © 2016 Gang Liu and LiQiang Jin. All rights reserved. Solid Serous Adenoma of the Pancreas: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:56:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/3730249/ Herein, we report a case of a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas which is the 16th case reported worldwide and the first ever reported in Greece. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a hypervascular mass in the tail of the pancreas of a 72-year-old female who presented with mild abdominal pain. Distal pancreatectomy was performed by laparotomy and histological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas. Preoperative diagnosis of a solid-type serous cystadenoma of the pancreas is difficult, and, due to its benign nature, simple excision of the tumor is the recommended treatment. Anastasios Katsourakis, Ioannis Dimitriou, Georgios Noussios, Iosiph Chatzis, and Efthimios Chatzitheoclitos Copyright © 2016 Anastasios Katsourakis et al. All rights reserved. Simulating the Effects of Noncrossing Block Sections Setting Rules on Capacity Loss of Double-Track Railway Line due to the Operation of out-of-Gauge Trains Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:55:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2319437/ Dispatchers often set noncrossing block sections (NCBSs) for railway out-of-gauge train (OGT) running on double-track railway line for safety reasons. In this paper, we will investigate the best location, length, and number of noncrossing block sections to reduce railway capacity loss due to the operation of OGTs. Firstly, yielding, overtaking, stopping, starting, and other operation rules for OGTs running on double-track railway line were designed, and a simulation model based on cellular automata was further put forward. Then, an assessment model for double-track railway line capacity loss due to the operation of OGTs was set up. Some simulation experiments and the comparisons of these results were further given to achieve the optimal setting of NCBS for OGTs running on double-track railway line. In the case of NCBSs number minus one, capacity loss caused by the operation of OGTs can be reduced up to 15.2% in the upstream direction and 6.3% in the downstream direction. Also, the NCBSs should lie at the nearest block sections (BSs) to depot stations and the NCBSs lengths should be as less as possible. Yinggui Zhang, Qiong-fang Zeng, Dingyou Lei, and Xinyu Wang Copyright © 2016 Yinggui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Persistent Primary Hyperparathyroidism, Severe Vitamin D Deficiency, and Multiple Pathological Fractures Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:50:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2016/3016201/ Persistent primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) refers to the sustained hypercalcemia state detected within the first six months following parathyroidectomy. When it coexists with severe vitamin D deficiency, the effects on bone can be devastating. We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who was sent to this center because of persistent hyperparathyroidism. Her disease had over 3 years of evolution with nephrolithiasis and hip fracture. Parathyroidectomy was performed in her local unit; however, she continued with hypercalcemia, bone pain, and pathological fractures. On admission, the patient was bedridden with multiple deformations by fractures in thoracic and pelvic members. Blood pressure was 100/80, heart rate was 86 per minute, and body mass index was 19 kg/m2. Calcium was 14 mg/dL, parathormone 1648 pg/mL, phosphorus 2.3 mg/dL, creatinine 2.4 mg/dL, urea 59 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase 1580 U/L, and vitamin D 4 ng/mL. She received parenteral treatment of hypercalcemia and replenishment of vitamin D. The second surgical exploration was radioguided by gamma probe. A retroesophageal adenoma of 4 cm was resected. Conclusion. Persistent hyperparathyroidism with severe vitamin D deficiency can cause catastrophic skeletal bone softening and fractures. Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta, Mauricio Carvallo-Venegas, Jorge Alberto Vargas-Castilla, Nicolás Ducoing-Sisto, Alfredo Alejandro Páramo-Lovera, Lourdes Josefina Balcázar-Hernández, and Julián Malcolm Mac Gregor-Gooch Copyright © 2016 Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta et al. All rights reserved. Genotypes-Independent Optimization of Nitrogen Supply for Isolated Microspore Cultures in Barley Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:48:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1801646/ To establish a high-efficiency system of isolated microspore culture for different barley genotypes, we investigated the effects of nitrogen sources and concentrations on callus induction and plant regeneration in different barley genotypes. The results showed that the organic nitrogen sources greatly increased the callus induction, and the great reduction of total nitrogen sources would significantly decrease the callus induction. And the further optimization experiments revealed that the increasing of organic nitrogen sources was much important in callus induction while it seemed different in plant regeneration. Based on the great effects of organic nitrogen on callus induction, the medium of N6-ANO1/4-2000 might be the best choice for the microspore culture system. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were clear differences of genetic backgrounds among these barley genotypes, and it also suggested that this medium for microspore culture had widespread utilization in different barley genotypes. Ruiju Lu, Zhiwei Chen, Runhong Gao, Ting He, Yifei Wang, Hongwei Xu, Guimei Guo, Yingbo Li, Chenghong Liu, and Jianhua Huang Copyright © 2016 Ruiju Lu et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Neuroprotective and Cognition-Enhancing Properties of Hydrolysates from Soybean, Walnut, and Peanut Protein Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:39:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/9358285/ Hydrolysates were prepared from soybean, walnut, and peanut protein by papain, respectively. Their amino acid compositions and molecular weight distributions, the effects of various hydrolysates on H2O2-induced injury PC12 cells, and cognition of mice were investigated, respectively. Results showed that the three hydrolysates were dominated by the peptides with 1–3 KDa with large amount of neurotrophic amino acids. All the hydrolysates exhibited much stronger inhibitory activity against H2O2-induced toxicity than cerebrolysin, and soy protein hydrolysate showed the highest activity. Moreover, the hydrolysates also could reduce the rate of nonviable apoptotic cells at the concentration of 2 mg/mL. The test of animal’s cognition indicated that three hydrolysates could present partly better effect of improving recurred memory ability of normal mice and consolidated memory ability of anisodine-treated mice than piracetam. Therefore, soybean, walnut, and peanut protein hydrolysates were recommended as a potential food raw material for prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Wenzhi Li, Tiantian Zhao, Jianan Zhang, Changping Wu, Mouming Zhao, and Guowan Su Copyright © 2016 Wenzhi Li et al. All rights reserved. Embedded Based Miniaturized Universal Electrochemical Sensing Platform Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:39:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/1254368/ We created an embedded sensing platform based on STM32 embedded system, with integrated carbon-electrode ionic sensor by using a self-made plug. Given ration of concentration-unknown nitrate liquid samples, this platform is able to measure the nitrate concentration in neutral environment. Response signals which were transmitted by the sensor can be displayed via a serial port to the computer screen or via Bluetooth to the smartphone. Processed by a fitting function, signals are transformed into related concentration. Through repeating the experiment many times, the accuracy and repeatability turned out to be excellent. The results can be automatically stored on smartphone via Bluetooth. We created this embedded sensing platform for field water quality measurement. This platform also can be applied for other micro sensors’ signal acquisition and data processing. Jiamin Chen, Yihuang Lin, Rui Gong, Jiming Guo, Xiangxiang Zeng, and Juan Liu Copyright © 2016 Jiamin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Diagnosis and Management of a Patient with Congenitally Missing Maxillary First Permanent Molars: A Rare Case Report Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:32:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/5891705/ Congenitally missing teeth are the most commonly seen dental anomalies. Agenesis of the permanent first molar has the least frequency of all the tooth types, and it usually occurs in association with oligodontia or anodontia. Thus, agenesis of the bilateral maxillary first permanent molar is an extremely rare occurrence, and no such case has been reported in ethnic Saudi Arabian population. We hereby report a case of nonsyndromic bilateral congenitally missing maxillary first permanent molar in an eight-year-old Saudi female patient. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was done for the patient. The implications of the tooth agenesis are also discussed. The prognosis of this case is presented. Megha Gupta, Suman Panda, Fahad Ahmed Mutawwam, and Fahad Musawi Mohammed Kariri Copyright © 2016 Megha Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Thermodynamic Product Relations for Generalized Regular Black Hole Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:32:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/8086740/ We derive thermodynamic product relations for four-parametric regular black hole (BH) solutions of the Einstein equations coupled with a nonlinear electrodynamics source. The four parameters can be described by the mass (), charge (), dipole moment (), and quadrupole moment (), respectively. We study its complete thermodynamics. We compute different thermodynamic products, that is, area product, BH temperature product, specific heat product, and Komar energy product, respectively. Furthermore, we show some complicated function of horizon areas that is indeed mass-independent and could turn out to be universal. Parthapratim Pradhan Copyright © 2016 Parthapratim Pradhan. All rights reserved. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:09:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abb/2016/1712831/ Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user. J. Felipe Aguilar-Pereyra and Eduardo Castillo-Castaneda Copyright © 2016 J. Felipe Aguilar-Pereyra and Eduardo Castillo-Castaneda. All rights reserved. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:08:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4793146/ Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. Ying-Ming Yang, Bin Guo, Li-Yang Guo, Yan Yang, Xiao Hong, Hong-Ying Pan, Wen-Ling Zou, and Tao Hu Copyright © 2016 Ying-Ming Yang et al. All rights reserved. Corneal Biomechanics Determination in Healthy Myopic Subjects Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:33:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/2793516/ Purpose. To determine the corneal biomechanical properties by using the Ocular Response Analyzer™ and to investigate potential factors associated with the corneal biomechanics in healthy myopic subjects. Methods. 135 eyes from 135 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Cornea hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc), and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were determined with the Reichert Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to investigate factors associated with corneal biomechanics. Results. The mean CH and CRF were  mmHg and  mmHg, respectively. In univariate regression analysis, CH was significantly correlated with axial length, refraction, central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOPg (, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.21, resp.; all with ), but not with corneal curvature or age; CRF was significantly correlated with CCT and IOPg ( and 0.70, resp.; all with ), but not with axial length/refraction, corneal curvature, or age. In multivariate regression analysis, axial length, IOPcc, and CCT were found to be independently associated with CH, while CCT and IOPg were associated with CRF. Conclusions. Both CH and CRF were positively correlated with CCT. Lower CH but not CRF was associated with increasing degree of myopia. Evaluation of corneal biomechanical properties should take CCT and myopic status into consideration. Kunliang Qiu, Xuehui Lu, Riping Zhang, Geng Wang, and Mingzhi Zhang Copyright © 2016 Kunliang Qiu et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effects of Glutamine, Curcumin, and Nesfatin-1 on the Gastric Serosal Surface Neomucosa Formation: An Experimental Rodent Model Thu, 21 Jul 2016 14:22:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/2081962/ Introduction. Short bowel syndrome can crop up if more than 50% of small intestine is resected or when less than 100 cm of small bowel is left. Glutamine is the main food source of enterocytes. Curcumin has protective effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion damage. Nesfatin-1 is a satiety molecule. It has protective effects on gastric mucosa. The primary purpose of this study is to compare effects of glutamine, curcumin, and nesfatin-1 on the gastric serosal surface neomucosa formation on rats. Materials and Methods. 24 Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated with saline, glutamine, curcumin, and nesfatin-1 after ileogastric anastomosis. After 14 days all rats were euthanized, and blood was collected. En bloc resection of anastomotic part was performed for histopathological examination. Results. PDGF, TGF-β, and VEGF levels and neomucosa formation were higher in glutamine group (, , and ). Glutamine promotes the intestinal neomucosa formation on the gastric serosal surface and augments growth factors essential for neomucosa formation on rats. Conclusion. Glutamine may be used in short bowel syndrome for increasing the absorption surface area. But that needs to be determined by adequately powered clinical trials. Osman Bilgin Gulcicek, Ali Solmaz, Hakan Yiğitbaş, Candas Ercetin, Erkan Yavuz, Kamil Ozdogan, Sinan Arici, Asli Kahraman Akkalp, Tulin Sarac, Fatih Çelebi, and Atilla Celik Copyright © 2016 Osman Bilgin Gulcicek et al. All rights reserved. N-Alkyl-Substituted Isatins Enhance P2X7 Receptor-Induced Interleukin-1β Release from Murine Macrophages Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:47:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/2097219/ Extracellular adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) activates the P2X7 receptor channel to induce the rapid release of the proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, from macrophages. Microtubule rearrangements are thought to be involved in this process. Some isatin derivatives alter microtubules and display anticancer activities. The current study investigated the effect of isatin and seven structurally diverse isatin derivatives on P2X7-mediated IL-1β release from murine J774 macrophages. ATP-induced IL-1β and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were assessed by specific colorimetric assays. P2X7 activity was determined by flow cytometric measurements of ATP-induced cation dye uptake. Cytotoxicity of isatin derivatives was determined using a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay. ATP caused rapid IL-1β release in a concentration-dependent manner, and this process was completely impaired by the P2X7 antagonist, AZ10606120. In contrast, 5,7-dibromo-N-(p-methoxybenzyl)isatin (NAI) and 3-4-[5,7-dibromo-1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidenamino]phenylpropanoic acid (NAI-imine) enhanced P2X7-induced IL-1β release by twofold compared to that of isatin and the parent molecule, 5,7-dibromoisatin. NAI and NAI-imine had minimal effect on P2X7-induced dye uptake and LDH release. In contrast, 24-hour incubation with NAI and NAI-imine (in the absence of exogenous ATP) induced macrophage death in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that N-alkyl-substituted isatins enhance P2X7 receptor-induced IL-1β release from murine macrophages. Thus, in addition to direct anticancer effects, these compounds may also impact inflammatory and immune cells within the tumor microenvironment. Ronald Sluyter and Kara L. Vine Copyright © 2016 Ronald Sluyter and Kara L. Vine. All rights reserved.