Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Nominal Performance of Future Dual Frequency Dual Constellation GBAS Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:31:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/6835282/ In this work an overview of numerous possible processing modes in future dual frequency, dual constellation GBAS is given and compared to the current GAST D standard. We discuss the individual error contributions to GBAS protection levels and give an overview of the general processing. Based on this the consequences when adding a second constellation as well as frequency are investigated. Geometrical implications and changes to the residual differential error bounds are studied separately first. In terms of geometry a comparison between the single and dual constellation case is presented using dilution of precision as metric. The influence on the different sigma contributions when using new satellites (Galileo) and signals (E1, L5, and E5a) is individually discussed based on recent measurements. Final simulations for different varying parameters are carried out to compare relevant processing modes in terms of achieved nominal protection levels. A concluding discussion compares the outcomes and analyzes the implications of choosing one or the other mode. Daniel Gerbeth, Mihaela-Simona Circiu, Maria Caamano, and Michael Felux Copyright © 2016 Daniel Gerbeth et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Teriparatide on Fracture Healing of Osteoporotic Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:30:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6040379/ Purpose. This meta-analysis is to assess the effectiveness of teriparatide in fracture healing and clinical function improvement of the osteoporotic patients. Methods. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane databases for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing teriparatide to placebo, no treatment, or comparator interventions in the osteoporotic patients. Results. Five studies with 251 patients were included. Patients treated with teriparatide therapy had a significant shorter radiological fracture healing time compared with those in the control group (mean difference [MD] −4.54 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] −8.80 to −0.28). Stratified analysis showed that lower limb group had significant shorter healing time (MD −6.24 days, 95% CI −7.20 to −5.29), but upper limb group did not (MD −1 days, 95% CI −2.02 to 0.2). Patients treated with teriparatide therapy showed better functional outcome than those in the control group (standardized mean difference [SMD] −1.02, 95% CI −1.81 to −0.22). Patients with therapy duration over 4 weeks would have better functional outcome (SMD −1.68, 95% CI −2.07 to −1.29). Conclusions. Teriparatide is effective in accelerating fracture healing and improving functional outcome of osteoporotic women. However, more clinical studies are warranted in order to determine whether the results are applicable to males and the clinical indications for teriparatide after osteoporotic fractures. Shenghan Lou, Houchen Lv, Guoqi Wang, Licheng Zhang, Ming Li, Zhirui Li, Lihai Zhang, and Peifu Tang Copyright © 2016 Shenghan Lou et al. All rights reserved. Relevance of 3D Cholangiography and Transient Elastography to Assess Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Liver Disease? Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:28:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2016/4592702/ Background. Cystic fibrosis-associated liver disease (CFLD) is a major cause of death. The objective of our retrospective study was to describe the relevance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) for CFLD evaluation. Methods. All cystic fibrosis adult patients evaluated by MRI and LSM were included. MR signs of portal hypertension (PHT), dysmorphia, or cholangitis were collected and LSM expressed in kPa and Metavir. Results. Of 25 patients, 52% had abnormal MRI. Median LSM was 5.7 kPa (3.4–9.9). Three patients had F2 score and one had F3 score. In patients with PHT, LSM was 7.85 kPa (3.7–9.9) compared to 5 (3.4–7.5) in others, . In patients with abnormal liver function tests, 50% had increased LSM (≥F2), whereas 94% with normal tests had normal LSM (). Seven patients had abnormal MRI despite normal ultrasonography. Conclusions. MRI and LSM provide useful information on CFLD and may help to screen patients with PHT. C. Lemaitre, S. Dominique, E. Billoud, M. Eliezer, H. Montialoux, M. Quillard, G. Riachi, E. Koning, H. Morisse-Pradier, G. Savoye, C. Savoye-Collet, and O. Goria Copyright © 2016 C. Lemaitre et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA-21 Promotes Proliferation of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes through Mediation of NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in a Rat Model of Collagen-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:28:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9279078/ MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-21 on cell proliferation in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA. FLS were primary-cultured from a rat RA model. RA-FLS and normal FLS were infected with lentivirus (anti-miR-21 or pro-miR-21) for overexpression or downregulation of miR-21, respectively. The effects of miR-21 overexpression or inhibition on nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and FLS cell proliferation were evaluated by western blotting and MTT assays. The effects of an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation (BAY 11-7082) were also evaluated. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 and nucleoprotein NF-κB were increased in FLS of RA model rats compared to the control group. Downregulation of miR-21 in RA FLS led to a significant decrease in nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the antinegative control (NC) group. However, miR-21 overexpression in normal FLS resulted in a significant increase of nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the pro-NC group. The effects of miR-21 overexpression were reversed by BAY 11-7082. We concluded that upregulated miR-21 in FLS in RA model rats may promote cell proliferation by facilitating NF-κB nuclear translocation, thus affecting the NF-κB pathway. Ying Chen, Pei-Feng Xian, Lu Yang, and Sheng-Xu Wang Copyright © 2016 Ying Chen et al. All rights reserved. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:28:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/4371367/ Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions. V. R. Ferraz, G. B. Aguiar, J. L. Vitorino-Araujo, G. L. Badke, and J. C. E. Veiga Copyright © 2016 V. R. Ferraz et al. All rights reserved. Tau-Centric Targets and Drugs in Clinical Development for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3245935/ The failure of several Phase II/III clinical trials in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with drugs targeting β-amyloid accumulation in the brain fuelled an increasing interest in alternative treatments against tau pathology, including approaches targeting tau phosphatases/kinases, active and passive immunization, and anti-tau aggregation. The most advanced tau aggregation inhibitor (TAI) is methylthioninium (MT), a drug existing in equilibrium between a reduced (leuco-methylthioninium) and oxidized form (MT+). MT chloride (methylene blue) was investigated in a 24-week Phase II clinical trial in 321 patients with mild to moderate AD that failed to show significant positive effects in mild AD patients, although long-term observations (50 weeks) and biomarker studies suggested possible benefit. The dose of 138 mg/day showed potential benefits on cognitive performance of moderately affected AD patients and cerebral blood flow in mildly affected patients. Further clinical evidence will come from the large ongoing Phase III trials for the treatment of AD and the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia on a new form of this TAI, more bioavailable and less toxic at higher doses, called TRx0237. More recently, inhibitors of tau acetylation are being actively pursued based on impressive results in animal studies obtained by salsalate, a clinically used derivative of salicylic acid. Francesco Panza, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Davide Seripa, Bruno P. Imbimbo, Madia Lozupone, Andrea Santamato, Chiara Zecca, Maria Rosaria Barulli, Antonello Bellomo, Alberto Pilotto, Antonio Daniele, Antonio Greco, and Giancarlo Logroscino Copyright © 2016 Francesco Panza et al. All rights reserved. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:27:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/3479132/ Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20–30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable  cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma. Omar AlShalabi, Fadi Obaied Alahmar, Hazem Aljasem, Bayan Alsaid, and Abdulghani AlShalabi Copyright © 2016 Omar AlShalabi et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Methanol on Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Cationic Surfactants at 298.15 to 323.15 K Sun, 26 Jun 2016 13:26:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/2176769/ Viscosity measurements have been made to the solutions of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.40 volume fractions of methanol in methanol-water mixed solvent media at 298.15, 308.15, 318.15, and 323.25 K. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) values have been determined. From relative viscosity for surfactant solutions, related viscosity B coefficients are calculated and the values are interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions. Sujit Kumar Shah, Sujeet Kumar Chatterjee, and Ajaya Bhattarai Copyright © 2016 Sujit Kumar Shah et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Water-Glass Coating on HA and HA-TCP Samples for MSCs Adhesion, Proliferation, and Differentiation Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:34:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9758729/ Ca-P and silicon based materials have become very popular as bone tissue engineering materials. In this study, water-glass (also known as sodium silicate glass) was coated on sintered hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-TCP (TCP stands for tricalcium phosphate) samples and subsequently heat-treated at 600°C for 2 hrs. X-rays diffraction showed the presence of β- and α-TCP phases along with HA in the HA-TCP samples. Samples without coating, with water-glass coating, and heat-treated after water-glass coating were used to observe the adhesion and proliferation response of bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Cell culture was carried out for 4 hrs, 1 day, and 7 days. Interestingly, all samples showed similar response for cell adhesion and proliferation up to 7-day culture but fibronectin, E-cadherin, and osteogenic differentiation related genes (osteocalcin and osteopontin) were significantly induced in heat-treated water-glass coated HA-TCP samples. A water-glass coating on Ca-P samples was not found to influence the cell proliferation response significantly but activated some extracellular matrix genes and induced osteogenic differentiation in the MSCs. Indu Bajpai, Duk Yeon Kim, Jung Kyong-Jin, In-Hwan Song, and Sukyoung Kim Copyright © 2016 Indu Bajpai et al. All rights reserved. Synchronization for a Class of Uncertain Fractional Order Chaotic Systems with Unknown Parameters Using a Robust Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:27:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7404652/ This paper deals with the synchronization of a class of fractional order chaotic systems with unknown parameters and external disturbance. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a fractional order sliding mode is constructed and a controller is proposed to realize chaos synchronization. The presented method not only realizes the synchronization of the considered chaotic systems but also enhances the robustness of sliding mode synchronization. Finally, some simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Yan Yan Copyright © 2016 Yan Yan. All rights reserved. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:25:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2016/7201082/ Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI -score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI -score. Child BMI -score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI -score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI -score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored. Sheryl O. Hughes, Thomas G. Power, Teresia M. O’Connor, Jennifer Orlet Fisher, and Tzu-An Chen Copyright © 2016 Sheryl O. Hughes et al. All rights reserved. First-Episode of Synthetic Cannabinoid-Induced Psychosis in a Young Adult, Successfully Managed with Hospitalization and Risperidone Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:22:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2016/7257489/ Synthetic cannabinoids- (SCs-) induced psychosis is a growing public health concern. It leads to significant impairment, including emotional distress, difficulty communicating, and other debilitating symptoms. In this case report, we discuss a patient with no previous history of psychotic symptoms, presenting with first-episode psychosis in the context of progressive, acutely worsening, disorganized, psychotic thoughts and behaviors following prolonged use of SCs. We also discuss relevant literature on SCs-induced psychosis, highlighting its prevalence, presentation, diagnosis, and recommended management. It is important to diagnose and treat SCs-induced psychosis as early and efficiently as possible, in order to alleviate symptoms while limiting functional impairment and emotional distress to the patient. Aaron J. Roberto, Aileen Lorenzo, Kevin J. Li, Jonathan Young, Abhishek Mohan, Subhash Pinnaka, and Kyle A. B. Lapidus Copyright © 2016 Aaron J. Roberto et al. All rights reserved. Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Mixture on Glycemic Control and Inflammatory Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:17:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/5190846/ Objective. This trial aims to examine the effects of a Probiotic Mixture (VSL#3) on glycemic status and inflammatory markers, in women with GDM. Materials and Methods. Over a period of 8 weeks, 82 women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group () which were given VSL#3 capsule or to a control group which were given placebo capsule (). Fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, Interferon gamma, and interleukin-10 were measured before and after the intervention. Results. After 8 wk of supplementation FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels remained unchanged in the probiotic and placebo groups. The comparison between the two groups showed no significant differences with FPG and HbA1c, but there were significant differences in insulin levels and HOMA-IR (; , resp.). Unlike the levels of IFN-g (), there was a significant decrease in levels of IL-6 (), TNF-α (), and hs-CRP (). No significant increase was observed in IL-10 () in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Conclusions. In women with GDM, supplementation with probiotics (VSL#3) may help to modulate some inflammatory markers and may have benefits on glycemic control. Sadegh Jafarnejad, Sadaf Saremi, Farzan Jafarnejad, and Arman Arab Copyright © 2016 Sadegh Jafarnejad et al. All rights reserved. An Advanced Control and Extensible Configuration for Static Var Generator Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:16:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2095973/ An extensible configuration is proposed for static var generator (SVG) with advanced controller included for reactive power compensation of grid. Compared with the traditional configurations, the major advantage of such system configuration is that the power modules are very flexible and easy to extend or reduce without changing the main equipment of SVG under the different voltage levels. Furthermore, in order to solve the problems of modeling uncertainty, nonlinearities, and outside disturbance by using proportion integration (PI) controller, an advanced controller is proposed based on auto disturbance rejection control (ADRC). By controlling the amount and direction of reactive current, the reactive power is generated or absorbed from SVG into power grid with fast response, which can realize the excellent dynamic compensation for both the internal and external interferences. Simulations results show that the proposed controller has better performance of the transient and steady state than PI controller. Moreover, the verification tests are executed in 380 V, 6.5 kVA experiment systems, suggesting that the excellent dynamic performance and strong robustness are achieved. Chao Zhang, Aimin Zhang, Ying Cui, and Tao Wen Copyright © 2016 Chao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Atypical Chest Pain: An Unusual Presentation of Spinal Metastasis due to Penile Carcinoma Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:13:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/7284070/ Spinal metastases may present in a myriad of ways, most commonly back pain with or without neurology. We report an unusual presentation of isolated atypical chest pain preceding metastatic cord compression, secondary to penile carcinoma. Spinal metastasis from penile carcinoma is rare with few cases reported. This unusual presentation highlights the need for a heightened level of clinical suspicion for spinal metastases as a possible cause for chest pain in any patients with a history of carcinoma. The case is discussed with reference to the literature. Sarah Pywell, Shumaila Hasan, Mohammad Zain Sohail, Georgios Mamarelis, Cameron Dott, Mohammad Taimur Khan, and Naveethan Sivanadarajah Copyright © 2016 Sarah Pywell et al. All rights reserved. Recurrent Interstitial Pneumonitis in a Patient with Entero-Behçet’s Disease Initially Treated with Mesalazine Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:13:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2016/5636489/ A 65-year-old man with entero-Behçet’s disease (BD) being treated with mesalazine was presented to our hospital complaining of dyspnea. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest showed ground-glass opacities and he was initially diagnosed with mesalazine-induced interstitial pneumonitis (IP). Besides the discontinuation of mesalazine, a high dose of oral prednisolone was administered and the patient seemed to recover. However, four months later, dyspnea recurred and repeated CT revealed more extensive pulmonary infiltration despite steroid therapy. After the exclusion of infections, we suspected either a recurrence of mesalazine-induced IP or BD-related IP as a clinical manifestation of BD. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, followed by orally administered azathioprine, based on the assumption of underlying vasculitis. Thereafter, his condition improved. BD-related IP is an extremely rare condition with limited reports in the literature. Mesalazine-induced IP is also uncommon but the prognosis is generally good after discontinuation of mesalazine with or without steroid therapy. We discuss an extremely rare case, especially focusing on BD-related IP and mesalazine-induced IP as a potential cause of recurrent IP in a patient with entero-BD. Akihiro Nakamura, Tomoya Miyamura, Brian Wu, and Eiichi Suematsu Copyright © 2016 Akihiro Nakamura et al. All rights reserved. Metastatic Breast Carcinoma to the Prostate Gland Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:13:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2016/8264140/ Cancer of the male breast is an uncommon event with metastases to the breast occurring even less frequently. Prostate carcinoma has been reported as the most frequent primary to metastasize to the breast; however, the reverse has not been previously reported. Herein, we present, for the first time, a case of breast carcinoma metastasizing to the prostate gland. Prostate needle core biopsy revealed infiltrative nests of neoplastic epithelioid cells, demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to be positive for GATA3 and ER and negative for PSA and P501S. A prostate cocktail by IHC study demonstrated lack of basal cells (p63 and CK903) and no expression of P501S. The patient’s previous breast needle core biopsy showed strong ER positivity and negative staining for PR and HER2. Similar to the prostate, the breast was negative for CK5/6, p63, and p40. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a broad differential diagnosis and comparing histology and IHC to prior known malignancies in the setting of atypical presentation or rare tumors. Meghan E. Kapp, Giovanna A. Giannico, and Mohamed Mokhtar Desouki Copyright © 2016 Meghan E. Kapp et al. All rights reserved. Pectoralis Minor Syndrome: Case Presentation and Review of the Literature Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:12:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/8456064/ We present a case of a healthy young female with axillary vein compression caused by the pectoralis minor muscle. Diagnosis was made by clinical findings and dynamic venography. After pectoralis minor tenotomy, the patient had total resolution of her symptoms. Compression of the axillary vein by the pectoralis minor is a rare entity that needs a careful exam and imaging to reach its diagnosis and establish the appropriate treatment. Mohammed Abdallah, Mohammad Rachad Wehbe, Elias Elias, Muhammad Aghiad Kutoubi, and Roger Sfeir Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Abdallah et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of Catalpol, Aucubin, and Geniposidic Acid in Different Developmental Stages of Rehmannia glutinosa Leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:12:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2016/4956589/ Although R. glutinosa roots are currently the only organ source in clinics, its leaves are a potential supplement for the roots especially in extraction of some important bioactive compounds. Our early work found that the contents of catalpol and total iridoid glycosides varied among different developmental stages of R. glutinosa leaves. Aucubin and geniposidic acid, the abundant major bioactive compounds in Eucommia ulmoides and Gardenia jasminoides, respectively, were found present in R. glutinosa roots, however, and have not been analyzed in its leaves. In this paper, we aimed to determine contents of these three iridoid glycosides in different developmental stages of R. glutinosa leaves using the optimized HPLC-UV conditions. Our results showed that aucubin and GPA in R. glutinosa leaves were much lower than catalpol and showed the increasing trend with the leaf development, which was different from catalpol. This work provided the important information for future exploitation of R. glutinosa leaves as a potential supplement for its roots in extraction of some important bioactive compounds and studying the relationship of aucubin and catalpol metabolism. Yanjie Wang, Dengqun Liao, Minjian Qin, and Xian’en Li Copyright © 2016 Yanjie Wang et al. All rights reserved. First Case of Lung Abscess due to Salmonella enterica Serovar Abony in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:10:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3159031/ In healthy individuals, nontyphoidal Salmonella species predominantly cause a self-limited form of gastroenteritis, while they infrequently invade or cause fatal disease. Extraintestinal manifestations of nontyphoidal Salmonella infections are not common and mainly occur among individuals with specific risk factors; among them, focal lung infection is a rare complication caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella strains typically occurring in immunocompromised patients with prior lung disease. We describe the first case of a localized lung abscess formation in an immunocompetent healthy female adult due to Salmonella enterica serovar Abony. The patient underwent lobectomy and was discharged after full clinical recovery. This case report highlights nontyphoidal Salmonellae infections as a potential causative agent of pleuropulmonary infections even in immunocompetent healthy adults. Vassiliki Pitiriga, John Dendrinos, Emanuel Nikitiadis, Georgia Vrioni, and Athanassios Tsakris Copyright © 2016 Vassiliki Pitiriga et al. All rights reserved. The Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Peri-Implantitis Sun, 26 Jun 2016 12:01:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2016/7692387/ Introduction. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of addition of the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to the conventional approach in the treatment of peri-implantitis. Materials and Methods. Forty patients were randomly assigned to test or control groups. Patients were assessed at baseline and at six (T1), twelve (T2), and twenty-four (T3) weeks recording plaque index (PlI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BOP); control group received conventional periodontal therapy, while test group received photodynamic therapy in addition to it. Result. Test group showed a 70% reduction in the plaque index values and a 60% reduction in PD values compared to the baseline. BOP and suppuration were not detectable. Control group showed a significative reduction in plaque index and PD. Discussion. Laser therapy has some advantages in comparison to traditional therapy, with faster and greater healing of the wound. Conclusion. Test group showed after 24 weeks a better value in terms of PPD, BOP, and PlI, with an average pocket depth value of 2 mm, if compared with control group (3 mm). Our results suggest that antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with diode laser and phenothiazine chloride represents a reliable adjunctive treatment to conventional therapy. Photodynamic therapy should, however, be considered a coadjuvant in the treatment of peri-implantitis associated with mechanical (scaling) and surgical (grafts) treatments. Umberto Romeo, Gianna Maria Nardi, Fabrizio Libotte, Silvia Sabatini, Gaspare Palaia, and Felice Roberto Grassi Copyright © 2016 Umberto Romeo et al. All rights reserved. Growth, Development, and Water Consumption of Irrigated Bean Crop Related to Growing Degree-Days on Different Soil Tillage Systems in Southeast Brazil Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:58:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2016/8065985/ Degree-days may be an alternative for predicting the influence of temperature on physiological aspects of plants in a changing climate. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relation between cumulative degree-days index () and the development, growth, and water consumption of irrigated bean under different soil tillage systems (STS). We developed an experiment in Southeast Brazil in plots managed with the following STS: chisel ploughing (CP), disk ploughing (DP), and revolving hoe (RH). The treatments did not influence the crop phenology when correlated to . The parameters of canopy ground cover, leaf area index, total dry matter, and the plant height presented a highly significant relationship with (). We also compared the results of field water balance with a simulation developed between the crop coefficient and and found a strong relationship ( = 0.93∗∗; ∗∗: high statistical significance ()) between these measurements and the model. The total water consumption measured at the irrigated bean crop reached 383 mm, 386 mm, and 375 mm while that simulated from dual crop coefficient approach based on reached 378 mm, 373 mm, and 349 mm to CP, DP, and RH, respectively, representing a mean difference of 4.2%. Gerson Araujo de Medeiros, Luiz Antonio Daniel, and Felipe Hashimoto Fengler Copyright © 2016 Gerson Araujo de Medeiros et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring of Glucose in Beer Brewing by a Carbon Nanotubes Based Nylon Nanofibrous Biosensor Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:53:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5217023/ This work presents the design, preparation, and characterization of a novel glucose electrochemical biosensor based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOX) into a nylon nanofibrous membrane (NFM) prepared by electrospinning and functionalized with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT). A disc of such GOX/CNT/NFM membrane (40 μm in thickness) was used for coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The resulting biosensor was characterized by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, with ferrocene methanol as mediator. The binding of GOX around the CNT/NFM greatly enhances the electron transfer, which results in a biosensor with a current five times higher than without CNT. The potential usefulness of the proposed biosensor was demonstrated with the analysis of glucose in commercial beverages and along the monitoring of the brewing process for making beer, from the mashing to the fermentation steps. Marco Mason, Edoardo Longo, and Matteo Scampicchio Copyright © 2016 Marco Mason et al. All rights reserved. Histiocytic Sarcoma Associated with Coombs Negative Acute Hemolytic Anemia: A Rare Presentation Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:52:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2016/3179147/ Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) rarely involves extranodal sites, such as the spleen. We report a unique pediatric case of massive splenomegaly and refractory Coombs negative hemolytic anemia (CNHA) secondary to HS. The CNHA resolved completely after an emergent splenectomy. Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed novel ASXL1, PTPN11, KIT, and TP53 mutations, unmasking a clonal heterogeneity within the same neoplasm. Sandeep Batra, Stephen C. Martin, Mehdi Nassiri, Amna Qureshi, and Troy A. Markel Copyright © 2016 Sandeep Batra et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Patient Weight and Provider Training and Experience on Dosing of Rocuronium Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:49:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arp/2016/3136895/ Introduction. Maintenance dosing of neuromuscular blocking agents is complex and varies with patient, procedure, and clinical situation. With this in mind, we sought to identify factors impacting the maintenance dosing of neuromuscular blockers as a step toward identifying best practice with respect to minimizing residual neuromuscular blockade. Methods. Cases utilizing rocuronium from July 1, 2010, to June 30, 2014, at the sponsoring institution were analyzed. Using a mixed model to account for repeated measures, patients were analyzed by dose and weight category as defined by the World Health Organization (eight categories ranging from very severely underweight to very severely obese) as well as by the administering provider’s level of experience. Results. The study included 12,671 patients with a mean age of 49.7 (SD 16.7). Increasing weight category and higher levels of provider experience were associated with higher doses for rocuronium. There were no differences in initial dose or in frequency of maintenance dosing by weight category after controlling for case length. Discussion. The two dosing patterns identified, higher doses for overweight patients and higher doses administered by experienced providers, are modifiable factors that could enhance patient safety. N. C. Godwin, L. Rodriguez, S. Banks, B. T. Major, and Y. Rodriguez Copyright © 2016 N. C. Godwin et al. All rights reserved. Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, and Toxicological Evaluation of Traditional Herbs Used to Treat Sore Throat Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:28:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8503426/ The in vitro antibacterial activities of 29 traditional medicinal plants used in respiratory ailments were assessed on multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the sore throat patients and two reference strains. The methanolic, n-hexane, and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar well diffusion assay. Bioactive fractions of effective extracts were identified on TLC coupled with bioautography, while their toxicity was determined using haemolytic assay against human erythrocytes. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of effective extracts was also performed. Methanolic extract of 18 plants showed antimicrobial activity against test strains. Adhatoda vasica (ZI = 17–21 mm, MIC: 7.12–62.5 μg/mL), Althaea officinalis (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 15.62–31.25 μg/mL), Cordia latifolia (ZI = 16–20 mm, MIC: 12.62–62.5 μg/mL), Origanum vulgare (ZI = 20–22 mm, MIC: 3–15.62 μg/mL), Thymus vulgaris (ZI = 21–25 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL), and Ziziphus jujuba (ZI = 14–20 mm, MIC: 7.81–31.25 μg/mL) showed significant antibacterial activity. Alkaloid fractions of Adhatoda vasica, Cordia latifolia, and Origanum vulgare and flavonoid fraction of the Althaea officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Thymus Vulgaris, and Ziziphus jujuba exhibited antimicrobial activity. Effective plant extracts show 0.93–0.7% erythrocyte haemolysis. The results obtained from this study provide a scientific rationale for the traditional use of these herbs and laid the basis for future studies to explore novel antimicrobial compounds. Arifa Mehreen, Muzzamil Waheed, Iram Liaqat, and Najma Arshad Copyright © 2016 Arifa Mehreen et al. All rights reserved. Radioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins In Vitro and In Vivo Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:23:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/5706751/ We have demonstrated that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) could effectively scavenge hydroxyl radical () in a dose-dependent manner. Since most of the ionizing radiation- (IR-) induced injuries were caused by , this study was to investigate whether GSPs would mitigate IR-induced injuries in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that GSPs could significantly reduce IR-induced DNA strand breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis of human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells. This study also showed that GSPs could protect white blood cells (WBC) from IR-induced injuries, speed up the weight of mice back, and decrease plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), thus improving the survival rates of mice after ionizing radiation. It is suggested that GSPs have a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent. Yijuan Huang, Hainan Zhao, Kun Cao, Ding Sun, Yanyong Yang, Cong Liu, Jianguo Cui, Ying Cheng, Bailong Li, Jianming Cai, and Fu Gao Copyright © 2016 Yijuan Huang et al. All rights reserved. Sectorization and Configuration Transition in Airspace Design Sun, 26 Jun 2016 11:04:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6048326/ Current airspace is sectorized according to some predefined rules that are not flexible. To facilitate utilizing the airspace more efficiently, methods to design sectors need to be promoted. In this paper, we propose an undirected graph cut-based approach that employs a memetic local search-embedded constrained evolution algorithm, NSGA-II, to generate nondominated airspace configurations. We also propose a new concave hull-based method to automatically depict sector boundaries. In addition, we also study the configuration transition problem. We define the similarity of the two different configurations and calculate their similarity with a bisection diagram and a minimum cost flow algorithm. We build a forward network to represent configuration transitions across several consecutive time periods and use multiobjective dynamic programming to determine a series of nondominated configuration links from the first period to the end. We test our approaches by simulation in high-altitude airspace controlled by Beijing Area Control Center. The results show that our sectorization method outperforms the current configuration in practice, providing a lower sector number, lower intersector flow, more balanced workload distribution among the different sectors, and no constraint violations, so that the proposed approach shows its significant potential as practical applications for dynamic airspace configuration. Xiang Zou, Peng Cheng, Bang An, and Jingyan Song Copyright © 2016 Xiang Zou et al. All rights reserved. Fractured Ribs and the CT Funky Fat Sign of Diaphragmatic Rupture Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:55:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2016/6723632/ Traumatic diaphragmatic rupture remains a diagnostic challenge for both radiologists and surgeons. In recent years, multidetector CT has markedly improved the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury in polytrauma patients. Herein, we describe two cases of subacute presentation of traumatic diaphragmatic rupture from a penetrating rib fracture and subsequent intrathoracic herniation of omental fat, representing the CT “funky fat” sign. Iclal Ocak and Diane C. Strollo Copyright © 2016 Iclal Ocak and Diane C. Strollo. All rights reserved. On Cluster -Algebras Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:55:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/9639875/ We introduce a -algebra attached to the cluster and a quiver . If is the quiver coming from triangulation of the Riemann surface with a finite number of cusps, we prove that the primitive spectrum of times is homeomorphic to a generic subset of the Teichmüller space of surface . We conclude with an analog of the Tomita-Takesaki theory and the Connes invariant for the algebra . Igor V. Nikolaev Copyright © 2016 Igor V. Nikolaev. All rights reserved. Relationship-Building Skills of Child-Rearing Mothers in Japanese Communities Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:49:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2016/9091039/ This study elucidated the skills of mothers who used to build positive interpersonal relationships with people they met through child-rearing. The research method was qualitative descriptive study. The participants were 24 mothers who had children between ages of one and four years. These participants were recruited at child-rearing salons and childcare centers located in various municipalities in Japan. The survey period was from September 2013 to July 2014. The mothers’ interpersonal relationship-building skills were described by six categories: “ability to strive for new encounters,” “ability to try to interact socially with others,” “ability to choose compatible people,” “ability to continuously maintain good relationships,” “ability to take action suitable to a situation,” and “ability to build positive relationships with parents-in-law.” Cognitive aspects of assessing and understanding the interactions that occur during exchanges and behavioral aspects guided by these cognitions were identified within these skills. This study contributed to providing a framework to understand mothers’ interpersonal relationship-building skills for public health nurses involved in child-rearing support. Hikaru Honda, Nobuko Matsuda, Michiyo Hirano, and Kazuko Saeki Copyright © 2016 Hikaru Honda et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Calcium Phosphate and Apatite Containing Products on Enamel Erosion Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:47:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/7959273/ For the purpose of erosion prevention the present study aimed to compare the efficacy of two biomimetic products and a fluoride solution to optimize the protective properties of the pellicle. After 1 min of in situ pellicle formation on bovine enamel slabs, 8 subjects adopted CPP-ACP (GC Tooth Mousse), a mouthwash with hydroxyapatite microclusters (Biorepair), or a fluoride based mouthwash (elmex Kariesschutz) for 1 min each. Afterwards, samples were exposed in the oral cavity for 28 min. Native enamel slabs and slabs exposed to the oral cavity for 30 min without any rinse served as controls. After oral exposure, slabs were incubated in HCl (pH values 2, 2.3, and 3) for 120 s and kinetics of calcium and phosphate release were measured photometrically; representative samples were evaluated by SEM and TEM. The physiological pellicle reduced demineralization at all pH values; the protective effect was enhanced by fluoride. The biomimetic materials also reduced ion release but their effect was less pronounced. SEM indicated no layer formation after use of the different products. However, TEM confirmed the potential accumulation of mineral components at the pellicle surface. The tested products improve the protective properties of the in situ pellicle but not as effectively as fluorides. A. Kensche, S. Pötschke, C. Hannig, G. Richter, W. Hoth-Hannig, and M. Hannig Copyright © 2016 A. Kensche et al. All rights reserved. Transvaginal Hybrid NOTES Procedure for Treatment of Gallstone Ileus Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:11:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/9513874/ Gallstone ileus is a rare mechanical bowel obstruction, and previously reported cases have been treated laparoscopically with good results. Although transvaginal hybrid NOTES without a minilaparotomy has been reported to decrease the incidence of surgical wound complications, to our knowledge, this procedure has not been used previously to treat gallstone ileus. We present a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent transvaginal hybrid NOTES procedure for treatment of gallstone ileus. This case was admitted to our hospital following acute-onset abdominal pain and vomiting. We diagnosed gallstone ileus with cholecystoduodenal fistula by computed tomography and performed totally laparoscopic surgery using only three 5 mm abdominal ports with transvaginal specimen extraction and enterectomy. The patient’s postoperative course was uneventful, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and fistula repair were performed 8 months after the initial surgery. The patient experienced additional pain relief and good cosmetic outcomes. In conclusion, using transvaginal hybrid NOTES may become a future option to minimize the invasiveness of other laparoscopic procedures. Takuya Shiraishi, Naoki Tomizawa, Tatsumasa Andoh, Kazuhisa Arakawa, Yasuaki Enokida, and Naoya Ozawa Copyright © 2016 Takuya Shiraishi et al. All rights reserved. Aplasia Cutis Congenita of the Scalp with a Familial Pattern Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:11:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/4264721/ Aplasia Cutis Congenita (ACC) is a condition characterized by congenital absence of skin, usually on the scalp. ACC can occur as an isolated condition or in the presence of other congenital anomalies. Here we describe a case of a 16-day-old baby girl with an isolated ACC of the scalp. Her elder two siblings have been diagnosed with ACC with concomitant cardiac or limb anomalies. The patient was managed conservatively until the defect has formed scar tissue 6 months later. Waleed AlShehri, Sara AlFadil, Alhanouf AlOthri, Abdulaziz O. Alabdulkarim, Shabeer A. Wani, and Sari M. Rabah Copyright © 2016 Waleed AlShehri et al. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Regression of Herniated Lumbar Disc with New Disc Protrusion in the Adjacent Level Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:11:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/1538072/ Spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs was reported occasionally. The mechanisms proposed for regression of disc herniation are still incomplete. This paper describes and discusses a case of spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar discs with a new disc protrusion in the adjacent level. A 41-year-old man was admitted with radiating pain and numbness in the left lower extremity with a left posterolateral disc extrusion at L5-S1 level. He was admitted to hospital with low back pain due to disc herniation caudally immigrating at L4-5 level three years ago. He refused the surgical intervention that was offered and was treated conservatively at that time. He had no neurological deficit and a history of spontaneous regression of the extruded lumbar disc; so, a conservative therapy, including bed rest, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, was advised. In conclusion, herniated lumbar disc fragments may regress spontaneously. Reports are prone to advise conservative treatment for extruded or sequestrated lumbar disc herniations. However, these patients should be followed up closely; new herniation at adjacent/different level may occur. Furthermore, it is important to know which herniated disk should be removed and which should be treated conservatively, because disc herniation may cause serious complications as muscle weakness and cauda equine syndrome. Tayfun Hakan and Serkan Gürcan Copyright © 2016 Tayfun Hakan and Serkan Gürcan. All rights reserved. Intrabiliary Hepatic Metastasis of Colorectal Carcinoma Mimicking Primary Cholangiocarcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:04:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2016/4704781/ Intrabiliary metastasis from colorectal carcinoma (CRC) growing within or invading bile ducts is not a very common pattern. However, accurate diagnosis of metastatic lesions is very important for selection of adjuvant therapy and prognosis. We report a case of 71-year-old male who developed painless jaundice due to hepatobiliary obstruction. MRI demonstrated 1.4 cm intraductal mass at hepatic hilum with severe intrahepatic ductal dilation, consistent with cholangiocarcinoma. ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) showed intraductal segmental biliary stricture. Biopsy from the lesion showed adenocarcinoma favoring primary cholangiocarcinoma due to the papillary morphology and location of the mass. His past history was significant for rectosigmoid carcinoma (pT1N0) ten years ago and liver resection for metastatic CRC four years ago. He subsequently underwent central hepatectomy with resection of common bile duct. Grossly, there was a 1.2 cm intraductal mass at the bifurcation of bile ducts with multiple nodules in liver parenchyma. Microscopic examination revealed intraductal carcinoma with papillary architecture colonizing bile duct epithelium with resultant dilation and tortuosity. Occasional liver parenchymal nodules show classical metastatic pattern resembling CRC. Because of two distinct morphologic patterns and patient’s past history, immunostains were performed. CK7 stained uninvolved bile duct epithelium with no staining in intrabiliary metastatic growth. CK20 and CDX2 were positive, thus confirming intrabiliary growth as metastatic growth from CRC. In summary, findings from our case indicate that intrabiliary growth of metastatic CRC can easily be overlooked with major duct involvement. Pathologic evaluation with use of immunohistochemical stains is very important to achieve correct diagnosis. Yimin Dong, Hitendra Patel, and Charmi Patel Copyright © 2016 Yimin Dong et al. All rights reserved. Rapidly Progressing Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Case Report and a Possible Explanation Sun, 26 Jun 2016 10:02:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/7698624/ Introduction. Hodgkin lymphoma is a highly curable lymphoid malignancy; however treatment of a significant number of patients remains challenging. Case Report. The authors present an unusually rapidly progressing case of refractory advanced stage classical nodular sclerosis subtype Hodgkin lymphoma with unfavorable prognosis. A 66-year-old male patient was refractory for first-line doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastin, dacarbazine (ABVD) treatment with persistent disease; therefore physicians changed treatment for dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP) and later ifosfamide, gemcitabine, and vinorelbine (IGEV) regimen. Unfortunately the patient developed acute kidney and respiratory failure and died after 6 months of treatment. Current and retrospective histological examination of the patient’s lymph node biopsy, skin lesion, and autopsy revealed the same aberrantly expressing CD4 positive nodular sclerosis subtype Hodgkin lymphoma. Conclusion. Aberrant expression of T-cell antigens on the Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg cells could be associated with inferior outcome. T-cell associated antigens should be investigated more often in patients not responding sufficiently to treatment and hence treatment should be intensified or targeted therapy (brentuximab vedotin) should be considered. Ádám Jóna, Gábor Irsai, Sándor Barna, Gábor Méhes, Árpád Illés, and László Váróczy Copyright © 2016 Ádám Jóna et al. All rights reserved. Removal of Reactive Orange 16 Dye from Aqueous Solution by Using Modified Kenaf Core Fiber Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:40:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/4262578/ Evaluated removal of reactive orange 16 (RO16) dye from aqueous solution was studied in batch mode by using kenaf core fiber as low-cost adsorbents. In this attempt, kenaf core fiber with size 0.25–1 mm was treated by using (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CHMAC) as quaternization agent. Then effective parameters include adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time and initial dye concentration on adsorption by modified kenaf core fiber was investigated. In addition, isotherms and kinetics adsorption studies were estimated for determination of the equilibrium adsorption capacity and reactions dynamics, respectively. Results showed that the best dose of MKCF was 0.1 g/100 mL, the maximum removal of RO16 was 97.25 at 30°C, pH = 6.5, and agitation speed was 150 rpm. The results also showed that the equilibrium data were represented by Freundlich isotherm with correlation coefficients , and the kinetic study followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model with correlation coefficients for  mg/L. Furthermore, the maximum adsorption capacity was 416.86 mg/g. Adsorption through kenaf was found to be very effective for the removal of the RO16 dye. Maytham Kadhim Obaid, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, and Intidhar Jabir Idan Copyright © 2016 Maytham Kadhim Obaid et al. All rights reserved. Finite Element Simulation and X-Ray Microdiffraction Study of Strain Partitioning in a Layered Nanocomposite Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:37:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcrys/2016/4351347/ The depth-dependent strain partitioning across the interfaces in the growth direction of the NiAl/Cr(Mo) nanocomposite between the Cr and NiAl lamellae was directly measured experimentally and simulated using a finite element method (FEM). Depth-resolved X-ray microdiffraction demonstrated that in the as-grown state both Cr and NiAl lamellae grow along the direction with the formation of as-grown distinct residual ~0.16% compressive strains for Cr lamellae and ~0.05% tensile strains for NiAl lamellae. Three-dimensional simulations were carried out using an implicit FEM. First simulation was designed to study residual strains in the composite due to cooling resulting in formation of crystals. Strains in the growth direction were computed and compared to those obtained from the microdiffraction experiments. Second simulation was conducted to understand the combined strains resulting from cooling and mechanical indentation of the composite. Numerical results in the growth direction of crystal were compared to experimental results confirming the experimentally observed trends. R. I. Barabash, V. Agarwal, S. Koric, I. Jasiuk, and J. Z. Tischler Copyright © 2016 R. I. Barabash et al. All rights reserved. Not All Acute Abdomen Cases in Early Pregnancy Are Ectopic; Expect the Unexpected: Renal Angiomyolipoma Causing Massive Retroperitoneal Haemorrhage Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:37:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2016/5643470/ Retroperitoneal haemorrhage (or retroperitoneal haematoma) refers to an accumulation of blood found in the retroperitoneal space. It is a rare clinical entity with variable aetiology including anticoagulation, ruptured aortic aneurysm, acute pancreatitis, malignancy, and bleeding from renal aneurysm. Diagnosis of retroperitoneal bleed is sometimes missed or delayed as presentation is often nonspecific. Multislice CT and arteriography are important for diagnosis. There is no consensus about the best management plan for patients with retroperitoneal haematoma. Stable patients can be managed with fluid resuscitation, correction of coagulopathy if any, and blood transfusion. Endovascular options involving selective intra-arterial embolisation or stent-grafts are clearly getting more and more popularity. Open repair is usually reserved for cases when there is failure of conservative or endovascular measures to control the bleeding or expertise is unavailable and in cases where the patient is unstable. Mortality of patients with retroperitoneal haematoma remains high if appropriate and timely measures are not taken. Haemorrhage from a benign renal tumour is a rarer entity which is described in this case report which emphasizes that physicians should have a wide index of suspicion when dealing with patients presenting with significant groin, flank, abdominal, or back pain, or haemodynamic instability of unclear cause. Our patient presented with features of acute abdomen and, being pregnant, was thought of having a ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Muhammad Asim Rana, Ahmed F. Mady, Nagesh Jakaraddi, Shahzad A. Mumtaz, Habib Ahmad, and Kamal Naser Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Asim Rana et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Response of a One-Storey One-Bay Steel Frame to Blast Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:12:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jstruc/2016/8571542/ In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in perceived risks of blast loading attacks or similar incidents on structures. Blast design is therefore a necessary aspect of the design for building structures globally and as such building design must adapt accordingly. Presented herein is an attempt to determine the numerical response of a seismically designed single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) structure to blast loading. The SDOF model in the form of a portal frame was designed to withstand a typical seismic occurrence in Northern Trinidad. Blast loads caused by applying a 500 kg charge weight of TNT at standoff distances of 45 m, 33 m, and 20 m were then applied to the model. The blast loading on the frame was determined using empirical methods. The analytical study showed that the seismically designed SDOF plane frame model entered the plastic region during the application of the blast load occurring up to the critical standoff distance. Rupert G. Williams, William A. Wilson, and Reisa Dookeeram Copyright © 2016 Rupert G. Williams et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Energy Efficiency of Wireless Sensor Network through the Design of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:04:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/9278701/ Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is known to be a highly resource constrained class of network where energy consumption is one of the prime concerns. In this research, a cross layer design methodology was adopted to design an energy efficient routing protocol entitled “Position Responsive Routing Protocol” (PRRP). PRRP is designed to minimize energy consumed in each node by (1) reducing the amount of time in which a sensor node is in an idle listening state and (2) reducing the average communication distance over the network. The performance of the proposed PRRP was critically evaluated in the context of network lifetime, throughput, and energy consumption of the network per individual basis and per data packet basis. The research results were analyzed and benchmarked against the well-known LEACH and CELRP protocols. The outcomes show a significant improvement in the WSN in terms of energy efficiency and the overall performance of WSN. Noor Zaman, Low Tang Jung, and Muhammad Mehboob Yasin Copyright © 2016 Noor Zaman et al. All rights reserved. Nanomechanical Characterization of Amyloid Fibrils Using Single-Molecule Experiments and Computational Simulations Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:04:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/5873695/ Amyloid fibrils have recently received much attention due to not only their important role in disease pathogenesis but also their excellent mechanical properties, which are comparable to those of mechanically strong protein materials such as spider silk. This indicates the necessity of understanding fundamental principles providing insight into how amyloid fibrils exhibit the excellent mechanical properties, which may allow for developing biomimetic materials whose material (e.g., mechanical) properties can be controlled. Here, we describe recent efforts to characterize the nanomechanical properties of amyloid fibrils using computational simulations (e.g., atomistic simulations) and single-molecule experiments (e.g., atomic force microscopy experiments). This paper summarizes theoretical models, which are useful in analyzing the mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils based on simulations and experiments, such as continuum elastic (beam) model, elastic network model, and polymer statistical model. In this paper, we suggest how the nanomechanical properties of amyloid fibrils can be characterized and determined using computational simulations and/or atomic force microscopy experiments coupled with the theoretical models. Bumjoon Choi, Taehee Kim, Sang Woo Lee, and Kilho Eom Copyright © 2016 Bumjoon Choi et al. All rights reserved. Interaction-Aware Video Community-Based Content Delivery in Wireless Mobile Networks Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:02:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/4047213/ The increase in the demand of content quality and the number of mobile users brings new challenges for the multimedia streaming services in wireless mobile networks. The virtual community technologies are promising by grouping the users with common characteristics to get the gains in the performance of resource lookup and system scalability. In this paper, we propose a novel interaction-aware video community-based content delivery (IVCCD) in wireless mobile networks. IVCCD collects and analyzes the interaction information between users to construct user interaction model and further capture the common characteristics in the request and delivery of video content. IVCCD employs a partition-based community discovery scheme to group the mobile users in terms of the common characteristics and uses a community member management mechanism and a resource sharing scheme to achieve low-cost community maintenance and high searching performance. Extensive tests show how IVCCD achieves much better performance results in comparison with other state-of-the-art solutions. Lujie Zhong, Shijie Jia, Youzhong Ma, and Yongxin Zhang Copyright © 2016 Lujie Zhong et al. All rights reserved. Expressions of Matrix Metalloproteinases 2, 7, and 9 in Carcinogenesis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Sun, 26 Jun 2016 09:01:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/9895721/ Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly fatal disease, usually diagnosed in an advanced stage which gives a slight chance of recovery. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that participate in tissue remodeling and stimulate neovascularization and inflammatory response. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 in normal ducts, tumor pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, and peritumoral stroma in correlation with clinicohistopathological parameters. The study material was obtained from 29 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 were performed by immunohistochemical technique. Microvessel density (MVD) was visualized by special immunostaining. The expressions of MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 were mainly observed in tumor cells and peritumoral stroma. MMP-2 expression in cancer cells was correlated with female gender, stronger inflammation, and histopathological type of cancer (, ; , ; , , resp.). The expression of MMP-7 in tumor cells was found to positively correlate with the presence of necrosis and negatively correlate with MVD (, ; , ). We also showed that positive MMP-9 expression in tumor cells was associated with MVD (, ); however, it was not statistically significant. Our results demonstrate that MMP-2, MMP-7, and MMP-9 expressions correlate with various morphological features of the PDAC tumor such as inflammation, necrosis, and formation of the new blood vessels. Katarzyna Jakubowska, Anna Pryczynicz, Joanna Januszewska, Iwona Sidorkiewicz, Andrzej Kemona, Andrzej Niewiński, Łukasz Lewczuk, Bogusław Kędra, and Katarzyna Guzińska-Ustymowicz Copyright © 2016 Katarzyna Jakubowska et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Chyloperitoneum Secondary to Follicular Lymphoma and a Review of Prognostic Implications Sun, 26 Jun 2016 08:42:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2016/4625819/ Chyloperitoneum, or chylous ascites, is a rare condition characterized by milky-appearing fluid with elevated triglyceride content and the presence of chylomicrons. Malignancy, specifically lymphoma, is reported to be the predominant cause in Western countries. Previously, the prognosis for patients with chyloperitoneum due to lymphoma has been reported as poor. We present a case of chyloperitoneum and chylothorax due to follicular lymphoma with excellent response to bendamustine and Rituxan. A review of the literature indicates that patients with chyloperitoneum associated with lymphoma generally have a favorable response to contemporary treatment regimens. Megan Jagosky, Brice Taylor, and Stephanie Parks Taylor Copyright © 2016 Megan Jagosky et al. All rights reserved. Complementary Medicine Health Literacy among a Population of Older Australians Living in Retirement Villages: A Mixed Methods Study Sun, 26 Jun 2016 08:42:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5672050/ Background. Older Australians are consumers of high levels of complementary medicines. The aim of this study was to examine health literacy in a population of older Australians related to their use of complementary medicine. Methods. A two-phase sequential mixed method design incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods was used in this study. The first phase consisted of a cross-sectional survey using a validated health literacy questionnaire and follow-up interviews with 11 residents of retirement villages. Interviews explored low scoring domains on the health literacy questionnaire. Results. Health literacy competencies scored higher for the domains of having sufficient information to manage their health; felt understood and supported by health care providers; actively managed their health; and having social support for health. Three health literacy domains scored low including appraisal of health information; ability to find good information; and navigating the health care system. The findings suggest that participants had different experiences navigating the health care system to access information and services relating to complementary medicines. Two themes of “trust” and “try and see” provide insight into how this group of older Australians appraised health information in relation to complementary medicines. Conclusions. With a focus on self-care there is a need for improved health literacy skills. Caroline A. Smith, Esther Chang, Suzanne Brownhill, and Kylie Barr Copyright © 2016 Caroline A. Smith et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Plants That Inhibit Lipid Droplet Formation in Liver Cells: Rubus suavissimus Leaf Extract Protects Mice from High-Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver by Directly Affecting Liver Cells Sun, 26 Jun 2016 08:33:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4282758/ Fatty liver disease is a condition in which abnormally large numbers of lipid droplets accumulate in liver cells. Fatty liver disease induces inflammation under conditions of oxidative stress and may result in cancer. To identify plants that protect against fatty liver disease, we examined the inhibitory effects of plant extracts on lipid droplet formation in mouse hepatoma cells. A screen of 98 water extracts of plants revealed 4 extracts with inhibitory effects. One of these extracts, Rubus suavissimus S. Lee (Tien-cha or Chinese sweet tea) leaf extract, which showed strong inhibitory effects, was tested in a mouse fatty liver model. In these mouse experiments, intake of the plant extract significantly protected mice against fatty liver disease without affecting body weight gain. Our results suggest that RSE directly affects liver cells and protects them from fatty liver disease. Tomohiro Takahashi, Wataru Sugawara, Yuya Takiguchi, Kento Takizawa, Ami Nakabayashi, Mitsuo Nakamura, Michiyo Nagano-Ito, and Shinichi Ichikawa Copyright © 2016 Tomohiro Takahashi et al. All rights reserved. Corneal Endothelial Morphology in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Sun, 26 Jun 2016 08:23:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/7319047/ Aim. To investigate corneal endothelial cell morphological in children with type 1 diabetes and to determine the systemic and local factors that contribute to these changes. Methods. One hundred sixty eyes of 80 children with type 1 diabetes and 80 eyes of 40 normal children as a control during the period from July 2015 to February 2016 underwent full clinical and ophthalmologic examination. We measured the central corneal thickness (CCT), endothelial cell density (ECD), ploymegathism, and pleomorphism using a noncontact specular microscope. Results. The mean age of the diabetic children was years. The mean duration of type 1 diabetes was years. The mean CCT was significantly higher: microns (right eye), in the diabetic group compared to the control group. The mean ECD in patients with type 1 diabetes was cells/mm2 (right eye), and it was significantly lower than in the control group. Furthermore, pleomorphism was significantly lower % (right eye), in the diabetic group compared to the control group. The mean polymegathism was significantly higher % (right eye), in the diabetic group compared to the control group. All of these changes are significantly correlated only with the duration of diabetes. Conclusions. Diabetic children have thicker corneas, lower ECD, an increased polymegathism, and a decreased pleomorphism. The duration of diabetes is the factor that affects all of these changes. To what extent these changes affect visional function on long term needs to be investigated in further studies. Mohamed Anbar, Hatem Ammar, and Ramadan A. Mahmoud Copyright © 2016 Mohamed Anbar et al. All rights reserved. High Expression of PTGR1 Promotes NSCLC Cell Growth via Positive Regulation of Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase Complex Sun, 26 Jun 2016 07:54:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5230642/ Lung cancer has been the most common cancer and the main cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide for several decades. PTGR1 (prostaglandin reductase 1), as a bifunctional enzyme, has been involved in the occurrence and progression of cancer. However, its impact on human lung cancer is rarely reported. In this study, we found that PTGR1 was overexpressed in lung cancer based on the analyses of Oncomine. Moreover, lentivirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of PTGR1 reduced cell viability in human lung carcinoma cells 95D and A549 by MTT and colony formation assay. PTGR1 depletion led to G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and increased the proportion of apoptotic cells in 95D cells by flow cytometry. Furthermore, silencing PTGR1 in 95D cells resulted in decreased levels of cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex (CDK1, CDK2, cyclin A2, and cyclin B1) by western blotting and then PTGR1 is positively correlated with cyclin-dependent protein by using the data mining of the Oncomine database. Therefore, our findings suggest that PTGR1 may play a role in lung carcinogenesis through regulating cell proliferation and is a potential new therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. Xianping Huang, Weihe Zhou, Yuefeng Zhang, and Yong Liu Copyright © 2016 Xianping Huang et al. All rights reserved. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis: Genetics, Mechanism, and Therapies Sun, 26 Jun 2016 07:54:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9643785/ Andreas Kronbichler, Jun Oh, Björn Meijers, and Jae Il Shin Copyright © 2016 Andreas Kronbichler et al. All rights reserved. Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin Attenuate Neuropathic Pain via MAPK Pathway in Chronic Constriction Injury Rats Sun, 26 Jun 2016 07:37:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8082753/ Neuropathic pain remains as the most frequent cause of suffering and disability around the world. The isomers paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin (AF) are major constituents extracted from the roots of Paeonia (P.) lactiflora Pall. Neuroprotective effect of PF has been demonstrated in animal models of neuropathologies. However, only a few studies are related to the biological activities of AF and no report has been published on analgesic properties of AF about neuropathic pain to date. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of AF and PF against CCI-induced neuropathic pain in rat and explore the underlying mechanism. We had found that both PF and AF could inhibit the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway in spinal microglia and subsequent upregulated proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)). AF further displayed remarkable effects on inhibiting the activation of astrocytes, suppressing the overelevated expression of phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK) in astrocytes, and decreasing the content of chemokine CXCL1 in the spinal cord. These results suggest that both PF and AF are potential therapeutic agents for neuropathic pain, which merit further investigation. Jianyu Zhou, Linyuan Wang, Jingxia Wang, Chun Wang, Zhihui Yang, Chenglong Wang, Yingli Zhu, and Jianjun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Jianyu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Novel Robust Exponential Stability of Markovian Jumping Impulsive Delayed Neural Networks of Neutral-Type with Stochastic Perturbation Sun, 26 Jun 2016 07:21:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1492908/ The robust exponential stability problem for a class of uncertain impulsive stochastic neural networks of neutral-type with Markovian parameters and mixed time-varying delays is investigated. By constructing a proper exponential-type Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and employing Jensen integral inequality, free-weight matrix method, some novel delay-dependent stability criteria that ensure the robust exponential stability in mean square of the trivial solution of the considered networks are established in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The proposed results do not require the derivatives of discrete and distributed time-varying delays to be 0 or smaller than 1. Moreover, the main contribution of the proposed approach compared with related methods lies in the use of three types of impulses. Finally, two numerical examples are worked out to verify the effectiveness and less conservativeness of our theoretical results over existing literature. Yang Fang, Kelin Li, and Yunqi Yan Copyright © 2016 Yang Fang et al. All rights reserved. Glia-Neuron Interactions in the Retina Can Be Studied in Cocultures of Müller Cells and Retinal Ganglion Cells Sun, 26 Jun 2016 06:11:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1087647/ Glia-neuron partnership is important for inner retinal homeostasis and any disturbances may result in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Müller cells support RGCs with essential functions such as removing excess glutamate and providing energy sources. The aim was to explore the impact of Müller cells on RGC survival. To investigate the Müller cell/RGC interactions we developed a coculture model, in which primary Müller cells were grown in inserts on top of pure primary RGC cultures. The impact of starvation and mitochondrial inhibition on the Müller cell ability to protect RGCs was studied. Moreover, the ability of Müller cells to remove glutamate from the extracellular space was investigated. RGC survival was evaluated by cell viability assays and glutamate uptake was assessed by kinetic uptake assays. We demonstrated a significantly increased RGC survival in presence of untreated and prestarved Müller cells. Additionally, prestarved Müller cells significantly increased RGC survival after mitochondrial inhibition. Finally, we revealed a significantly increased ability to take up glutamate in starved Müller cells. Overall, our study confirms essential roles of Müller cells in RGC survival. We suggest that targeting Müller cell function could have potential for future treatment strategies to prevent blinding neurodegenerative retinal diseases. D. M. Skytt, A. K. Toft-Kehler, C. T. Brændstrup, S. Cejvanovic, I. S. Gurubaran, L. H. Bergersen, and M. Kolko Copyright © 2016 D. M. Skytt et al. All rights reserved. Contemporaneous International Asthma Guidelines Present Differing Recommendations: An Analysis Thu, 23 Jun 2016 16:29:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2016/3085065/ Background. Several international groups develop asthma guidelines. Conflicting recommendations across guidelines have been described in several disease areas and may contribute to practice variability. Accordingly, we compared the latest Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) asthma guideline with contemporaneous international asthma guidelines to evaluate conflicting recommendations and their causes. Methods. We identified the latest CTS asthma guideline update (2012) and the following societies which also updated their guidelines in 2012: the British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and the Global Initiative for Asthma. We compared these three guidelines on (1) key methodological factors and (2) adult pharmacotherapy recommendations. Results. Methods used and documentation provided for literature search strategy and dates, evidence synthesis, outcomes considered, evidence appraisal, and recommendation formulation varied between guidelines. Criteria used to define suboptimal asthma control varied widely between guidelines. Inhaled corticosteroid dosing recommendations diverged, as did recommendations surrounding use of budesonide/formoterol as a reliever and controller and recommendations in the subsequent step. Conclusions. There are important differences between recommendations provided in contemporaneous asthma guidelines. Causes include differences in methods used for interpreting evidence and formulating recommendations. Adopting a common set of valid and explicit methods across international societies could harmonize recommendations and facilitate guideline implementation. Samir Gupta, Emily Paolucci, Alan Kaplan, and Louis-Philippe Boulet Copyright © 2016 Samir Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Predictive Modeling of a Two-Stage Gearbox towards Fault Detection Thu, 23 Jun 2016 15:01:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9638325/ This paper presents a systematic approach to the modeling and analysis of a benchmark two-stage gearbox test bed to characterize gear fault signatures when processed with harmonic wavelet transform (HWT) analysis. The eventual goal of condition monitoring is to be able to interpret vibration signals from nonstationary machinery in order to identify the type and severity of gear damage. To advance towards this goal, a lumped-parameter model that can be analyzed efficiently is developed which characterizes the gearbox vibratory response at the system level. The model parameters are identified through correlated numerical and experimental investigations. The model fidelity is validated first by spectrum analysis, using constant speed experimental data, and secondly by HWT analysis, using nonstationary experimental data. Model prediction and experimental data are compared for healthy gear operation and a seeded fault gear with a missing tooth. The comparison confirms that both the frequency content and the predicted, relative response magnitudes match with physical measurements. The research demonstrates that the modeling method in combination with the HWT data analysis has the potential for facilitating successful fault detection and diagnosis for gearbox systems. Edward J. Diehl and J. Tang Copyright © 2016 Edward J. Diehl and J. Tang. All rights reserved. Stress Fracture and Nonunion of Coronoid Process in a Gymnast Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:59:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/9172483/ Background. Gymnasts have high mechanical loading forces of up to 14 times body weight. Overuse lesions are typical in wrists and stress fractures in the olecranon, while isolated fractures of the coronoid process are uncommon. We present a case of retraumatized nonunion stress fracture of the ulnar coronoid process. Case Description. A 19-year-old gymnast presented with elbow pain after training. Imaging confirmed an old fracture of the coronoid process. We describe a 6-month multiphase return to competition rehabilitation program, which allowed him to compete pain-freely. Literature Review. Acute and overuse injuries in gymnasts are known but no nonunion of the coronoid process has been described before. Only one case of stress fracture of coronoid process in a gymnast was reported. Purpose and Clinical Relevance. We could successfully and conservatively return to sport a reactivated nonunion of a stress fracture of the coronoid process. T. Hetling, P. Bourban, and B. Gojanovic Copyright © 2016 T. Hetling et al. All rights reserved. Research on the Calibration Method of Micro Inertial Measurement Unit for Engineering Application Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:58:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/9108197/ With rapid development of micro fabrication technology, the production level of micro inertial devices has increased, which promoted the performance improvement of Micro Inertial Measurement Unit (MIMU). Measurement precision of MIMU is one of the most significant indexes, especially for the application of the guided spinning projectiles. In order to improve the measurement precision of MIMU, this paper presents a novel calibration method. The calibration model is established and the derivation for parameters estimation has been introduced. By the multirate tests and multiposition tests, all the parameters in the calibration model can be well estimated. Verification experiment shows that the proposed method has the same compensation effect as the traditional method, but it can alleviate the computing burden for the system. Thus the proposed method will have a wide application prospect for the future engineering calibration. Yun Xu, Yu Wang, Yan Su, and Xinhua Zhu Copyright © 2016 Yun Xu et al. All rights reserved. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:55:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/8173876/ We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins. Rodrigo Barros Freitas, Rômulo Dias Novaes, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Bianca Gazolla Mendonça, Eliziária Cardoso Santos, Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro, Luciana Moreira Lima, Luciano Gomes Fietto, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, and João Paulo Viana Leite Copyright © 2016 Rodrigo Barros Freitas et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Efficacy of the Air-Q Intubating Laryngeal Airway during General Anesthesia in Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:54:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6406391/ Air-Q® (air-Q) is a supraglottic airway device which can be used as a guidance of intubation in pediatric as well as in adult patients. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of air-Q compared to other airway devices during general anesthesia in pediatric patients by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of 10 studies including 789 patients were included in the final analysis. Compared with other supraglottic airway devices, air-Q showed no evidence for a difference in leakage pressure and insertion time. The ease of insertion was significantly lower than other supraglottic airway devices. The success rate of intubation was significantly lower than other airway devices. However, fiberoptic view was better through the air-Q than other supraglottic airway devices. Therefore, air-Q could be a safe substitute for other airway devices and may provide better fiberoptic bronchoscopic view. Eun Jin Ahn, Geun Joo Choi, Hyun Kang, Chong Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Young Cheol Woo, and Si Ra Bang Copyright © 2016 Eun Jin Ahn et al. All rights reserved. A Multikernel-Like Learning Algorithm Based on Data Probability Distribution Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:53:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/5927306/ In the machine learning based on kernel tricks, people often put one variable of a kernel function on the given samples to produce the basic functions of a solution space of learning problem. If the collection of the given samples deviates from the data distribution, the solution space spanned by these basic functions will also deviate from the real solution space of learning problem. In this paper a multikernel-like learning algorithm based on data probability distribution (MKDPD) is proposed, in which the parameters of a kernel function are locally adjusted according to the data probability distribution, and thus produces different kernel functions. These different kernel functions will generate different Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS). The direct sum of the subspaces of these RKHS constitutes the solution space of learning problem. Furthermore, based on the proposed MKDPD algorithm, a new algorithm for labeling new coming data is proposed, in which the basic functions are retrained according to the new coming data, while the coefficients of the retrained basic functions remained unchanged to label the new coming data. The experimental results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Guo Niu, Zhengming Ma, and Shuyu Liu Copyright © 2016 Guo Niu et al. All rights reserved. Ameliorative Effect of Chronic Supplementation of Protocatechuic Acid Alone and in Combination with Ascorbic Acid in Aniline Hydrochloride Induced Spleen Toxicity in Rats Thu, 23 Jun 2016 14:51:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/4306984/ Background. Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of protocatechuic acid alone and in combination with ascorbic acid in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats of either sex (200–250 g) were used and divided into different groups. Spleen toxicity was induced by aniline hydrochloride (100 ppm) in drinking water for a period of 28 days. Treatment group received protocatechuic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), ascorbic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and combination of protocatechuic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and ascorbic acid (20 mg/kg/day, p.o.) followed by aniline hydrochloride. At the end of treatment period serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Result. Rats supplemented with aniline hydrochloride showed a significant alteration in body weight, spleen weight, feed consumption, water intake, hematological parameters (haemoglobin content, red blood cells, white blood cells, and total iron content), tissue parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and nitric oxide content), and membrane bound phosphatase (ATPase) compared to control group. Histopathology of aniline hydrochloride induced spleen showed significant damage compared to control rats. Treatment with protocatechuic acid along with ascorbic acid showed better protection as compared to protocatechuic acid or ascorbic acid alone in aniline hydrochloride induced spleen toxicity. Conclusion. Treatment with protocatechuic acid and ascorbic acid in combination showed significant protection in aniline hydrochloride induced splenic toxicity in rats. Upasana Khairnar, Aman Upaganlawar, and Chandrashekhar Upasani Copyright © 2016 Upasana Khairnar et al. All rights reserved. Immunogenicity Assessment of Lipegfilgrastim in Patients with Breast Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy Thu, 23 Jun 2016 13:34:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/9248061/ Lipegfilgrastim is a long-acting, once-per-cycle, glycopegylated recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) used to prevent neutropenia in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. This integrated analysis examined the immunogenicity of lipegfilgrastim and its potential clinical impact in two double-blind randomized studies (phases II and III) of patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Serum samples were analyzed using sequential assays for screening, confirmation, antibody titer, and characterization of antidrug antibodies (ADA). Neutropenia-related efficacy measures were reviewed for each ADA-positive patient. Among 255 patients receiving lipegfilgrastim (154 in phase II, 101 in phase III) and 155 patients receiving pegfilgrastim (54 in phase II, 101 in phase III), the incidence of treatment-emergent ADA was low and similar between the lipegfilgrastim (phase II: 1.3%; phase III: 1.0%) and pegfilgrastim (phase II: 1.9%; phase III: 1.0%) arms. None of the treatment-emergent ADA-positive samples exhibited neutralizing activity against lipegfilgrastim, pegfilgrastim, or glycosylated G-CSF in a cell-based neutralizing antibody assay. No changes were observed in neutropenia-related efficacy measures among ADA-positive patients, and no treatment-related hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis occurred. These results indicate that there is no apparent impact of ADA on lipegfilgrastim efficacy and safety. Linglong Zou, Anton Buchner, Martin Roberge, and Patrick M. Liu Copyright © 2016 Linglong Zou et al. All rights reserved. A Semi-Supervised Framework for MMMs-Induced Fuzzy Co-Clustering with Virtual Samples Thu, 23 Jun 2016 13:32:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/afs/2016/5206048/ Although the goal of clustering is to reveal structural information from unlabeled datasets, in cases with partial structural supervisions, semi-supervised clustering is expected to improve partition quality. However, in many real applications, it may cause additional costs to provide an enough amount of supervised objects with class labels. A virtual sample approach is a practical technique for improving classification quality in semi-supervised learning, in which additional virtual samples are generated from supervised objects. In this research, the virtual sample approach is adopted in semi-supervised fuzzy co-clustering, where the goal is to reveal object-item pairwise cluster structures from cooccurrence information among them. Several experimental results demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed approach. Daiji Tanaka, Katsuhiro Honda, Seiki Ubukata, and Akira Notsu Copyright © 2016 Daiji Tanaka et al. All rights reserved. Multidrug-Resistant Bacteroides fragilis Bacteremia in a US Resident: An Emerging Challenge Thu, 23 Jun 2016 13:31:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/3607125/ We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin. Cristian Merchan, Sunita Parajuli, Justin Siegfried, Marco R. Scipione, Yanina Dubrovskaya, and Joseph Rahimian Copyright © 2016 Cristian Merchan et al. All rights reserved. Designing the Adaptive Tracking Controller for Uncertain Fully Actuated Dynamical Systems with Additive Disturbances Based on Sliding Mode Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:59:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/9810251/ This paper addresses the problem of adaptive tracking control for uncertain fully actuated dynamical systems with additive disturbance (FDSA) based on the sliding mode. We use the adaptive mechanism to adjust the uncertain parameters in sliding mode control law which can be switched to two modes depending on the sliding surface. By choosing appropriately the parameters in control law, the desired transient time can be obtained without effects of uncertain parameters and additive disturbances. The chattering phenomenon can be minimized by a chosen constant. This control method is applied to the angles tracking control of the twin rotor multi-input multi-output system (TRMS) which have nonlinear characteristics, the input torque disturbances and the coupling between the horizontal and vertical movements. The simulation and experimental results are presented that validate the proposed solution. Chi Nguyen Van Copyright © 2016 Chi Nguyen Van. All rights reserved. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:56:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2985148/ The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI) ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI. Su Rin Shin, Won Ho Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Il-Woo Shin, and Ju-Tae Sohn Copyright © 2016 Su Rin Shin et al. All rights reserved. The Dynamical Behaviors in a Stochastic SIS Epidemic Model with Nonlinear Incidence Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:24:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/5218163/ A stochastic SIS-type epidemic model with general nonlinear incidence and disease-induced mortality is investigated. It is proved that the dynamical behaviors of the model are determined by a certain threshold value . That is, when and together with an additional condition, the disease is extinct with probability one, and when , the disease is permanent in the mean in probability, and when there is not disease-related death, the disease oscillates stochastically about a positive number. Furthermore, when , the model admits positive recurrence and a unique stationary distribution. Particularly, the effects of the intensities of stochastic perturbation for the dynamical behaviors of the model are discussed in detail, and the dynamical behaviors for the stochastic SIS epidemic model with standard incidence are established. Finally, the numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the proposed open problems. Ramziya Rifhat, Qing Ge, and Zhidong Teng Copyright © 2016 Ramziya Rifhat et al. All rights reserved. Detecting Variation Trends of Temperature and Precipitation for the Dadu River Basin, China Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:12:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/2564586/ This study analyzes the variation trends of temperature and precipitation in the Dadu River Basin of China based on observed records from fourteen meteorological stations. The magnitude of trends was estimated using Sen’s linear method while its statistical significance was evaluated using Mann-Kendall’s test. The results of analysis depict increase change from northwest to southeast of annual temperature and precipitation in space. In temporal scale, the annual temperature showed significant increase trend and the annual precipitation showed increase trend. For extreme indices, the trends for temperature are more consistent in the region compared to precipitation. This paper has practical meanings for an effective management of climate risk and provides a foundation for further study of hydrological situation in this river basin. Ying Wu, Wensheng Wang, and Guoqing Wang Copyright © 2016 Ying Wu et al. All rights reserved. Scalability Optimization of Seamless Positioning Service Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:08:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/9714080/ Recently positioning services are getting more attention not only within research community but also from service providers. From the service providers point of view positioning service that will be able to work seamlessly in all environments, for example, indoor, dense urban, and rural, has a huge potential to open new markets. However, such system does not only need to provide accurate position estimates but have to be scalable and resistant to fake positioning requests. In the previous works we have proposed a modular system, which is able to provide seamless positioning in various environments. The system automatically selects optimal positioning module based on available radio signals. The system currently consists of three positioning modules—GPS, GSM based positioning, and Wi-Fi based positioning. In this paper we will propose algorithm which will reduce time needed for position estimation and thus allow higher scalability of the modular system and thus allow providing positioning services to higher amount of users. Such improvement is extremely important, for real world application where large number of users will require position estimates, since positioning error is affected by response time of the positioning server. Juraj Machaj, Peter Brida, and Jozef Benikovsky Copyright © 2016 Juraj Machaj et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Chronic Invasive Fungal Infection and Tracheal Fungus Ball Mimicking Cancer in an Immunocompetent Patient Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:02:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/2416452/ Fungal infections of the lung are uncommon and mainly affect people with immune deficiency. There are crucial problems in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and candidiasis are the most common opportunistic fungal infections. Aspergillus species (spp.) are saprophytes molds that exist in nature as spores and rarely cause disease in immunocompetent individuals. In patients with immune deficiency or chronic lung disease, such as cavitary lung disease or bronchiectasis, Aspergillus may cause a variety of aspergillosis infections. Here we present a case of a 57-year-old patient without immunodeficiency or chronic lung disease who was diagnosed with endotracheal fungus ball and chronic fungal infection, possibly due to Aspergillus. Bronchoscopic examination showed a paralyzed right vocal cord and vegetating mass that was yellow in color, at the posterior wall of tracheal lumen. After 3 months, both the parenchymal and tracheal lesions were completely resolved. Erdoğan Çetinkaya, Mustafa Çörtük, Şule Gül, Ali Mert, Hilal Boyacı, Ertan Çam, and H. Erhan Dincer Copyright © 2016 Erdoğan Çetinkaya et al. All rights reserved. Reversible Akinetic Mutism after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in the Territory of the Anterior Cerebral Artery without Permanent Ischaemic Damage to Anterior Cingulate Gyri Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:47:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2016/5193825/ We report on two cases of transient akinetic mutism after massive subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). In the two cases, vasospasm could not be demonstrated by imaging studies throughout the clinical course. Both patients shared common radiological features: a hydrocephalus due to haemorrhagic contamination of the ventricular system and a mass effect of a subpial hematoma on the borders of the corpus callosum. Patients were also investigated using auditory event-related evoked potentials at acute stage. In contrast to previous observations of akinetic mutism, P300 wave could not be recorded. Both patients had good recovery and we hypothesized that this unexpectedly favourable outcome was due to the absence of permanent structural damage to the ACA territory, with only transient dysfunction due to a reversible mass effect on cingulate gyri. François-Xavier Sibille, Philippe Hantson, Thierry Duprez, Vincent van Pesch, and Simone Giglioli Copyright © 2016 François-Xavier Sibille et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Overlapping Fe/TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel and Dip-Coating Process on CO2 Reduction Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:44:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2392581/ Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe/TiO2) film photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating process to extend its photoresponsivity to the visible spectrum. To promote the CO2 reduction performance with the photocatalyst, some types of base materials used for coating Fe/TiO2, which were netlike glass fiber and Cu disc, were investigated. The characterization of prepared Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass fiber and Cu disc was analyzed by SEM and EPMA. In addition, the CO2 reduction performance of Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass disc, Cu disc, and their overlap was tested under a Xe lamp with or without ultraviolet (UV) light, respectively. The results show that the concentration of produced CO increases by Fe doping irrespective of base material used under the illumination condition with UV light as well as that without UV light. Since the electron transfer between two overlapped photocatalysts is promoted, the peak concentration of CO for the Fe/TiO2 double overlapping is approximately 1.5 times as large as the Fe/TiO2 single overlapping under the illumination condition with UV light, while the promotion ratio is approximately 1.1 times under that without UV light. Akira Nishimura, Xuyan Zhao, Takuya Hayakawa, Noriaki Ishida, Masafumi Hirota, and Eric Hu Copyright © 2016 Akira Nishimura et al. All rights reserved. Hepatectomy Based on Future Liver Remnant Plasma Clearance Rate of Indocyanine Green Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:34:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2016/7637838/ Background. Hepatectomy, an important treatment modality for liver malignancies, has high perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Safe, comprehensive criteria for selecting patients for hepatectomy are needed. Since June 2011, we have used a cut-off value of ≧ 0.05 for future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green as a criterion for hepatectomy. The aim of this study was to verify the validity of this criterion. Methods. From June 2011 to December 2015, 212 hepatectomies were performed in Tenri Yorozu Hospital. Of these 212 patients, 107 who underwent preoperative computed tomography imaging volumetry, indocyanine green clearance test, and hepatectomy (excluding partial resection or enucleation) were retrospectively analyzed. Results. There was no postoperative mortality. Posthepatectomy liver failure occurred in 59 patients (55.1%) (International Study Group of Liver Surgery Grade A: 43 cases (40.2%), Grade B: 16 cases (15.0%), and Grade C: no cases). Operative morbidity greater than Clavien-Dindo Grade 3 occurred in 23 patients (21.5%). A low future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green was a good predictor for Grade B cases (area under curve = 0.804; 95% confidence interval, 0.712–0.895). Conclusion. Liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green is a valid criterion for hepatectomy. Yuichiro Uchida, Hiroaki Furuyama, Daiki Yasukawa, Hiroto Nishino, Yasuhisa Ando, Toshiyuki Hata, Takafumi Machimoto, and Tsunehiro Yoshimura Copyright © 2016 Yuichiro Uchida et al. All rights reserved. Manganese Oxide on Carbon Fabric for Flexible Supercapacitors Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:33:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2870761/ We report the fabrication of uniform large-area manganese oxide (MnO2) nanosheets on carbon fabric which oxidized using O2 plasma treatment (MnO2/O2-carbon fabric) via electrodeposition process and their implementation as supercapacitor electrodes. Electrochemical measurements demonstrated that MnO2/O2-carbon fabric exhibited capacitance as high as 275 F/g at a scan rate of 5 mV/s; in addition, it showed an excellent cycling performance (less than 20% capacitance loss after 10,000 cycles). All the results suggest that MnO2/O2-carbon fabric is a promising electrode material which has great potential for application on flexible supercapacitors. Jianfeng Zhang, Mujun Chen, Yunwang Ge, and Qi Liu Copyright © 2016 Jianfeng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Conductive Education as a Method of Stroke Rehabilitation: A Single Blinded Randomised Controlled Feasibility Study Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:29:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2016/5391598/ Background. Conductive Education for stroke survivors has shown promise but randomised evidence is unavailable. This study assessed the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate efficacy. Methods. Adult stroke survivors were recruited through local community notices. Those completing the baseline assessment were randomised using an online program and group allocation was independent. Intervention group participants received 10 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of Conductive Education at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, UK. The control group participants attended two group meetings. The study evaluated the feasibility of recruitment procedures, delivery of the intervention, retention of participants, and appropriateness of outcome measures and data collection methods. Independent assessments included the Barthel Index, the Stroke Impact Scale, the Timed Up and Go test, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. Eighty-two patients were enrolled; 77 completed the baseline assessment (46 men, mean age 62.1 yrs.) and were randomised. 70 commenced the intervention () or an equivalent waiting period (). 32/37 completed the 10-week training and 32/33 the waiting period. There were no missing items from completed questionnaires and no adverse events. Discussion. Recruitment, intervention, and assessment methods worked well. Transport issues for intervention and assessment appointments require review. Conclusion. A definitive trial is feasible. This trial is registered with ISRCTN84064492. Judith Bek, Melanie R. Brown, Jagjeet Jutley-Neilson, Nicholas C. C. Russell, Pia A. J. Huber, and Catherine M. Sackley Copyright © 2016 Judith Bek et al. All rights reserved. Macerals of Shengli Lignite in Inner Mongolia of China and Their Combustion Reactivity Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:25:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/2513275/ The macerals, including fusinitic coal containing 72.20% inertinite and xyloid coal containing 91.43% huminite, were separated from Shengli lignite using an optical microscope, and their combustion reactivity was examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Several combustion parameters, including ignition and burnout indices, were analyzed, and the combustion kinetics of the samples were calculated by regression. Fusinitic coal presented a porous structure, while xyloid coal presented a compact structure. The specific surface area of fusinitic coal was 2.5 times larger than that of xyloid coal, and the light-off temperature of the former was higher than that of the latter. However, the overall combustion reactivity of fusinitic coal was better than that of xyloid coal. The combustion processes of fusinitic and xyloid coals can be accurately described by both the homogeneous model and the shrinking core model. The features of xyloid coal agree with the shrinking core model when its conversion rate is 10%–90%. The activation energy of fusinitic coal during combustion can be divided into three phases, with the middle phase featuring the highest energy. The activation energy of xyloid coal is lower than that of fusinitic coal in the light-off phase, which may explain the low light-off temperature of this coal. Ying Yue Teng, Yu Zhe Liu, Quan Sheng Liu, and Chang Qing Li Copyright © 2016 Ying Yue Teng et al. All rights reserved. Eggshell and Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane as Absorbent Material in Active Packaging Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:13:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2016/1047606/ Bacterial cellulose and eggshell composite was successfully developed. Eggshell was mixed with bacterial cellulose suspension and it was casted as a composite film. CaCO3 derived from eggshell was compared with its commercial availability. It can be noted that good dispersion of eggshell particle was prepared. Eggshell particle was irregular in shape with a variation in size. It existed in bacterial cellulose network. Characterization on composite was focused on thermal and mechanical properties. It showed that flexibility and thermal stability of composite were enhanced. No significant effect of mechanical properties was therefore observed. The thermal stability of composite was stable up to 300°C. The adsorption experiment on water and vegetable oil capacity was performed. The enhancement on adsorption was due to the existence of eggshell in bacterial cellulose composite. It exhibited the potential to be a good candidate for absorbent material in active packaging. S. Ummartyotin, P. Pisitsak, and C. Pechyen Copyright © 2016 S. Ummartyotin et al. All rights reserved. Fecal Microbiota and Diet of Children with Chronic Constipation Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:05:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2016/6787269/ Many factors explain dysbiosis in chronic constipation (CC), such as a low-fiber diet. The objective of this study was to compare the fecal microbiota of constipated and nonconstipated children and their intake frequencies of food. Methods. This observational study included 79 children (M/F 43/36) aged six to 36 months divided into two groups: cases (39 constipated children) and controls (40 nonconstipated children). We used a structured form to collect demographic variables, conducted anthropometric assessment, and collected food intake frequency data. The fecal microbiota of the stool samples was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the fluorophore SYBR® Green. Results. Constipated children had a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus per milligram of stool () than nonconstipated children, but the concentration of Bifidobacterium per milligram of stool () and the intake of fruits, vegetables (), and junk food () of the two groups did not differ. Constipated children consumed more dairy products (; ), were more frequently delivered via caesarean section (69.2%), were weaned earlier (median: 120; ), and had a family history of constipation (71.8%). Conclusions. Children with CC have a smaller concentration of Lactobacillus in their stools and consume more dairy products. Joyce Gomes de Moraes, Maria Eugênia Farias de Almeida Motta, Monique Ferraz de Sá Beltrão, Taciana Lima Salviano, and Giselia Alves Pontes da Silva Copyright © 2016 Joyce Gomes de Moraes et al. All rights reserved. Parametric Analysis of a High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Based Microcogeneration System Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:53:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2016/4596251/ This study focuses on performance analysis of a 1  microcogeneration system based on a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HT-PEM) fuel cell by means of parametric investigation. A mathematical model for a system consisting of a fuel processor (steam reforming reactor and water-gas shift reactor), a HT-PEM fuel cell stack, and the balance-of-plant components was developed. Firstly, the fuel processor performance at different fuel ratios and equivalence ratio was examined. It is shown that high fuel ratios of 0.9–0.95 and equivalence ratios of less than 0.56 are suitable for acceptable carbon monoxide content in the synthetic gas produced. Secondly, a parametric study of the system performance at different fuel and equivalence ratios using key system operating parameters was conducted. Steam-to-carbon ratio, stack operating temperature, and anode stoichiometry were varied to observe the changes in the microcogeneration system. The analysis shows that the system can reach electrical and cogeneration efficiencies of 30% and 84%, respectively. Myalelo Nomnqa, Daniel Ikhu-Omoregbe, and Ademola Rabiu Copyright © 2016 Myalelo Nomnqa et al. All rights reserved. Cloning and Expression Analysis of One Gamma-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase Gene (Hbγ-ECS1) in Latex Production in Hevea brasiliensis Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:41:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5657491/ Rubber tree is a major commercial source of natural rubber. Latex coagulation is delayed by thiols, which belong to the important type of antioxidants in laticifer submembrane, and is composed of glutathione (GSH), cysteine, and methionine. The rate-limiting enzyme, γ-ECS, plays an important role in regulating the biosynthesis of glutathione under any environment conditions. To understand the relation between γ-ECS and thiols and to correlate latex flow with one-time tapping and continuous tapping, we cloned and derived the full length of one γ-ECS from rubber tree latex (Hbγ-ECS1). According to qPCR analysis, the expression levels of Hbγ-ECS1 were induced by tapping and Ethrel stimulation, and the expression was related to thiols content in the latex. Continuous tapping induced injury, and the expression of HbγECS1 increased with routine tapping and Ethrel-stimulation tapping (more intensive tapping). According to expression in long-term flowing latex, the gene was related to the duration of latex flow. HbγECS1 was expressed in E. coli Rosetta using pET-sumo as an expression vector and the recombinant enzyme was purified; then we achieved 0.827 U/mg specific activity and about 66 kDa molecular weight. The present study can help us understand the complex role of Hbγ-ECS in thiols biosynthesis, which is influenced by tapping. Wei Fang, Luo Shi Qiao, Wu Ming, Qiu Jian, Yang Wen Feng, Gao Hong Hua, and Xiao Xian Zhou Copyright © 2016 Wei Fang et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of a Periodontic-Endodontic Lesion in a Patient with Aggressive Periodontitis Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:31:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/7080781/ Case Description. This case report describes the successful management of a left mandibular first molar with a combined periodontic-endodontic lesion in a 35-year-old Caucasian woman with aggressive periodontitis using a concerted approach including endodontic treatment, periodontal therapy, and a periodontal regenerative procedure using an enamel matrix derivate. In spite of anticipated poor prognosis, the tooth lesion healed. This case report also discusses the rationale behind different treatment interventions. Practical Implication. Periodontic-endodontic lesions can be successfully treated if dental professionals follow a concerted treatment protocol that integrates endodontic and periodontic specialties. General dentists can be the gatekeepers in managing these cases. Mina D. Fahmy, Paul G. Luepke, Mohamed S. Ibrahim, and Arndt Guentsch Copyright © 2016 Mina D. Fahmy et al. All rights reserved. Autoantibodies in a Three-Year-Old Girl with Visceral Leishmaniasis: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:30:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/2081616/ Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a life-threatening parasitic infection, is endemic in the Mediterranean region. Diagnosis of VL is based on epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings. However, sometimes, clinical features and laboratory findings overlap with those of autoimmune diseases. In some cases, autoantibodies are detected in patients with VL and this could be a potential diagnostic pitfall. In this study, we have reported on a three-year-old girl from a VL-endemic area in Iran, who presented with prolonged fever and splenomegaly. Bone marrow examination, serologic tests, and the molecular PCR assay were performed; however, results were inconclusive. The levels of anti-double stranded DNA, cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody, and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody were elevated and, at the end, splenic biopsy was performed. The splenic tissue PCR test detected the DNA of Leishmania infantum. The patient’s condition improved with anti-Leishmania therapy, and the autoantibodies disappeared within the following four months. Clinical presentations and laboratory findings of VL and autoimmune diseases may overlap in some patients. Gholamreza Pouladfar, Zahra Jafarpour, Amir Hossein Babaei, Bahman Pourabbas, Bita Geramizadeh, and Anahita Sanaei Dashti Copyright © 2016 Gholamreza Pouladfar et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Astrazon Black AFDL Dye Adsorption onto Vietnamese Diatomite Thu, 23 Jun 2016 10:04:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/8685437/ In the present paper, the adsorption of Astrazon Black AFDL dye onto Vietnamese diatomite has been demonstrated. The diatomite was characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, EDS, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The results show that diatomite mainly constituted centric type frustules characterized by pores as discs or as cylindrical shapes. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of dye onto Vietnam diatomite were investigated. The experimental data were fitted well to both Freundlich and Langmuir in the initial concentration range of 400–1400 mg L−1. The average value of maximum adsorption capacity, , calculated from Freundlich equation is statistically similar to the average value of maximum monolayer adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation. The thermodynamic parameters evaluated from the temperature dependent on adsorption isotherms in the range of 303–343 K show that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The Webber and pseudo-first/second-order kinetic models were used to analyze the mechanism of adsorption. The piecewise linear regression and Akaike’s Information Criterion were used to analyze experimental data. The results show that the dye adsorption onto diatomite was film diffusion controlled and the goodness of fit of experimental data for kinetics modes was dependent on the initial concentration. Bui Hai Dang Son, Vo Quang Mai, Dang Xuan Du, Nguyen Hai Phong, and Dinh Quang Khieu Copyright © 2016 Bui Hai Dang Son et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Cause of Unilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Young Patient: Type III Mixed Cryoglobulinemia Thu, 23 Jun 2016 09:43:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2016/1949362/ Purpose. To report a young male with unilateral central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with cryoglobulinemia. Case Presentation. A 33-year-old male without any known systemic or ocular disorder was admitted to our clinic with a complaint of visual loss for three days in his left eye. Based on the clinical, laboratory, and ophthalmological assessments, we diagnosed this case as type III mixed cryoglobulinemia with unilateral CRVO with macular edema. For treatment, two intravitreal ranibizumab injections were administered monthly and oral prednisone (64 mg/day) was begun. Subsequently, cryoglobulins became undetectable, macular edema decreased, and the visual acuity improved to 20/32 over an 8-week period. At 24 weeks, the patient’s visual acuity remained 20/32 and no recurrence was observed while the patient was still on prednisone (16 mg/day). Conclusion. Cryoglobulinemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the patients with CRVO. Sibel Doguizi, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Mustafa Alpaslan Anayol, and Pelin Yilmazbas Copyright © 2016 Sibel Doguizi et al. All rights reserved. Efficiency on the Use of Radiation and Corn Yield under Three Densities of Sowing Thu, 23 Jun 2016 09:11:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2016/6959708/ Aiming to evaluate sowing densities and efficiency of radiation use, six corn genotypes, three from open pollination (“Amarillo Almoloya,” “Cacahuacintle,” and “Jiquipilco”) and three hybrids (“Z-60,” “Condor,” and “H-50”), were sown at densities of 6.9, 7.8, and 8.9 plants m−2, under a split plot design, within a factorial arrangement of treatments during three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Evaluated variables were yield, harvest index, biomass production, attenuation coefficient, and radiation use efficiency. Results indicate that 2008 was the best year because yield, biomass, and radiation use efficiency were 1132.6, 3505 gm−2, and 0.79 g MJ−1, respectively. “Jiquipilco” was the genotype that exhibited the best adaptability to climatic conditions of the zone; thus, it is recommended to be grown on the studied zone. A. Morales-Ruiz, J. M. Loeza-Corte, E. Díaz-López, E. J. Morales-Rosales, O. Franco-Mora, M. D. Mariezcurrena-Berasaín, and G. Estrada-Campuzano Copyright © 2016 A. Morales-Ruiz et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation on Wheel-Rail Dynamic Vibration Excited by Rail Spalling in High-Speed Railway Thu, 23 Jun 2016 09:10:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/9108780/ Spalling in contact surface of rail is a typical form of rolling contact fatigue, which is a difficult problem to solve in railway. Once the spalling occurs in the rail, the wheel-rail dynamic interaction will become more severe. The wheel-rail dynamic interaction is investigated based on the theory of vehicle-track coupled dynamics in this paper, where the excitation modes of the rail spalling failure are taken into consideration for high-speed wheel-rail system. A modified excitation model of rail spalling failure is proposed. It can enable the investigations on two kinds of excitation modes in wheel-rail system due to the rail spalling, including the pulse and the harmonic excitation modes. The excitation mode can be determined by the ratio of the spalling length to its critical length. Thus, the characteristics of wheel-rail dynamic vibration excited by two kinds of excitation are simulated in detail. Consequently, the limited value of the spalling length is suggested for high-speed railway. Kaiyun Wang, Wanming Zhai, Kaikai Lv, and Zaigang Chen Copyright © 2016 Kaiyun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Cardiac Effects of Thyrotropin Oversuppression with Levothyroxine in Young Women with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thu, 23 Jun 2016 09:10:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/9846790/ Background. We investigated the cardiac effects of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) oversuppression in women with thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) during levothyroxine suppression therapy. Methods. Fourteen young female patients with DTC were enrolled. The duration of TSH-suppressive therapy was 5 to 9 years. They satisfied the following criteria: (1) a serum level of TSH < 0.1 mU/L in the intermediate-risk or TSH < 0.3 mU/L in the low-recurrence-risk group and (2) having been receiving a fixed dose of LT4 before the study. Controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were compared in terms of the levels of serum free T4, free T3, TSH, plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), and cardiac functions and structures. Results. DTC patients and control subjects were well matched in heart rate and blood pressure. There were marked differences in serum TSH () and free T4 (). However, there were no differences between the groups in serum free T3 and plasma NT-pro-BNP. Furthermore, there were nonsignificant differences in cardiac functions and structures between the groups. Conclusions. This study shows that TSH suppression therapy in women with DTC may be safe with respect to cardiac functions and structures despite intermittent oversuppression of TSH during long-term suppressive therapy. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02645786. Kyung-Soon Hong, Jung-Woo Son, Ohk Hyun Ryu, Moon-Gi Choi, Ji Yeon Hong, and Seong Jin Lee Copyright © 2016 Kyung-Soon Hong et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Instantaneous Turbulent Flow Field in a 90-Degree Elbow Pipe with Circular Section Thu, 23 Jun 2016 09:01:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2016/5265748/ Based on the special application of 90-degree elbow pipe in the HTR-PM, the large eddy simulation was selected to calculate the instantaneous flow field in the 90-degree elbow pipe combining with the experimental results. The characteristics of the instantaneous turbulent flow field under the influence of flow separation and secondary flow were studied by analyzing the instantaneous pressure information at specific monitoring points and the instantaneous velocity field on the cross section of the elbow. The pattern and the intensity of the Dean vortex and the small scale eddies change over time and induce the asymmetry of the flow field. The turbulent disturbance upstream and the flow separation near the intrados couple with the vortexes of various scales. Energy is transferred from large scale eddies to small scale eddies and dissipated by the viscous stress in the end. Shiming Wang, Cheng Ren, Yangfei Sun, Xingtuan Yang, and Jiyuan Tu Copyright © 2016 Shiming Wang et al. All rights reserved. Design and Implementation of a Chaotic Scheme in Additive White Gaussian Noise Channel Thu, 23 Jun 2016 08:52:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/5976282/ A new chaotic scheme named Flipped Chaotic On-Off Keying (FCOOK) is proposed for binary transmission. In FCOOK, the low correlation value between the stationary signal and its mirrored version is utilized. Transmitted signal for binary 1 is a chaotic segment added to its time flipped (mirrored) version within one bit duration, while in binary 0, no transmission takes place within the same bit duration. The proposed scheme is compared with the standard chaotic systems: Differential Chaos Shift Keying (DCSK) and Correlation Delay Shift Keying (CDSK). The Bit Error Rate (BER) of FCOOK is studied analytically based on Gaussian approximation method. Results show that the BER performance of FCOOK outperforms DCSK and CDSK in AWGN channel environment and with various levels. Additionally, FCOOK offers a double bit rate compared with the standard DCSK. Nizar Al Bassam and Oday Jerew Copyright © 2016 Nizar Al Bassam and Oday Jerew. All rights reserved. Seismic Performance Evaluations of Mega-Sub Isolation System Thu, 23 Jun 2016 08:30:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7031712/ This paper presents mega-sub isolation system. Shaking table test of the mega-sub isolation system is carried out in this paper. Three test models have been developed. One is called aseismic model, in which all the substructures are fixedly connected with the megastructures. The second one is known as isolated model, where the substructures are connected with the megastructures with isolators, and the last one is called the lower substructure consolidated (LSC) model, in which all the substructures except for the substructures at the lowest level, in other words, substructures at the second mega floor, are isolated from the megastructures. Nonlinear dynamic time analysis of the test models is conducted by SAP2000. Acceleration responses of the megastructure, story drift responses of the megastructure and the substructure, and the deformations of the isolation layer are compared between experimental and numerical simulation results. The results show that the experimental results and numerical simulation results agree well with each other, and the isolated model and LSC model perform better than the counterpart aseismic model. The structures with isolation devices can reduce the structural responses effectively and are much safer than the structure without isolation devices. Xiangxiu Li, Ping Tan, Xiaojun Li, and Aiwen Liu Copyright © 2016 Xiangxiu Li et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Parathion on Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase in the Wistar Rat Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:57:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2016/4576952/ Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride, and midazolam, for up to 48 hours. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined serially for up to 8 days after poisoning. Results. At all doses of parathion, maximal depression of acetylcholinesterase occurred at 3 hours after poisoning. Acetylcholinesterase recovered to nearly 50% of baseline activity by day 4 in the 20 mg/kg cohort and by day 5 in the 40 and 60 mg/kg cohorts. At day 8, most rats’ acetylcholinesterase had recovered to roughly 70% of baseline. These data should be useful in developing rodent models of acute OP pesticide poisoning. Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, and Steven B. Bird Copyright © 2016 Naofumi Bunya et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Lymphorrhea and Incidence of Lymphoceles: 4DryField® PH in Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:49:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2016/2367432/ Purpose. To investigate impact of polysaccharide hemostat 4DryField PH (4DF) applied on lymph node dissection area after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) on lymphorrhea and lymphocele (LC) formation. Methods. 104 consecutive patients underwent RRP, 51 without 4DF treatment (CT-group) and 53 with 4DF treatment (4DF-group). Groups were comparable (age, risk profile, and lymph node numbers). Postoperative drain loss (PDL) and development of early and late LC were analyzed (mean follow-up at 7 months: 100%). Results. PDL was 452.5 ± 634.2 mL without and 308.5 ± 214 mL with 4DF treatment. PDL > 1000 mL only occurred in CT-group (5/51). Overall, 45 LC (26 in CT- versus 19 in the 4DF-group) were diagnosed. At day 8, LC were equally distributed between groups. Incidence of late LC, however, was twice in controls (16/51) versus 4DF-patients (8/53). Symptomatic LC (4 in untreated patients, 2 in 4DF-patients) were treated with percutaneous drainage (duration: 45 days in untreated patients versus 12 days in 4DF-patients). Conclusion. Application of 4DF on lymph node dissection areas lessened total drain loss and significantly lowered high volume drain loss. Furthermore, 4DF reduced frequency of late lymphoceles and lymphoceles requiring treatment by half, as well as duration of percutaneous drainage by more than two-thirds. Johannes-J. Karsch, Martin Berthold, and Jürgen Breul Copyright © 2016 Johannes-J. Karsch et al. All rights reserved. Cytokine and Growth Factor Activation In Vivo and In Vitro after Spinal Cord Injury Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:43:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9476020/ Spinal cord injury results in a life-disrupting series of deleterious interconnected mechanisms encompassed by the primary and secondary injury. These events are mediated by the upregulation of genes with roles in inflammation, transcription, and signaling proteins. In particular, cytokines and growth factors are signaling proteins that have important roles in the pathophysiology of SCI. The balance between the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of these molecules plays a critical role in the progression and outcome of the lesion. The excessive inflammatory Th1 and Th17 phenotypes observed after SCI tilt the scale towards a proinflammatory environment, which exacerbates the deleterious mechanisms present after the injury. These mechanisms include the disruption of the spinal cord blood barrier, edema and ion imbalance, in particular intracellular calcium and sodium concentrations, glutamate excitotoxicity, free radicals, and the inflammatory response contributing to the neurodegenerative process which is characterized by demyelination and apoptosis of neuronal tissue. Elisa Garcia, Jorge Aguilar-Cevallos, Raul Silva-Garcia, and Antonio Ibarra Copyright © 2016 Elisa Garcia et al. All rights reserved. Acoustic Cavitation Enhances Focused Ultrasound Ablation with Phase-Shift Inorganic Perfluorohexane Nanoemulsions: An In Vitro Study Using a Clinical Device Thu, 23 Jun 2016 07:12:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7936902/ Purpose. To investigate whether acoustic cavitation could increase the evaporation of a phase-shift inorganic perfluorohexane (PFH) nanoemulsion and enhance high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Materials and Methods. PFH was encapsulated by mesoporous silica nanocapsule (MSNC) to form a nanometer-sized droplet (MSNC-PFH). It was added to a tissue-mimicking phantom, whereas phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was added as a control (PBS-control). HIFU ( W,  s) exposures were performed in both phantoms with various duty cycles (DC). US images, temperature, and cavitation emissions were recorded during HIFU exposure. HIFU-induced lesions were measured and calculated. Results. Compared to PBS-control, MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion could significantly increase the volume of HIFU-induced lesion (). Peak temperatures were 78.16 ± 5.64°C at a DC of 100%, 70.17 ± 6.43°C at 10%, 53.17 ± 4.54°C at 5%, and 42.00 ± 5.55°C at 2%, respectively. Inertial cavitation was much stronger in the pulsed-HIFU than that in the continuous-wave HIFU exposure. Compared to 100%-DC exposure, the mean volume of lesion induced by 5 s exposure at 10%-DC was significantly larger, but smaller at 2%-DC. Conclusions. MSNC-PFH nanoemulsion can significantly enhance HIFU ablation. Appropriate pulsed-HIFU exposure could significantly increase the volume of lesion and reduce total US energy required for HIFU ablation. Lu-Yan Zhao, Jian-Zhong Zou, Zong-Gui Chen, Shan Liu, Jiao Jiao, and Feng Wu Copyright © 2016 Lu-Yan Zhao et al. All rights reserved. A Metric on the Space of Partly Reduced Phylogenetic Networks Thu, 23 Jun 2016 06:48:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7534258/ Phylogenetic networks are a generalization of phylogenetic trees that allow for the representation of evolutionary events acting at the population level, such as recombination between genes, hybridization between lineages, and horizontal gene transfer. The researchers have designed several measures for computing the dissimilarity between two phylogenetic networks, and each measure has been proven to be a metric on a special kind of phylogenetic networks. However, none of the existing measures is a metric on the space of partly reduced phylogenetic networks. In this paper, we provide a metric, -distance, on the space of partly reduced phylogenetic networks, which is polynomial-time computable. Juan Wang Copyright © 2016 Juan Wang. All rights reserved. Flipping a Dental Anatomy Course: A Retrospective Study Over Four Years Thu, 23 Jun 2016 05:51:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/7097398/ Flipped classrooms have been successfully used to increase student engagement and support student learning in a range of educational fields, including health education. These advantages for student learning supported implementation of the flipped classroom in introductory sciences and preclinical courses in dental education. We report on a 4-year retrospective study which compared two methods of delivery of a first-year dental anatomy course. The first method used the traditional method, consisting of face to face contact teaching hours, which was compared to a partial flipped classroom, where lecture contact was maintained but practical classes were flipped. A series of online videos demonstrating different practical tasks such as wax carving and tooth identification. An online digital library and online quizzes for self-reflected learning were developed and trialled. Students’ Evaluations of Course (SEC) and students’ overall performance in practical and theoretical assessments were used to evaluate the impact on student engagement and success, respectively, after implementation of the modified course offerings. This study evidences the success of the transition to a partially flipped course design. Careful design and consideration of implementation of the flipped classroom method in dental education are recommended to ensure that there is reliable availability of online resources and dedicated teaching staff for construction of resources and delivery of relevant in-class activities. Mahmoud M. Bakr, Ward L. Massey, and Helen M. Massa Copyright © 2016 Mahmoud M. Bakr et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on Detection of Deterioration in Concrete Using Infrared Thermography Technique Thu, 23 Jun 2016 05:51:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/1053856/ Concrete is certainly prone to internal deteriorations or defects during the construction and operating periods. Compared with other nondestructive techniques, infrared thermography can easily detect the subsurface delamination in a very short period of time, but accurately identifying its size and depth in concrete is a very challenging task. In this study, experimental testing was carried out on a concrete specimen having internal delaminations of various sizes and at varying depths. Delaminations at 1 and 2 cm deep showed a good temperature contrast after only 5-minute heating, but delaminations at 3 cm practically identified the value of the temperature contrast from heating of 15 minutes. In addition, the size of the delamination at 3 cm deep could be estimated with a difference of 10% to 28% for 20 minutes of heating. The depth of the delamination was linearly correlated with the increase in its size. Jungwon Huh, Quang Huy Tran, Jong-Han Lee, DongYeob Han, Jin-Hee Ahn, and Solomon Yim Copyright © 2016 Jungwon Huh et al. All rights reserved. Reduced Parasite Burden in Children with Falciparum Malaria and Bacteremia Coinfections: Role of Mediators of Inflammation Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:35:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/4286576/ Bacteremia and malaria coinfection is a common and life-threatening condition in children residing in sub-Saharan Africa. We previously showed that coinfection with Gram negative (G[−]) enteric Bacilli and Plasmodium falciparum (Pf[+]) was associated with reduced high-density parasitemia (HDP, >10,000 parasites/μL), enhanced respiratory distress, and severe anemia. Since inflammatory mediators are largely unexplored in such coinfections, circulating cytokines were determined in four groups of children (, aged <3 yrs): healthy; Pf[+] alone; G[−] coinfected; and G[+] coinfected. Staphylococcus aureus and non-Typhi Salmonella were the most frequently isolated G[+] and G[−] organisms, respectively. Coinfected children, particularly those with G[−] pathogens, had lower parasite burden (peripheral and geometric mean parasitemia and HDP). In addition, both coinfected groups had increased IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-15, IL-17, IFN-γ, and IFN-α and decreased TNF-α relative to malaria alone. Children with G[−] coinfection had higher IL-1β and IL-1Ra and lower IL-10 than the Pf[+] group and higher IFN-γ than the G[+] group. To determine how the immune response to malaria regulates parasitemia, cytokine production was investigated with a multiple mediation model. Cytokines with the greatest mediational impact on parasitemia were IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ. Results here suggest that enhanced immune activation, especially in G[−] coinfected children, acts to reduce malaria parasite burden. Gregory C. Davenport, James B. Hittner, Vincent Otieno, Zachary Karim, Harshini Mukundan, Paul W. Fenimore, Nicolas W. Hengartner, Benjamin H. McMahon, Prakasha Kempaiah, John M. Ong’echa, and Douglas J. Perkins Copyright © 2016 Gregory C. Davenport et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Left Ventricular Structural Remodelling in Patients with Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:32:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/4786925/ Background. Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is always accompanied with alteration of left ventricular structure and function. The aims of this study were to assess the structural remodelling in patients with DCM by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and correlation of structural remodelling with severity of DCM. Methods. Twenty-five patients ( years, 52.0% males) with DCM and thirty-one normal healthy controls ( years, 45.2% males) were scanned by CMR cine to assess function and structure of left ventricular. Length of diabetic history and results of cardiac echocardiography (E′, A′, and E′/A′) were also measured. Results. Compared with normal controls group, DCM group was associated with significantly increased ratio of left ventricular mass at end diastole to end-diastolic volume (MVR) () and no significant difference was in mass at end diastole (). The ratio correlated with both length of diabetic history and echocardiographic Doppler tissue imaging E′ (all ). Conclusions. CMR can be a powerful technique to assess LV remodelling, and MVR may be considered as an imaging marker to evaluate the severity of LV remodelling in patients with DCM. Yongning Shang, Xiaochun Zhang, Liu Chen, Weiling Leng, Xiaotian Lei, Qi Yang, Ziwen Liang, and Jian Wang Copyright © 2016 Yongning Shang et al. All rights reserved. Impact of a Core Ferrule Design on Fracture Resistance of Teeth Restored with Cast Post and Core Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:28:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amed/2016/5073459/ Objectives. To investigate the influence of a contra bevel on the fracture resistance of teeth restored with cast post and core. Materials and Methods. Sixty plastic analogues of an upper incisor were endodontically treated and prepared with 6° internal taper and 2 mm of ferrule in order to receive a cast post and core. The prepared samples were divided into two groups (); the first group serves as control while the second group was prepared with an external 30° bevel on the buccal and lingual walls. All samples crowned were exposed to a compressive load at 130° to their long axis until fractures occurred. Fracture resistance loads were recorded and failure modes were also observed. Mann-Whitney test was carried out to compare the two groups. Results. Mean failure loads for the groups were, respectively, 1038.69 N (SD ±243.52 N) and 1078.89 N (SD ±352.21 N). Statistically, there was no significant difference between the two groups (). Conclusion. In the presence of a ferrule and a crown in the anterior teeth, adding a secondary ferrule to the cast post and core will not increase the resistance to fracture. Loubna Shamseddine and Farid Chaaban Copyright © 2016 Loubna Shamseddine and Farid Chaaban. All rights reserved. Fusarium Endophthalmitis following Cataract Surgery: Successful Treatment with Intravitreal and Systemic Voriconazole Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:27:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2016/4593042/ Purpose. To report a case of postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium species successfully treated with intravitreal and systemic voriconazole after treatment failure with amphotericin B. Methods. Clinical case report of a 60-year-old immunocompetent woman who presents with endophthalmitis of unknown origin 4 weeks after uneventful cataract extraction and IOL implantation surgery. IOL explantation, vitrectomy with capsular bag removal, vitreous aspiration for culture, and intravitreal injection of amphotericin B (5 μg/0.1 mL) were performed. Diagnosis was established by culturing the vitreous aspirate on a Sabouraud agar medium and staining with lactophenol blue solution. Five days later, there was no clinical response. The decision was made to administer a single dose of intravitreal voriconazole (2.5 μg/0.1 mL) and oral voriconazole (200 mg BID) for 30 days. Results. Fusarium sp. grew on culture. Treatment with local and systemic voriconazole was started after no improvement with vitrectomy, IOL explantation, and intravitreal amphotericin B. After 1 month of treatment, the infection resolved and best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25. Conclusion. In patients with endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium sp., topical and systemic voriconazole treatment should be considered in cases resistant to intravitreal amphotericin B. Paulo A. Alves da Costa Pertuiset and Juan F. Batlle Logroño Copyright © 2016 Paulo A. Alves da Costa Pertuiset and Juan F. Batlle Logroño. All rights reserved. On the Convergence of Solutions for SPDEs under Perturbation of the Domain Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:27:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5425639/ We investigate the effect of domain perturbation on the behavior of mild solutions for a class of semilinear stochastic partial differential equations subject to the Dirichlet boundary condition. Under some assumptions, we obtain an estimate for the mild solutions under changes of the domain. Zhongkai Guo, Jicheng Liu, and Wenya Wang Copyright © 2016 Zhongkai Guo et al. All rights reserved. Overcoming the Constraints of Anti-HIV/CD89 Bispecific Antibodies That Limit Viral Inhibition Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:27:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/9425172/ Innovative strategies are necessary to maximize the clinical application of HIV neutralizing antibodies. To this end, bispecific constructs of human antibody F240, reactive with well-conserved gp41 epitope and antibody 14A8, reactive with the IgA receptor (CD89) on effector cells, were constructed. A F240 × 14A8 bispecific single chain variable region (scFv) molecule was constructed by linking two scFvs using a conventional GGGGS linker. Despite immunoreactivity with HIV gp41 and neutrophils, this bispecific scFv failed to inhibit HIV infection. This is in sharp contrast to viral inhibition using a chemical conjugate of the Fab of these two antibodies. Therefore, we constructed two novel Fab-like bispecific antibody molecules centered on fusion of the IgG1 CH1 domain or CH1-hinge domain to the C-terminus of F240scFv and fusion of the kappa chain CL domain to the C-terminus of 14A8scFv. Both Bi-Fab antibodies showed significant ADCVI activity for multiple clade B and clade C isolates by arming the neutrophils to inhibit HIV infection. The approach presented in this study is unique for HIV immunotherapy in that the impetus of neutralization is to arm and mobilize PMN to destroy HIV and HIV infected cells. Xiaocong Yu, Mark Duval, Melissa Gawron, Marshall R. Posner, and Lisa A. Cavacini Copyright © 2016 Xiaocong Yu et al. All rights reserved. Passive Removal of Silicone Oil with Temporal Head Position through Two 23-Gauge Cannulas Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:26:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/4182693/ Purpose. To report a new approach for removal of silicone oil. Methods. All surgeries were performed using 23-gauge vitrectomy system with two transconjunctival sutureless cannulas. At the beginning, most of the silicone oil was removed by traditional microinvasive vitrectomy system through inferior-temporal cannula. Then, the blood transfusion tube is removed from the inferior-temporal cannula, and the fluid-air exchange is performed. A passive fluid-air exchange was performed to aspirate the residual silicone oil after gradually turning the patient’s head temporally by approximately 90° gradually. Results. After the surgery, all patients had a clear anterior chamber and vitreous cavity on slit lamp and B scan examination, respectively. The mean time taken for silicone oil removal and total surgery was minutes and minutes, respectively. The mean intraocular pressure 1 day, 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery was  mmHg,  mmHg,  mmHg,  mmHg, and  mmHg, respectively. Conclusion. This new approach may provide a safe and fast method to remove the silicone oil. Zhong Lin, Zhi Sheng Ke, Qian Zheng, Zhen Quan Zhao, and Zong Ming Song Copyright © 2016 Zhong Lin et al. All rights reserved. Splenectomy versus Partial Splenic Embolization for Massive Splenomegaly Secondary to Hepatitis B-Related Liver Cirrhosis: A Case-Control Study Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:25:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/3471626/ Background. Both splenectomy (SP) and partial splenic embolization (PSE) are used to treat massive splenomegaly (MSM) secondary to hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis (HB-LC). This retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare the effects of SP and PSE on these patients. Methods. From July 2004 to January 2012, patients with MSM secondary to HB-LC who underwent SP or PSE were 1 : 1 : 1 matched with similar nonsurgery patients, respectively. Intraoperative situation, hematological indices, liver function, HBV DNA level, HBeAg seroconversion rate, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively were compared. Results. Operative time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion rate, severe pain, postoperative stay, and portal vein thrombosis (PVT) rate in the PSE group were significantly superior to the SP group, although SP and PSE were similar in liver function improvement, HBV suppression, morbidity, and mortality at 6 months postoperatively, and SP even improved WBC and PLT counts higher than PSE. Conclusion. Both SP and PSE are effective in improving liver function, increasing WBC and PLT counts, and suppressing replication of HBV for MSM secondary to HB-LC. Although postoperative improvement in WBC and PLT counts by SP can be higher than PSE, PSE is simple and minimally invasive and has a lower incidence of PVT. Shoufei Jiao, Hongxing Chen, Youlong Wang, Jiye Zhu, Jingwang Tan, and Jie Gao Copyright © 2016 Shoufei Jiao et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Microleakage on Dental Surfaces Bonded with Three Self-Etch Adhesive Systems Treated with the Er:YAG Laser and Bur Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:24:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2509757/ Aim. This study sought to compare the microleakage of three adhesive systems in the context of Erbium-YAG laser and diamond bur cavity procedures. Cavities were restored with composite resin. Materials and Methods. Standardized Class V cavities were performed in 72 extracted human teeth by means of diamond burs or Er-YAG laser. The samples were randomly divided into six groups of 12, testing three adhesive systems (Clearfil s3 Bond Plus, Xeno® Select, and Futurabond U) for each method used. Cavities were restored with composite resin before thermocycling (methylene blue 2%, 24 h). The slices were prepared using a microtome. Optical microscope photography was employed to measure the penetration. Results. No statistically significant differences in microleakage were found in the use of bur or laser, nor between adhesive systems. Only statistically significant values were observed comparing enamel with cervical walls (). Conclusion. It can be concluded that the Er:YAG laser is as efficient as diamond bur concerning microleakage values in adhesive restoration procedures, thus constituting an alternative tool for tooth preparation. Youssef Sanhadji El Haddar, Sibel Cetik, Babak Bahrami, and Ramin Atash Copyright © 2016 Youssef Sanhadji El Haddar et al. All rights reserved. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Circle Formations of Mobile Agents with Coupling Delay via Sampled-Data Control Wed, 22 Jun 2016 14:23:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1056594/ A circle forming problem for a group of mobile agents governed by first-order system is investigated, where each agent can only sense the relative angular positions of its neighboring two agents with time delay and move on the one-dimensional space of a given circle. To solve this problem, a novel decentralized sampled-data control law is proposed. By combining algebraic graph theory with control theory, some necessary and sufficient conditions are established to guarantee that all the mobile agents form a pregiven circle formation asymptotically. Moreover, the ranges of the sampling period and the coupling delay are determined, respectively. Finally, the theoretical results are demonstrated by numerical simulations. Jianwei Zhao, Hongxiang Hu, Chen Wang, and Guangming Xie Copyright © 2016 Jianwei Zhao et al. All rights reserved. A Ruptured Digital Epidermal Inclusion Cyst: A Sinister Presentation Wed, 22 Jun 2016 13:13:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/9035246/ Epidermal inclusion cysts are benign cutaneous lesions caused by dermal or subdermal implantation and proliferation of epidermal squamous epithelium as a result of trauma or surgery. They are typically located on the scalp, face, trunk, neck, or back; however they can be found anywhere on the body. Lesions are asymptomatic unless complicated by rupture, malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma, or infection at which point they can clinically appear as more sinister pathologies. We present the case of a 45-year-old laborer with a ruptured epidermal inclusion cyst, manifesting clinically and radiographically as a malignancy. Following MRI, definitive surgical management may appear to be a logical progression in management of the patient. This case however is a good example of why meticulously following surgical protocol when evaluating an unknown soft tissue mass is imperative. By following protocol, an alternate diagnosis was made and the patient has since gone on to a make a full recovery without life transforming surgery. Iain Bohler, Phillip Fletcher, Amanda Ragg, and Andrew Vane Copyright © 2016 Iain Bohler et al. All rights reserved. Midcourse Guidance Law Based on High Target Acquisition Probability Considering Angular Constraint and Line-of-Sight Angle Rate Control Wed, 22 Jun 2016 13:13:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/7634847/ Random disturbance factors would lead to the variation of target acquisition point during the long distance flight. To acquire a high target acquisition probability and improve the impact precision, missiles should be guided to an appropriate target acquisition position with certain attitude angles and line-of-sight (LOS) angle rate. This paper has presented a new midcourse guidance law considering the influences of random disturbances, detection distance restraint, and target acquisition probability with Monte Carlo simulation. Detailed analyses of the impact points on the ground and the random distribution of the target acquisition position in the 3D space are given to get the appropriate attitude angles and the end position for the midcourse guidance. Then, a new formulation biased proportional navigation (BPN) guidance law with angular constraint and LOS angle rate control has been derived to ensure the tracking ability when attacking the maneuvering target. Numerical simulations demonstrates that, compared with the proportional navigation guidance (PNG) law and the near-optimal spatial midcourse guidance (NSMG) law, BPN guidance law demonstrates satisfactory performances and can meet both the midcourse terminal angular constraint and the LOS angle rate requirement. Xiao Liu, Shengjing Tang, Jie Guo, Yuhang Yun, and Zhe Chen Copyright © 2016 Xiao Liu et al. All rights reserved. Interventions to Enhance Adaptive Plasticity after Stroke: From Mechanisms to Therapeutic Perspectives Wed, 22 Jun 2016 12:31:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/9153501/ Adriana Conforto, Annette Sterr, Ela Plow, and Leonardo Cohen Copyright © 2016 Adriana Conforto et al. All rights reserved. Homotopy Analysis Solution for Magnetohydrodynamic Squeezing Flow in Porous Medium Wed, 22 Jun 2016 12:24:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2016/3541512/ The aim of the present work is to analyze the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) squeezing flow through porous medium using homotopy analysis method (HAM). Fourth-order boundary value problem is modeled through stream function and transformation . Absolute residuals are used to check the efficiency and consistency of HAM. Other analytical techniques are compared with the present work. It is shown that results of good agreement can be obtained by choosing a suitable value of convergence control parameter in the valid region . The influence of different parameters on the flow is argued theoretically as well as graphically. Inayat Ullah, M. T. Rahim, Hamid Khan, and Mubashir Qayyum Copyright © 2016 Inayat Ullah et al. All rights reserved. Deep Neural Networks Based Recognition of Plant Diseases by Leaf Image Classification Wed, 22 Jun 2016 12:15:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/3289801/ The latest generation of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has achieved impressive results in the field of image classification. This paper is concerned with a new approach to the development of plant disease recognition model, based on leaf image classification, by the use of deep convolutional networks. Novel way of training and the methodology used facilitate a quick and easy system implementation in practice. The developed model is able to recognize 13 different types of plant diseases out of healthy leaves, with the ability to distinguish plant leaves from their surroundings. According to our knowledge, this method for plant disease recognition has been proposed for the first time. All essential steps required for implementing this disease recognition model are fully described throughout the paper, starting from gathering images in order to create a database, assessed by agricultural experts. Caffe, a deep learning framework developed by Berkley Vision and Learning Centre, was used to perform the deep CNN training. The experimental results on the developed model achieved precision between 91% and 98%, for separate class tests, on average 96.3%. Srdjan Sladojevic, Marko Arsenovic, Andras Anderla, Dubravko Culibrk, and Darko Stefanovic Copyright © 2016 Srdjan Sladojevic et al. All rights reserved. Coherent RAKE Receiver for CPM-Based Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Wed, 22 Jun 2016 12:07:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6971083/ Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) using continuous phase modulation (CPM) inherits the techniques’ benefits, constant envelope, anti-interference, and spectral efficiency. To get diversity gains over a Rayleigh-fading multipath channel as in conventional direct sequence spread-spectrum binary phase shift keying (DSSS-BPSK) system, a new class of coherent RAKE receivers is proposed in this work. By introducing chip branch metric to the receiver scheme, despreading and data detection can be done meanwhile based on Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection (MLSD). Compared to the conventional RAKE receiver which sums decision metrics symbol-by-symbol, the proposed DSSS-CPM RAKE receiver accumulates symbol branch metric increments over every phase state of multiple paths after chip phase synchronization. Numerical results show that DSSS-CPM using the synchronous despreading and demodulation algorithm has no performance loss compared to CPM system that employs MLSD algorithm under the same test conditions. Moreover, the proposed RAKE receiver outperforms conventional RAKE receiver and achieves a remarkable diversity gain of bit error rate (BER) under the Rayleigh-fading multipath channel. Ke Zhou, Shilian Wang, and Eryang Zhang Copyright © 2016 Ke Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Concurrent Human Papillomavirus-Positive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in a Married Couple Wed, 22 Jun 2016 11:58:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/8481235/ Background. Although alcohol and tobacco use are known risk factors for development of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been increasingly associated with this group of cancers. We describe the case of a married couple who presented with HPV-positive oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma within two months of each other. Methods. Tumor biopsies were positive for p16 and high-risk HPV in both patients. Sanger sequencing showed a nearly identical HPV16 strain in both patients. Both patients received chemoradiation, and one patient also underwent transoral robotic tongue base resection with bilateral neck dissection. Results. Both patients showed no evidence of recurrent disease on follow-up PET imaging. Conclusions. New head and neck symptoms should be promptly evaluated in the partner of a patient with known HPV-positive oropharynx cancer. This case expands the limited current literature on concurrent presentation of HPV-positive oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma in couples. Tyler D. Brobst, Joaquín J. García, Katharine A. Price, Ge Gao, David I. Smith, and Daniel L. Price Copyright © 2016 Tyler D. Brobst et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus Wed, 22 Jun 2016 11:56:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8502123/ Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis) were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation) and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay) at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR) and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp.), which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction) in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.). Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents. Karla Morán-Santibañez, Lucia Elizabeth Cruz-Suárez, Denis Ricque-Marie, Daniel Robledo, Yolanda Freile-Pelegrín, Mario A. Peña-Hernández, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, and Laura M. Trejo-Avila Copyright © 2016 Karla Morán-Santibañez et al. All rights reserved. An Approach for Integrated Analysis of Human Factors in Remote Handling Maintenance Wed, 22 Jun 2016 10:19:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2016/9108751/ Considering dangerous environmental conditions, maintenance of radioactive equipment can be performed by remote handling maintenance (RHM) system. The RHM system is a sophisticated man-machine system. Therefore, human factors analysis is an inevitable aspect considered in guaranteeing successful and safe task performance. This study proposes an approach for integrated analysis of human factors in RHM so as to make the evaluating process more practical. In the approach, indicators of accessibility, health safety, and fatigue are analyzed using virtual human simulation technologies. The human error factors in the maintenance process are analyzed using the human error probability (HEP) based on the success likelihood index method- (SLIM-) analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The psychological factors level of maintenance personnel is determined with an expert scoring. The human factors for the entire RHM system are then evaluated using the interval method. An application example is present, and the application results show that the approach can support the evaluation of the human factors in RHM. Jianwen Guo, Zhenzhong Sun, Jiaxin He, Xuejun Jia, Hongjuan Li, Xiaohui Yan, Haibin Chen, Hong Tang, and GuoHong Wu Copyright © 2016 Jianwen Guo et al. All rights reserved. Application of Recursive Subspace Method in Vehicle Lateral Dynamics Model Identification Wed, 22 Jun 2016 10:13:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1715762/ Modeling of vehicle behavior based on the identification method has received a renewed attention in recent years. In order to improve the linear time-invariant vehicle identification model, a more general identifiable vehicle model structure is proposed, in which time-varying characteristics of vehicle speed and cornering stiffness are taken into consideration. To identify the proposed linear time-varying vehicle model, a well-established data-driven method, named recursive optimized version of predictor-based subspace identification, is introduced. Before vehicle model identification, the influences of four parameters in the subspace algorithm are studied based on pulse input road test. And then a set of practical optimal parameters are chosen and used for the vehicle model identification. Through a series of standard road tests under different maneuvers, the linear time-varying vehicle model can be identified in real-time. It is demonstrated by comparison that the predicted outputs of the proposed vehicle model are much closer to the real vehicle outputs and the model has a wider range of application. Tengyue Ba, Xiqiang Guan, Jian W. Zhang, and Sanzhou Wang Copyright © 2016 Tengyue Ba et al. All rights reserved. Paired-Pulse Parietal-Motor Stimulation Differentially Modulates Corticospinal Excitability across Hemispheres When Combined with Prism Adaptation Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:59:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/5716179/ Rightward prism adaptation ameliorates neglect symptoms while leftward prism adaptation (LPA) induces neglect-like biases in healthy individuals. Similarly, inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) induces neglect-like behavior, whereas on the left PPC it ameliorates neglect symptoms and normalizes hyperexcitability of left hemisphere parietal-motor (PPC-M1) connectivity. Based on this analogy we hypothesized that LPA increases PPC-M1 excitability in the left hemisphere and decreases it in the right one. In an attempt to shed some light on the mechanisms underlying LPA’s effects on cognition, we investigated this hypothesis in healthy individuals measuring PPC-M1 excitability with dual-site paired-pulse TMS (ppTMS). We found a left hemisphere increase and a right hemisphere decrease in the amplitude of motor evoked potentials elicited by paired as well as single pulses on M1. While this could indicate that LPA biases interhemispheric connectivity, it contradicts previous evidence that M1-only MEPs are unchanged after LPA. A control experiment showed that input-output curves were not affected by LPA per se. We conclude that LPA combined with ppTMS on PPC-M1 differentially alters the excitability of the left and right M1. Selene Schintu, Elisa Martín-Arévalo, Michael Vesia, Yves Rossetti, Romeo Salemme, Laure Pisella, Alessandro Farnè, and Karen T. Reilly Copyright © 2016 Selene Schintu et al. All rights reserved. Flakka-Induced Prolonged Psychosis Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:39:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2016/3460849/ In South Florida, there has been a highly addictive new synthetic drug flooding the streets for people looking for a cheap high. Alpha-PVP, better known as Flakka, is an illegal substance that sells on the streets for as little as $5 a hit and delivers an instant high that can last from hours to days with lingering effects for weeks after it has been ingested. Although people use Flakka for its potential euphoric high, symptoms are known to easily escalate into frightening delusions, paranoid psychosis, extreme agitation, and a multitude of other altered mental states. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Florida appears to be the nation’s hot spot for reports of Flakka. In this case report, a 17-year-old female with no prior psychiatric diagnosis presents to the hospital under a 72-hour involuntary placement for altered mental status with agitation and psychotic behaviors. After multiple days of symptomatic treatment with benzodiazepines and antipsychotics, the patient became coherent enough to give a history of a “friend” putting Flakka in her food at school as a joke. Although she continues to have residual symptoms including psychomotor agitation and slowing of cognition, she was alert, oriented, and able to be discharged home with proper follow-up. Craig Crespi Copyright © 2016 Craig Crespi. All rights reserved. Recurrent Pericarditis, an Unexpected Effect of Adjuvant Interferon Chemotherapy for Malignant Melanoma Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:33:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/1342028/ Drug-induced pericarditis is a well-described cardiac pathology that can result from a variety of medications; however, interferon-mediated pericarditis is extremely rare. We present a case of a young female with recurrent pericarditis due to interferon therapy. The role of interferon in adjuvant chemotherapy is well known and yields good effect, but this case highlights the very uncommon phenomena of interferon induced pericarditis and the significant distress it can cause. Farhan Ashraf, Fady Marmoush, Muhammad Ismail Shafi, and Ashish Shah Copyright © 2016 Farhan Ashraf et al. All rights reserved. Left Main Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Young Male with Rheumatic Heart Disease and Porcelain Aorta Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:32:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2016/3671923/ We highlight the presence of a calcified mass in the left main coronary artery without significant atherosclerosis seen in the other coronary arteries or in the peripheral large arteries. In our view, the calcified character of the obstruction and the calcification of the aortic valve are characteristic of a variant type of coronary artery disease (CAD) not associated with the same risk factors as diffuse coronary atherosclerosis, but, in this case, with rheumatic heart disease. This case report also emphasizes the interventional approach for patients with aortic valve stenosis secondary to rheumatic heart disease. Vinod Chainani, Osman Perez, Ram Hanno, Patrick Hourani, Pablo Rengifo-Moreno, Pedro Martinez-Clark, and Carlos E. Alfonso Copyright © 2016 Vinod Chainani et al. All rights reserved. Transformation Mechanism of Fluormica to Fluoramphibole in Fluoramphibole Glass Ceramics Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:28:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/5640545/ During isothermal sintering at 820°C, the transformation mechanism of fluormica to fluoramphibole in powder compacts of fluormica and soda-lime glass was investigated using differential thermal analysis, infrared reflection spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and so forth. Results show that an interaction between fluormica and glass occurred during isothermal heating; O2−, Na+, and Ca2+ ions were diffused from glass to fluormica. This diffusion facilitates the transformation of the sheet structures of fluormica crystals to double-chain structures by the breakage of bridge oxygen bonds in the sheet. Subsequently, the broken two parallel double chains were rearranged by relative displacement along the -axis direction of the fluormica crystal and were linked by Na+ and Ca2+ ions to form fluoramphibole. A crystallography model of fluormica-fluoramphibole transformation was established in this study. Wei Si, Hua-Shen Xu, Ming Sun, Chao Ding, and Wei-Yi Zhang Copyright © 2016 Wei Si et al. All rights reserved. Office-Based Case Finding for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Older Adults in Primary Care Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:23:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2016/1083270/ Background. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is underdiagnosed in primary care. Aim. To explore the utility of proactive identification of COPD in patients 75 years of age and older in a Canadian primary care setting. Methods. Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) screening questions were administered to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years or more; those with a positive screen were referred for postbronchodilator spirometry. Results. A total of 107 patients (21%), of 499 screened, had a 20-pack-year smoking history; 105 patients completed the CTS screening. Forty-four (42%) patients were positive on one or more questions on the screening; significantly more patients with a previous diagnosis of COPD (64%) were positive on the CTS compared to those without a previous diagnosis of COPD (30%). Of those who were not previously diagnosed with COPD (N = 11), four (36%) were newly diagnosed with COPD. Conclusion. A systematic two-stage method of screening for COPD, using CTS screening questions followed by spirometric confirmation, is feasible in the context of a busy primary care setting. More research is needed to assess the value of restricting screening to patients with a smoking history of 20 pack-years and on the sensitivity and specificity of these measures. Linda Lee, Tejal Patel, Loretta M. Hillier, and James Milligan Copyright © 2016 Linda Lee et al. All rights reserved. Anti-VEGF in a Marathon Runner’s Retinopathy Case Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:21:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2016/5756970/ Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is one of the most common retinal vascular disorders. Intense exercise associated CRVO have been described in otherwise healthy young patients. We describe a case of a young male ultramarathoner who presented with a CRVO, presumably associated with dehydration, making part of a marathon runner’s retinopathy. Resolution of macular edema and subretinal fluid, with visual acuity improvement, was observed after 3 monthly injections of ranibizumab. Our case suggests that dehydration could be involved in the mechanism of CRVO in healthy young patients and ranibizumab may be an effective treatment option for marathon runner’s retinopathy. Alexander Kahjun Soon, Paulo Ricardo Chaves de Oliveira, and David Robert Chow Copyright © 2016 Alexander Kahjun Soon et al. All rights reserved. Hemoptysis as the Presenting Clinical Sign of a T8-T9 Spine Fracture with Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Changes Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:19:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2016/7657652/ Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a noninflammatory degenerative disease that affects multiple spine levels and, in combination with osteoporosis, makes vertebrae more prone to fractures, especially in elderly people. We describe a rare case of thoracic fracture in an ankylosed spine in which hemoptysis was the only clinical sign. The patient (age in the early 80s) presented with chest pain and a cough associated with hemoptysis. The patient had no complaints of back pain and no neurological symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the chest revealed changes consistent with DISH, with fractures at the T8 and T9 vertebra as well as lung hemorrhage or contusion in the right lung base. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed similar findings, with a recent T8-T9 fracture and DISH changes. The patient underwent percutaneous pedicle screw fixation from T7 to T11 and remained neurologically intact with an uneventful postoperative course. Ioannis Siasios, John Pollina, and Vassilios G. Dimopoulos Copyright © 2016 Ioannis Siasios et al. All rights reserved. Effectively Screening for Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Undergoing Orthotopic Liver Transplant Evaluation Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:11:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtrans/2016/7187206/ Coronary artery disease (CAD) is prevalent in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated with poor outcomes when undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT); however, noninvasive screening for CAD in this population is less sensitive. In an attempt to identify redundancy, we reviewed our experience among patients undergoing CAD screening as part of their OLT evaluation between May 2009 and February 2014. Demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics were analyzed. Of the total number of screened patients (), initial screening was more common via stress testing (; 75.8%) than coronary angiography (; 24.2%). Most with initial stress testing underwent angiography (; 39.4%). Among those undergoing angiography, CAD was common (; 23.5%). Across the entire cohort the number of traditional risk factors was linearly associated with CAD, and those with two or more risk factors were found to have CAD by angiography 50% of the time (OR 1.92; CI 1.07–3.44, ). Our data supports that CAD is prevalent among pre-OLT patients, especially among those with 2 or more risk factors. Moreover, we identified a lack of uniformity in practice and the need for evidence-based and standardized screening protocols. Bryan C. Lee, Feng Li, Adam J. Hanje, Khalid Mumtaz, Konstantinos D. Boudoulas, and Scott M. Lilly Copyright © 2016 Bryan C. Lee et al. All rights reserved. Importance of Molds for Nanoimprint Lithography: Hard, Soft, and Hybrid Molds Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:11:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jns/2016/6571297/ Nanoimprint lithography has attracted considerable attention in academic and industrial fields as one of the most prominent lithographic techniques for the fabrication of the nanoscale devices. Effectively controllable shapes of fabricated elements, extremely high resolution, and cost-effectiveness of this especial lithographic system have shown unlimited potential to be utilized for practical applications. In the past decade, many different lithographic techniques have been developed such as electron beam lithography, photolithography, and nanoimprint lithography. Among them, nanoimprint lithography has proven to have not only various advantages that other lithographic techniques have but also potential to minimize the limitations of current lithographic techniques. In this review, we summarize current lithography techniques and, furthermore, investigate the nanoimprint lithography in detail in particular focusing on the types of molds. Nanoimprint lithography can be categorized into three different techniques (hard-mold, soft-mold, and hybrid nanoimprint) depending upon the molds for imprint with different advantages and disadvantages. With numerous studies and improvements, nanoimprint lithography has shown great potential which maximizes its effectiveness in patterning by minimizing its limitations. This technique will surely be the next generation lithographic technique which will open the new paradigm for the patterning and fabrication in nanoscale devices in industry. B. Kwon and Jong H. Kim Copyright © 2016 B. Kwon and Jong H. Kim. All rights reserved. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:04:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/1341453/ Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI) increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect) was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests) and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy. Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz Maia, Luanna Melo Pereira Fernandes, Walace Gomes-Leal, Allan Costa-Malaquias, Rafael Rodrigues Lima, Rui Daniel Prediger, and Maria Elena Crespo-López Copyright © 2016 Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior et al. All rights reserved. Mapping of Novel QTL Regulating Grain Shattering Using Doubled Haploid Population in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:01:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2016/2128010/ The critical evolutionary step during domestication of major cereals was elimination of seed shattering because the easy-to-shatter trait in wild relatives results in a severe reduction in yield. In this study, we analyzed the QTLs associated with shattering employing a high-density genetic map in doubled haploid (DH) population of rice (Oryza sativa L.). A genetic linkage map was generated with 217 microsatellite markers spanning 2082.4 cM and covering 12 rice chromosomes with an average interval of 9.6 cM between markers based on 120 DHLs derived from a cross between Cheongcheong indica type cultivar and Nagdong japonica type cultivar. In the QTL analysis, five QTLs pertaining to the breaking tensile strength (BTS) were detected in 2013 and 2015. Two regions of the QTLs related to BTS on chromosome 1 and chromosome 6 were detected. Several important genes are distributed in 1 Mbp region of the QTL on chromosome 6 and they are related to the formation of abscission layer. We decide to name this QTL qSh6 and the candidate genes in the qSh6 region can be employed usefully in further research for cloning. Gyu-Ho Lee, In-Kyu Kang, and Kyung-Min Kim Copyright © 2016 Gyu-Ho Lee et al. All rights reserved. SmartCop: Enabling Smart Traffic Violations Ticketing in Vehicular Named Data Networks Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:58:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/1353290/ Recently, various applications for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) have been proposed and smart traffic violation ticketing is one of them. On the other hand, the new Information-Centric Networking (ICN) architectures have emerged and been investigated into VANETs, such as Vehicular Named Data Networking (VNDN). However, the existing applications in VANETs are not suitable for VNDN paradigm due to the dependency on a “named content” instead of a current “host-centric” approach. Thus, we need to design the emerging and new architectures for VNDN applications. In this paper, we propose a smart traffic violation ticketing (TVT) system for VNDN, named as SmartCop, that enables a cop vehicle (CV) to issue tickets for traffic violation(s) to the offender(s) autonomously, once they are in the transmission range of that CV. The ticket issuing delay, messaging cost, and percentage of violations detected for varying number of vehicles, violators, CVs, and vehicles speeds are estimated through simulations. In addition, we provide a road map of future research directions for enabling safe driving experience in future cars aided with VNDN technology. Syed Hassan Ahmed, Muhammad Azfar Yaqub, Safdar Hussain Bouk, and Dongkyun Kim Copyright © 2016 Syed Hassan Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. The Chaotic Attractor Analysis of DJIA Based on Manifold Embedding and Laplacian Eigenmaps Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:49:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/8087178/ By using the techniques of Manifold Embedding and Laplacian Eigenmaps, a novel strategy has been proposed in this paper to detect the chaos of Dow Jones Industrial Average. Firstly, the chaotic attractor of financial time series is assumed to lie on a low-dimensional manifold that is embedded into a high-dimensional Euclidean space. Then, an improved phase space reconstruction method and a nonlinear dimensionality reduction method are introduced to help reveal the structure of the chaotic attractor. Next, the empirical study on the financial time series of Dow Jones Industrial Average shows that there exists an attractor which lies on a manifold constructed by the time sequence of Moving average convergence divergence; finally, Determinism Test, Poincaré section, and translation analysis are used as test approaches to prove both whether it is a chaos and how it works. Xiaohua Song, Dongxiao Niu, and Yulin Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xiaohua Song et al. All rights reserved. Different Nodules Identified during Liver Explant Gross Examination: Relevance and Need for Sectioning—Experience from India Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:45:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijh/2016/4390434/ Objective. The goal of this study was to determine the etiopathological association of various hepatic nodules identified during gross examination of liver explants specimen and the grossing aspects of these abnormal nodules especially those smaller than 1 cm in diameter. Our aim was to analyze whether there is any association of macroregenerative and dysplastic nodule with hepatocellular carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Fifty consecutive liver explants specimens were analyzed for the presence of any abnormal nodule (abnormal nodule defined as any nodule different in color, texture, and appearance from adjacent liver tissue). Results. Of the total 40 abnormal nodules identified in 50 liver explant specimens, there were 12 (30%) HCC [including 5 small HCC (41% of total HCC) and 1 steatohepatitic HCC (8% of total HCC)], 11 (27%) MRNs, 8 (20%) dysplastic nodules, and 9 (22%) necrotic nodules. Most cases (72%) of MRN are seen in hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis with only 2 cases having associated HCC. Most cases of HCC were seen in cases of HBV associated cirrhosis (60%). The association of MRN was not found to be significantly associated with HCC with a value of 1.0. Dysplastic nodules were found to be significantly associated with HCC with a value of 0.02. Conclusion. In hepatic carcinogenesis, the role of MRN does not appear to be significant. However, the presence of dysplastic nodules is significantly associated with HCC. The study identified another variant of cirrhotic nodules herein called necrotic nodules that are mostly tan greenish in color and <0.5 cm in diameter. No dysplastic changes were identified in any of these nodules disqualifying the need of sectioning in such nodules. Nalini Bansal, Vivek Vij, and Mukul Rastogi Copyright © 2016 Nalini Bansal et al. All rights reserved. The Feasibility of a Land Ferry System to Reduce Highway Maintenance Cost and Associated Externalities Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:42:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8180232/ This study provides an economic evaluation for a Land Ferry, which is a rail system capable of carrying trucks and all other types of vehicles, passengers, and cargo. The Land Ferry system involves a sliding loading system to roll heavy loads onto a flatbed; as a result, loading and unloading of all vehicles and cargo could be accomplished simultaneously. The evaluation for this system included (1) the design of a new track alignment over which the Land Ferry system would run, (2) evaluation of various sources of power, (3) estimation of how many local jobs the Land Ferry would generate, and (4) a benefit-cost analysis. It was estimated that the Land Ferry would create over 45,788 temporary jobs in Nevada during the three-year construction period and 318 permanent jobs during operation. The majority of the benefits were attributed to savings in travel time ($356.4 M), vehicle operating costs ($1000.4 M), reduction of accidents ($544.6 M), and pavement maintenance ($503.2 M). These benefits would be a consequence of the shift of trucks from the highway, thus resulting in higher speeds, decrease fuel consumption, and decrease vehicle maintenance costs. The overall benefit-cost ratio of 1.7 implies a cost-effective project. Steve J. Merrill, Alexander Paz, Victor Molano, Pramen P. Shrestha, Pankaj Maheshwari, Haroon Stephen, and Hanns de la Fuente-Mella Copyright © 2016 Steve J. Merrill et al. All rights reserved. Heat-Wave Events in Spain: Air Mass Analysis and Impacts on 7Be Concentrations Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:40:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/8026018/ The present paper describes and characterizes the air mass circulation during the heat-wave events registered during the period 2005–2014 over Spain, paying special attention to the role of the Saharan circulations. Backward trajectories at 500, 1500, and 3000 m in Seville (south), Madrid (centre), and Bilbao (north) during the thirteen heat-wave events identified are analysed. Finally, the impact of the heat-wave events and of each advection pattern on 7Be activity concentrations is also analysed. The heat-wave events are characterized roughly by western, southern, and nearby advections, with a higher frequency of the first two types. The analysis shows an increase of African air masses with height, presenting a different spatial impact over Spain, with a decreasing occurrence and a decrease in the simultaneous occurrence percentage from south to north. On average, the 7Be activity concentrations during these events show an increase of concentrations in central (21%) and southern (18%) areas and a decrease in northern (13%) Spain. This increase is not associated with Saharan air masses but instead with the arrival of distant westerly air masses. M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, E. Brattich, and G. Cinelli Copyright © 2016 M. A. Hernández-Ceballos et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:39:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3898762/ The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper analyzes the structure of the public transportation system of Curitiba through the theory of complex networks in a static approach of network topology and presents a comparative analysis of the results from Curitiba, three cities from China (Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou), and three cities from Poland (GOP, Warszawa, and Łódź). The transportation network was modeled as a complex network with exact geographical coordinates of its bus stops. In all bus lines, the method used was the P-Space. The results show that this bus network has characteristics of both small-world and scale-free networks. A. A. De Bona, K. V. O. Fonseca, M. O. Rosa, R. Lüders, and M. R. B. S. Delgado Copyright © 2016 A. A. De Bona et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Torsionally Coupled Shear Buildings Models Using a Vector Parameterization Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:27:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/6731928/ A methodology to estimate the shear model of seismically excited, torsionally coupled buildings using acceleration measurements of the ground and floors is presented. A vector parameterization that considers Rayleigh damping for the building is introduced that allows identifying the stiffness/mass and damping/mass ratios of the structure, as well as their eccentricities and radii of gyration. This parameterization has the advantage that its number of parameters is smaller than that obtained with matrix parameterizations or when Rayleigh damping is not used. Thus, the number of spectral components of the excitation signal required to identity the structural parameters is reduced. To deal with constant disturbances and measurement noise that corrupt acceleration measurements, Linear Integral Filters are used that guarantee elimination of constant disturbances and attenuation of noise. Antonio Concha and Luis Alvarez-Icaza Copyright © 2016 Antonio Concha and Luis Alvarez-Icaza. All rights reserved. Aeroelastic Analysis of Wings in the Transonic Regime: Planform’s Influence on the Dynamic Instability Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:18:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2016/3563684/ This paper presents a study of transonic wings whose planform shape is curved. Using fluid structure interaction analyses, the dynamic instability conditions were investigated by including the effects of the transonic flow field around oscillating wings. To compare the dynamic aeroelastic characteristics of the curved wing configuration, numerical analyses were carried out on a conventional swept wing and on a curved planform wing. The results confirm that, for a curved planform wing, the dynamic instability condition occurs at higher flight speed if compared to a traditional swept wing with similar profiles, aspect ratio, angle of sweep at root, similar structural layout, and similar mass. A curved wing lifting system could thus improve the performances of future aircrafts. Mario Rosario Chiarelli and Salvatore Bonomo Copyright © 2016 Mario Rosario Chiarelli and Salvatore Bonomo. All rights reserved. Numerical Implementation of Spatial Elastoplastic Damage Model of Concrete in the Framework of Isogeometric Analysis Approach Wed, 22 Jun 2016 08:03:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4273024/ This paper is a study of the numerical implementation of the spatial elastoplastic damage model of concrete by isogeometric analysis (IGA) method from three perspectives: the geometric modeling and the numerical formulation via IGA method, the constitutive model of concrete, and the solution algorithms for the local and global problems. The plasticity of concrete is considered on the basis of a nonassociated flow rule, where a three-parameter Barcelona yield surface and a modified Drucker-Prager plastic potential are used. The damage evolution of concrete driven by the internal variables is expressed by a piecewise function. In the study, the return-mapping algorithm and the substepping strategy are used for stress updating, and a new dissipation-based arc-length method with constraint path that considers the combined contribution of plasticity and damage to the energy dissipation is employed to trace the equilibrium path. After comparisons between simulation results and experimental data, the use of the elastoplastic damage model in the framework of IGA approach is proven to be practical in reflecting material properties of concrete. Cheng Ma, Wei-zhen Chen, and Jian-yuan Sun Copyright © 2016 Cheng Ma et al. All rights reserved. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Based Polyamide Electrospun Nanocomposites: A Review Wed, 22 Jun 2016 07:52:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/3182761/ Electrospinning is a unique and versatile technique to produce nanofibres; the facility to incorporate fillers has expanded its range of applications. This review gives a brief description of the process and the different polymers employed for obtaining nanofibres. Owing to the ability of fibrillation of polyamides, these polymers have resulted in a wide variety of interesting results obtained when using this technique; therefore these features are summarised. Additionally, because of the feasibility of incorporating carbon nanotubes and graphene in these nanofibres and the growing interest on these nanomaterials, this review focuses in the most common methods employed for their incorporation in electrospun polyamides. Several equipment setups used for the electrospinning of the nanofibres are explained. The outstanding electrical, optical, crystallinity, and mechanical properties obtained by a number of research groups are discussed. The potential applications of the resulting nanocomposites have also been explored. Fabiola Navarro-Pardo, Ana L. Martinez-Hernandez, and Carlos Velasco-Santos Copyright © 2016 Fabiola Navarro-Pardo et al. All rights reserved. Magnesium Attenuates Phosphate-Induced Deregulation of a MicroRNA Signature and Prevents Modulation of Smad1 and Osterix during the Course of Vascular Calcification Wed, 22 Jun 2016 07:15:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7419524/ Vascular calcification (VC) is prevalent in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). High phosphate levels promote VC by inducing abnormalities in mineral and bone metabolism. Previously, we demonstrated that magnesium (Mg2+) prevents inorganic phosphate- (Pi-) induced VC in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAVSMC). As microRNAs (miR) modulate gene expression, we investigated the role of miR-29b, -30b, -125b, -133a, -143, and -204 in the protective effect of Mg2+ on VC. HAVSMC were cultured in the presence of 3 mM Pi with or without 2 mM Mg2+ chloride. Total RNA was extracted after 4 h, 24 h, day 3, day 7, and day 10. miR-30b, -133a, and -143 were downregulated during the time course of Pi-induced VC, whereas the addition of Mg2+ restored (miR-30b) or improved (miR-133a, miR-143) their expression. The expression of specific targets Smad1 and Osterix was significantly increased in the presence of Pi and restored by coincubation with Mg2+. As miR-30b, miR-133a, and miR-143 are negatively regulated by Pi and restored by Mg2+ with a congruent modulation of their known targets Runx2, Smad1, and Osterix, our results provide a potential mechanistic explanation of the observed upregulation of these master switches of osteogenesis during the course of VC. Loïc Louvet, Laurent Metzinger, Janine Büchel, Sonja Steppan, and Ziad A. Massy Copyright © 2016 Loïc Louvet et al. All rights reserved. Mean Platelet Volume in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Wed, 22 Jun 2016 07:07:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7508763/ Introduction. Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been thought as a useful index of platelet activation. It is supposed that MPV is also associated with several inflammatory and infectious diseases. Korea still has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to investigate MPV as an inflammatory marker in TB patients. Materials and Methods. MPV were determined in 221 patients with TB and 143 individuals for control group. MPV was estimated by an Advia 2120 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA). Results. In the TB patient group, a positive correlation was found between CRP and MPV. Age and MPV had a positive correlation in TB patient group. Conclusions. We conclude that there is a significant relation between MPV and inflammatory conditions. MPV can be an inflammatory marker to determine the disease activity in TB patients. Min Young Lee, Young Jin Kim, Hee Joo Lee, Sun Young Cho, and Tae Sung Park Copyright © 2016 Min Young Lee et al. All rights reserved. Atherogenic Risk Assessment among Persons Living in Rural Uganda Wed, 22 Jun 2016 06:59:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2016/7073894/ Background. Hypertension and dyslipidemia are independent risk factors for coronary heart disease and commonly coexist. Cardiovascular risk can be reliably predicted using lipid ratios such as the atherogenic index, a useful prognostic parameter for guiding timely interventions. Objective. We assessed the cardiovascular risk profile based on the atherogenic index of residents within a rural Ugandan cohort. Methods. In 2011, a population based survey was conducted among 7507 participants. Sociodemographic characteristics, physical measurements (blood pressure, weight, height, and waist and hip circumference), and blood sampling for nonfasting lipid profile were collected for each participant. Atherogenic risk profile, defined as logarithm base ten of (triglyceride divided by high density lipoprotein cholesterol), was categorised as low risk (<0.1), intermediate risk (0.1–0.24), and high risk (>0.24). Results. Fifty-five percent of participants were female and the mean age was 49.9 years (). Forty-two percent of participants had high and intermediate atherogenic risk. Persons with hypertension, untreated HIV infection, abnormal glycaemia, and obesity and living in less urbanised villages were more at risk. Conclusion. A significant proportion of persons in this rural population are at risk of atherosclerosis. Key identified populations at risk should be considered for future intervention against cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality. The study however used parameters from unfasted samples that may have a bearing on observed results. Clara Wekesa, Gershim Asiki, Ivan Kasamba, Laban Waswa, Steven J. Reynolds, Rebecca N. Nsubuga, Rob Newton, and Anatoli Kamali Copyright © 2016 Clara Wekesa et al. All rights reserved. Outcome of Home-Based Early Intervention for Autism in Sri Lanka: Follow-Up of a Cohort and Comparison with a Nonintervention Group Wed, 22 Jun 2016 06:59:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3284087/ This paper presents the outcome of a home-based autism intervention program (HBAIP) in 18- to 40-month-old children newly diagnosed and treatment naïve. Intervention was exclusively implemented at home. Outcome was measured at 3 months and 6 months after intervention and compared with a group of newly diagnosed children with autism who were >40 months at intake but had not received any autism specific clinical management. Aim was also to estimate whether natural development would contribute to gain in skills and compare with the effect of intervention. Five selected parameters of behavior representing social interaction and social communication were used to assess outcome. Results showed a statistically significant improvement between preintervention and postintervention in all the measured parameters. The effect size was large when compared to preintervention and gains were indicated by changes in mean scores and values within a narrow confidence interval. Highest gains were in first 3 months of postintervention which continued up to 6 months. Although the comparison group was more advanced in the measured skills at intake, they were significantly below the level reached by experimental group at 3 months and 6 months after intervention. This study was registered in the Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry (SLCTR/2009/011). Hemamali Perera, Kamal Chandima Jeewandara, Sudarshi Seneviratne, and Chandima Guruge Copyright © 2016 Hemamali Perera et al. All rights reserved. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy in Patients with Large Uteri: Comparison of Uterine Removal by Transvaginal and Uterine Morcellation Approaches Wed, 22 Jun 2016 06:02:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8784601/ The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) for large uterus with uterus size of 12 gestational weeks (g.w.) or greater through transvaginal or uterine morcellation approaches. We retrospectively collected the clinical data of those undergoing total laparoscopic hysterectomies between January 2004 and June 2012. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were compared between patients whose large uterus was removed through transvaginal or morcellation approaches. The morcellation group has significantly shorter mean operation time and uterus removal time and smaller incidence of intraoperative complications than the transvaginal group (all ). No statistical significant difference regarding the mean blood loss, uterine weight, and length of hospital stay was noted in the morcellation and transvaginal groups (all ). In two groups, there was one patient in each group who underwent conversion to laparotomy due to huge uterus size. With regard to postoperative complications, there was no statistical significant difference regarding the frequencies of pelvic hematoma, vaginal stump infection, and lower limb venous thrombosis in two groups (all ). TLH through uterine morcellation can reduce the operation time, uterus removal time, and the intraoperative complications and provide comparable postoperative outcomes compared to that through the transvaginal approaches. Haibo Wang, Ping Li, Xiujuan Li, Licai Gao, Caihong Lu, Jinrong Zhao, and Ai-ling Zhou Copyright © 2016 Haibo Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Corotational Formulation for Large Displacement Analysis of Functionally Graded Sandwich Beam and Frame Structures Tue, 21 Jun 2016 15:23:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/5698351/ A corotational finite element formulation for large displacement analysis of planar functionally graded sandwich (FGSW) beam and frame structures is presented. The beams and frames are assumed to be formed from a metallic soft core and two symmetric functionally graded skin layers. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and von Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relationship are adopted for the local strain. Exact solution of nonlinear equilibrium equations for a beam segment is employed to interpolate the displacement field for avoiding the membrane locking. An incremental-iterative procedure is used in combination with the arc-length control method to compute the equilibrium paths. Numerical examples show that the proposed formulation is capable of evaluating accurately the large displacement response with just several elements. A parametric study is carried out to highlight the effect of the material distribution, the core thickness to height ratio on the large displacement behaviour of the FGSW beam, and frame structures. Dinh Kien Nguyen and Thi Thom Tran Copyright © 2016 Dinh Kien Nguyen and Thi Thom Tran. All rights reserved. Transcriptomics: A Step behind the Comprehension of the Polygenic Influence on Oxidative Stress, Immune Deregulation, and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease Tue, 21 Jun 2016 15:06:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9290857/ Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing and global health problem with a great economic burden for healthcare system. Therefore to slow down the progression of this condition is a main objective in nephrology. It has been extensively reported that microinflammation, immune system deregulation, and oxidative stress contribute to CKD progression. Additionally, dialysis worsens this clinical condition because of the contact of blood with bioincompatible dialytic devices. Numerous studies have shown the close link between immune system impairment and CKD but most have been performed using classical biomolecular strategies. These methodologies are limited in their ability to discover new elements and enable measuring the simultaneous influence of multiple factors. The “omics” techniques could overcome these gaps. For example, transcriptomics has revealed that mitochondria and inflammasome have a role in pathogenesis of CKD and are pivotal elements in the cellular alterations leading to systemic complications. We believe that a larger employment of this technique, together with other “omics” methodologies, could help clinicians to obtain new pathogenetic insights, novel diagnostic biomarkers, and therapeutic targets. Finally, transcriptomics could allow clinicians to personalize therapeutic strategies according to individual genetic background (nutrigenomic and pharmacogenomic). In this review, we analyzed the available transcriptomic studies involving CKD patients. Simona Granata, Alessandra Dalla Gassa, Gloria Bellin, Antonio Lupo, and Gianluigi Zaza Copyright © 2016 Simona Granata et al. All rights reserved. Exploiting Performance of Different Low-Cost Sensors for Small Amplitude Oscillatory Motion Monitoring: Preliminary Comparisons in View of Possible Integration Tue, 21 Jun 2016 15:06:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/7490870/ We address the problem of low amplitude oscillatory motion detection through different low-cost sensors: a LIS3LV02DQ MEMS accelerometer, a Microsoft Kinect v2 range camera, and a uBlox 6 GPS receiver. Several tests were performed using a one-direction vibrating table with different oscillation frequencies (in the range 1.5–3 Hz) and small challenging amplitudes (0.02 m and 0.03 m). A Mikrotron EoSens high-resolution camera was used to give reference data. A dedicated software tool was developed to retrieve Kinect v2 results. The capabilities of the VADASE algorithm were employed to process uBlox 6 GPS receiver observations. In the investigated time interval (in the order of tens of seconds) the results obtained indicate that displacements were detected with the resolution of fractions of millimeters with MEMS accelerometer and Kinect v2 and few millimeters with uBlox 6. MEMS accelerometer displays the lowest noise but a significant bias, whereas Kinect v2 and uBlox 6 appear more stable. The results suggest the possibility of sensor integration both for indoor (MEMS accelerometer + Kinect v2) and for outdoor (MEMS accelerometer + uBlox 6) applications and seem promising for structural monitoring applications. Elisa Benedetti, Roberta Ravanelli, Monica Moroni, Andrea Nascetti, and Mattia Crespi Copyright © 2016 Elisa Benedetti et al. All rights reserved. A BTT-Based Colorimetric Dual Sensor for Hg(II) and Selected Anions with Molecular Logic Operations Tue, 21 Jun 2016 15:05:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ac/2016/6438187/ A benzotrithiophenes (BTT) based colorimetric sensor (2) was synthesized via a simple one-step reaction process, and its recognition properties towards several biologically important anions and cations were investigated by naked eye observation and spectroscopic methods of UV-vis and 1H NMR analysis in DMSO. The molar addition of anions such as F−, AcO−, and induced a marked red shift of the charge transfer band ( nm, from 440 nm to 534 nm) concomitant with a clearly visible “naked eye” detectable colorimetric activities (from orange to pink). However, the molar addition of did not induce significant spectral changes, compared to F− and AcO−. Furthermore, the molar addition of Hg2+ to 2 resulted in hypochromic shift at 440 nm and the eventual disappearance of a low energy band at 534 nm, concomitant with the colorimetric activities (from orange to yellow). Moreover, both spectral and color changes induced by the addition of anions (F− and AcO−) were all reversible by the molar addition of metal cations of . The reversibility properties triggered the logic operation studies, and, subsequently, the complementary IMP/INH logic functions based on color and spectral switching (ON/OFF) were confirmed. Conclusively, 2 can thus be utilized as a colorimetric molecular switch modulated by AcO−/. Veikko Uahengo, Ping Cai, and Likius S. Daniel Copyright © 2016 Veikko Uahengo et al. All rights reserved. Components of Lens Power That Regulate Surface Principal Powers and Relative Meridians Independently Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:21:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2016/8103891/ Paraxial light rays incident in air on alternate refracting surfaces of a thick lens can yield complementary powers. This paper aims to test when these powers are invariant as surface refractive powers interchange in the expression. We solve for relevant surface powers. Potential anticommutators yield the nature of surface principal refractions along obliquely crossing perpendicular meridians; commutators yield meridians that align with those on the next surface. An invariant power component orients relative meridians or the nature of the matrix power on each noncylindrical surface demands that the other component varies. Another component of lens power aligns relative meridian positions for distinct principal powers. Interchanging surface power matrices affects this component. A symmetric lens power results if perpendicular principal meridians are associated with meridians on an opposite rotationally symmetric surface. For thin lenses, meridian alignment may be waived. An astigmatic contact lens can be specified by symmetric power despite having separated surfaces. H. Abelman and S. Abelman Copyright © 2016 H. Abelman and S. Abelman. All rights reserved. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:20:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8603263/ Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. Diogo Fernandes Bellinato, Priscila Fernandes Viana-Medeiros, Simone Costa Araújo, Ademir J. Martins, José Bento Pereira Lima, and Denise Valle Copyright © 2016 Diogo Fernandes Bellinato et al. All rights reserved. Study of Methylene Blue Degradation by Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized within Natural Zeolites Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:17:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/9541683/ We carried out the in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles inside a natural clinoptilolite-type zeolite matrix, using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. The microstructure of both zeolite and zeolite-gold nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Size distribution as assessed by STEM indicated that 60% of gold nanoparticles measured less than 2.5 nm. Determination of the surface area by the BET method revealed a specific value of 27.35 m2/g. The catalytic activity of zeolite-gold regarding methylene blue degradation under different light-exposing conditions was evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated that 50% degradation was achieved in only 11 min in presence of sunlight. This reaction was faster in comparison with those obtained using a white LED light. A notable aspect of this study is that catalysis was carried out without the addition of any strong reducing agents, such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4). Ericka Rodríguez León, Eduardo Larios Rodríguez, César Rodríguez Beas, Germán Plascencia-Villa, and Ramón Alfonso Iñiguez Palomares Copyright © 2016 Ericka Rodríguez León et al. All rights reserved. Redox Homeostasis and Cellular Antioxidant Systems: Crucial Players in Cancer Growth and Therapy Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:15:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/6235641/ Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their products are components of cell signaling pathways and play important roles in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Under physiological conditions, cells control ROS levels by the use of scavenging systems such as superoxide dismutases, peroxiredoxins, and glutathione that balance ROS generation and elimination. Under oxidative stress conditions, excessive ROS can damage cellular proteins, lipids, and DNA, leading to cell damage that may contribute to carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that cancer cells display an adaptive response to oxidative stress by increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecules. As a double-edged sword, ROS influence signaling pathways determining beneficial or detrimental outcomes in cancer therapy. In this review, we address the role of redox homeostasis in cancer growth and therapy and examine the current literature regarding the redox regulatory systems that become upregulated in cancer and their role in promoting tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapy. Barbara Marengo, Mariapaola Nitti, Anna Lisa Furfaro, Renata Colla, Chiara De Ciucis, Umberto Maria Marinari, Maria Adelaide Pronzato, Nicola Traverso, and Cinzia Domenicotti Copyright © 2016 Barbara Marengo et al. All rights reserved. A Genetic Algorithm with Location Intelligence Method for Energy Optimization in 5G Wireless Networks Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:14:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5348203/ The exponential growth in data traffic due to the modernization of smart devices has resulted in the need for a high-capacity wireless network in the future. To successfully deploy 5G network, it must be capable of handling the growth in the data traffic. The increasing amount of traffic volume puts excessive stress on the important factors of the resource allocation methods such as scalability and throughput. In this paper, we define a network planning as an optimization problem with the decision variables such as transmission power and transmitter (BS) location in 5G networks. The decision variables lent themselves to interesting implementation using several heuristic approaches, such as differential evolution (DE) algorithm and Real-coded Genetic Algorithm (RGA). The key contribution of this paper is that we modified RGA-based method to find the optimal configuration of BSs not only by just offering an optimal coverage of underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of power consumption. A comparison is also carried out to evaluate the performance of the conventional approach of DE and standard RGA with our modified RGA approach. The experimental results showed that our modified RGA can find the optimal configuration of 5G/LTE network planning problems, which is better performed than DE and standard RGA. Ruchi Sachan, Tae Jong Choi, and Chang Wook Ahn Copyright © 2016 Ruchi Sachan et al. All rights reserved. An Experimental Study of Briquetting Process of Torrefied Rubber Seed Kernel and Palm Oil Shell Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:13:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1679734/ Torrefaction process of biomass material is essential in converting them into biofuel with improved calorific value and physical strength. However, the production of torrefied biomass is loose, powdery, and nonuniform. One method of upgrading this material to improve their handling and combustion properties is by densification into briquettes of higher density than the original bulk density of the material. The effects of critical parameters of briquetting process that includes the type of biomass material used for torrefaction and briquetting, densification temperature, and composition of binder for torrefied biomass are studied and characterized. Starch is used as a binder in the study. The results showed that the briquette of torrefied rubber seed kernel (RSK) is better than torrefied palm oil shell (POS) in both calorific value and compressive strength. The best quality of briquettes is yielded from torrefied RSK at the ambient temperature of briquetting process with the composition of 60% water and 5% binder. The maximum compressive load for the briquettes of torrefied RSK is 141 N and the calorific value is 16 MJ/kg. Based on the economic evaluation analysis, the return of investment (ROI) for the mass production of both RSK and POS briquettes is estimated in 2-year period and the annual profit after payback was approximately 107,428.6 USD. M. Fadzli Hamid, M. Yusof Idroas, M. Zulfikar Ishak, Z. Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin, M. Azman Miskam, and M. Khalil Abdullah Copyright © 2016 M. Fadzli Hamid et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Imaging for Comparison of Different Growth Factors on Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells’ Survival and Proliferation In Vivo Tue, 21 Jun 2016 14:10:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1363902/ Introduction. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) have emerged as promising cell candidates but with poor survival after transplantation. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of VEGF, bFGF, and IGF-1 on BMSCs’ viability and proliferation both in vivo and in vitro using bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Methods. BMSCs were isolated from β-actin-Fluc+ transgenic FVB mice, which constitutively express firefly luciferase. Apoptosis was induced by hypoxia preconditioning for up to 24 h followed by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay. 106 BMSCs with/without growth factors were injected subcutaneously into wild type FVB mice’s backs. Survival of BMSCs was longitudinally monitored using bioluminescence imaging (BLI) for 5 weeks. Protein expression of Akt, p-Akt, PARP, and caspase-3 was detected by Western blot. Results. Hypoxia-induced apoptosis was significantly attenuated by bFGF and IGF-1 compared with VEGF and control group in vitro (). When combined with matrigel, IGF-1 showed the most beneficial effects in protecting BMSCs from apoptosis in vivo. The phosphorylation of Akt had a higher ratio in the cells from IGF-1 group. Conclusion. IGF-1 could protect BMSCs from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through activation of p-Akt/Akt pathway. Hongyu Qiao, Ran Zhang, Lina Gao, Yanjie Guo, Jinda Wang, Rongqing Zhang, Xiujuan Li, Congye Li, Yundai Chen, and Feng Cao Copyright © 2016 Hongyu Qiao et al. All rights reserved. Unusual Ventilatory Response to Exercise in Patient with Arnold-Chiari Type 1 Malformation after Posterior Fossa Decompression Tue, 21 Jun 2016 13:46:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/8359838/ We present a case of a 17-year-old Hispanic male with Arnold-Chiari Type 1 [AC-Type 1] with syringomyelia, status post decompression, who complains of exercise intolerance, headaches, and fatigue with exertion. The patient was found to have diurnal hypercapnia and nocturnal alveolar hypoventilation. Cardiopulmonary testing revealed blunting of the ventilatory response to the rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) resulting in failure of the parallel correlation between increased CO2 levels and ventilation; the expected vertical relationship between PETCO2 and minute ventilation during exercise was replaced with an almost horizontal relationship. No new pathology of the brainstem was discovered by MRI or neurological evaluation to explain this phenomenon. The patient was placed on continuous noninvasive open ventilation (NIOV) during the day and CPAP at night for a period of 6 months. His pCO2 level decreased to normal limits and his symptoms improved; specifically, he experienced less headaches and fatigue during exercise. In this report, we describe the abnormal response to exercise that patients with AC-Type 1 could potentially experience, even after decompression, characterized by the impairment of ventilator response to hypercapnia during exertion, reflecting a complete loss of chemical influence on breathing with no evidence of abnormality in the corticospinal pathway. Keely Smith, Ana M. Gomez-Rubio, Tomika S. Harris, Lauren E. Brooks, and Ricardo A. Mosquera Copyright © 2016 Keely Smith et al. All rights reserved. Role of Tissue and Systemic Hypoxia in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Tue, 21 Jun 2016 13:45:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/1527852/ Lei Xi, Chin-Moi Chow, and Xingxing Kong Copyright © 2016 Lei Xi et al. All rights reserved. EOG-sEMG Human Interface for Communication Tue, 21 Jun 2016 12:11:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2016/7354082/ The aim of this study is to present electrooculogram (EOG) and surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals that can be used as a human-computer interface. Establishing an efficient alternative channel for communication without overt speech and hand movements is important for increasing the quality of life for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, or other illnesses. In this paper, we propose an EOG-sEMG human-computer interface system for communication using both cross-channels and parallel lines channels on the face with the same electrodes. This system could record EOG and sEMG signals as “dual-modality” for pattern recognition simultaneously. Although as much as 4 patterns could be recognized, dealing with the state of the patients, we only choose two classes (left and right motion) of EOG and two classes (left blink and right blink) of sEMG which are easily to be realized for simulation and monitoring task. From the simulation results, our system achieved four-pattern classification with an accuracy of 95.1%. Hiroki Tamura, Mingmin Yan, Keiko Sakurai, and Koichi Tanno Copyright © 2016 Hiroki Tamura et al. All rights reserved. Interaction between Walking Humans and Structures in Vertical Direction: A Literature Review Tue, 21 Jun 2016 11:54:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3430285/ Realistic simulation of the dynamic effects of walking pedestrians on structures is still a considerable challenge. This is mainly due to the inter- and intrasubject variability of humans and their bodies and difficult-to-predict loading scenarios, including multipedestrian walking traffic and unknown human-structure interaction (HSI) mechanisms. Over the past three decades, several attempts have been made to simulate walking HSI in the lateral direction. However, research into the mechanisms of this interaction in the vertical direction, despite its higher likelihood and critical importance, is fragmented and incoherent. It is, therefore, difficult to apply and codify. This paper critically reviews the efforts to date to simulate walking HSI in the vertical direction and highlights the key areas that need further investigation. Erfan Shahabpoor, Aleksandar Pavic, and Vitomir Racic Copyright © 2016 Erfan Shahabpoor et al. All rights reserved. How Do Patients with Chronic Neck Pain Experience the Effects of Qigong and Exercise Therapy? A Qualitative Interview Study Tue, 21 Jun 2016 11:35:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8010891/ Background. The high prevalence of chronic neck pain in high income countries impacts quality of life and the social and work-related activities of those afflicted. We aimed to understand how mind-body therapies and exercise therapy may influence the experience of pain among patients with chronic neck pain. Methods. This qualitative interview study investigated how patients with chronic neck pain experienced the effects of exercise or qigong therapy at two time points: during an intervention at three months and after the intervention at six months. Interviews were analysed thematically across interviews and within person-cases. Based on other qualitative studies, a sample size of 20 participants was deemed appropriate. Results. The sample () consisted of 16 women and four men (age range: 29 to 59). Patients’ experiences differed according to the therapies’ philosophies. Exercise therapy group interviewees described a focus on correct posture and muscle tension release. Qigong group interviewees discussed calming and relaxing effects. Maintaining regular exercise was easier to achieve with exercise therapy. Conclusions. The findings of this study may help health care providers when counselling chronic pain patients on self-help interventions by informing them of different bodily and emotional experiences of mind-body interventions compared to exercise therapy. Christine Holmberg, Zubin Farahani, and Claudia M. Witt Copyright © 2016 Christine Holmberg et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Aeration Treatment on γ-Aminobutyric Acid Accumulation in Germinated Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:53:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/4576758/ To explore the optimum condition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat, effects of some factors including aeration treatment, physiological indexes, air flow rate, culture temperature, and pH value of cultivating solution under hypoxia on GABA in germinated tartary buckwheat were investigated. The results showed that the dark cultures with distilled water at 30°C, 2 days, and aeration stress with 1.0 L/min air flow rate at 30°C were optimal for GABA accumulation. Under these conditions, the predicted content of GABA was up to 371.98 μg/g DW. The analysis of correlation indicated that there was a significant correlation () between GABA accumulation and physiological indexes. Box-Behnken experimental analysis revealed that optimal conditions with aeration treatment for GABA accumulation in germinated tartary buckwheat were air flow rate of 1.04 L/min, culture temperature of 31.25°C, and a pH value of 4.21. Under these conditions, the GABA content was predicted as high as 386.20 μg/g DW, which was close to the measured value ( μg/g DW). The variance analysis and validation test suggested that this established regression model could predict GABA accumulation in tartary buckwheat during germination. Yuanxin Guo, Yunhui Zhu, Chunxu Chen, and Xiaoman Chen Copyright © 2016 Yuanxin Guo et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:47:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/9382750/ Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI), survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (). The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients ( was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.). Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor. Hakan Kocoglu, Hakan Dogan, Basak Oguz, Sibel Ocak Serin, Yildiz Okuturlar, Meral Gunaldi, Betul Erismis, Bahar Ozdemir, Deniz Tural, Mehmet Hursitoglu, Ozlem Harmankaya, and Abdulbaki Kumbasar Copyright © 2016 Hakan Kocoglu et al. All rights reserved. Canadian Association of Gastroenterology Indicators of Safety Compromise following Colonoscopy in Clinical Practice Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjgh/2016/2729871/ In 2012 the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology published 19 indicators of safety compromise. We studied the incidence of these indicators by reviewing all colonoscopies performed in St. John’s, NL, between January 1, 2012, and June 30, 2012. Results. A total of 3235 colonoscopies were included. Adverse events are as follows. Medication-related includes use of reversal agents 0.1%, hypoxia 9.9%, hypotension 15.4%, and hypertension 0.9%. No patients required CPR or experienced allergic reactions or laryngospasm/bronchospasm. The indicator, “sedation dosages in patients older than 70,” showed lower usage of fentanyl and midazolam in elderly patients. Procedure-related immediate includes perforation 0.2%, immediate postpolypectomy bleeding 0.3%, need for hospital admission or transfer to the emergency department 0.1%, and severe persistent abdominal pain proven not to be perforation 0.4%. Instrument impaction was not seen. Procedure-related delayed includes death within 14 days 0.1%, unplanned health care visit within 14 days of the colonoscopy 1.8%, unplanned hospitalization within 14 days of the colonoscopy 0.6%, bleeding within 14 days of colonoscopy 0.2%, infection 0.03%, and metabolic complication 0.03%. Conclusions. The most common adverse events were mild and sedation related. Rates of serious adverse events were in keeping with published reports. Mark R. Borgaonkar, David Pace, Muna Lougheed, Curtis Marcoux, Bradley Evans, Nikita Hickey, Meghan O’Leary, and Jerry McGrath Copyright © 2016 Mark R. Borgaonkar et al. All rights reserved. Cancer Stem Cell Quiescence and Plasticity as Major Challenges in Cancer Therapy Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:14:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/1740936/ Cells with stem-like properties, tumorigenic potential, and treatment-resistant phenotypes have been identified in many human malignancies. Based on the properties they share with nonneoplastic stem cells or their ability to initiate and propagate tumors in vivo, such cells were designated as cancer stem (stem-like) or tumor initiating/propagating cells. Owing to their implication in treatment resistance, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been the subject of intense investigation in past years. Comprehension of CSCs’ intrinsic properties and mechanisms they develop to survive and even enhance their aggressive phenotype within the hostile conditions of the tumor microenvironment has reoriented therapeutic strategies to fight cancer. This report provides selected examples of malignancies in which the presence of CSCs has been evidenced and briefly discusses methods to identify, isolate, and functionally characterize the CSC subpopulation of cancer cells. Relevant biological targets in CSCs, their link to treatment resistance, proposed targeting strategies, and limitations of these approaches are presented. Two major aspects of CSC physiopathology, namely, relative in vivo quiescence and plasticity in response to microenvironmental cues or treatment, are highlighted. Implications of these findings in the context of the development of new therapies are discussed. Wanyin Chen, Jihu Dong, Jacques Haiech, Marie-Claude Kilhoffer, and Maria Zeniou Copyright © 2016 Wanyin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Variation in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Management Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:14:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aem/2016/6813718/ Objective. To evaluate variation in airway management strategies in one suburban emergency medical services system treating patients experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Method. Retrospective chart review of all adult OHCA resuscitation during a 13-month period, specifically comparing airway management decisions. Results. Paramedics demonstrated considerable variation in their approaches to airway management. Approximately half of all OHCA patients received more than one airway management attempt (38/77 [49%]), and one-quarter underwent three or more attempts (25/77 [25%]). One-third of patients arrived at the emergency department with a different airway device than initially selected (25/77 [32%]). Conclusion. This study confirmed our hypothesis that paramedics’ selection of ventilation strategies in cardiac arrest varies considerably. This observation raises concern because airway management diverts time and energy from interventions known to improve outcomes in OHCA management, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation. More research is needed to identify more focused airway management strategies for prehospital care providers. Jason M. Jones, Joseph A. Tyndall, and Christine M. Van Dillen Copyright © 2016 Jason M. Jones et al. All rights reserved. Sagnac Interferometer Based Generation of Controllable Cylindrical Vector Beams Tue, 21 Jun 2016 10:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2016/7929813/ We report on a novel experimental geometry to generate cylindrical vector beams in a very robust manner. Continuous control of beams’ properties is obtained using an optically addressable spatial light modulator incorporated into a Sagnac interferometer. Forked computer-generated holograms allow introducing different topological charges while orthogonally polarized beams within the interferometer permit encoding the spatial distribution of polarization. We also demonstrate the generation of complex waveforms obtained by combining two orthogonal beams having both radial modulations and azimuthal dislocations. Cristian Acevedo, Angela Guzmán, Yezid Torres Moreno, and Aristide Dogariu Copyright © 2016 Cristian Acevedo et al. All rights reserved. Shotgun Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Proteins Responding to Drought Stress in Brassica rapa L. (Inbred Line “Chiifu”) Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:54:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2016/4235808/ Through a comparative shotgun quantitative proteomics analysis in Brassica rapa (inbred line Chiifu), total of 3,009 nonredundant proteins were identified with a false discovery rate of 0.01 in 3-week-old plants subjected to dehydration treatment for 0, 24, and 48 h, plants subjected to drought stress. Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylases, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, and light harvesting complex in photosystem II were highly abundant proteins in the leaves and accounted for 9%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, of the total identified proteins. Comparative analysis of the treatments enabled detection of 440 differentially expressed proteins during dehydration. The results of clustering analysis, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and analysis of composite expression profiles of functional categories for the differentially expressed proteins indicated that drought stress reduced the levels of proteins associated with photosynthesis and increased the levels of proteins involved in catabolic processes and stress responses. We observed enhanced expression of many proteins involved in osmotic stress responses and proteins with antioxidant activities. Based on previously reported molecular functions, we propose that the following five differentially expressed proteins could provide target genes for engineering drought resistance in plants: annexin, phospholipase D delta, sDNA-binding transcriptional regulator, auxin-responsive GH3 family protein, and TRAF-like family protein. Soon-Wook Kwon, Mijeong Kim, Hijin Kim, and Joohyun Lee Copyright © 2016 Soon-Wook Kwon et al. All rights reserved. Review on Optical and Electrical Properties of Conducting Polymers Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:47:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2016/5842763/ We reviewed optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymers. The charge transport models to describe the hole and electron transport mechanism are also included in the electrical properties of conjugated polymers. The effect of optical and electrical properties after doping is also indexed in this paper. Manisha Bajpai, Ritu Srivastava, Ravindra Dhar, and R. S. Tiwari Copyright © 2016 Manisha Bajpai et al. All rights reserved. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:40:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2821765/ Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA) following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360) or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817) and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659). Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (). Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography () and different contrast agents (). Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography. Hongzhou Duan, Liang Li, Yang Zhang, Jiayong Zhang, Ming Chen, and Shengde Bao Copyright © 2016 Hongzhou Duan et al. All rights reserved. An Improved MPPT Algorithm for PV Generation Applications Based on - Curve Reconstitution Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:32:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2016/3242069/ The output power of PV array changes with the variation of environmental factors, such as temperature and solar irradiation. Therefore, a maximum power point (MPP) tracking (MPPT) algorithm is essential for the photovoltaic generation system. However, the curve changes dynamically with the variation of the environmental factors; here, the misjudgment may occur if a simple perturb-and-observe (P&O) MPPT algorithm is used. In order to solve this problem, this paper takes MPPT as the main research object, and an improved MPPT algorithm for PV generation applications based on curve reconstitution is proposed. Firstly, the mathematical model of PV array is presented, and then the output dynamic characteristics are analyzed. Based on this, a curve reconstitution strategy is introduced, and the improved MPPT algorithm is proposed. At last, simulation and comparative analysis are conducted. Results show that, with the proposed algorithm, MPP is tracked accurately, and the misjudgment problem is solved effectively. Yaoqiang Wang, Meiling Zhang, and Xian Cheng Copyright © 2016 Yaoqiang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Fabella Syndrome as an Uncommon Cause of Posterolateral Knee Pain after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:18:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/4328462/ The fabella is a sesamoid bone that is located in the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle and has been identified on magnetic resonance imaging in 31% of Japanese people. In the present case, a 65-year-old woman experienced posterolateral knee pain, accompanied by a clicking “sound” during active knee flexion, after undergoing total knee arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis. Eight months of conservative therapy failed to produce an improvement, with progressive osteoarthritic change of the fabella identified on plain radiography. Based on this evidence, a diagnosis of fabella syndrome was made and the patient underwent a fabellectomy. Fabellectomy provided immediate resolution of posterolateral knee pain and the clicking sound with knee flexion, with the patient remaining symptom-free 18 months after fabellectomy and with no limitations in knee function. Fabellectomy eliminated symptoms in all of five case reports that have been previously published and is regarded as an effective first choice for treating fabella syndrome after total knee arthroplasty. Eriko Okano, Tomokazu Yoshioka, Takaji Yanai, Sho Kohyama, Akihiro Kanamori, Masashi Yamazaki, and Toshikazu Tanaka Copyright © 2016 Eriko Okano et al. All rights reserved. A Sparse Signal Reconstruction Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:16:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9410873/ We study reconstruction of time-varying sparse signals in a wireless sensor network, where the bandwidth and energy constraints are considered severely. A novel particle filter algorithm is proposed to deal with the coarsely quantized innovation. To recover the sparse pattern of estimate by particle filter, we impose the sparsity constraint on the filter estimate by means of two methods. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms provide performance which is comparable to that of the full information (i.e., unquantized) filtering schemes even in the case where only 1 bit is transmitted to the fusion center. Zhi Zhao and Jiuchao Feng Copyright © 2016 Zhi Zhao and Jiuchao Feng. All rights reserved. Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce T Lymphocyte Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by Expression of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase Tue, 21 Jun 2016 09:11:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/7495135/ It has been reported that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to inhibit T lymphocyte activation; however, the discrepancy among different sources of MSCs is not well documented. In this study, we have compared the MSCs from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AT), placenta (PL), and umbilical cord (UC) to determine which one displayed the most efficient immunosuppressive effects on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Among them we found that hUC-MSC has the strongest effects on inhibiting T cell proliferation and is chosen to do the further study. We observed that T lymphocyte spontaneously released abundant IFN-γ. And IFN-γ secreted by T lymphocyte could induce the expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in hUC-MSCs. IDO was previously reported to induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S phase. When cocultured with hUC-MSCs, T lymphocyte expression of caspase 3 was significantly increased, while Bcl2 and CDK4 mRNA expression decreased dramatically. Addition of 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, restored T lymphocyte proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and induced resumption of the cell cycle. In addition, the changes in caspase 3, CDK4, and Bcl2 expression were reversed by 1-MT. These findings demonstrate that hUC-MSCs induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by expressing abundant IDO and provide an explanation for some of the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs. Xiuying Li, Zhuo Xu, Jinping Bai, Shuyuan Yang, Shuli Zhao, Yingjie Zhang, Xiaodong Chen, and Yimin Wang Copyright © 2016 Xiuying Li et al. All rights reserved. Decays with Perturbative QCD Approach Tue, 21 Jun 2016 08:55:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/4893649/ Besides the traditional strong and electromagnetic decay modes, meson can also decay through the weak interactions within the standard model of elementary particle. With anticipation of copious data samples at the running LHC and coming SuperKEKB experiments, the two-body nonleptonic bottom-changing decays () are investigated with perturbative QCD approach firstly. The absolute branching ratios for and decays are estimated to reach up to about and , respectively, which might possibly be measured by the future experiments. Junfeng Sun, Yueling Yang, Qin Chang, Gongru Lu, and Jinshu Huang Copyright © 2016 Junfeng Sun et al. All rights reserved. Herbal Medicine for Hot Flushes Induced by Endocrine Therapy in Women with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 21 Jun 2016 08:44:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1327251/ Objective. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of herbal medicine (HM) as an alternative management for hot flushes induced by endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients. Methods. Key English and Chinese language databases were searched from inception to July 2015. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of HM on hot flushes induced by endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer were retrieved. We conducted data collection and analysis in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Statistical analysis was performed with the software (Review Manager 5.3). Results. 19 articles were selected from the articles retrieved, and 5 articles met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Some included individual studies showed that HM can relieve hot flushes as well as other menopausal symptoms induced by endocrine therapy among women with breast cancer and improve the quality of life. There are minor side effects related to HM which are well tolerated. Conclusion. Given the small number of included studies and relatively poor methodological quality, there is insufficient evidence to draw positive conclusions regarding the objective benefit of HM. Additional high quality studies are needed with more rigorous methodological approach to answer this question. Yuanqing Li, Xiaoshu Zhu, Alan Bensussan, Pingping Li, Eugene Moylan, Geoff Delaney, and Luke McPherson Copyright © 2016 Yuanqing Li et al. All rights reserved. Jiang Tang Xiao Ke Granule, a Classic Chinese Herbal Formula, Improves the Effect of Metformin on Lipid and Glucose Metabolism in Diabetic Mice Tue, 21 Jun 2016 08:32:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1592731/ In the present study, the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidative effects of metformin (MET) combined with Jiang Tang Xiao Ke (JTXK) granule derived from the “Di Huang Tang” were evaluated in mice with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) induced by high-fat diet/streptozotocin. DM mice were orally treated with MET (0.19 g/kg) either alone or combined with different doses (1.75, 3.5, or 7 g/kg) of JTXK for 4 weeks. Results showed that the serum and hepatic glucose, lipids, and oxidative stress levels were elevated in DM mice, when compared with the normal mice. MET treatment decreased FBG and serum glucagon levels of DM mice. Combination treatment with MET and JTXK 3.5 g/kg increased the hypoglycemia and insulin sensitivity at 4 weeks when compared with the DM mice treated with MET alone. However, neither MET nor MET/JTXK treatment could completely reverse the hyperglycemia in DM mice. JTXK enhanced the serum triglyceride (TG) and hepatic lipid-lowering effect of MET in a dose-dependent manner in DM mice. JTXK 1.75 and 3.5 g/kg improved the hepatoprotective effect of MET in DM mice. Synergistic effect of combination treatment with MET and JTXK on antioxidant stress was also found in DM mice compared with MET alone. Yi Zhang, Hong An, Si-Yuan Pan, Dan-Dan Zhao, Jia-Cheng Zuo, Xiao-Ke Li, Ya Gao, Qian-Qian Mu, Na Yu, Yue Ma, Fang-Fang Mo, and Si-Hua Gao Copyright © 2016 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Photovoltaic Panels by means of Thermograph Analysis Tue, 21 Jun 2016 08:07:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8560728/ Solar panels have become attractive in order to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Their increased module efficiencies have caused not only a massive production but also a sensible drop on sale prices. Methods of characterization, instrumentation for in situ measurements, defect monitoring, process control, and performance are required. A temperature characterization method by means of thermograph analysis is exposed in this paper. The method was applied to multicrystalline modules, and the characterization was made with respect to two different variables, first a thermal transient and second a characterization with respect to the current. The method is useful in order to detect hot spots caused by mismatch conditions in electrical parameters. The description, results, and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. Noe Samano, José Alfredo Padilla-Medina, and Nimrod Vázquez Copyright © 2016 Noe Samano et al. All rights reserved. Occupational Risks Associated with Solid Waste Management in the Informal Sector of Gweru, Zimbabwe Tue, 21 Jun 2016 07:48:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2016/9024160/ This study identifies and analyses the occupational risks associated with solid waste management practices in the informal enterprises of Gweru. Many concerns have been raised about the potential harm from waste to the environment and the general public, but the risks and consequent costs of occupational hazards in waste management have received little attention in the rush to adopt or adapt technologies such as composting. A multimethods research design that triangulates qualitative and quantitative research paradigms is employed in this study. The quantitative design involves physical characterisation of solid waste through material component separation and measurements as well as a questionnaire survey that investigates the risks associated with waste management. The qualitative component includes interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and field observations. Occupational risks occur at every stage in the waste management process, from the point where workers handle waste in the enterprises for collection or recycling to the point of ultimate disposal. Key findings from the study revealed that solid waste management practices are dominated by manual handling tasks hence the higher incidents of muscular-skeletal disorders. Other safety and health hazards associated with waste management in the informal enterprises of Gweru include incidents of diarrhoea, viral hepatitis, and higher incidents of obstructive and restrictive disorders. Steven Jerie Copyright © 2016 Steven Jerie. All rights reserved. Applications of Spectroscopy in Environmental Monitoring of Gases and Aerosols Tue, 21 Jun 2016 07:06:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2016/2575782/ Arnaud Cuisset, Dean S. Venables, Xiaoming Gao, and Hassen Aroui Copyright © 2016 Arnaud Cuisset et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Approach for Energy Consumption Optimization and Management in Residential Building Using Artificial Bee Colony and Fuzzy Logic Tue, 21 Jun 2016 06:33:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9104735/ The energy management in residential buildings according to occupant’s requirement and comfort is of vital importance. There are many proposals in the literature addressing the issue of user’s comfort and energy consumption (management) with keeping different parameters in consideration. In this paper, we have utilized artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization algorithm for maximizing user comfort and minimizing energy consumption simultaneously. We propose a complete user friendly and energy efficient model with different components. The user set parameters and the environmental parameters are inputs of the ABC, and the optimized parameters are the output of the ABC. The error differences between the environmental parameters and the ABC optimized parameters are inputs of fuzzy controllers, which give the required energy as the outputs. The purpose of the optimization algorithm is to maximize the comfort index and minimize the error difference between the user set parameters and the environmental parameters, which ultimately decreases the power consumption. The experimental results show that the proposed model is efficient in achieving high comfort index along with minimized energy consumption. Fazli Wahid and Do Hyeun Kim Copyright © 2016 Fazli Wahid and Do Hyeun Kim. All rights reserved. Pain Assessment in Neurodegenerative Diseases Tue, 21 Jun 2016 06:26:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2016/2949358/ Marina de Tommaso, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Ruti Defrin, Miriam Kunz, Gisele Pickering, and Massimiliano Valeriani Copyright © 2016 Marina de Tommaso et al. All rights reserved. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women Tue, 21 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2016/4769121/ Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman’s reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. Andrea E. Cassidy-Bushrow, Rosalind M. Peters, Charlotte Burmeister, Lawrence F. Bielak, and Dayna A. Johnson Copyright © 2016 Andrea E. Cassidy-Bushrow et al. All rights reserved. Lower Limb Reconstruction with Tibia Allograft after Resection of Giant Aneurysmal Bone Cyst Mon, 20 Jun 2016 16:01:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/7980593/ Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansible, nonneoplastic lesions of the bone, characterized by channels of blood and spaces separated by fibrous septa, which occur in young patients and, occasionally, with aggressive behavior. Giant ABC is an uncommon pathological lesion and can be challenging because of the destructive effect of the cyst on the bones and the pressure on the nearby structures, especially on weight-bearing bones. In this scenario, en bloc resection is the mainstay treatment and often demands complex reconstructions. This paper reports a difficult case of an unusual giant aneurysmal bone cyst, which required extensive resection and a knee fusion like reconstruction with tibia allograft. Joaquim Soares do Brito, Joana Teixeira, and José Portela Copyright © 2016 Joaquim Soares do Brito et al. All rights reserved. Design and Fabrication of Air-Based 1-3 Piezoelectric Composite Transducer for Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Applications Mon, 20 Jun 2016 15:07:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/4982616/ The air-based 1-3 piezoelectric composite transducers are designed and fabricated in order to solve the acoustic impedance matching problem. Firstly, a finite element model using honeycomb structure as the piezoelectric composite matrix is built to reduce the acoustic impedance of the sensitive element. Three important factors, volume fraction of piezoelectric materials , the thickness , and the size of the square cross section of piezoelectric column, are examined and verified in simulation. Then, according to the result of simulation, the piezoelectric composites and the air-coupled transducers are fabricated. The honeycomb structures of resin are produced by the method of 3D printing technology, with the volume fraction of air being 30%. The impedance characteristics and the excitation/reception performance of the air-coupled transducers are measured and optimized. Meanwhile, a scanning experiment is carried out to demonstrate the crack detection process in monocrystalline silicon. mode of Lamb waves is excited and collected. The location and size of the defect will be determined by calculating the correlation coefficients of the received signals and reference signals. Finally, a 15 mm × 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm scratch is clearly distinguished. Cunfu He, Yaoyao Wang, Yan Lu, Yuepeng Liu, and Bin Wu Copyright © 2016 Cunfu He et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Algorithm Geometry Optimization of Optical Antennas Mon, 20 Jun 2016 15:05:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3156702/ Printed circuit antennas have been used for the detection of electromagnetic radiation at a wide range of frequencies that go from radio frequencies (RF) up to optical frequencies. The design of printed antennas at optical frequencies has been done by using design rules derived from the radio frequency domain which do not take into account the dispersion of material parameters at optical frequencies. This can make traditional RF antenna design not suitable for optical antenna design. This work presents the results of using a genetic algorithm (GA) for obtaining an optimized geometry (unconventional geometries) that may be used as optical regime antennas to capture electromagnetic waves. The radiation patterns and optical properties of the GA generated geometries were compared with the conventional dipole geometry. The characterizations were conducted via finite element method (FEM) computational simulations. Ramón Díaz de León-Zapata, Gabriel González, Efrén Flores-García, Ángel Gabriel Rodríguez, and Francisco Javier González Copyright © 2016 Ramón Díaz de León-Zapata et al. All rights reserved. Contaminants of Emerging Concern: From the Detection to Their Effects on Human Health Mon, 20 Jun 2016 15:03:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3159385/ Fernando Barbosa Junior, Andres Campiglia, Bruno Rocha, and Daniel Cyr Copyright © 2016 Fernando Barbosa Junior et al. All rights reserved. Using Genome-Wide SNP Discovery and Genotyping to Reveal the Main Source of Population Differentiation in Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. in Chile Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:38:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2016/3654093/ Within a woody plant species, environmental heterogeneity has the potential to influence the distribution of genetic variation among populations through several evolutionary processes. In some species, a relationship between environmental characteristics and the distribution of genotypes can be detected, showing the importance of natural selection as the main source of differentiation. Nothofagus dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. (Nothofagaceae) is an endemic tree species occurring both in Chile and in Argentina temperate forests. Postglacial history has been studied with chloroplast DNA and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation patterns have been analysed with isozymes but fine-scale genetic diversity studies are needed. The study of demographic and selection histories in Nothofagus dombeyi requires more informative markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Genotyping-by-Sequencing tools now allow studying thousands of SNP markers at reasonable prices in nonmodel species. We investigated more than 10 K SNP loci for signatures of local adaptation and showed that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this nonmodel woody species. Rodrigo Hasbún, Jorge González, Carolina Iturra, Glenda Fuentes, Diego Alarcón, and Eduardo Ruiz Copyright © 2016 Rodrigo Hasbún et al. All rights reserved. What Do Parents Think about Chromosomal Microarray Testing? A Qualitative Report from Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:29:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2016/6852539/ Background. Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA) is increasingly utilized to detect copy number variants among children and families affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, CMA is controversial due to possible ambiguous test findings, uncertain clinical implications, and other social and legal issues related to the test. Methods. Participants were parents of children with ASD residing in the North Eastern region of North Carolina, USA. We conducted individual, face-to-face interviews with 45 parents and inquired about their perceptions of CMA. Results. Three major themes dominated parents’ perceptions of CMA. None of the parents had ever heard of the test before and the majority of the parents postulated positive attitudes toward the test. Parents’ motivations in undergoing the test were attributed to finding a potential cause of ASD, to being better prepared for having another affected child, and to helping with future reproductive decisions. Perceived barriers included the cost of testing, risk/pain of CMA testing, and fear of test results. Conclusion. This study contributes to the understanding of psychosocial aspects and cultural influences towards adoption of genetic testing for ASD in clinical practice. Genetic education can aid informed decision-making related to CMA genetic testing among parents of children with ASD. Lei Xu, Linda Crane Mitchell, Alice R. Richman, and Kaitlyn Clawson Copyright © 2016 Lei Xu et al. All rights reserved. Existence of General Competitive Equilibria: A Variational Approach Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:28:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2016/4969253/ We study the existence of general competitive equilibria in economies with agents and goods in a finite number. We show that there exists a Walras competitive equilibrium in all ownership private economies such that, for all consumers, initial endowments do not contain free goods and utility functions are locally Lipschitz quasiconcave. The proof of the existence of competitive equilibria is based on variational methods by applying a theoretical existence result for Generalized Quasi Variational Inequalities. G. Anello and F. Rania Copyright © 2016 G. Anello and F. Rania. All rights reserved. Joint Channel Assignment and Routing in Multiradio Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks: Design Considerations and Approaches Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2016/2769685/ Multiradio wireless mesh network is a promising architecture that improves the network capacity by exploiting multiple radio channels concurrently. Channel assignment and routing are underlying challenges in multiradio architectures since both determine the traffic distribution over links and channels. The interdependency between channel assignments and routing promotes toward the joint solutions for efficient configurations. This paper presents an in-depth review of the joint approaches of channel assignment and routing in multiradio wireless mesh networks. First, the key design issues, modeling, and approaches are identified and discussed. Second, existing algorithms for joint channel assignment and routing are presented and classified based on the channel assignment types. Furthermore, the set of reconfiguration algorithms to adapt the network traffic dynamics is also discussed. Finally, the paper presents some multiradio practical implementations and test-beds and points out the future research directions. Omar M. Zakaria, Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim, Wan H. Hassan, Othman O. Khalifa, M. Azram, Lalitha B. Jivanadham, Mistura L. Sanni, and Mahdi Zareei Copyright © 2016 Omar M. Zakaria et al. All rights reserved. Promoter Methylation Status of Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1 and 17 Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Gene in Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:18:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2016/9545241/ Epigenetic modifications are involved in breast carcinogenesis. Identifying genes that are epigenetically silenced via methylation could select target patients for diagnostic as well as therapeutic potential. We assessed promoter methylation of breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) and 17 Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (17βHSD-1) in normal and cancer breast tissues of forty sporadic breast cancer (BC) cases using restriction enzyme based methylation-specific PCR (REMS-PCR). In cancerous tissues, BRCA1 and 17βHSD-1 were methylated in 42.5% and 97.5%, respectively, while normal tissues had 35% and 95% methylation, respectively. BRCA1 methylation in normal tissues was 12.2-fold more likely to associate with methylation in cancer tissues (). It correlated significantly with increased age at menopause, mitosis, the negative status of Her2, and the molecular subtype “luminal A” (, , , and , resp.). Methylation of BRCA1 and 17βHSD-1 related to luminal A subtype of breast cancer. Since a small proportion of normal breast epithelial cells had BRCA1 methylation, our preliminary findings suggest that methylation of BRCA1 may be involved in breast tumors initiation and progression; therefore, it could be used as a biomarker for the early detection of sporadic breast cancer. Methylation of 17βHSD-1 in normal and cancer tissue could save patients the long term use of adjuvant antiestrogen therapies. Marwa M. Hosny, Nagwan A. Sabek, Taghrid B. El-Abaseri, Fathalla M. Hassan, and Sherif H. Farrag Copyright © 2016 Marwa M. Hosny et al. All rights reserved. Digital Cadavers: Online 2D Learning Resources Enhance Student Learning in Practical Head and Neck Anatomy within Dental Programs Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:18:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/8506251/ Head and neck anatomy provides core concepts within preclinical dental curricula. Increased student numbers, reduced curricula time, and restricted access to laboratory-based human resources have increased technology enhanced learning approaches to support student learning. Potential advantages include cost-effectiveness, off-campus access, and self-directed review or mastery opportunities for students. This study investigated successful student learning within a first-year head and neck anatomy course at the School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Australia, taught by the same teaching team, between 2010 and 2015. Student learning success was compared, for cohorts before and after implementation of a supplementary, purpose-designed online digital library and quiz bank. Success of these online resources was confirmed using overall students’ performance within the course assessment tasks and Student Evaluation of Course surveys and online access data. Engagement with these supplementary 2D online resources, targeted at improving laboratory study, was positively evaluated by students (mean 85%) and significantly increased their laboratory grades (mean difference 6%, ), despite being assessed using cadaveric resources. Written assessments in final exams were not significantly improved. Expanded use of supplementary online resources is planned to support student learning and success in head and neck anatomy, given the success of this intervention. Mahmoud M. Bakr, Ward L. Massey, and Helen M. Massa Copyright © 2016 Mahmoud M. Bakr et al. All rights reserved. Expression of HIF-2α and VEGF in Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Its Clinical Significance Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:16:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5631935/ CSCC is a systemic disease involving polygenic alteration and multiple steps, and HIF and VEGF are closely associated with tumorigenesis. Specimens surgically resected from 64 cases of CSCC and 22 cases of normal cervical tissue were selected randomly to detect the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF in CSCC for exploring their clinical significance; information regarding the age, lymph node metastasis, and FIGO staging were collected as well; expression of HIF-2α and VEGF was detected by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that the expression of HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA in CSCC was significantly higher than that of normal cervical tissues and showed a positive correlation between them. The positive rates of HIF-2α and VEGF protein expression in CSCC and normal cervical tissues were 93.8% and 18.2%, respectively, with correlation between them. The expression of both HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA did not relate closely to age but the FIGO staging and lymph node metastasis. Compared with the counterpart control group, CSCC tissues with high FIGO staging and lymph node metastasis had a higher level of HIF-2α and VEGF mRNA expression. So, HIF-2α and VEGF were overexpressed in CSCC, which has a great clinical significance for its diagnosis. Lixia Zhang, Qiang Chen, Jing Hu, Yue Chen, Chenglong Liu, and Changshui Xu Copyright © 2016 Lixia Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Organizing Pneumonia in a Patient with Quiescent Crohn’s Disease Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:16:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2016/8129864/ A 64-year-old man with Crohn’s disease (CD) was admitted to our hospital due to moderate risk of pneumonia while receiving scheduled adalimumab maintenance therapy. Symptoms remained virtually unchanged following administration of antibiotics. A final diagnosis of organizing pneumonia (OP) was made based on findings of intra-alveolar buds of granulation tissue and fibrous thickening of the alveolar walls on pathological examination and patchy consolidations and ground glass opacities on computed tomography. Immediate administration of prednisolone provided rapid, sustained improvement. Although a rare complication, OP is a pulmonary manifestation that requires attention in CD patients. Satoshi Tanida, Masaya Takemura, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Keiji Ozeki, Takahito Katano, Takaya Shimura, Yoshinori Mori, Eiji Kubota, Hiromi Kataoka, Takeshi Kamiya, and Takashi Joh Copyright © 2016 Satoshi Tanida et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Mechanism of Rock Stress Sensitivity Using a Random Pore Network Simulation Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:13:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/5343786/ Studies of rock stress sensitivity are mainly focused on experimental and data processing methods, and the mechanism cannot be adequately explained using specific pore shape models. This study, based on a random pore network simulation, explains the rock stress sensitivity mechanism for the first time. Based on the network model theory, the hydraulic conductivity equation, the dimensionless radius equation, and the effective stress equation for partially saturated rock are used to generate a three-dimensional random pore network model based on the QT platform. The simulation results show that the influence of the effective stress on the dimensionless radius becomes more significant as the aspect ratio decreases, and the relationship between dimensionless radius and effective stress can be effectively interpreted through different combinations of pore shapes. Moreover, the mechanism behind permeability stress sensitivity can be explained by establishing the relationship between permeability and effective stress. Qi Chen, Quanwen Liu, and Zhengwu Tao Copyright © 2016 Qi Chen et al. All rights reserved. Key-Insulated Undetachable Digital Signature Scheme and Solution for Secure Mobile Agents in Electronic Commerce Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:12:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/4375072/ Considering the security of both the customers’ hosts and the eShops’ servers, we introduce the idea of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature, enabling mobile agents to generate undetachable digital signatures on remote hosts with the key-insulated property of the original signer’s signing key. From the theoretical perspective, we provide the formal definition and security notion of a key-insulated undetachable digital signature. From the practical perspective, we propose a concrete scheme to secure mobile agents in electronic commerce. The scheme is mainly focused on protecting the signing key from leakage and preventing the misuse of the signature algorithm on malicious servers. Agents do not carry the signing key when they generate digital signatures on behalf of the original signer, so the key is protected on remote servers. Furthermore, if a hacker gains the signing key of the original signer, the hacker is still unable to forge a signature for any time period other than the key being accessed. In addition, the encrypted function is combined with the original signer’s requirement to prevent the misuse of signing algorithm. The scheme is constructed on gap Diffie–Hellman groups with provable security, and the performance testing indicates that the scheme is efficient. Yang Shi, Jie Lin, Guoyue Xiong, Xiaoping Wang, and Hongfei Fan Copyright © 2016 Yang Shi et al. All rights reserved. Design and Analysis of an Optical Coupler for Concentrated Solar Light Using Optical Fibers in Residential Buildings Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:11:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/3176052/ Concentrated sunlight that is transmitted by fiber optics has been used for generating electricity, heat, and daylight. On the other hand, multijunction photovoltaic cells provide high efficiency for generating electricity from highly concentrated sunlight. This study deals with designing and simulating a high-efficiency coupler, employing a mathematical model to connect sunlight with fiber optics for multiple applications. The coupler concentrates and distributes irradiated light from a primary concentrator. In this study, a parabolic dish was used as the primary concentrator, a coupler that contains nine components called a compound truncated pyramid and a cone (CTPC), all of which were mounted on a plate. The material of both the CTPC and the plate was BK7 optical glass. Fiber optics cables and multijunction photovoltaic cells were connected to the cylindrical part of the CTPC. The fibers would transmit the light to the building to provide heat and daylight, whereas multijunction photovoltaic cells generate electricity. Theoretical and simulation results showed high performance of the designed coupler. The efficiency of the coupler was as high as , whereas the rim angle of the dish increased to an optimum angle. Distributed sunlight in the coupler increased the flexibility and simplicity of the design, resulting in a system that provided concentrated electricity, heat, and lighting for residential buildings. Afshin Aslian, Barmak Honarvar Shakibaei Asli, Chin Joo Tan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan, and Alireza Toloei Copyright © 2016 Afshin Aslian et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Fireworks Algorithm and Its Application Research in PID Parameters Tuning Mon, 20 Jun 2016 13:56:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2534632/ Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is one of the most widely used controllers for its property of simplicity and practicability. In order to design high-quality performances PID controllers, an Advanced Fireworks (AFW) algorithm based on self-adaption principle and bimodal Gaussian function is proposed, which is built to optimize the PID controller by parameters tuning. Firstly, a compound index of optimization performance is formulated, and then the extremal optimization method of PID control system is proposed. Secondly, a PID parameters tuning model combined with AFW is built. At last, 5 typical transfer functions are simulated to obtain optimal parameters by AFW and contrast tuning method, such as Ziegler-Nichols method, Enhanced Fireworks (EFW) algorithm, and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Simulation results show that AFW are effective and are easily implemented methods to solve PID control problems of different transfer functions. Jun-jie Xue, Ying Wang, Hao Li, Xiang-fei Meng, and Ji-yang Xiao Copyright © 2016 Jun-jie Xue et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Strangulated Urethral Prolapse in a Premenopausal Adult Female Mon, 20 Jun 2016 13:56:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2016/1802623/ Urethral prolapse in a premenopausal adult female is exceedingly rare. This paper describes a case of strangulated urethral prolapse presenting as a urethral mass in an unusual demographic and reviews the literature on etiology and management. Only a few cases have occurred in women of reproductive age. The etiology is likely multifactorial. Treatment with surgical excision provides good results in the majority of cases. Morris L. Jessop, Stanley Zaslau, and Osama Al-Omar Copyright © 2016 Morris L. Jessop et al. All rights reserved.