Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Regular Bulk Solutions in Brane-Worlds with Inhomogeneous Dust and Generalized Dark Radiation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 17:23:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2015/359268/ From the dynamics of a brane-world with matter fields present in the bulk, the bulk metric and the black string solution near the brane are generalized, when both the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust/generalized dark radiation on the brane-world and inhomogeneous dark radiation in the bulk as well are considered as exact dynamical collapse solutions. Based on the analysis on the inhomogeneous static exterior of a collapsing sphere of homogeneous dark radiation on the brane, the associated black string warped horizon is studied, as well as the 5D bulk metric near the brane. Moreover, the black string and the bulk are shown to be more regular upon time evolution, for suitable values for the dark radiation parameter in the model, by analyzing the soft physical singularities. A. Herrera-Aguilar, A. M. Kuerten, and Roldão da Rocha Copyright © 2015 A. Herrera-Aguilar et al. All rights reserved. Acute Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Pupil Size and Ocular Aberrations: A Pre- and Postsmoking Study Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:48:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/625470/ Aim. To evaluate the acute effects of cigarette smoking on photopic and mesopic pupil sizes and wavefront aberrations. Methods. Cigarette smoker volunteers were recruited in the study. Photopic and mesopic pupil sizes and total ocular aberrations were measured before smoking and immediately after smoking. All volunteers were asked to smoke a single cigarette containing 1.0 mg nicotine. Pupil sizes and total ocular aberrations were assessed by optical path difference scanning system (OPD-Scan II ARK-10000, NIDEK). Only the right eyes were considered for statistical analysis. The changes of pupil size and total ocular aberrations after smoking were tested for significance by Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Results. Mean photopic pupil size decreased from 3.52 ± 0.73 mm to 3.29 ± 0.58 mm after smoking. Mean mesopic pupil size was also decreased from 6.42 ± 0.75 mm to 6.14 ± 0.75 mm after smoking . There was a decrease in all the measured components of aberrations (total wavefront aberration, higher-order aberration, total coma, total trefoil, total tetrafoil, total spherical aberration and total higher-order aberration) after smoking; however the differences were insignificant for all . Conclusion. Our results indicate that pupil constricts after smoking. On the other hand, smoking does not alter ocular aberrations. Uzeyir Erdem, Fatih C. Gundogan, Umut Aslı Dinc, Umit Yolcu, Abdullah Ilhan, and Salih Altun Copyright © 2015 Uzeyir Erdem et al. All rights reserved. Planning for Reliable Coal Quality Delivery Considering Geological Variability: A Case Study in Polish Lignite Mining Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:46:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jqre/2015/941879/ The aim of coal quality control in coal mines is to supply power plants daily with extracted raw material within certain coal quality constraints. On the example of a selected part of a lignite deposit, the problem of quality control for the run-of-mine lignite stream is discussed. The main goal is to understand potential fluctuations and deviations from production targets dependent on design options before an investment is done. A single quality parameter of the deposit is selected for this analysis—the calorific value of raw lignite. The approach requires an integrated analysis of deposit inherent variability, the extraction sequence, and the blending option during material transportation. Based on drill-hole data models capturing of spatial variability of the attribute of consideration are generated. An analysis based on two modelling approaches, Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation, reveals advantages and disadvantages lead to conclusions about their suitability for the control of raw material quality. In a second step, based on a production schedule, the variability of the calorific value in the lignite stream has been analysed. In a third step the effect of different design options, multiple excavators and a blending bed, was investigated. Wojciech Naworyta, Szymon Sypniowski, and Jörg Benndorf Copyright © 2015 Wojciech Naworyta et al. All rights reserved. Application of Two-Stage Cultivation for Exploring the Nutritional Requirements for Sporulation of Three Biocontrol Fungi Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:46:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/btri/2015/682839/ Fungicide was an important part in mycopesticides, which play an important role in pest management, while their mass production and commercialization faced problem. We found that the nutrition for mycelia growth and sporulation differences a lot. So, we developed “two-step method” to define the nutrition for sporulation in this paper. The results indicated that the novel method led to a great increase of spore yields for Beauveria bassiana (IBC1201), Lecanicillium lecanii (CA-1-G), and Pochonia chlamydosporia (HSY-12-14), respectively, of about 100, 2, and 16 times and, also reduced the cycle of mass production to 1/3 compared with common time for culturing. Li Gao Copyright © 2015 Li Gao. All rights reserved. Comparative Performance of Hybrid and Elite Inbred Rice Varieties with respect to Their Source-Sink Relationship Thu, 29 Jan 2015 16:43:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/326802/ Hybrid rice varieties have higher yield potential over inbred varieties. This improvement is not always translated to the grain yield and its physiological causes are still unclear. In order to clarify it, two field experiments were conducted including two popular indica hybrids (BRRI hybrid dhan2 and Heera2) and one elite inbred (BRRI dhan45) rice varieties. Leaf area index, chlorophyll status, and photosynthetic rate of flag leaf, postheading crop growth rate, shoot reserve translocation, source-sink relation and yield, and its attributes of each variety were comprehensively analyzed. Both hybrid varieties outyielded the inbred. However, the hybrids and inbred varieties exhibited statistically identical yield in late planting. Both hybrids accumulated higher amount of biomass before heading and exhibited greater remobilization of assimilates to the grain in early plantings compared to the inbred variety. Filled grain (%) declined significantly at delayed planting in the hybrids compared to elite inbred due to increased temperature impaired-inefficient transport of assimilates. Flag leaf photosynthesis parameters were higher in the hybrid varieties than those of the inbred variety. Results suggest that greater remobilization of shoot reserves to the grain rendered higher yield of hybrid rice varieties. Md Moinul Haque, Habibur Rahman Pramanik, Jiban Krishna Biswas, K. M. Iftekharuddaula, and Mirza Hasanuzzaman Copyright © 2015 Md Moinul Haque et al. All rights reserved. Pregnancy after Uterine Artery Embolization: A Case Report in a Woman with Leiomyomata Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:38:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/235312/ Background. Several pregnancies have been reported after embolization of uterine artery. This procedure is an accepted nonsurgical treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids but its safety in women desiring future childbearing is not well established. Case Report. We present a 40-year-old woman with leiomyomata who became pregnant after previously undergone uterine artery embolization for three times. The placenta was previa and the fetus was in transverse position. She had a cesarean delivery of an appropriately grown fetus at 37 weeks, which was followed by uterine atony requiring hysterectomy. Conclusion. Although pregnancy-related outcomes remain understudied, the available reports evidence that pregnancies after uterine artery embolization may be at significantly increased risk for postpartum hemorrhage, cesarean delivery, abnormal placentation, and malpresentation. In patients who are undergoing this type of treatment and contemplating pregnancy, the possibility of adverse complications should be taken in consideration and women should be appropriately advised. Helena Isabel Lopes, Maria Isabel Sá, and Rosa Maria Rodrigues Copyright © 2015 Helena Isabel Lopes et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Signatures in the Prevention of Radiation Damage by the Synergistic Effect of N-Acetyl Cysteine and Qingre Liyan Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Using a 3-Dimensional Cell Culture Model of Oral Mucositis Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:36:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/425760/ Qingre Liyan decoction (QYD), a Traditional Chinese medicine, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) have been used to prevent radiation induced mucositis. This work evaluates the protective mechanisms of QYD, NAC, and their combination (NAC-QYD) at the cellular and transcriptional level. A validated organotypic model of oral mucosal consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) cell tissue-culture of primary human keratinocytes exposed to X-ray irradiation was used. Six hours after the irradiation, the tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and a TUNEL assay to assess histopathology and apoptosis, respectively. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray gene expression profiling. The tissue-cultures treated with NAC-QYD preserved their integrity and showed no apoptosis. Microarray results revealed that the NAC-QYD caused the upregulation of genes encoding metallothioneins, HMOX1, and other components of the Nrf2 pathway, which protects against oxidative stress. DNA repair genes (XCP, GADD45G, RAD9, and XRCC1), protective genes (EGFR and PPARD), and genes of the NFκB pathway were upregulated. Finally, tissue-cultures treated prophylactically with NAC-QYD showed significant downregulation of apoptosis, cytokines and chemokines genes, and constrained damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). NAC-QYD treatment involves the protective effect of Nrf2, NFκB, and DNA repair factors. Maria P. Lambros, Lavanya Kondapalli, Cyrus Parsa, Hari Chandana Mulamalla, Robert Orlando, Doreen Pon, Ying Huang, and Moses S. S. Chow Copyright © 2015 Maria P. Lambros et al. All rights reserved. Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Enrofloxacin and Its Degradation Products in Tablet Dosage Forms Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:36:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/735145/ The present work was the development of a simple, efficient, and reproducible stability-indicating reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for simultaneous determination enrofloxacin (EFX) and its degradation products including ethylenediamine impurity, desfluoro impurity, ciprofloxacin impurity, chloro impurity, fluoroquinolonic acid impurity, and decarboxylated impurity in tablet dosage forms. The separation of EFX and its degradation products in tablets was carried out on Kromasil C-18  mm, 5 m) column using 0.1% (v/v) TEA in 10 mM KH2PO4 (pH 2.5) buffer and methanol by linear gradient program. Flow rate was 1.0 mL min−1 with a column temperature of 35°C and detection wavelength was carried out at 278 nm and 254 nm. The forced degradation studies were performed on EFX tablets under acidic, basic, oxidation, thermal, humidity, and photolytic conditions. The degraded products were well resolved from the main active drug and also from known impurities within 65 minutes. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and robustness as per ICH guidelines. The results obtained from the validation experiments prove that the developed method is a stability-indicating method and suitable for routine analysis. V. Ashok Chakravarthy, B. B. V. Sailaja, and Avvaru Praveen Kumar Copyright © 2015 V. Ashok Chakravarthy et al. All rights reserved. A Fluorescence-Based Method for Rapid and Direct Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:35:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/853085/ A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209) commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71–5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2–4 mL), avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L. Huimei Shan, Chongxuan Liu, Zheming Wang, Teng Ma, Jianying Shang, and Duoqiang Pan Copyright © 2015 Huimei Shan et al. All rights reserved. A Method of Calculating Motion Error in a Linear Motion Bearing Stage Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:32:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/696417/ We report a method of calculating the motion error of a linear motion bearing stage. The transfer function method, which exploits reaction forces of individual bearings, is effective for estimating motion errors; however, it requires the rail-form errors. This is not suitable for a linear motion bearing stage because obtaining the rail-form errors is not straightforward. In the method described here, we use the straightness errors of a bearing block to calculate the reaction forces on the bearing block. The reaction forces were compared with those of the transfer function method. Parallelism errors between two rails were considered, and the motion errors of the linear motion bearing stage were measured and compared with the results of the calculations, revealing good agreement. Gyungho Khim, Chun Hong Park, and Jeong Seok Oh Copyright © 2015 Gyungho Khim et al. All rights reserved. The Risk Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metal Pollution in the East Dongting Lake Wetland Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:31:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/835487/ Total concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chrome (Cr), and nickel (Ni) in surface sediment (0–10 cm) from the East Dongting Lake wetlands were determined and the spatial distribution of heavy metals was mapped. The results showed that the single risk indices () of heavy metals were ranked in the order of Cd > Pb > Ni > Cr. The content of Cd and Pb was gradually reduced from the east (Xiangjiang River) to the west, while the Cr and Ni content had a patchy distribution pattern in the East Dongting Lake wetlands. Cd and Pb contents were correlated with soil pH significantly, while Cr and Ni contents were correlated with soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN). The origination of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) could be divided into two groups: Cd and Pb from anthropogenic source and Cr and Ni from parent material weathering. Our results indicated that Cd posed a high risk to local ecosystem. The relatively lower pH and higher soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in sediment may inhibit the fixation of heavy metals, which in turn increased the concentration of heavy metal in sediment. Cong Hu, Zheng-miao Deng, Yong-hong Xie, Xin-sheng Chen, and Feng Li Copyright © 2015 Cong Hu et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasensitive NO2 Gas Sensor Based on Epitaxial Graphene Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2015/108581/ We report about technology of fabrication and optimization of a gas sensor based on epitaxial graphene. Optimized graphene/metal contact configuration exhibited low contact resistance. Complementary annealing of graphene sensor after each gas exposure led to significant improvement in the sensing performance. The response of the annealed sensor to the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was tenfold higher than that of an as-fabricated graphene sensor. NO2 concentration as low as 0.2 parts per billion (ppb) was easily detectable. Devices have high signal-to-noise ratio. The detection limit of the graphene sensor was estimated to be 0.6 ppt (parts per trillion). The present technology with additional annealing improves the performance of the graphene based sensor and makes it suitable for the environmental nitrogen dioxide gas monitoring. S. Novikov, N. Lebedeva, and A. Satrapinski Copyright © 2015 S. Novikov et al. All rights reserved. Midterm Electricity Market Clearing Price Forecasting Using Two-Stage Multiple Support Vector Machine Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:29:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jen/2015/384528/ Currently, there are many techniques available for short-term forecasting of the electricity market clearing price (MCP), but very little work has been done in the area of midterm forecasting of the electricity MCP. The midterm forecasting of the electricity MCP is essential for maintenance scheduling, planning, bilateral contracting, resources reallocation, and budgeting. A two-stage multiple support vector machine (SVM) based midterm forecasting model of the electricity MCP is proposed in this paper. The first stage is utilized to separate the input data into corresponding price zones by using a single SVM. Then, the second stage is applied utilizing four parallel designed SVMs to forecast the electricity price in four different price zones. Compared to the forecasting model using a single SVM, the proposed model showed improved forecasting accuracy in both peak prices and overall system. PJM interconnection data are used to test the proposed model. Xing Yan and Nurul A. Chowdhury Copyright © 2015 Xing Yan and Nurul A. Chowdhury. All rights reserved. An Algorithm for Computing All Berge Equilibria Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:28:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/gt/2015/862842/ An algorithm is presented in this note for determining all Berge equilibria for an n-person game in normal form. This algorithm is based on the notion of disappointment, with the payoff matrix (PM) being transformed into a disappointment matrix (DM). The DM has the property that a pure strategy profile of the PM is a BE if and only if (0,…,0) is the corresponding entry of the DM. Furthermore, any (0,…,0) entry of the DM is also a more restrictive Berge-Vaisman equilibrium if and only if each player’s BE payoff is at least as large as the player’s maximin security level. H. W. Corley and Phantipa Kwain Copyright © 2015 H. W. Corley and Phantipa Kwain. All rights reserved. Effect of Surface Roughness on the Squeeze Film Characteristics of Circular Plates in the Presence of Conducting Couplestress Fluid and Transverse Magnetic Field Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:28:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/at/2015/302396/ The combined effect of surface roughness and magnetic field on the performance characteristic of the circular plates lubricated with conducting couplestress fluid (CCSF) has been studied. On the basis of the Christensen Stochastic model, the generalized stochastic Reynold’s equation is derived. Modified equations for the nondimensional pressure, load load-carrying capacity, and squeeze film time are derived. The results are presented both numerically and graphically and compared with conducting smooth surface case. It is observed that the surface roughness effects are more pronounced for couplestresses as compared to nonconducting Newtonian fluid (NCNF) in the presence of magnetic field. Syeda Tasneem Fathima, N. B. Naduvinamani, J. Santhosh Kumar, and B. N. Hanumagowda Copyright © 2015 Syeda Tasneem Fathima et al. All rights reserved. Int-Soft (Generalized) Bi-Ideals of Semigroups Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:27:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/198672/ The notions of int-soft semigroups and int-soft left (resp., right) ideals in semigroups are studied in the paper by Song et al. (2014). In this paper, further properties and characterizations of int-soft left (right) ideals are studied, and the notion of int-soft (generalized) bi-ideals is introduced. Relations between int-soft generalized bi-ideals and int-soft semigroups are discussed, and characterizations of (int-soft) generalized bi-ideals and int-soft bi-ideals are considered. Given a soft set over U, int-soft (generalized) bi-ideals generated by are established. Young Bae Jun and Seok-Zun Song Copyright © 2015 Young Bae Jun and Seok-Zun Song. All rights reserved. Efficient Multidimensional Top- Query Processing in Wireless Multihop Networks Thu, 29 Jan 2015 15:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2015/657431/ Top- queries, which retrieve the most preferable data objects, have been receiving much attention. An emerging challenge is to support efficient top- query processing in a wireless distributed network. In this study, we investigated how to process multidimensional top- queries efficiently in a wireless multihop network. A major challenge for multidimensional top- queries is that answers for different users are typically different, because each user has a unique preference and search range. Meanwhile, it is desirable for wireless networks to reduce unnecessary traffic even if users issue top- queries with their own unique preferences. Therefore, we address the above problem and propose a top- query processing method in wireless multihop networks, called ClusTo. ClusTo performs a novel clustering scheme for multidimensional top- query processing and routes queries based on the cluster while guaranteeing the user’s specified search range. Moreover, ClusTo takes a dynamic threshold approach to suppress unnecessary query transmissions to nodes which do not contribute to top- data retrieval. Extensive experiments on both real and synthetic data have demonstrated that ClusTo outperforms existing methods in terms of traffic and delay. Daichi Amagata, Yuya Sasaki, Takahiro Hara, and Shojiro Nishio Copyright © 2015 Daichi Amagata et al. All rights reserved. Size Measurement of Nanoparticle Assembly Using Multilevel Segmented TEM Images Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:31:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/790508/ Multilevel image segmentation is demonstrated as a rapid and accurate method of quantitative analysis for nanoparticle assembly in TEM images. The procedure incorporating K-means clustering algorithm and watershed transform is tested on transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of FePt-based nanoparticles whose diameters are less than 5 nm. By solving the nanoparticle segmentation and separation problems, this unsupervised method is useful not only in the nonoverlapping case but also for agglomerated nanoparticles. Furthermore, the method exhibits scale invariance based on comparable results from images of different magnifications. Paisarn Muneesawang and Chitnarong Sirisathitkul Copyright © 2015 Paisarn Muneesawang and Chitnarong Sirisathitkul. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antihypertensive Evaluation of Some Novel 2,2,8,8-Tetramethyl-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-4,6-diamino-3,7-dihydroxy-6,7-epoxy-benzo-[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dipyran Derivatives Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:31:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ac/2015/850974/ A series of 2,2,8,8-tetramethyl-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-4,6-diamino-3,7-dihydroxy-6,7-epoxy-benzo-[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dipyran derivatives 7a–e and 8a–e were synthesized from resorcinol. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, mass spectra, and 1H NMR. These compounds were evaluated for antihypertensive activity using Wister Albino Rat model. Direct antihypertensive activity was performed using the instrument BIOPAC System MP-36 Santa Barbara, California, for recording blood pressure response. Among the title compounds, compounds 7b, 7c, and 7d showed potent antihypertensive activity and other compounds were also found to exert low and moderate antihypertensive activity. The relaxant potency in rat aorta and trachea was used for biological characterization of the benzopyrans. Structure-activity relationships study was investigated around position-4 of the benzopyran nucleus. Pankaj Dwivedi, Kuldipsinh P. Barot, Shailesh Jain, and Manjunath D. Ghate Copyright © 2015 Pankaj Dwivedi et al. All rights reserved. Role of Rebiopsy in Relapsed Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer for Directing Oncology Treatments Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:29:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2015/809835/ Background. Currently, few rebiopsies are performed in relapses of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. They are not customary in clinical practice of lung cancer. However, it is not possible to properly target treatments in cases of relapse without knowing the nature of new lesions. Design. This paper comprehensively summarizes the available literature about rebiopsy and broadly discusses the importance of rebiopsy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Results. Altogether 560 abstracts were used as material for further analysis. 19 articles were about clinical rebiopsy in lung cancer and were reviewed in detailed manner. Conclusions. This review shows that rebiopsy is feasible in non-small cell lung cancer, and success rates can be high if rebiopsy is accompanied by adequate evaluation before biopsy. Its use may resolve the difficulties in sampling bias and detecting changes in cancer characteristics. In cases where treatment was selected based on tissue characteristics that then change, the treatment selection process must be repeated while considering new characteristics of the tumor. Rebiopsy may be used to predict therapeutic resistance and consequently redirect targeted therapies. Such knowledge may resolve the difficulties in sampling bias and also in selecting preexisting clones or formulating drug-resistant ones. Rebiopsy should be performed more often in non-small cell lung cancer. Antti P. Jekunen Copyright © 2015 Antti P. Jekunen. All rights reserved. Role of the Immunogenic and Tolerogenic Subsets of Dendritic Cells in Multiple Sclerosis Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:27:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/513295/ Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder in the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by inflammation and demyelination as well as axonal and neuronal degeneration. So far effective therapies to reverse the disease are still lacking; most therapeutic drugs can only ameliorate the symptoms or reduce the frequency of relapse. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that are key players in both mediating immune responses and inducing immune tolerance. Increasing evidence indicates that DCs contribute to the pathogenesis of MS and might provide an avenue for therapeutic intervention. Here, we summarize the immunogenic and tolerogenic roles of DCs in MS and review medicinal drugs that may affect functions of DCs and have been applied in clinic for MS treatment. We also describe potential therapeutic molecules that can target DCs by inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines in MS. Zhong-Xiang Xie, Hong-Liang Zhang, Xiu-Juan Wu, Jie Zhu, Di-Hui Ma, and Tao Jin Copyright © 2015 Zhong-Xiang Xie et al. All rights reserved. Impairment of Neutrophil Migration to Remote Inflammatory Site during Lung Histoplasmosis Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:24:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/409309/ Histoplasma capsulatum (Hc) induces a pulmonary disease in which leukotrienes promote activation and recruitment of effectors cells. It is also well-recognized that leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) induce leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites. We investigated the impact of pulmonary Hc infection on PMN migration to a remote inflammatory site. Our results show that pulmonary Hc infection impairs LTB4- or PAF-stimulated PMN recruitment to air pouch. Yet, remote inflammation did not modify PMN numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of Hc-infected mice. Interestingly, the concomitant administration of PAF and LTB4 receptor antagonists inhibited PMN recruitment to both BALF and the remote site, demonstrating cooperation between both mediators. Along that line, our results show that PAF-elicited PMN chemotaxis was abrogated in 5-lipoxygenase-deficient animals. These results suggest caution in the indiscriminate use of anti-inflammatory drugs during infectious diseases. Alexandra I. Medeiros, Adriana Secatto, Caroline Bélanger, Carlos A. Sorgi, Pierre Borgeat, Sylvie Marleau, and Lúcia H. Faccioli Copyright © 2015 Alexandra I. Medeiros et al. All rights reserved. Almost Periodic Time Scales and Almost Periodic Functions on Time Scales Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:23:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/730672/ We propose some new concepts of almost periodic time scales and almost periodic functions on time scales and give some basic properties of these new types of almost periodic time scales and almost periodic functions on time scales. We also give some comments on a recent paper by Wang and Agarwal (2014) concerning a new almost periodic time scale. Yongkun Li and Bing Li Copyright © 2015 Yongkun Li and Bing Li. All rights reserved. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:20:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/836434/ Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights. Yusheng Hu, Jinlin Li, and Lun Ran Copyright © 2015 Yusheng Hu et al. All rights reserved. Fertilizers and Mixed Crop Cultivation of Chromium Tolerant and Sensitive Plants under Chromium Toxicity Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:17:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2015/367217/ Zea mays (maize) and Vigna radiata (green gram) are found to be the chromium (Cr) tolerant and sensitive plants, respectively. In the present paper, we investigate the reduction of the toxicity of Cr in the sensitive plants by the mixed crop cultivation in the field using various amendments. Further, the potassium dichromate was used as the source of hexavalent Cr. The results indicated that Cr adversely affects both the growth and yield of plants. The soil properties vary with Cr and different fertilizer amendments and the yield of both plants were affected by Cr. We conclude that metal accumulation of seeds of green gram was higher than corn and the application of single fertilizer either farm yard manure (FYM) or nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) enhances the growth and yield of both the tolerant and sensitive plants in the mixed crop cultivations. B. Dheeba, P. Sampathkumar, and K. Kannan Copyright © 2015 B. Dheeba et al. All rights reserved. Modeling of Memristive and Memcapacitive Behaviors in Metal-Oxide Junctions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:16:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/910126/ Memristive behavior has been clearly addressed through growth and shrinkage of thin filaments in metal-oxide junctions. Capacitance change has also been observed, raising the possibility of using them as memcapacitors. Therefore, this paper proves that metal-oxide junctions can behave as a memcapacitor element by analyzing its characteristics and modeling its memristive and memcapacitive behaviors. We develop two behavioral modeling techniques: charge-dependent memcapacitor model and voltage-dependent memcapacitor model. A new physical model for metal-oxide junctions is presented based on conducting filaments variations, and its effect on device capacitance and resistance. In this model, we apply the exponential nature of growth and shrinkage of thin filaments and use Simmons’ tunneling equation to calculate the tunneling current. Simulation results show how the variations of practical device parameters can change the device behavior. They clarify the basic conditions for building a memcapacitor device with negligible change in resistance. M. G. A. Mohamed, HyungWon Kim, and Tae-Won Cho Copyright © 2015 M. G. A. Mohamed et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Epileptic Seizure Detection Using Scalp EEG and Advanced Artificial Intelligence Techniques Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:14:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/986736/ The epilepsies are a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders and syndromes characterised by recurrent, involuntary, paroxysmal seizure activity, which is often associated with a clinicoelectrical correlate on the electroencephalogram. The diagnosis of epilepsy is usually made by a neurologist but can be difficult to be made in the early stages. Supporting paraclinical evidence obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography may enable clinicians to make a diagnosis of epilepsy and investigate treatment earlier. However, electroencephalogram capture and interpretation are time consuming and can be expensive due to the need for trained specialists to perform the interpretation. Automated detection of correlates of seizure activity may be a solution. In this paper, we present a supervised machine learning approach that classifies seizure and nonseizure records using an open dataset containing 342 records. Our results show an improvement on existing studies by as much as 10% in most cases with a sensitivity of 93%, specificity of 94%, and area under the curve of 98% with a 6% global error using a k-class nearest neighbour classifier. We propose that such an approach could have clinical applications in the investigation of patients with suspected seizure disorders. Paul Fergus, David Hignett, Abir Hussain, Dhiya Al-Jumeily, and Khaled Abdel-Aziz Copyright © 2015 Paul Fergus et al. All rights reserved. Successful Stent Graft Insertion for Endovascular Aneurysm Repair and Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in an Adult Patient Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:07:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2015/317061/ Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is sometimes undetected until adulthood, and surgical closure of a PDA is dangerous because of the calcification of the ductus. Percutaneous approaches such as coil embolization and use of a PDA occluder are less invasive; however, these devices are not suitable for PDA with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). We present the case of a 72-year-old female patient who underwent successful stent graft insertions for PDA with TAA. Toshiki Kuno, Koji Tsutsumi, and Yohei Numasawa Copyright © 2015 Toshiki Kuno et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of an Underground Vertical Electrically Small Wire Antenna Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:04:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/782851/ The problem considered is a vertical electrically small wire antenna located underground, which transmits electromagnetic signals to the ground. Getting Green’s function of the vertical dipole underground was the first step to calculate this issue. A quasistatic situation was considered to make an approximation on Sommerfeld integral for easy solution. The method of moments was used to solve the current distribution on the antenna surface at different frequencies, which laid a good foundation for obtaining the electric field of the antenna. Then the axial and radial components of the electric field with the radial distance on the ground were investigated, as well as the voltage received on the ground. Furthermore, the influence of the frequency and stratum parameters on current and electric field was studied to understand the variation clearly. Shuwei Dong, Aiguo Yao, and Fanhe Meng Copyright © 2015 Shuwei Dong et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Rat 5α-Reductase Activity and Testosterone-Induced Sebum Synthesis in Hamster Sebocytes by an Extract of Quercus acutissima Cortex Thu, 29 Jan 2015 14:00:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/853846/ Objective. Bokusoku (BK) is an extract from the Quercus cortex used in folk medicine for treatment of skin disorders and convergence, and is present in jumihaidokuto, a traditional Japanese medicine that is prescribed for purulent skin diseases like acne vulgaris. The excess of sebum production induced by androgen is involved in the development of acne. Our aim is to examine whether BK and its constituents inhibit testosterone metabolism and testosterone-induced sebum synthesis. Methods. Measurements of 5α-reductase activity and lipogenesis were performed using rat liver microsomes and hamster sebocytes, respectively. Results. BK dose-dependently reduced the conversion of testosterone to a more active androgen, dihydrotestosterone in a 5α-reductase enzymatic reaction. Twenty polyphenols in BK categorized as gallotannin, ellagitannin, and flavonoid were identified by LC-MS/MS. Nine polyphenols with gallate group, tetragalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose, eugeniin, 1-desgalloyl eugeniin, casuarinin, castalagin, stenophyllanin C, (−)-epicatechin gallate, and (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, inhibited testosterone metabolism. In particular, pentagalloyl glucose showed the strongest activity. BK and pentagalloyl glucose suppressed testosterone-induced lipogenesis, whereas they weakly inhibited the lipogenic action of insulin. Conclusions. BK inhibited androgen-related pathogenesis of acne, testosterone conversion, and sebum synthesis, partially through 5α-reductase inhibition, and has potential to be a useful agent in the therapeutic strategy of acne. Junichi Koseki, Takashi Matsumoto, Yosuke Matsubara, Kazuaki Tsuchiya, Yasuharu Mizuhara, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Hiroaki Nishimura, Junko Watanabe, Atsushi Kaneko, Tomohisa Hattori, Kazuya Maemura, and Yoshio Kase Copyright © 2015 Junichi Koseki et al. All rights reserved. Through Neutrino Eyes: The Search for New Physics Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:48:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2015/875185/ Abhijit Samanta, David Latimer, and Michael A. Schmidt Copyright © 2015 Abhijit Samanta et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Control Method of Parabolic Partial Differential Equations and Its Application to Heat Transfer Model in Continuous Cast Secondary Cooling Zone Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:45:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/585967/ Our work is devoted to a class of optimal control problems of parabolic partial differential equations. Because of the partial differential equations constraints, it is rather difficult to solve the optimization problem. The gradient of the cost function can be found by the adjoint problem approach. Based on the adjoint problem approach, the gradient of cost function is proved to be Lipschitz continuous. An improved conjugate method is applied to solve this optimization problem and this algorithm is proved to be convergent. This method is applied to set-point values in continuous cast secondary cooling zone. Based on the real data in a plant, the simulation experiments show that the method can ensure the steel billet quality. From these experiment results, it is concluded that the improved conjugate gradient algorithm is convergent and the method is effective in optimal control problem of partial differential equations. Yuan Wang, Xiaochuan Luo, and Sai Li Copyright © 2015 Yuan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Women Who Have Aborted in Comparison with the Women with Normal Delivery in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:39:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/764369/ Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite causing toxoplasmosis in animals and humans. Primary maternal infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is frequently associated with transplacental transmission to the fetus. However it is not certain whether Toxoplasma infection can cause recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion via detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in sera of women with obstetrical problems and compare the results with control group consisting of women with history of normal delivery. Sera from 130 women with abortion and sera of 130 women with normal delivery were tested for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by ELISA method. The present study revealed 24.6% of the samples with abortion and 21.5% of the samples with normal delivery were positive for IgG antibodies. However, statistical analysis indicated no significant differences . In addition, IgM antibody was detected in one woman who had aborted but not in women with normal childbirth. This study showed no significant difference between the case and control groups in IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibody but detected one sample with IgM antibodies in woman with abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. In order to determine the relationship between Toxoplasma infection and abortion, anti-Toxoplasma IgG avidity and PCR to discriminate between recent and prior infections are recommended. J. Saki, N. Mohammadpour, F. Moramezi, and S. Khademvatan Copyright © 2015 J. Saki et al. All rights reserved. High In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Pac-525 against Porphyromonas gingivalis Biofilms Cultured on Titanium Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:35:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/909870/ In order to investigate the potential of short antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as alternative antibacterial agents during the treatment of peri-implantitis, the cytotoxic activity of three short AMPs, that is, Pac-525, KSL-W, and KSL, was determined using the MTT assay. The antimicrobial activity of these AMPs, ranging in concentration from 0.0039 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL, against the predominant planktonic pathogens, including Streptococcus sanguis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, involved in peri-implantitis was investigated. Furthermore, 2-day-old P. gingivalis biofilms cultured on titanium surfaces were treated with Pac-525 and subsequently observed and analysed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The average cell proliferation curve indicated that there was no cytotoxicity due to the three short AMPs. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of Pac-525 were 0.0625 mg/mL and 0.125 mg/mL, respectively, for P. gingivalis and 0.0078 mg/mL and 0.0156 mg/mL, respectively, for F. nucleatum. Using CLSM, we confirmed that compared to 0.1% chlorhexidine, 0.5 mg/mL of Pac-525 caused a significant decrease in biofilm thickness and a decline in the percentage of live bacteria. These data indicate that Pac-525 has unique properties that might make it suitable for the inhibition the growth of pathogenic bacteria around dental implants. Ji-yin Li, Xue-jin Wang, Li-na Wang, Xiao-xia Ying, Xiang Ren, Hui-ying Liu, Li Xu, and Guo-wu Ma Copyright © 2015 Ji-yin Li et al. All rights reserved. Immunodiagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis Using Mimotope Peptides Selected from Phage Displayed Combinatorial Libraries Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:34:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/401509/ ELISA and RIFI are currently used for serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The accuracy of these tests is controversial in endemic areas where canine infections by Trypanosoma cruzi may occur. We evaluated the usefulness of synthetic peptides that were selected through phage display technique in the serodiagnosis of CVL. Peptides were chosen based on their ability to bind to IgGs purified from infected dogs pooled sera. We selected three phage clones that reacted only with those IgGs. Peptides were synthesized, polymerized with glutaraldehyde, and used as antigens in ELISA assays. Each individual peptide or a mix of them was reactive with infected dogs serum. The assay was highly sensitive and specific when compared to soluble Leishmania antigen that showed cross-reactivity with anti-T. cruzi IgGs. Our results demonstrate that phage display technique is useful for selection of peptides that may represent valuable synthetic antigens for an improved serodiagnosis of CVL. Christina Monerat Toledo-Machado, Ricardo Andrez Machado de Avila, Christophe NGuyen, Claude Granier, Lilian Lacerda Bueno, Claudia Martins Carneiro, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Rubens Antonio Carneiro, Carlos Chávez-Olórtegui, and Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara Copyright © 2015 Christina Monerat Toledo-Machado et al. All rights reserved. Millimeter Wave Treatment Inhibits Apoptosis of Chondrocytes via Regulation Dynamic Equilibrium of Intracellular Free Ca2+ Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:33:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/464161/ The molecular mechanisms of TNF-α-induced apoptosis of chondrocyte and the role of Ca2+ mediating the effects of MW on TNF-α-induced apoptosis of chondrocytes remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying inhibiting TNF-α-induced chondrocytes apoptosis of MW. MTT assay, DAPI, and flow cytometry demonstrated that MW significantly increased cell activity and inhibited chromatin condensation accompanying the loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results also indicated that MW reduced the elevation of [Ca2+]i in chondrocytes by LSCM. Moreover, MW suppressed the protein levels of calpain, Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3, while the expressions of Bcl-2, collagen II, and aggrecan were increased. Our evidences indicated that MW treatment inhibited the apoptosis of chondrocytes through depression of [Ca2+]i. It also inhibited calpain activation, which mediated Bax cleavage and cytochrome c release and initiated the apoptotic execution phase. In addition, MW treatment increased the expression of collagen II and aggrecan of chondrocytes. Jinxia Ye, Guangwen Wu, Xihai Li, Zuanfang Li, Chunsong Zheng, Xianxiang Liu, and Hongzhi Ye Copyright © 2015 Jinxia Ye et al. All rights reserved. Shear Current Effects on Monochromatic Water Waves Crossing Trenches Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:32:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/256084/ The reflection coefficients of monochromatic water waves over trenches with shear current are estimated analytically. The diffraction of waves by an abrupt depth change and shear current is formulated by the matched eigenfunction expansion method. The proper number of steps and evanescent modes are proposed by a series of convergence tests. The accuracy of the predicted reflection coefficients is checked by estimating the wave energy. Reflection and transmission characteristics are studied for various shear current conditions. The different combinations of strength, width of shear current, and incident wave angle with constant water depth topography are examined. The optimal figure of the trench with shear current is obtained by estimating the reflection coefficients for various sloped transitions. The resonant reflection of the water waves is found by multiarrayed optimal trenches and the interaction of sinusoidally varying topography with shear current. Jun-Whan Lee, Koo-Yong Park, and Yong-Sik Cho Copyright © 2015 Jun-Whan Lee et al. All rights reserved. Sex-Differences in Renal Expression of Selected Transporters and Transcription Factors in Lean and Obese Zucker Spontaneously Hypertensive Fatty Rats Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:29:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/483238/ The aim of this study was to identify sex-dependent expression of renal transporter mRNA in lean and obese Zucker spontaneously hypertensive fatty (ZSF1) rats and to investigate the interaction of the most altered transporter, organic anion transporter 2 (Oat2), with diabetes-relevant metabolites and drugs. Higher incidence of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and protein casts in Bowman’s space and tubular lumen was detected by PAS staining in obese male compared to female ZSF1 rats. Real-time PCR on RNA isolated from kidney cortex revealed that Sglt1-2, Oat1-3, and Oct1 were higher expressed in kidneys of lean females. Oct2 and Mrp2 were higher expressed in obese males. Renal mRNA levels of transporters were reduced with diabetic nephropathy in females and the expression of transcription factors Hnf1β and Hnf4α in both sexes. The highest difference between lean and obese ZSF1 rats was found for Oat2. Therefore, we have tested the interaction of human OAT2 with various substances using tritium-labeled cGMP. Human OAT2 showed no interaction with diabetes-related metabolites, diabetic drugs, and ACE-inhibitors. However, OAT2-dependent uptake of cGMP was inhibited by furosemide. The strongly decreased expression of Oat2 and other transporters in female diabetic ZSF1 rats could possibly impair renal drug excretion, for example, of furosemide. Andrea Babelova, Birgitta C. Burckhardt, Waja Wegner, Gerhard Burckhardt, and Maja Henjakovic Copyright © 2015 Andrea Babelova et al. All rights reserved. A New Case of Prenatally Diagnosed Pentasomy X: Review of the Literature Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:19:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/935202/ Pentasomy X is a rare chromosomal abnormality probably due to a nondisjunction during the meiosis. Only four cases prenatally diagnosed were described until now. Our case is the fifth one prenatally diagnosed at 20 weeks of gestational age in a 39-years-old woman. She underwent invasive prenatal diagnosis for her advanced maternal age without any other known risk factor. Amniocentesis performed at 17 weeks showed a female 49, XXXXX karyotype. The ultrasonographic examination revealed nonspecific signs of a mild early fetal growth retardation and no significant increased nuchal fold. The fetal autopsy and the X-ray excluded major malformations. Prenatal diagnosis is often difficult due to the lack of indicative ultrasonographic findings and the rarity of described cases. The influence of the mother’s age on the occurrence of penta-X syndrome has not been determined. Considering the lack of correlation between advanced maternal age and increased risk for pentasomy X, as well as the absence of typical echographic signs, evaluation of the inclusion of a noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) that expands clinical coverage to include the X and Y chromosomes in routine prenatal diagnosis should be considered as well as three-dimensional ultrasound to detect any helpful indicative prognostic signs. Linda Maria Azzurra Pirollo, Leila Baghernajad Salehi, Simona Sarta, Marco Cassone, Maria Vittoria Capogna, Emilio Piccione, Giuseppe Novelli, and Adalgisa Pietropolli Copyright © 2015 Linda Maria Azzurra Pirollo et al. All rights reserved. A QCT-Based Nonsegmentation Finite Element Head Model for Studying Traumatic Brain Injury Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:19:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abb/2015/837585/ In the existing finite element head models (FEHMs) that are constructed from medical images, head tissues are usually segmented into a number of components according to the interior anatomical structure of the head. Each component is represented by a homogenous material model. There are a number of disadvantages in the segmentation-based finite element head models. Therefore, we developed a nonsegmentation finite element head model with pointwise-heterogeneous material properties and corroborated it by available experiment data. From the obtained results, it was found that although intracranial pressures predicted by the existing (piecewise-homogeneous) and the proposed (pointwise-heterogeneous) FEHM are very similar to each other, strain/stress levels in the head tissues are very different. The maximum peak strains/stresses predicted by the proposed FEHM are much higher than those by the existing FEHM, indicating that piecewise-homogeneous FEHM may have underestimated the stress/strain level induced by impact and thus may be inaccurate in predicting traumatic brain injuries. Zhaoyang Liang and Yunhua Luo Copyright © 2015 Zhaoyang Liang and Yunhua Luo. All rights reserved. Nelfinavir Impairs Glycosylation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Envelope Proteins and Blocks Virus Maturation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:15:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/av/2015/687162/ Nelfinavir (NFV) is an HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitor that has numerous effects on human cells, which impart attractive antitumor properties. NFV has also been shown to have in vitro inhibitory activity against human herpesviruses (HHVs). Given the apparent absence of an aspartyl protease encoded by HHVs, we investigated the mechanism of action of NFV herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in cultured cells. Selection of HSV-1 resistance to NFV was not achieved despite multiple passages under drug pressure. NFV did not significantly affect the level of expression of late HSV-1 gene products. Normal numbers of viral particles appeared to be produced in NFV-treated cells by electron microscopy but remain within the cytoplasm more often than controls. NFV did not inhibit the activity of the HSV-1 serine protease nor could its antiviral activity be attributed to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. NFV was found to decrease glycosylation of viral glycoproteins B and C and resulted in aberrant subcellular localization, consistent with induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response by NFV. These results demonstrate that NFV causes alterations in HSV-1 glycoprotein maturation and egress and likely acts on one or more host cell functions that are important for HHV replication. Soren Gantt, Eliora Gachelet, Jacquelyn Carlsson, Serge Barcy, Corey Casper, and Michael Lagunoff Copyright © 2015 Soren Gantt et al. All rights reserved. The Resin from Protium heptaphyllum Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice: Scientific Evidence and Potential Mechanisms Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:11:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/106157/ Herbal compounds rich in triterpenes are well known to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism and to have beneficial effects on metabolic disorders. The present study investigated the antiobesity properties of resin from Protium heptaphyllum (RPH) and the possible mechanisms in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. Mice treated with RPH showed decreases in body weight, net energy intake, abdominal fat accumulation, plasma glucose, amylase, lipase, triglycerides, and total cholesterol relative to their respective controls, which were RPH unfed. Additionally, RPH treatment, while significantly elevating the plasma level of ghrelin hormone, decreased the levels of insulin, leptin, and resistin. Besides, HFD-induced increases in plasma levels of proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 were significantly lowered by RPH. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed that RPH could significantly inhibit the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes (measured by Oil-Red O staining) at concentrations up to 50 μg/mL. These findings suggest that the antiobese potential of RPH is largely due to its modulatory effects on various hormonal and enzymatic secretions related to fat and carbohydrate metabolism and to the regulation of obesity-associated inflammation. Karine Maria Martins Bezerra Carvalho, José Delano Barreto Marinho Filho, Tiago Sousa de Melo, Ana Jérsia Araújo, Josiane da Silva Quetz, Maria do Perpétuo Socorro Saldanha da Cunha, Karina Moura de Melo, Armenio Andre de Carvalho Almeida da Silva, Adriana Rocha Tomé, Alexandre Havt, Said Gonçalves da Cruz Fonseca, Gerly Anne de Castro Brito, Mariana Helena Chaves, Vietla Satyanarayana Rao, and Flávia Almeida Santos Copyright © 2015 Karine Maria Martins Bezerra Carvalho et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Herb Combined with Surgery versus Surgery for Varicocele Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:07:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/689056/ Objective. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery for male varicocele infertility compared to surgery. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) data of traditional Chinese herbs combined with surgery for male varicocele fertility versus surgery were collected by searching the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, and Chinese databases. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data. Results. Seventeen of 72 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria. The methodological qualities of the RCTs were low. Compared with the surgery group, the traditional Chinese herb combined with surgery group had superiority in pregnancy rate at 3-month (, and ), 6-month (, and ), and 2-year (, and ) follow-ups. No RCT was found to describe the side effects. Conclusion. On considering the low methodological quality of RCTs, there was no enough evidence on traditional Chinese herb with surgery for male varicocele infertility, and more high-quality RCTs of large sample sizes are required. Rong-liang Dun, Min Yao, Long Yang, Xue-jun Cui, Jian-min Mao, Yu Peng, and Guang-chong Qi Copyright © 2015 Rong-liang Dun et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Intratumoral Adaptive Immune Response in Well Differentiated and Dedifferentiated Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:05:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2015/547460/ Treatment options are limited in well differentiated (WD) and dedifferentiated (DD) retroperitoneal liposarcoma. We sought to study the intratumoral adaptive immune response and explore the potential feasibility of immunotherapy in this disease. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were isolated from fresh surgical specimens and analyzed by flow cytometry for surface marker expression. Previously reported immune cell aggregates known as tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) were further characterized by immunohistochemistry. In all fresh tumors, TILs were found. The majority of TILs were CD4 T cells; however cytotoxic CD8 T cells were also seen (average: 20% of CD3 T cells). Among CD8 T cells, 65% expressed the immune checkpoint molecule PD-1. Intratumoral TLS may be sites of antigen presentation as DC-LAMP positive, mature dendritic cells were found juxtaposed next to CD4 T cells. Clinicopathologic correlation, however, demonstrated that presence of TLS was associated with worse recurrence-free survival in WD disease and worse overall survival in DD disease. Our data suggest that an adaptive immune response is present in WD/DD retroperitoneal liposarcoma but may be hindered by TLS, among other possible microenvironmental factors; further investigation is needed. Immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint blockade, should be evaluated as a treatment option in this disease. William W. Tseng, Shruti Malu, Minying Zhang, Jieqing Chen, Geok Choo Sim, Wei Wei, Davis Ingram, Neeta Somaiah, Dina C. Lev, Raphael E. Pollock, Gregory Lizée, Laszlo Radvanyi, and Patrick Hwu Copyright © 2015 William W. Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Smart Tendon Actuated Flexible Actuator Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:03:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jr/2015/295410/ We investigate the kinematic feasibility of a tendon-based flexible parallel platform actuator. Much of the research on tendon-driven Stewart platforms is devoted either to the completely restrained positioning mechanism (CRPM) or to one particular type of the incompletely restrained positioning mechanism (IRPM) where the external force is provided by the gravitational pull on the platform such as in cable-suspended Stewart platforms. An IRPM-based platform is proposed which uses the external force provided by a compliant member. The compliant central column allows the configuration to achieve DOFs with tendons. In particular, this investigation focuses on the angular deflection of the upper platform with respect to the lower platform. The application here is aimed at developing a linkable module that can be connected to one another so as to form a “snake robot” of sorts. Since locomotion takes precedence over positioning in this application, a 3-DOF Stewart platform is adopted. For an arbitrary angular displace of the end-effector, the corresponding length of each tendon can be determined through inverse kinematics. Mathematical singularities are investigated using the traditional analytical method of defining the Jacobian. Md. Masum Billah and Raisuddin Khan Copyright © 2015 Md. Masum Billah and Raisuddin Khan. All rights reserved. Growth and Blood Parameters of Weaned Crossbred Beef Calves Fed Forage Kale (Brassica oleracea spp. acephala) Thu, 29 Jan 2015 13:01:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aag/2015/410497/ Forty lightweight calves ( kg) were randomly distributed to four treatments: (Control) low nutritive value pasture and hay plus 1 kg d−1 of rolled barley; (Pasture) management intensive pasture; (Haylage) timothy haylage; and (Kale) 50% timothy haylage −50% kale pasture. Blood samples were analysed for thyroid hormones, liver enzymes, glucose, cholesterol, total proteins (TP), albumin, globulins, and urea-N. At the end of the trial, the Pasture group was the heaviest with  kg BW and 1.54 kg ADG. Final BW and ADG were similar for the Kale and Haylage groups. Blood T3 was higher for Kale than for the other groups. The T3/T4 ratio was greater for Control at the end of the experiment. There were no treatment differences for T4, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cholesterol, and glucose. Blood urea-N was lower for Kale and higher for Pasture; however albumin concentrations were greater for Pasture and similar for other treatments. Except for the Control group, calves had a lower concentration of circulating globulins at the end than at the beginning of the experiment. This study showed that Kale could be fed to backgrounding calves without detrimental effects on performance. Y. Chorfi, Y. Couture, G. F. Tremblay, R. Berthiaume, and D. Cinq-Mars Copyright © 2015 Y. Chorfi et al. All rights reserved. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor/Ewing Sarcoma Presenting with Pulmonary Nodular Lesions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:59:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/957239/ Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) and Ewing sarcoma (EWS) belong to the same family of malignant, small, round cell neoplasms of soft tissue or bone origin. EWS-PNETs that arise in the lung parenchyma involvement are extremely rare in adults. A case of a 32-year-old male presenting with chest pain and diffuse pulmonary nodules on chest X-ray and diagnosed with Ewing sarcoma-PNETs will be presented here. Selvi Asker, Fuat Sayir, Gulay Bulut, Aysel Sunnetcioglu, Selami Ekin, and Alpaslan Yavuz Copyright © 2015 Selvi Asker et al. All rights reserved. Semi-Iterative Method for Computing the Generalized Inverse Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:56:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/849487/ The main aim of this paper is to compute the generalized inverse over Banach spaces by using semi-iterative method and to present the error bounds of the semi-iterative method for approximating . Xiaoji Liu and Caijing Jiang Copyright © 2015 Xiaoji Liu and Caijing Jiang. All rights reserved. Bayesian Estimation of Inequality and Poverty Indices in Case of Pareto Distribution Using Different Priors under LINEX Loss Function Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:54:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/as/2015/964824/ Bayesian estimators of Gini index and a Poverty measure are obtained in case of Pareto distribution under censored and complete setup. The said estimators are obtained using two noninformative priors, namely, uniform prior and Jeffreys’ prior, and one conjugate prior under the assumption of Linear Exponential (LINEX) loss function. Using simulation techniques, the relative efficiency of proposed estimators using different priors and loss functions is obtained. The performances of the proposed estimators have been compared on the basis of their simulated risks obtained under LINEX loss function. Kamaljit Kaur, Sangeeta Arora, and Kalpana K. Mahajan Copyright © 2015 Kamaljit Kaur et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Green Tea Extracts on the Pharmacokinetics of Quetiapine in Rats Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:54:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/615285/ Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, used clinically in the treatment of schizophrenia, acute mania in bipolar disorders, and bipolar depression in adults. In this study, the effect of green tea extracts (GTE) on the pharmacokinetics of quetiapine (substrate of CYP3A4) was investigated in rats. Male Wistar albino rats received GTE (175 mg/kg) or saline (control) by oral gavage for 7 days before a single intragastric administration of 25 mg/kg quetiapine. Plasma concentrations of quetiapine were measured up to 12 h after its administration by a validated ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Pretreatment with GTE produced significant reductions in the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of quetiapine by 45% and 35%, respectively, compared to quetiapine alone. However, GTE did not produce significant change in elimination half-life and oral clearance of quetiapine. This study concluded that GTE may decrease the bioavailability of quetiapine when coadministered. Essam Ezzeldin, Yousif A. Asiri, and Muzaffar Iqbal Copyright © 2015 Essam Ezzeldin et al. All rights reserved. Electron Spin Resonance and Atomic Force Microscopy Study on Gadolinium Doped Ceria Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:51:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/491840/ A combined electron spin resonance (ESR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) study on Ce1−xGdxO2−x/2 samples is here presented, aimed at investigating the evolution of the ESR spectral shape as a function of in a wide composition range. At low , the spectrum is composed of features at ; 2.8; 6. With increasing , this pattern merges into a single broad ESR curve, which assumes a Dysonian-shaped profile at , whereas, at these values, AFM measurements show an increasing surface roughness. It is suggested that the last could cause the formation of surface polaritons at the origin of the particular ESR spectral profile observed at these high Gd doping levels. Cesare Oliva, Francesco Orsini, Serena Cappelli, Paolo Arosio, Mattia Allieta, Mauro Coduri, and Marco Scavini Copyright © 2015 Cesare Oliva et al. All rights reserved. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:49:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/art/2015/580961/ The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further. Yifru Berhan and Asres Berhan Copyright © 2015 Yifru Berhan and Asres Berhan. All rights reserved. Workflow Modelling and Analysis Based on the Construction of Task Models Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:47:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/481767/ We describe the structure of a workflow as a graph whose vertices represent tasks and the arcs are associated to workflow transitions in this paper. To each task an input/output logic operator is associated. Furthermore, we associate a Boolean term to each transition present in the workflow. We still identify the structure of workflows and describe their dynamism through the construction of new task models. This construction is very simple and intuitive since it is based on the analysis of all tasks present on the workflow that allows us to describe the dynamism of the workflow very easily. So, our approach has the advantage of being very intuitive, which is an important highlight of our work. We also introduce the concept of logical termination of workflows and provide conditions under which this property is valid. Finally, we provide a counter-example which shows that a conjecture presented in a previous article is false. Glória Cravo Copyright © 2015 Glória Cravo. All rights reserved. Synthesis of β-SiC Fine Fibers by the Forcespinning Method with Microwave Irradiation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:46:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jceram/2015/217931/ A rapid method for synthesizing β-silicon carbide (β-SiC) fine fiber composite has been achieved by combining forcespinning technology with microwave energy processing. β-SiC has applications as composite reinforcements, refractory filtration systems, and other high temperature applications given their properties such as low density, oxidation resistance, thermal stability, and wear resistance. Nonwoven fine fiber mats were prepared through a solution based method using polystyrene (PS) and polycarbomethylsilane (PCmS) as the precursor materials. The fiber spinning was performed under different parameters to obtain high yield, fiber homogeneity, and small diameters. The spinning was carried out under controlled nitrogen environment to control and reduce oxygen content. Characterization was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show high yield, long continuous bead-free nonwoven fine fibers with diameters ranging from 270 nm to 2 µm depending on the selected processing parameters. The fine fiber mats show formation of highly crystalline β-SiC fine fiber after microwave irradiation. Alfonso Salinas, Maricela Lizcano, and Karen Lozano Copyright © 2015 Alfonso Salinas et al. All rights reserved. Heat Transfer Enhancement and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Nanofluid in Turbulent Flow Regime Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:31:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jen/2015/814717/ Turbulent forced convection of γ-Al2O3/water nanofluid in a concentric double tube heat exchanger has been investigated numerically using mixture two-phase model. Nanofluids are used as coolants flowing in the inner tube while hot pure water flows in outer tube. The studies are conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 20,000 to 50,000 and nanoparticle volume fractions of 2, 3, 4, and 6 percent. Results showed that nanofluid has no effects on fully developed length and average heat transfer coefficient enhances with lower slope than wall shear stress. Comparisons with experimental correlation in literature are conducted and good agreement with present numerical study is achieved. Mohammad Nasiri-lohesara Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Nasiri-lohesara. All rights reserved. Adaptation, Ecology, and Evolution of the Halophilic Stromatolite Archaeon Halococcus hamelinensis Inferred through Genome Analyses Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:31:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/archaea/2015/241608/ Halococcus hamelinensis was the first archaeon isolated from stromatolites. These geomicrobial ecosystems are thought to be some of the earliest known on Earth, yet, despite their evolutionary significance, the role of Archaea in these systems is still not well understood. Detailed here is the genome sequencing and analysis of an archaeon isolated from stromatolites. The genome of H. hamelinensis consisted of 3,133,046 base pairs with an average G+C content of 60.08% and contained 3,150 predicted coding sequences or ORFs, 2,196 (68.67%) of which were protein-coding genes with functional assignments and 954 (29.83%) of which were of unknown function. Codon usage of the H. hamelinensis genome was consistent with a highly acidic proteome, a major adaptive mechanism towards high salinity. Amino acid transport and metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, ribosomal structure, and unknown function COG genes were overrepresented. The genome of H. hamelinensis also revealed characteristics reflecting its survival in its extreme environment, including putative genes/pathways involved in osmoprotection, oxidative stress response, and UV damage repair. Finally, genome analyses indicated the presence of putative transposases as well as positive matches of genes of H. hamelinensis against various genomes of Bacteria, Archaea, and viruses, suggesting the potential for horizontal gene transfer. Reema K. Gudhka, Brett A. Neilan, and Brendan P. Burns Copyright © 2015 Reema K. Gudhka et al. All rights reserved. High Dose Dexmedetomidine: Effective as a Sole Agent Sedation for Children Undergoing MRI Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:26:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2015/397372/ Objective. To determine the efficacy and safety of high dose dexmedetomidine as a sole sedative agent for MRI. We report our institution’s experience. Design. A retrospective institutional review of dexmedetomidine usage for pediatric MRI over 5.5 years. Protocol included a dexmedetomidine bolus of 2 μg/kg intravenously over ten minutes followed by 1 μg/kg/hr infusion. 544 patients received high dose dexmedetomidine for MRI. A second bolus was used in 103 (18.9%) patients. 117 (21.5%) required additional medications. Efficacy, side effects, and use of additional medicines to complete the MRI were reviewed. Data was analyzed using Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Main Results. Dexmedetomidine infusion was associated with bradycardia (3.9%) and hypotension (18.4%). None of the patients required any intervention. Vital signs were not significantly different among the subgroup of patients receiving one or two boluses of dexmedetomidine or additional medications. Procedure time was significantly shorter in the group receiving only one dexmedetomidine bolus and increased with second bolus or additional medications (). Discharge time was longer for children experiencing bradycardia (). Conclusion. High dose Dexmedetomidine was effective in 78.5% of cases; 21.5% of patients required additional medications. Side effects occurred in approximately 25% of cases, resolving spontaneously. Sheikh Sohail Ahmed, Tamara Unland, James E. Slaven, and Mara E. Nitu Copyright © 2015 Sheikh Sohail Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. Application of AMOR in Craniofacial Rabbit Bone Bioengineering Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:15:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/628769/ Endogenous molecular and cellular mediators modulate tissue repair and regeneration. We have recently described antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR) as a novel strategy for bioengineering bone in rat calvarial defect. This entails application of anti-BMP-2 antibodies capable of in vivo capturing of endogenous osteogenic BMPs (BMP-2, BMP-4, and BMP-7). The present study sought to investigate the feasibility of AMOR in other animal models. To that end, we examined the efficacy of a panel of anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and a polyclonal Ab immobilized on absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) to mediate bone regeneration within rabbit calvarial critical size defects. After 6 weeks, de novo bone formation was demonstrated by micro-CT imaging, histology, and histomorphometric analysis. Only certain anti-BMP-2 mAb clones mediated significant in vivo bone regeneration, suggesting that the epitopes with which anti-BMP-2 mAbs react are critical to AMOR. Increased localization of BMP-2 protein and expression of osteocalcin were observed within defects, suggesting accumulation of endogenous BMP-2 and/or increased de novo expression of BMP-2 protein within sites undergoing bone repair by AMOR. Considering the ultimate objective of translation of this therapeutic strategy in humans, preclinical studies will be necessary to demonstrate the feasibility of AMOR in progressively larger animal models. Marcelo Freire, Jeong-Ho Choi, Anthony Nguyen, Young Deok Chee, Joong-Ki Kook, Hyung-Keun You, and Homayoun H. Zadeh Copyright © 2015 Marcelo Freire et al. All rights reserved. Renal and Neurological Response with Eculizumab in a Patient with Transplant Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Transplantation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:12:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2015/425410/ Transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a challenge after allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation, considering the diagnostic uncertainties and lack of established treatment. We report a 43-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as TA-TMA after allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation for a progressive ALK negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma and responded to eculizumab with dramatically improving neurological status and renal function. Rapid neurological and renal recovery achieved after eculizumab could support a possible relationship between complement activation and TA-TMA. Eculizumab should be a reasonable treatment approach in patients with TA-TMA after allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation. Ömür Gökmen Sevindik, İnci Alacacıoğlu, Abdullah Katgı, Şerife Medeni Solmaz, Celal Acar, Özden Pişkin, Mehmet Ali Özcan, Fatih Demirkan, Bülent Ündar, and Güner Hayri Özsan Copyright © 2015 Ömür Gökmen Sevindik et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Multidrug Resistance among Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Pig Faeces in Ashanti Region, Ghana Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:11:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijan/2015/898790/ Introduction. Salmonella typhimurium is associated with outbreaks of food-borne nontyphoidal salmonellosis (NTS) worldwide with marked multidrug resistance. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhimurium in pigs in Ashanti Region, Ghana. Methods. Faeces from 10 pigs per pig farm were collected and mixed to obtain 108 multiply-composite faecal samples. Standard microbiology and biochemical procedures were used to isolate and identify an S. typhimurium isolate from the composite faecal sample of each farm. Antibiotic sensitivity test was carried out to determine the sensitivity of the isolates. Discussion. From the 108 multiply-composite faecal samples, 72 S. typhimurium isolates were obtained from 72 separate composite samples representing 72 different pig farms. Of the 72 faecal isolates, 32 (52.8%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. Twenty-seven isolates (71.1%) were resistant to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin was found in 17 (44.7%), 15 (39.5%), and 8 (21.1%) isolates, respectively. Resistance to norfloxacin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and gentamicin were expressed in 3 (7.9%), 3 (7.9%), and 0 (0.0%) isolates, respectively. Conclusion. Multiple drug resistance is common in S. typhimurium isolates, many of which could belong to the same clone, from pigs in Ashanti Region, Ghana. John Osei Sekyere and Francis Adu Copyright © 2015 John Osei Sekyere and Francis Adu. All rights reserved. Unilateral Optic Neuropathy and Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma following Snake Envenomation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:04:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2015/687829/ Purpose. We aimed to describe a unique case in which a patient developed unilateral optic neuritis and angle-closure glaucoma as a result of snake envenomation. Case Report. Approximately 18 hours after envenomation, a 67-year-old female patient described visual impairment and severe pain in her left eye (LE). The patient’s best corrected visual acuity was 10/10 in the RE and hand motion in the LE. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of neuropathy in the left optic nerve. In the LE, corneal haziness, closure of the iridocorneal angle, and mild mydriasis were observed and pupillary light reflex was absent. Intraocular pressure was 25 mmHg and 57 mmHg in the RE and LE, respectively. The patient was diagnosed with acute angle-closure glaucoma in the LE. Optic neuropathy was treated with intravenous pulse methylprednisolone. Left intraocular pressure was within normal range starting on the fourth day. One month after the incident, there was no sign of optic neuropathy; relative afferent pupillary defect and optic nerve swelling disappeared. Conclusions. Patients with severe headache and visual loss after snake envenomation must be carefully examined for possible optic neuropathy and angle-closure glaucoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of these cases are necessary to prevent permanent damage to optic nerves. Osman Okan Olcaysu, Kenan Cadirci, Ahmet Altun, Afak Durur Karakaya, and Huseyin Bayramlar Copyright © 2015 Osman Okan Olcaysu et al. All rights reserved. Littoral Cell Angioma in a Patient with Crohn’s Disease Thu, 29 Jan 2015 12:03:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2015/474969/ Littoral cell angioma is a rare vascular tumor of the spleen. The pathogenesis is unknown but the lesion is associated with several malignancies and immunological disorders. The diagnosis requires histopathological examination. The malignant potential of this lesion is unknown, which is why splenectomy is recommend for all cases. Symptomatic cases generally suffer from hypersplenism and pyrexia. A previously healthy 20-year-old female was diagnosed with colonic Crohn’s disease; as part of the work-up a magnetic resonance enterography was performed which showed multiple signal changes of the spleen. The patient reported chronic abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, malaise, and fever. The unknown splenic lesions prompted a laparoscopic splenectomy; pathology revealed a littoral cell angioma. The abdominal pain and malaise remitted but the fever persisted one year despite adequate treatment of the patient’s Crohn’s disease. Littoral cell angioma is associated with immune-dysregulation including Crohn’s disease with several reported cases. Signs and symptoms of hypersplenism and splenic lesions on imaging should raise suspicion of littoral cell angioma in patients with Crohn’s disease. Magnetic resonance enterography to assess disease severity in Crohn’s disease may provide an opportunity to study the prevalence and natural history of this rare splenic tumor. Joel Johansson, Bergthor Björnsson, Simone Ignatova, Per Sandström, and Mattias Ekstedt Copyright © 2015 Joel Johansson et al. All rights reserved. Asymptotic Behavior of Nonlinear Evolution Equations Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:49:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/430238/ Hui-Sheng Ding, Carlos Lizama, Gaston M. N’Guérékata, and Claudio Cuevas Copyright © 2015 Hui-Sheng Ding et al. All rights reserved. Ameloblastic Fibrodentinoma Presenting as a False Gingival Enlargement in the Maxillary Anterior Region Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:42:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/812087/ Ameloblastic fibrodentinoma is a rare benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm usually occurring in the first two decades of life. It is more common in males and the most common site of occurrence is in the mandibular premolar molar area. This report presents a case of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma in a 12-year-old boy in the maxillary anterior region, a less common site for the occurrence of ameloblastic fibrodentinoma. A 12-year-old boy presented with a midline diastema in 11 and 21 region and a swelling in the palatal aspect of 11 and 12. Intraoral periapical radiograph showed the presence of rarefaction of bone on the mesial aspect of the cervical and middle third of the root of 11. Excision biopsy was done. The specimen was processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Microscopic examination showed islands, chords and strands of odontogenic epithelium in a primitive ectomesenchyme resembling dental papilla. The odontogenic epithelium exhibited peripheral ameloblast-like and central stellate reticulum-like cells. The presence of dentinoid material was seen adjacent to the odontogenic epithelium in some foci. The lesion was diagnosed as ameloblastic fibrodentinoma. Shiny Joseph, Lakshmi Priya, Dinesh Gopal, Mary Devachen, Ajay Narayan, and Muhammed Afnan Copyright © 2015 Shiny Joseph et al. All rights reserved. Recent Developments on Sequence Spaces and Compact Operators with Applications Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:26:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/410652/ S. A. Mohiuddine, M. Mursaleen, Józef Banaś, Suthep Suantai, and Abdullah Alotaibi Copyright © 2015 S. A. Mohiuddine et al. All rights reserved. Mining Association Rules in Dengue Gene Sequence with Latent Periodicity Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:26:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cbj/2015/839692/ The mining of periodic patterns in dengue database is an interesting research problem that can be used for predicting the future evolution of dengue viruses. In this paper, we propose an algorithm called Recurrence Finder (RECFIN) that uses the suffix tree for detecting the periodic patterns of dengue gene sequence. Also, the RECFIN finds the presence of palindrome which indicates the possibilities of formation of proteins. Further, this paper computes the periodicity of nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of any length. The periodicity based association rules are used to diagnose the type of dengue. The time complexity of the proposed algorithm is O(n2). We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach by comparing the experimental results performed on dengue virus serotypes dataset with NCBI-BLAST algorithm. Marimuthu Thangam and Balamurugan Vanniappan Copyright © 2015 Marimuthu Thangam and Balamurugan Vanniappan. All rights reserved. Sensitivity of Mesoporous CoSb2O6 Nanoparticles to Gaseous CO and C3H8 at Low Temperatures Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:24:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/308465/ Mesoporous CoSb2O6 nanoparticles, synthesized through a nonaqueous method (using cobalt nitrate, antimony trichloride, ethylenediamine, and ethanol as a solvent), were tested to establish their sensitivity to CO and C3H8 atmospheres at relatively low temperatures. The precursor material was dried at 200°C and calcined at 600°C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to verify the existence of crystal phases () and the morphology of this trirutile-type CoSb2O6 oxide. Pyramidal and cubic shaped crystals (average size: 41.1 nm), embedded in the material’s surface, were identified. Mesopores (average size: 6.5 nm) on the nanoparticles’ surface were observed by means of transmission electron microscopy. The best sensitivity of the CoSb2O6 in a CO atmosphere was at the relatively low temperatures of 250 and 350°C, whereas, in a C3H8 atmosphere, the sensitivity increased uniformly with temperature. These results encourage using the CoSb2O6 nanoparticles as gas sensors. Héctor Guillén-Bonilla, Lorenzo Gildo-Ortiz, M. de la L. Olvera-Amador, Jaime Santoyo-Salazar, Verónica M. Rodríguez-Betancourtt, Alex Guillen-Bonilla, and Juan Reyes-Gómez Copyright © 2015 Héctor Guillén-Bonilla et al. All rights reserved. Three Cases of Organized Hematoma of the Maxillary Sinus: Clinical Features and Immunohistological Studies for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Expressions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:23:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2015/846832/ Objectives. Organized hematoma (OH) is a rare, nonneoplastic, hemorrhagic lesion causing mucosal swelling and bone thinning, mainly in the maxillary sinus. We aimed to clarify the clinical presentation and treatment of OH. Methods. Three cases of maxillary sinus OH and a literature review are presented. Results. Three men aged 16–40 years complained of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and/or headache. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed a maxillary sinus OH. They were cured in a piecemeal fashion via endoscopic middle meatal antrostomy. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor were expressed in the lesion. Conclusions. The pathogenesis of OH is unclear and it presents various histological and imaging findings; however, it is not difficult to rule out malignant tumors. Minimally invasive surgery such as endoscopic sinus surgery can cure it completely. Thus, it is important to determine the diagnosis using CT and MRI and to quickly provide surgical treatment. Shoichiro Imayoshi, Takeharu Kanazawa, Noriyoshi Fukushima, Hisashi Kikuchi, Masayo Hasegawa, Takafumi Nagatomo, and Hiroshi Nishino Copyright © 2015 Shoichiro Imayoshi et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Approach to Solve Quasiexactly Solvable Pauli Equation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:21:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/304093/ The spectra for some specific forms of external magnetic fields in Pauli equation are obtained in the framework of the asymptotic iteration method (AIM). AIM is applied to find the solution of Pauli equation. When the method is applied to quasiexactly solvable systems, it not only easily gives the corresponding spectrum, but also produces accurate results for the eigenvalues of the system having sl(2) symmetry. Ramazan Koç, Eser Olğar, and Haydar Mutaf Copyright © 2015 Ramazan Koç et al. All rights reserved. H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Synthesis by Sourcing Silica from the Wheat Husk Ash: Characterization and Application as a Versatile Heterogeneous Catalyst in Organic Transformations including Some Multicomponent Reactions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:19:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcat/2015/805714/ ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized by sourcing silica from wheat husk ash and was converted into its protonated form following careful, conventionally accepted ion-exchange method and calcinations. The H-ZSM-5 zeolite (Si/Al ratio = 30) prepared was appropriately characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, TG-DTA, CV, and so forth, and evaluated as recyclable catalyst in selective organic transformations including three- and four-component reactions. The catalytic activity of the zeolite sample supposedly relates to increased density of the accessible acid sites. Isak Rajjak Shaikh, Rafique Ahmed Shaikh, Alamgir Abdulla Shaikh, Javeed Ahmad War, Shankar Poshetti Hangirgekar, Ahmad Lalahmad Shaikh, Parveen Rajjak Shaikh, and Rafik Rajjak Shaikh Copyright © 2015 Isak Rajjak Shaikh et al. All rights reserved. Delayed Presentation of Pharyngeal Erosion after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:18:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/173687/ Dysphagia after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is common, with a prevalence ranging between 28% and 57% of cases. However, nearly all cases resolve spontaneously within 2 years, thus identifying patients who require more detailed or invasive work-up is a challenging task for clinicians. A review of literature reveals a paucity of case reports detailing work-up and successful management options. The authors performed a clinical and radiographic review of a case of a 47-year-old female who presented with persistent dysphagia 3 years following anterior cervical spine surgery and was found to have an erosive pharyngeal defect with exposed spinal hardware. The diagnosis was made with direct laryngoscopy and treatment consisted of plate removal and pharyngeal repair, followed by revision fusion with deformity correction. This case and the accompanying pertinent review of the literature highlight the importance of a thorough evaluation of dysphagia, especially in the mid- and late-term postoperative period following ACDF, when most cases of dysphagia should have been resolved. Correctly identifying the underlying etiology of dysphagia may lead to improved revision of ACDF outcomes. Unresolved dysphagia should be a red flag for surgeons as it may be the presentation of erosive esophageal/pharyngeal damage, a rare but serious complication following ACDF. Amit Nathani, Alexander E. Weber, Trevor C. Wahlquist, Gregory P. Graziano, Paul Park, and Rakesh D. Patel Copyright © 2015 Amit Nathani et al. All rights reserved. Clear Cell Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Mimic of Conventional Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma on Core Biopsy Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:12:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/423908/ Clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma (CCP-RCC) is a recently described, relatively uncommon variant of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with a reported incidence of 4.1%. Thought to only arise in those with end stage renal disease, CCP-RCC is increasingly identified in those without renal impairment. CCP-RCCs have unique morphologic, genetic, and immunohistochemical features distinguishing them from both conventional clear cell renal cell carcinomas and papillary renal cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, these tumors are positive for CK7 and negative for CD10 and racemase. This is in contrast to conventional cell renal cell carcinomas (CK7 negative, CD10 positive) and papillary cell carcinomas (CK7, CD10, and racemase positive). These tumours appear to be indolent in nature, with no current documented cases of metastatic spread. We present the case of a 42-year-old female who presented with an incidental finding of a renal mass that on a core biopsy was reported as clear cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. She subsequently underwent a radical nephrectomy and further histological examination revealed the tumor to be a clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma, Fuhrman grade 1. Heath Liddell, Anton Mare, Sean Heywood, Genevieve Bennett, and Hin Fan Chan Copyright © 2015 Heath Liddell et al. All rights reserved. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults Thu, 29 Jan 2015 11:05:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2015/468759/ Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women), particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA). Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS. W. Aekplakorn, W. Satheannoppakao, P. Putwatana, S. Taneepanichskul, P. Kessomboon, V. Chongsuvivatwong, and S. Chariyalertsak Copyright © 2015 W. Aekplakorn et al. All rights reserved. Precipitation over Northern South America and Its Seasonal Variability as Simulated by the CMIP5 Models Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:31:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2015/634720/ Northern South America is identified as one of the most vulnerable regions to be affected by climate change. Furthermore, recent extreme wet seasons over the region have induced socioeconomic impacts of wide proportions. Hence, the evaluation of rainfall simulations at seasonal and interannual time scales by the CMIP5 models is urgently required. Here, we evaluated the ability of seven CMIP5 models (selected based on literature review) to represent the seasonal mean precipitation and its interannual variability over northern South America. Our results suggest that it is easier for models to reproduce rainfall distribution during boreal summer and fall over both oceans and land. This is probably due to the fact that during these seasons, incoming radiation and ocean-atmosphere feedbacks over Atlantic and Pacific oceans locate the ITCZ on the Northern Hemisphere, as suggested by previous studies. Models exhibit the worse simulations during boreal winter and spring, when these processes have opposite effects locating the ITCZ. Our results suggest that the models with a better representation of the oceanic ITCZ and the local low-level jets over northern South America, such as the Choco low-level jet, are able to realistically simulate the main features of seasonal precipitation pattern over northern South America. Juan P. Sierra, Paola A. Arias, and Sara C. Vieira Copyright © 2015 Juan P. Sierra et al. All rights reserved. Biochemical Storage Lesions Occurring in Nonirradiated and Irradiated Red Blood Cells: A Brief Review Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:23:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/968302/ Red blood cells undergo a series of biochemical fluctuations during 35–42-day storage period at 1°C to 6°C. The sodium/potassium pump is immobilised causing a decrease in intracellular potassium with an increase in cytoplasmic sodium levels, glucose levels decline, and acidosis occurs as a result of low pH levels. The frailty of stored erythrocytes triggers the formation of haemoglobin-containing microparticles and the release of cell-free haemoglobin which may add to transfusion difficulties. Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress to band 3 structures, and other morphological and structural molecular changes also occur leading to spheroechinocytes and osmotic fragility. These changes that transpire in the red cells during the storage period are referred to as “storage lesions.” It is well documented that gamma irradiation exacerbates storage lesions and the reports of increased potassium levels leading to adverse reactions observed in neonates and infants have been of particular concern. There are, however, remarkably few systematic studies comparing the in vitro storage lesions of irradiated and nonirradiated red cell concentrates and it has been suggested that the impact of storage lesions on leucocyte reduced red blood cell concentrate (RBCC) is incomplete. The review examines storage lesions in red blood cells and their adverse effects in reference to blood transfusion. F. Adams, G. Bellairs, A. R. Bird, and O. O. Oguntibeju Copyright © 2015 F. Adams et al. All rights reserved. New Approaches, Findings, and Diagnostics in Medical and Surgical Retina Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:21:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/193561/ Jerzy Nawrocki, Ron Adelman, and Didier Ducournau Copyright © 2015 Jerzy Nawrocki et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Magnetic Properties of Nanocrystalline Nd12.3(FeZrNbCu)81.7B6.0 Alloys with Dy Substitutions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:17:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/346238/ Nd12.3−xDyxFe81.7Zr0.8Nb0.8Cu0.4B6.0   ribbons have been prepared by melt-spun at 30 m/s and subsequent annealing. The influence of addition of Dy on the crystallization behavior, magnetic properties, and microstructure were investigated. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed a single-phase material. Microstructure studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) had shown a significant microstructure refinement with Dy addition. Wohlfarth’s analysis showed that the exchange coupling interactions increased first with Dy content x increasing, reached the maximum value at , and then slightly decreased with x further increasing. Optimal magnetic properties with  T,  kA/m, and  kJ/m3 are achieved by annealing the melt-spun ribbons with at% at 700°C for 10 min. Weiwei Yang, Leichen Guo, Zhimeng Guo, Guangle Dong, Yanli Sui, and Zhian Chen Copyright © 2015 Weiwei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Rehabilitation of an Advanced Case of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:14:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/651321/ Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a cancer of the salivary gland that primarily affects the parotid, submandibular, and accessory salivary glands. Its growth is slow and it has infiltrative nature. A 46-year-old female patient coming from the rural area presented a lesion on the palate and reported pain in the region for three years. After incisional biopsy, and histopathological diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cribriform type of minor salivary gland, superior hemimaxillectomy and adjuvant treatment with radiotherapy and maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation were performed. Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato, Lorena Frange Caldas, Paulo Henrique de Souza Castro, Artur Aburad de Carvalhosa, Maria Carmen Palma Faria Volpato, Matheus Coelho Bandéca, and Álvaro Henrique Borges Copyright © 2015 Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Minimal Invasive Mouse Model of Extracorporeal Circulation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:12:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/412319/ Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) is necessary for conventional cardiac surgery and life support, but it often triggers systemic inflammation that can significantly damage tissue. Studies of ECC have been limited to large animals because of the complexity of the surgical procedures involved, which has hampered detailed understanding of ECC-induced injury. Here we describe a minimally invasive mouse model of ECC that may allow more extensive mechanistic studies. The right carotid artery and external jugular vein of anesthetized adult male C57BL/6 mice were cannulated to allow blood flow through a 1/32-inch external tube. All animals survived 30 min ECC and subsequent 60 min observation. Blood analysis after ECC showed significant increases in levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and neutrophil elastase in plasma, lung, and renal tissues, as well as increases in plasma creatinine and cystatin C and decreases in the oxygenation index. Histopathology showed that ECC induced the expected lung inflammation, which included alveolar congestion, hemorrhage, neutrophil infiltration, and alveolar wall thickening; in renal tissue, ECC induced intracytoplasmic vacuolization, acute tubular necrosis, and epithelial swelling. Our results suggest that this novel, minimally invasive mouse model can recapitulate many of the clinical features of ECC-induced systemic inflammatory response and organ injury. Shuhua Luo, Menglin Tang, Lei Du, Lina Gong, Jin Xu, Youwen Chen, Yabo Wang, Ke Lin, and Qi An Copyright © 2015 Shuhua Luo et al. All rights reserved. Dairy Consumption and Insulin Resistance: The Role of Body Fat, Physical Activity, and Energy Intake Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:12:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/206959/ The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women. Larry A. Tucker, Andrea Erickson, James D. LeCheminant, and Bruce W. Bailey Copyright © 2015 Larry A. Tucker et al. All rights reserved. Successful and Safe Treatment of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria with Omalizumab in a Woman during Two Consecutive Pregnancies Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:11:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/368053/ Chronic spontaneous urticaria is an itching skin disease characterised by wheals, angioedema, or both present for more than six weeks. Omalizumab is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody recently approved for treatment of chronic urticaria. Several randomised controlled trials have investigated the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of omalizumab for chronic urticaria. The safety of omalizumab in pregnancy is not known. We describe a female patient with chronic spontaneous urticaria who was treated with omalizumab continuously through two consecutive pregnancies with convincing results and no apparent toxicity. Misbah Nasheela Ghazanfar and Simon Francis Thomsen Copyright © 2015 Misbah Nasheela Ghazanfar and Simon Francis Thomsen. All rights reserved. An Unusual Occurrence of Hepatic Granulomas and Secondary Sitosterolemia in Turner Syndrome Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:11:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/186718/ Although abnormal liver function tests occur in 50–80% of cases with Turner syndrome, there are no previous reports of overt hepatic disease or hepatic granulomas associated with Turner’s syndrome. We report three cases of Turner syndrome associated with hepatic granulomas with a wide range of liver dysfunction. Of the three patients, first patient underwent liver transplantation; second patient remained stable on immunosuppressants; and third patient died from complications of decompensated liver cirrhosis as she declined liver transplantation due to multiple comorbidities. One patient had sitosterolemia, a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol metabolism, after she ingested β-sitosterol supplement and had worsening liver function tests and lipid panel. She had remarkably abnormal lipid panel that responded to ezetimibe and by stopping the β-sitosterol supplement. JayaKrishna Chintanaboina, Pragnesh R. Shah, and Thomas R. Riley III Copyright © 2015 JayaKrishna Chintanaboina et al. All rights reserved. Function Spaces and Applications Thu, 29 Jan 2015 10:01:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/531282/ Henryk Hudzik, Vakhtang M. Kokilashvili, Baoxiang Wang, and Marek Wisła Copyright © 2015 Henryk Hudzik et al. All rights reserved. Is DBM Beneficial for the Enhancement of Bony Consolidation in Distraction Osteogenesis? A Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:57:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/281738/ The aim of the present study was to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes of DBM injection and conventional treatment during tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail in adult patients with short stature. Twenty-nine patients were randomized to receive DBM injection () or conventional treatment without any injection () and evaluated. The outcome was measured on the basis of the pixel value ratio (PVR) in the digital radiographs during the consolidation period; healing index; clinical assessment; and the rate of complications. In the DBM group, the mean PVR of 1 (mineral density of the callus is comparable to the adjacent bone) was reached by 40 weeks in anterior and medial cortices which was significantly different than that in the control group ( for anterior cortex; for medial cortex). The average healing index in the DBM group was 39.8 ± 5.3 days/cm compared to 44.3 ± 5.8 days/cm in the control group (). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes () and functional status () including complications () between two groups. In this randomized clinical trial, injection of DBM at the time of initial operation enhanced consolidation of regenerate callus without interfering with clinical outcomes compared to that with conventional treatment. Sang-Heon Song, Sang-Gyun Kim, Sung-Eun Kim, and Hae-Ryong Song Copyright © 2015 Sang-Heon Song et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterisation, Crystal Structure, and Antimicrobial and Larvicidal Studies of [Cu(2,2′-bipy)2SO4]·3CH4N2O·2H2O Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:56:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijic/2015/478380/ A pentacoordinated mononuclear copper(II) complex, namely, bis(2,2′-bipyridine)sulphatecopper(II) urea trisolvate dihydrate, has been synthesised and characterised by molar conductance and UV-Vis and FTIR spectra. The structure of the complex was unambiguously confirmed by single crystal XRD. The complex crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group C2/c, with the values (4), (4), and (3) Å; °, °, and °; (2) Å3 and . The Cu(II) ion is coordinated to four nitrogen atoms of two bidentate 2,2′-bipyridine ligands (bipy) and by one oxygen atom of the sulphate group and displays distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The Cu(II) complex was screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Candida albicans. Larvicidal activity of the synthesized copper(II) complex was carried out against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles subpictus. Sundaramurthy Santha Lakshmi and Srinivasan Samundeeswari Copyright © 2015 Sundaramurthy Santha Lakshmi and Srinivasan Samundeeswari. All rights reserved. Life-Threatening Bleeding from Peristomal Varices after Cystoprostatectomy: Multimodal Approach in a Cirrhotic, Encephalopathic Patient with Severe Portal Hypertension Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:50:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/785010/ The bleeding of peristomal varices due to a portosystemic shunt is rare but potentially life-threatening in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension. The scarce case reports in the literature recommend transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to prevent further bleeding. We report on a 72-year-old man who was referred to our hospital because of life-threatening bleeding from peristomal varices, three years after radical cystoprostatectomy for invasive bladder cancer. CT imaging showed liver cirrhosis with a prominent portosystemic shunt leading to massively enlarged peristomal varices. TIPS was taken into consideration, but not possible due to hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Medical therapy with lactulose and the nonselective beta-blocker carvedilol was initiated to treat HE and portal hypertension. In a second step, the portosystemic shunt was percutaneously embolized. Here, we present a multimodal approach to treat intractable bleeding from peristomal varices in a patient with ileal conduit urinary diversion, not suitable for TIPS. Sergej E. L. Staubli, Tobias Gramann, Christoph Schwab, David Semela, Lukas Hechelhammer, Daniel S. Engeler, Hans-Peter Schmid, Dominik Abt, and Livio Mordasini Copyright © 2015 Sergej E. L. Staubli et al. All rights reserved. Nanodentistry Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:50:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/510172/ Seunghan Oh, Young-Bum Park, Sungtae Kim, and Sungho Jin Copyright © 2015 Seunghan Oh et al. All rights reserved. Red Blood Cell Destruction in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia: Role of Complement and Potential New Targets for Therapy Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:49:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/363278/ Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a collective term for several diseases characterized by autoantibody-initiated destruction of red blood cells (RBCs). Exact subclassification is essential. We provide a review of the respective types of AIHA with emphasis on mechanisms of RBC destruction, focusing in particular on complement involvement. Complement activation plays a definitive but limited role in warm-antibody AIHA (w-AIHA), whereas primary cold agglutinin disease (CAD), secondary cold agglutinin syndrome (CAS), and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH) are entirely complement-dependent disorders. The details of complement involvement differ among these subtypes. The theoretical background for therapeutic complement inhibition in selected patients is very strong in CAD, CAS, and PCH but more limited in w-AIHA. The optimal target complement component for inhibition is assumed to be important and highly dependent on the type of AIHA. Complement modulation is currently not an evidence-based therapy modality in any AIHA, but a number of experimental and preclinical studies are in progress and a few clinical observations have been reported. Clinical studies of new complement inhibitors are probably not far ahead. Sigbjørn Berentsen and Tatjana Sundic Copyright © 2015 Sigbjørn Berentsen and Tatjana Sundic. All rights reserved. Mechanochemical Preparation of Cobalt Nanoparticles through a Novel Intramolecular Reaction in Cobalt(II) Complexes Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:48:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/246254/ A novel solid state reaction involving a series of cobalt(II) hydrazine-azides has been used to prepare metallic cobalt nanoparticles. The reactions of [Co(N2H4)(N3)2], [Co(N2H4)2(N3)2], and [Co(N2H4)(N3)Cl]H2O via NaOH, KOH as reactants were carried out in the solid state. These complexes undergo an intramolecular two-electron oxidation-reduction reaction at room temperature, producing metallic cobalt nanoparticles (Co1–Co6). The aforementioned complexes contain cobalt(II) that is an oxidizing agent and also hydrazine ligand as a reducing agent. Other products produced include sodium azide and ammonia gas. The cobalt metal nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The synthesized cobalt nanoparticles have similar morphologies; however, their particle size distributions are different. Seyed Abolghasem Kahani and Massumeh Khedmati Copyright © 2015 Seyed Abolghasem Kahani and Massumeh Khedmati. All rights reserved. Characterizing the Assessment and Management of Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Osteoporosis in Clinical Practice: A Chart Review Initiative Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:47:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2015/312952/ Though vitamin D is important for bone health, little is known about the monitoring and management of vitamin D levels in patients with osteoporosis in clinical practice—a deficit this chart review initiative aimed to remedy. A total of 52 physicians completed profiles for 983 patients being treated for osteoporosis between November 2008 and April 2009. Information collected included demographics; fracture risk factors; availability and level of serum vitamin D measurements; and information on osteoporosis medications and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Physicians also evaluated patients’ current regimens and detailed proposed changes, if applicable. Nearly 85% of patients were prescribed calcium and vitamin D supplements. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were available for 73% of patients. Of these patients, approximately 50% had levels less than 80 nmol/L, which contrasts with the 37% thought to have “unsatisfactory” vitamin D levels based on physician perceptions. Physicians felt 26% of patients would benefit from additional vitamin D supplementation. However, no changes to the osteoporosis regimen were suggested for 48% of patients perceived to have “unsatisfactory” vitamin D levels. The results underscore the importance of considering vitamin D status when looking to optimize bone health. Jonathan D. Adachi, Jacques P. Brown, and George Ioannidis Copyright © 2015 Jonathan D. Adachi et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Bromelain Treatment pH with Wool for Antifelting and Reduced Pilling Behaviour: Objective Assessment Approach Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:37:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtex/2015/230879/ Wool fabric possesses unique properties like resiliency, warmth, wide aesthetic qualities, and comfort. However, felting-shrinkage and pilling tendency of wool after wear and repeated launderings are its inherent limitations. Proteolytic enzymes are extensively used as biocatalysts for eco-friendly wool antifelting treatments. However, uncontrolled wool protein hydrolysis by protease may lead to excessive weight loss leading to weakening of fiber and reduction in its tensile value, which further have detrimental effect on the pilling propensity of protease treated wool during use of woolen textiles. Optimum selection of protease treatment parameters like concentration, pH, temperature, and so forth can help in controlled reaction to achieve the desired effect, which generally involves cumbersome sampling and analysis. Optimization for pH of bromelain (proteolytic enzyme having activity in acidic conditions) treatment with wool has been done while aiming at the desired areawise shrinkage value, minimum weight loss, and reduced pilling by using standard methods and objective fast Fourier transformation technique for pilling evaluation specifically. Amandeep Kaur and J. N. Chakraborty Copyright © 2015 Amandeep Kaur and J. N. Chakraborty. All rights reserved. Clinical Relationship between Steatocholecystitis and Gallbladder Contractility Measured by Cholescintigraphy Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:30:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/730930/ Objective. Contractility of gallbladder is known to be decreased in fatty gallbladder diseases. However, clinical estimation data about this relationship is still lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between steatocholecystitis and contractility of gallbladder. Methods. Patients with cholecystitis (steatocholecystitis versus nonsteatocholecystitis) who underwent cholescintigraphy before cholecystectomy were retrospectively evaluated in a single teaching hospital of Korea. The association of steatocholecystitis with contractility of gallbladder, measured by preoperative cholescintigraphy, was assessed by univariable and multivariable analysis. Results. A total of 432 patients were finally enrolled (steatocholecystitis versus nonsteatocholecystitis; 75 versus 357, calculous versus acalculous cholecystitis; 316 versus 116). In the multivariable analysis, age (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90–0.99, ) and total serum cholesterol (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01–1.04, ) were related to steatocholecystitis in patients with acalculous cholecystitis. Only age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94–0.99, ) was significantly related to steatocholecystitis in patients with calculous cholecystitis. However, ejection fraction of gallbladder reflecting contractility measured by cholescintigraphy was not related to steatocholecystitis irrespective of presence of gallbladder stone in patients with cholecystitis. Conclusion. Ejection fraction of gallbladder measured by cholescintigraphy cannot be used for the detection or confirmation of steatocholecystitis. Chang Seok Bang, Yong Sub Lee, Jai Hoon Yoon, Youn Jeong Kim, Jin Bong Kim, and Dong Joon Kim Copyright © 2015 Chang Seok Bang et al. All rights reserved. Late Occurrence of PML in a Patient Treated for Lymphoma with Immunomodulatory Chemotherapies, Bendamustine, Rituximab, and Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:27:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/892047/ PML caused by John Cunningham (JC) virus is a rare but an increasingly recognized entity. With the advent of newer immunomodulatory therapies with monoclonal antibodies, there is an increasing incidence of PML. Initially concern was restricted to patients treated for multiple sclerosis with natalizumab but more case reports are being reported during treatment for other conditions like Crohn’s disease and lymphoma with agents such as rituximab. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman who developed PML a year after completion of therapy with rituximab, ibritumomab, and bendamustine. Michael A. Lane, Vijay Renga, Andrew R. Pachner, and Jeffrey A. Cohen Copyright © 2015 Michael A. Lane et al. All rights reserved. Long Term Anticoagulation (4–16 Years) Stops Progression of Idiopathic Hip Osteonecrosis Associated with Familial Thrombophilia Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:18:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aorth/2015/138382/ In 6 patients with familial thrombophilia (5 Factor V (FV) Leiden heterozygotes, 1 with resistance to activated protein C (RAPC)), we prospectively assessed whether continuous longterm (4–16 years) anticoagulation would prevent progression of idiopathic osteonecrosis (ON), ameliorate pain, and facilitate functional recovery. Four men and 2 women (9 hips, 8 Ficat stage II, 1 stage I) were anticoagulated with enoxaparin (60 mg/day) for 3 months and subsequently with Coumadin, Xarelto, or Pradaxa, warranted by 2 prior thrombotic events. Anticoagulation was continued for 4, 4, 9, 13, 13, and 16 years, with serial clinical and X-ray follow-up. On 4–16-years anticoagulation, 9 hips in the 6 patients (8 originally Ficat II, 1 Ficat I) remained unchanged, contrasted to untreated ON Ficat stage II, where 50%–80% of hips progress to collapse (Ficat stages III-IV) within 2 years after diagnosis. Within 3, 3, 3, 9, and 16 months after starting anticoagulation, 5 patients became pain-free and remained asymptomatic throughout follow-up; the 6th patient required Percocet for pain. There were no significant bleeding episodes. Long term (4–16 years) anticoagulation initiated in Ficat stages I-II of idiopathic hip ON in patients with FV-RAPC changes the natural history of ON, stopping progression, resolving pain, and restoring function. Charles J. Glueck, Richard A. Freiberg, Robert Wissman, and Ping Wang Copyright © 2015 Charles J. Glueck et al. All rights reserved. Organizing Pneumonia Associated with Pegylated Interferon α and Ribavirin Therapy Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:16:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2015/794592/ Hepatitis C virus infection is the leading cause of chronic liver disease in the United States of America. Pegylated interferon α and ribavirin combination is the mainstay of treatment. Severe pulmonary toxicities are rarely reported. We report here a case of severe form of organizing pneumonia secondary to pegylated interferon α therapy presenting as acute respiratory failure. Patient has near complete recovery with withdrawal of pegylated interferon α and steroid therapy. We report this case to raise the awareness of this rare but potentially life-threatening pulmonary complication of pegylated interferon α therapy. Amit Chopra, Creticus Marak, Narendrakumar Alappan, and Chang Shim Copyright © 2015 Amit Chopra et al. All rights reserved. A Feasibility Study into the Use of Three-Dimensional Printer Modelling in Acetabular Fracture Surgery Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:15:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aorth/2015/617046/ There are a number of challenges associated with the operative treatment of acetabular fractures. The approach used is often extensive, while operative time and perioperative blood loss can also be significant. With the proliferation of 3D printer technology, we present a fast and economical way to aid the operative planning of complex fractures. We used augmented stereoscopic 3D CT reconstructions to allow for an appreciation of the normal 3D anatomy of the pelvis on the fractured side and to use the models for subsequent intraoperative contouring of pelvic reconstruction plates. This leads to a reduction in the associated soft tissue trauma, reduced intraoperative time and blood loss, minimal handling of the plate, and reduced fluoroscopic screening times. We feel that the use of this technology to customize implants, plates, and the operative procedure to a patient’s unique anatomy can only lead to improved outcomes. A. W. Yu, J. M. Duncan, J. S. Daurka, A. Lewis, and J. Cobb Copyright © 2015 A. W. Yu et al. All rights reserved. Kinematic Analysis of a Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Model Based on ISB Recommendation: A Repeatability Analysis and Comparison with Conventional Gait Model Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:12:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abb/2015/503713/ Objective. The purpose of the present work was to assess the validity of a six-degrees-of-freedom gait analysis model based on the ISB recommendation on definitions of joint coordinate systems (ISB 6DOF) through a quantitative comparison with the Helen Hays model (HH) and repeatability assessment. Methods. Four healthy subjects were analysed with both marker sets: an HH marker set and four marker clusters in ISB 6DOF. A navigated pointer was used to indicate the anatomical landmark position in the cluster reference system according to the ISB recommendation. Three gait cycles were selected from the data collected simultaneously for the two marker sets. Results. Two protocols showed good intertrial repeatability, which apart from pelvic rotation did not exceed 2°. The greatest differences between protocols were observed in the transverse plane as well as for knee angles. Knee internal/external rotation revealed the lowest subject-to-subject and interprotocol repeatability and inconsistent patterns for both protocols. Knee range of movement in transverse plane was overestimated for the HH set (the mean is 34°), which could indicate the cross-talk effect. Conclusions. The ISB 6DOF anatomically based protocol enabled full 3D kinematic description of joints according to the current standard with clinically acceptable intertrial repeatability and minimal equipment requirements. Magdalena Żuk and Celina Pezowicz Copyright © 2015 Magdalena Żuk and Celina Pezowicz. All rights reserved. Musculotendinous Stiffness of Triceps Surae, Maximal Rate of Force Development, and Vertical Jump Performance Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:06:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/797256/ The relationships between ankle plantar flexor musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) and performance in a countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) and maximal rate of torque development (MRTD) were studied in 27 active men. MTS was studied by means of quick releases at 20 (S0.2), 40 (S0.4), 60 (S0.6), and 80% (S0.8) of maximal voluntary torque (TMVC). CMJ was not correlated with strength indices but was positively correlated with MRTD/BM, S0.4/BM. The slope α2 and intercept β2 of the torque-stiffness relationships from 40 to 80% TMVC were correlated negatively (α2) and positively (β2) with CMJ. The different stiffness indices were not correlated with MRTD. The prediction of CMJ was improved by the introduction of MRTD in multiple regressions between CMJ and stiffness. CMJ was also negatively correlated with indices of curvature of the torque-stiffness relationship. The subjects were subdivided in 3 groups in function of CMJ (groups H, M, and L for high, medium, and low performers, resp.). There was a downward curvature of the torque-stiffness relationship at high torques in group H or M and the torque-stiffness regression was linear in group L only. These results suggested that torque-stiffness relationships with a plateau at high torques are more frequent in the best jumpers. Tarak Driss, Daniel Lambertz, Majdi Rouis, Hamdi Jaafar, and Henry Vandewalle Copyright © 2015 Tarak Driss et al. All rights reserved. Irrigated Tip Catheters for Radiofrequency Ablation in Ventricular Tachycardia Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:04:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/389294/ Radiofrequency (RF) ablation with irrigated tip catheters decreases the likelihood of thrombus and char formation and enables the creation of larger lesions. Due to the potential dramatic consequences, the prevention of thromboembolic events is of particular importance for left-sided procedures. Although acute success rates of ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation are satisfactory, recurrence rate is high. Apart from the progress of the underlying disease, reconduction and the lack of effective transmural lesions play a major role for VT recurrences. This paper reviews principles of lesion formation with radiofrequency and the effect of tip irrigation as well as recent advances in new technology. Potential areas of further development of catheter technology might be the improvement of mapping by better substrate definition and resolution, the introduction of bipolar and multipolar ablation techniques into clinical routine, and the use of alternative sources of energy. Andreas Müssigbrodt, Matthias Grothoff, Borislav Dinov, Jedrzej Kosiuk, Sergio Richter, Philipp Sommer, Ole A. Breithardt, Sascha Rolf, Andreas Bollmann, Arash Arya, and Gerhard Hindricks Copyright © 2015 Andreas Müssigbrodt et al. All rights reserved. Temperature and pH Responsive Microfibers for Controllable and Variable Ibuprofen Delivery Thu, 29 Jan 2015 09:01:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/180187/ Electrospun microfibers (MFs) composed of pH and temperature responsive polymers can be used for controllable and variable delivery of ibuprofen. First, electrospinning technique was employed to prepare poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (pNIPAM-co-MAA) MFs containing ibuprofen. It was found that drug release rates from PCL MFs cannot be significantly varied by either temperature (22–40°C) or pH values (1.7–7.4). In contrast, the ibuprofen (IP) diffusion rates from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs were very sensitive to changes in both temperature and pH. The IP release from pNIPAM-co-MAA MFs was highly linear and controllable when the temperature was above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of pNIPAM-co-MAA (33°C) and the pH was lower than the of carboxylic acids (pH 2). At room temperature, however, the release rate was dramatically increased by nearly ten times compared to that at higher temperature and lower pH. Such a unique and controllable drug delivery system could be naturally envisioned to find many practical applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences such as programmable transdermal drug delivery. Toan Tran, Mariana Hernandez, Dhruvil Patel, and Ji Wu Copyright © 2015 Toan Tran et al. All rights reserved. Severe IgG4-Related Disease in a Young Child: A Diagnosis Challenge Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:52:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/140753/ Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an increasingly recognized syndrome that can appear with multiple organ involvement, typically with tumor-like swelling, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. We report the case of a 22-month-old female child with failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory tract infections since 8 months of age. Physical examination was normal except for pulmonary auscultation with bilateral crackles and wheezes. Laboratory tests revealed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and elevated serum IgG and IgG4 with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Thoracic CT and MRI showed multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies and a nodular posterior mediastinal mass in right paratracheal location with bronchial compression. Initial fine needle aspiration biopsy was compatible with reactive lymphadenopathy but after clinical worsening a thoracoscopic partial resection of the mass was performed and tissue biopsy revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and a ratio of IgG4/IgG positive cells above 40%. Glucocorticoids therapy was started with symptomatic improvement, reduction in the size of the mass, and decrease of serum IgG4 levels after 6 weeks. There are very few reports of IgG4-RD in children. Long-term follow-up is necessary to monitor relapses and additional organ involvement. Susana Corujeira, Catarina Ferraz, Teresa Nunes, Elsa Fonseca, and Luísa Guedes Vaz Copyright © 2015 Susana Corujeira et al. All rights reserved. Sativex in the Management of Multiple Sclerosis-Related Spasticity: Role of the Corticospinal Modulation Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:51:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/656582/ Sativex is an emergent treatment option for spasticity in patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). This oromucosal spray, acting as a partial agonist at cannabinoid receptors, may modulate the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, leading to muscle relaxation that is in turn responsible for spasticity improvement. Nevertheless, since the clinical assessment may not be sensitive enough to detect spasticity changes, other more objective tools should be tested to better define the real drug effect. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of Sativex in improving spasticity and related symptomatology in MS patients by means of an extensive neurophysiological assessment of sensory-motor circuits. To this end, 30 MS patients underwent a complete clinical and neurophysiological examination, including the following electrophysiological parameters: motor threshold, motor evoked potentials amplitude, intracortical excitability, sensory-motor integration, and ratio. The same assessment was applied before and after one month of continuous treatment. Our data showed an increase of intracortical inhibition, a significant reduction of spinal excitability, and an improvement in spasticity and associated symptoms. Thus, we can speculate that Sativex could be effective in reducing spasticity by means of a double effect on intracortical and spinal excitability. Margherita Russo, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Edoardo Sessa, Carmela Rifici, Giangaetano D’Aleo, Antonino Leo, Rosaria De Luca, Angelo Quartarone, and Placido Bramanti Copyright © 2015 Margherita Russo et al. All rights reserved. Applied Circular Dichroism: A Facile Spectroscopic Tool for Configurational Assignment and Determination of Enantiopurity Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:36:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/865605/ In order to determine if electronic circular dichroism (ECD) is a good tool for the qualitative evaluation of absolute configuration and enantiopurity in the absence of chiral high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ECD studies were performed on several prescriptions and over-the-counter drugs. Cotton effects (CE) were observed for both S and R isomers between 200 and 300 nm. For the drugs examined in this study, the S isomers showed a negative CE, while the R isomers displayed a positive CE. The ECD spectra of both enantiomers were nearly mirror images, with the amplitude proportional to the enantiopurity. Plotting the differential extinction coefficient () versus enantiopurity at the wavelength of maximum amplitude yielded linear standard curves with coefficients of determination () greater than 97% for both isomers in all cases. As expected, Equate, Advil, and Motrin, each containing a racemic mixture of ibuprofen, yielded no chiroptical signal. ECD spectra of Suphedrine and Sudafed revealed that each of them is rich in 1S,2S-pseudoephedrine, while the analysis of Equate vapor inhaler is rich in R-methamphetamine. Macduff O. Okuom, Raychelle Burks, Crysta Naylor, and Andrea E. Holmes Copyright © 2015 Macduff O. Okuom et al. All rights reserved. Pressure Flow Analysis in the Assessment of Preswallow Pharyngeal Bolus Presence in Dysphagia Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:29:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/764709/ Objectives. Preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence is evident in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Pressure flow analysis (PFA) using high resolution manometry with impedance (HRMI) with AIMplot software is a method for objective interpretation of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressures and bolus flow patterns during swallowing. This study aimed to observe alterations in PFA metrics in the event of preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence as seen on videofluoroscopy (VFSS). Methods. Swallows from 40 broad dysphagia patients and 8 controls were recorded with a HRMI catheter during simultaneous VFSS. Evidence of bolus presence and level reached prior to pharyngeal swallow onset was recorded. AIMPlot software derived automated PFA functional metrics. Results. Patients with bolus movement to the pyriform sinuses had a higher SRI, indicating greater swallow dysfunction. Amongst individual metrics, TNadImp to PeakP was shorter and flow interval longer in patient groups compared to controls. A higher pharyngeal mean impedance and UES mean impedance differentiated the two patient groups. Conclusions. This pilot study identifies specific altered PFA metrics in patients demonstrating preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence to the pyriform sinuses. PFA metrics may be used to guide diagnosis and treatment of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and track changes in swallow function over time. Lara Ferris, Taher Omari, Margot Selleslagh, Eddy Dejaeger, Jan Tack, Dirk Vanbeckevoort, and Nathalie Rommel Copyright © 2015 Lara Ferris et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Accuracy of Mucosal Biopsy versus Endoscopic Mucosal Resection in Barrett’s Esophagus and Related Superficial Lesions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:29:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/735807/ Background. Endoscopic surveillance for early detection of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE) depends usually on biopsy. The diagnostic and therapeutic role of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in BE is rapidly growing. Objective. The aim of this study was to check the accuracy of biopsy for precise histopathologic diagnosis of dysplasia and neoplasia, compared to EMR in patients having BE and related superficial esophageal lesions. Methods. A total of 48 patients with previously diagnosed BE (36 men, 12 women, mean age years) underwent routine surveillance endoscopic examination. Biopsies were taken from superficial lesions, if present, and otherwise from BE segments. Then, EMR was performed within three weeks. Results. Biopsy based histopathologic diagnoses were nondysplastic BE (NDBE), 22 cases; low-grade dysplasia (LGD), 14 cases; high-grade dysplasia (HGD), 8 cases; intramucosal carcinoma (IMC), two cases; and invasive adenocarcinoma (IAC), two cases. EMR based diagnosis differed from biopsy based diagnosis (either upgrading or downgrading) in 20 cases (41.67%), (Kappa , 95% CI: 0.170–0.69). Conclusions. Biopsy is not a satisfactory method for accurate diagnosis of dysplastic or neoplastic changes in BE patients with or without suspicious superficial lesions. EMR should therefore be the preferred diagnostic method in such patients. Hany M. Elsadek and Mamdouh M. Radwan Copyright © 2015 Hany M. Elsadek and Mamdouh M. Radwan. All rights reserved. Australian Nurse Practitioner Practice: Value Adding through Clinical Reflexivity Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:03:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2015/829593/ The role of the Australian Nurse Practitioner (NP) is in its infancy and at a crossroads where extensive research demonstrates effective quality care and yet the role remains underrecognised and underutilised. The translation of practice into “value” is critical for the sustainability of NP roles and requires the practitioner to adopt a systematic method of inquiry. Kim’s (1999) “Critical Reflective Inquiry” (CRI) method was adapted by two Australian NPs who specialise in diabetes and chronic disease management. Kim highlights the intent of CRI as understanding the meaning of practice, delivering improvements to practice through self-reflection, and the critique of practice that can lead to practice changes and development of new models of care translated to “products” of value. Based on the thematically analysis of 3 years of CRI application, the authors formed 5 headings that represented the NP’s practice as Specialised Care Access, Complications and Diagnostics Interventions, Pharmaceutical Treatment, Vulnerable Populations, and Leadership. The utility of CRI demonstrates how NP practice is integral to a continuous cycle of addressing health care services gaps, and the conversion of “products” into “value” and positions the NP to assimilate the role of the practitioner-researcher. Michelle Woods and Giuliana Murfet Copyright © 2015 Michelle Woods and Giuliana Murfet. All rights reserved. Contralateral Occlusion Increases the Risk of Neurological Complications Associated with Carotid Endarterectomy Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:03:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijvm/2015/942146/ Objective. To report on the incidence and factors associated with the development of perioperative neurological complications following CEA in patients affected by carotid stenosis with contralateral occlusion (CO) and to compare results between those patients and the whole group of patients submitted to CEA at our vascular division from 1997 to 2012. Methods. Our nonrandomized prospective experience including 1639 patients consecutively submitted to CEA was retrospectively reviewed. 136 patients presented a CO contralateral to the treated carotid stenosis. Outcomes considered for analysis were perioperative neurological death rates, major and minor stroke rates, and a combined endpoint of all neurological complications. Results. CO patients more frequently were male, smokers, younger, and symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented with a preoperative brain infarct and associated peripheral arterial disease (P < 0.0001), and presented with higher perioperative major stroke rate than patients without CO (4.4% versus 1.2%, resp., P = 0.009). Factors associated with the highest neurological risk in CO patients were age >74 years and preoperative brain infarct (P = 0.03). The combination of the abovementioned factors significantly increased complication rates in CO patients submitted to CEA. Conclusions. In our experience CO patients were at high risk for postoperative neurological complications particularly when presenting association of advanced age and preoperative brain infarction. Laura Capoccia, Enrico Sbarigia, Anna Rita Rizzo, Chiara Pranteda, Danilo Menna, Pasqualino Sirignano, Wassim Mansour, Andrea Esposito, and Francesco Speziale Copyright © 2015 Laura Capoccia et al. All rights reserved. Circulating MicroRNAs as Clinical Biomarkers in the Predictions of Pregnancy Complications Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:03:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/294954/ Predicting pregnancy complications is a major topic for clinicians and biologists for maternal and fetal monitoring. Noninvasive biomarkers in maternal blood such as circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising molecules to predict pregnancy disorders. miRNAs are noncoding short RNAs that regulate mRNA expression by repressing the translation or cleaving the transcript. miRNAs are released to the extracellular systemic circulation via exosomes. The discovery of plasma- or serum-derived miRNAs and of free-circulating exosomes that contain miRNAs provides useful information about the physiological or pathophysiological roles of the miRNAs. Specific placental miRNAs are present in maternal plasma in different ways depending on whether the pregnancy is normal or pathological or if there is no pregnancy. This paper focuses on placental miRNAs and extracellular miRNAs to the placenta whose misregulation could lead to pregnancy complications. Marthe Tsochandaridis, Laurent Nasca, Caroline Toga, and Annie Levy-Mozziconacci Copyright © 2015 Marthe Tsochandaridis et al. All rights reserved. German Translation and Validation of the “Freezing of Gait Questionnaire” in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:02:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/982058/ Background. Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a disabling parkinsonian symptom. The Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q) reliably detects FOG in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a German translated version of the FOG-Q and to assess its validity. Methods. The translation was accomplished using forward-backward-translation. The construct validity of the FOG-Q was examined in twenty-seven German native speaking PD patients. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the FOG-Q with the Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) II-III, the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire 39 (PDQ-39), and the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG). Divergent validity was assessed by correlating the FOG-Q with the MDS-UPDRS I. The internal consistency was measured using Cronbach’s alpha (Cα). Results. A good internal structure of the FOG-Q was found (). Significant moderate correlations between the FOG-Q and the MDS-UPDRS item 2.13 (freezing) (, ) and between the FOG-Q and the PDQ-39 subscale mobility (, ) were found. The lack of correlation with the MDS-UPDRS I demonstrated good divergent validity. Conclusion. The German FOG-Q is a valid tool to assess FOG in German native speaking PD patients. Anina Vogler, Jorina Janssens, Thomas Nyffeler, Stephan Bohlhalter, and Tim Vanbellingen Copyright © 2015 Anina Vogler et al. All rights reserved. I/Q Imbalance Problem in SC-FDMA System with DCT and DFT Basis Functions Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:01:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aee/2015/723805/ In-phase/quadrature-phase (I/Q) imbalance is one of the most serious concerns in the practical implementation of the direct conversion receiver architecture. This paper investigates and analyzes the impacts of the I/Q imbalance on the performance of the single-carrier frequency-division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system with different basis functions by computer simulations only. The suitable phase and amplitude of I and Q branches that can be utilized in SC-FDMA system are studied and determined through simulations for different I/Q imbalance scenarios and different subcarrier mapping schemes. Simulation results show that the phase and amplitude of I and Q branches have significant effects on the bit error rate (BER) performance of the SC-FDMA system. F. S. Al-kamali, Hefdhallah Sakran, and N. A. Odhah Copyright © 2015 F. S. Al-kamali et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Effects of PPARα on Neuronal Death and Microvascular Impairment Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:58:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2015/595426/ Peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a broadly expressed nuclear hormone receptor and is a transcription factor for diverse target genes possessing a PPAR response element (PPRE) in the promoter region. The PPRE is highly conserved, and PPARs thus regulate transcription of an extensive array of target genes involved in energy metabolism, vascular function, oxidative stress, inflammation, and many other biological processes. PPARα has potent protective effects against neuronal cell death and microvascular impairment, which have been attributed in part to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we discuss PPARα’s effects in neurodegenerative and microvascular diseases and also recent clinical findings that identified therapeutic effects of a PPARα agonist in diabetic microvascular complications. Elizabeth P. Moran and Jian-xing Ma Copyright © 2015 Elizabeth P. Moran and Jian-xing Ma. All rights reserved. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:47:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jvm/2015/152730/ Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study’s purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student’s unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed and . The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water. Dominic J. Vitello, Richard M. Ripper, Michael R. Fettiplace, Guy L. Weinberg, and Joseph M. Vitello Copyright © 2015 Dominic J. Vitello et al. All rights reserved. Global Exponential Stability of Learning-Based Fuzzy Networks on Time Scales Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:47:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/283519/ We investigate a class of fuzzy neural networks with Hebbian-type unsupervised learning on time scales. By using Lyapunov functional method, some new sufficient conditions are derived to ensure learning dynamics and exponential stability of fuzzy networks on time scales. Our results are general and can include continuous-time learning-based fuzzy networks and corresponding discrete-time analogues. Moreover, our results reveal some new learning behavior of fuzzy synapses on time scales which are seldom discussed in the literature. Juan Chen, Zhenkun Huang, and Jinxiang Cai Copyright © 2015 Juan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Seminoma Presenting as Renal Mass, Inferior Vena Caval Thrombus, and Regressed Testicular Mass Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:33:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/835962/ Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy of men aged 15–40. Metastatic spread classically begins with involvement of the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, with metastases to the liver, lung, bone, and brain representing advancing disease. Treatment is based on pathologic analysis of the excised testicle and presence of elevated tumor markers. We report a case of a 34-year-old male presenting with back pain who was found to have a right renal mass with tumor extension into the inferior vena cava. Subsequent biopsy was consistent with seminoma. We review this rare case and discuss the literature regarding its diagnosis and management. Valary T. Raup, Michael H. Johnson, Jonathan R. Weese, Ian S. Hagemann, Stephen D. Marshall, and Steven B. Brandes Copyright © 2015 Valary T. Raup et al. All rights reserved. An Expedient Synthesis, Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity, and Molecular Modeling Study of Highly Functionalized Hexahydro-1,6-naphthyridines Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:33:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/965987/ A series of hexahydro-1,6-naphthyridines were synthesized in good yields by the reaction of 3,5-bis[(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones with cyanoacetamide in the presence of sodium ethoxide under simple mixing at ambient temperature for 6–10 minutes and were assayed for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity using colorimetric Ellman’s method. Compound 4e with methoxy substituent at ortho-position of the phenyl rings displayed the maximum inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 2.12 μM. Molecular modeling simulation of 4e was performed using three-dimensional structure of Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) enzyme to disclose binding interaction and orientation of this molecule into the active site gorge of the receptor. Abdulrahman I. Almansour, Raju Suresh Kumar, Natarajan Arumugam, Alireza Basiri, Yalda Kia, and Mohamed Ashraf Ali Copyright © 2015 Abdulrahman I. Almansour et al. All rights reserved. Relaxation Measurement of Ex-Vivo Breast Cancer Tissues at Ultralow Magnetic Fields Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:27:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/385428/ We investigated relaxations of ex-vivo cancer tissues at low magnetic fields in order to check the possibility of achieving a contrast higher than those obtained at high fields. The relaxations of fifteen pairs (normal and cancerous) of breast tissue samples were measured at three magnetic fields, 37, 62, and 122 μT, using our superconducting quantum interference device-based ultralow field nuclear magnetic resonance setup, optimally developed for ex-vivo tissue studies. A signal reconstruction based on Bayesian statistics for noise reduction was exploited to overcome the low signal-to-noise ratio. The ductal and lobular-type tissues did not exhibit meaningful contrast values between normal and cancerous tissues at the three different fields. On the other hand, an enhanced contrast was obtained for the mucinous cancer tissue. Seong-Joo Lee, Jeong Hyun Shim, Kiwoong Kim, Seong-min Hwang, Kwon Kyu Yu, Sanghyun Lim, Jae Ho Han, Hyunee Yim, Jang-Hee Kim, Yong Sik Jung, and Ku Sang Kim Copyright © 2015 Seong-Joo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Effective Temperature of Sunspots Using Molecular Parameters of AlF Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:27:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2015/846840/ The physical conditions of celestial objects can be analyzed using the spectrum of atoms or molecules present in the object. The present work focuses on the spectroscopic analysis of astrophysically significant molecule AlF. The evaluation of Franck-Condon (FC) factors and -centroids is done by a numerical integration procedure using the suitable potential energy curves for , , , and band systems of AlF molecule. The intensity of various bands is discussed with the help of derived FC factors. The band degradation and the nature of potential energy curves are studied using -centroid values. The vibrational temperature of sunspot is estimated to be around 1220 ± 130 K which falls in the reported temperature range of cold sunspots. K. Balachandrakumar, V. Raja, B. Karthikeyan, S. P. Bagare, and N. Rajamanickam Copyright © 2015 K. Balachandrakumar et al. All rights reserved. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:15:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/174821/ Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions. Tin Tin Su, Mohammadreza Amiri, Farizah Mohd Hairi, Nithiah Thangiah, Maznah Dahlui, and Hazreen Abdul Majid Copyright © 2015 Tin Tin Su et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity of Ni-Doped Zn(Se,S) Quantum Dots Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:13:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/702391/ Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with desirable optical properties for biological applications, such as bioimaging and drug delivery. However, the potential toxicity of these nanostructures in biological systems limits their application. The present work is focused on the synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the toxicity of water-stable Ni-doped Zn(Se,S) QDs. Also, the study of nondoped nanostructures was included for comparison purposes. Ni-doped nanostructures were produced from zinc chloride and selenide aqueous solutions in presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid and Ni molar concentration of 0.001 M. In order to evaluate the potential cytoxicity of these doped nanostructures, human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1) were used as model. The cell viability was monitored in presence of Ni-doped Zn(Se,S) QDs at concentrations ranging from 0 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL and light excited Ni-doped Zn(Se,S) nanostructures were evaluated at 50 μg/mL. Results suggested that Ni-doped Zn(Se,S) nanostructures were completely safe to PANC-1 when concentrations from 0 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL were used, whereas non-doped nanostructures evidenced toxicity at concentrations higher than 200 μg/mL. Also, Ni-doped Zn(Se,S) QDs under light excitation do not evidence toxicity to PANC-1. These findings suggest strongly that Zn(Se,S) nanostructures doped with nickel could be used in a safe manner in light-driving biological applications and drug delivery. Melissa Cruz-Acuña, Sonia Bailón-Ruiz, Carlos R. Marti-Figueroa, Ricardo Cruz-Acuña, and Oscar J. Perales-Pérez Copyright © 2015 Melissa Cruz-Acuña et al. All rights reserved. Strategy for the Management of Macular Edema in Retinal Vein Occlusion: The European VitreoRetinal Society Macular Edema Study Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:12:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/870987/ Objective. To compare the efficacy of different therapies in the treatment of macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Design. This is a nonrandomized, multicenter collaborative study. Participants. 86 retina specialists from 29 countries provided clinical information, including choice of treatment and outcome, on 2,603 patients with macular edema including 738 cases of RVO. Methods. Reported data included the type and number of treatments performed, visual acuities, and other clinical and diagnostic findings. Main Outcome Measures. The mean increase in visual acuity and mean number of treatments performed. Results. 358 cases of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and 380 cases of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) were included in this investigation. Taking all RVO cases together, pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling alone resulted in an improvement in vision greater than other therapies. Those treated with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection alone showed the second greatest improvement in vision. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant alone and intravitreal triamcinolone alone both resulted in modest visual gains. Conclusions. In the treatment of macular edema in RVO, vitrectomy with ILM peeling may achieve visual improvement and may be a good option for certain cases. Anti-VEGF injection is the most effective of the nonsurgical treatments. Ron A. Adelman, Aaron J. Parnes, Silvia Bopp, Ihab Saad Othman, and Didier Ducournau Copyright © 2015 Ron A. Adelman et al. All rights reserved. Energy Efficient and High Capacity Tradeoff in Distributed Antenna System for a Green Cellular Network Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:11:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2015/170854/ Two main concerns for designing a wireless system are more network capacity and less energy consumption. Recently, distributed antenna system (DAS) has received considerable attention due to its potential to provide higher spectral efficiency (SE) and uniform coverage for cellular networks. In this regard, this paper compares the performance of DAS with centralized antenna system (CAS) in LTE-A system in terms of energy efficiency (EE), where practical restrictions such as out-of-cell interference, path loss, and small scale fading are taken into account. Furthermore, the EE and system power consumption are investigated under three different cell-load scenarios (high, moderate, and low load) where different numbers of antennas are activated and remaining of antennas are under sleep mode. Finally, based on the tradeoff between power-saving and EE, two optimal DAS antenna deployments are proposed for low and moderate cell-load scenarios. The results reveal that DAS considerably outperforms CAS in terms of EE and by optimal deploying antennas of DAS significant power-saving and EE are achievable. The proposed methodology achieved savings of up to 27.63% in terms of energy savings in a macrocell with guarantee of a high capacity of data. Mehran Behjati, Mohammed H. Alsharif, Rosdiadee Nordin, and Mahamod Ismail Copyright © 2015 Mehran Behjati et al. All rights reserved. Submucosal Injection Solution for Endoscopic Resection in Gastrointestinal Tract: A Traditional and Network Meta-Analysis Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:10:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/702768/ Objective. To explore and define the current optimal submucosal injection solution used in ESD and EMR for gastrointestinal tract neoplasms in terms of clinical outcomes and other aspects. Methods. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and clinical trials register center were searched with terms of “endoscopic resection” and “submucosal injection solution” to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Both direct comparison using traditional meta-analysis method and indirect comparison using network meta-analysis method were performed. Results. A total of 11 RCTs with 1152 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with normal saline, other submucosal injection solutions induced a significant increase in terms of en bloc resection rate %, OR = 2.11, 95% CI (1.36, 3.26), and and complete resection rate %, OR = 2.14, 95% CI (1.41, 3.24), and ; and there was no significant difference in the incidence of total complications %, OR = 0.87, 95% CI (0.59, 1.29), and . Conclusions. Other newly developed submucosal injection solutions significantly increased en bloc resection rate and complete resection rate and decreased bleeding rate and finical cost of endoscopic resection in gastrointestinal tract, while current evidence did not find the difference between them, which need to be explored by further studies. Zhang Yu Huai, Wei Feng Xian, Luo Chang Jiang, and Wang Xi Chen Copyright © 2015 Zhang Yu Huai et al. All rights reserved. Synergy between HDAC and PARP Inhibitors on Proliferation of a Human Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer-Derived Cell Line Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:10:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/978371/ Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a very aggressive human malignancy, having a marked degree of invasiveness and no features of thyroid differentiation. It is known that either HDAC inhibitors or PARP inhibitors have antiproliferative effects on thyroid cancer cells. Therefore, in this study the possible synergy between the two types of compounds has been investigated. The ATC-derived cell line SW1736 has been treated with the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and the PARP inhibitor PJ34, alone or in combination. In terms of cell viability, the combination index value was always lower than 1 at various tested dosages, indicating, therefore, synergy in a wide range of doses for both compounds. Synergy was also observed in induction of apoptosis. In terms of thyroid-specific gene expression, synergy was observed for TSHR mRNA levels but not for NIS, TTF1, TTF2, and PAX8 mRNA levels. Altogether, these data suggest that the combined use of HDAC and PARP inhibitors may be a useful strategy for treatment of ATC. Federica Baldan, Catia Mio, Lorenzo Allegri, Cinzia Puppin, Diego Russo, Sebastiano Filetti, and Giuseppe Damante Copyright © 2015 Federica Baldan et al. All rights reserved. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Kidney and Its Prognosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:07:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/469327/ Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the renal parenchyma is an extremely rare entity. The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis is usually unsuspected due to the rarity and inconclusive clinical and radiological features. Most of the patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and are with poor outcome. Radical nephrectomy is the mainstay of the treatment. We reported a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney in a 50-year-old female who presented with the right sided abdomen pain. The patient was treated with radical nephrectomy. Tapan Kumar Sahoo, Saroj Kumar Das, Chandraprava Mishra, Ipsita Dhal, Rohani Nayak, Iftekhar Ali, Debashis Panda, Saroj Kumar Das Majumdar, and Dillip Kumar Parida Copyright © 2015 Tapan Kumar Sahoo et al. All rights reserved. Novel Insights on Nutrient Management of Sarcopenia in Elderly Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:06:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/524948/ Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 67 eligible studies. In addition to the well recognized link between adequate intake of proteins/amino acids and sarcopenia, the recent literature underlines that in sarcopenic elderly subjects there is an unbalance in vitamin D synthesis and in omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of sarcopenia. The optimum diet therapy for the sarcopenia treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, which must be reached through accession of the elderly to specific personalized dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining muscle mass; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega-3 PUFA supplements; taking vitamin D supplementation, if there are low serum levels. Mariangela Rondanelli, Milena Faliva, Francesca Monteferrario, Gabriella Peroni, Erica Repaci, Francesca Allieri, and Simone Perna Copyright © 2015 Mariangela Rondanelli et al. All rights reserved. Personality Changes after Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:06:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/490507/ Objectives. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a recognized therapy that improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, little is known about its impact on personality. To address this topic, we have assessed personality traits before and after STN-DBS in PD patients. Methods. Forty patients with advanced PD were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking impulsive behaviour scale (UPPS), and the Neuroticism and Lie subscales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-N, EPQ-L) before surgery and after three months of STN-DBS. Collateral information obtained from the UPPS was also reported. Results. Despite improvement in motor function and reduction in dopaminergic dosage patients reported lower score on the TCI Persistence and Self-Transcendence scales, after three months of STN-DBS, compared to baseline (; ). Relatives reported significantly increased scores on the UPPS Lack of Premeditation scale at follow-up (). Conclusion. STN-DBS in PD patients is associated with personality changes in the direction of increased impulsivity. Uyen Pham, Anne-Kristin Solbakk, Inger-Marie Skogseid, Mathias Toft, Are Hugo Pripp, Ane Eidahl Konglund, Stein Andersson, Ira Ronit Haraldsen, Dag Aarsland, Espen Dietrichs, and Ulrik Fredrik Malt Copyright © 2015 Uyen Pham et al. All rights reserved. Angiogenesis in the Placenta: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Thu, 29 Jan 2015 07:04:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/814543/ Proper placental development and function are central to the health of both the mother and the fetus during pregnancy. A critical component of healthy placental function is the proper development of its vascular network. Poor vascularization of the placenta can lead to fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, and in some cases fetal death. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which uterine stressors influence the development of the placental vasculature and contribute to placental dysfunction is of central importance to ensuring a healthy pregnancy. In this review we discuss how oxidative stress observed in maternal smoking, maternal obesity, and preeclampsia has been associated with aberrant angiogenesis and placental dysfunction resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. We also highlight that oxidative stress can influence the expression of a number of transcription factors important in mediating angiogenesis. Therefore, understanding how oxidative stress affects redox-sensitive transcription factors within the placenta may elucidate potential therapeutic targets for correcting abnormal placental angiogenesis and function. Robyn D. Pereira, Nicole E. De Long, Ruijun C. Wang, Fereshteh T. Yazdi, Alison C. Holloway, and Sandeep Raha Copyright © 2015 Robyn D. Pereira et al. All rights reserved. Transcriptional and Biochemical Effects of Cadmium and Manganese on the Defense System of Octopus vulgaris Paralarvae Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:59:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/437328/ Due to anthropogenic activities the relative concentrations of cadmium and manganese have increased in the marine environment. Cephalopods are able to accumulate such metals and, as inhabitant of coastal waters, Octopus vulgaris is continuously exposed to anthropogenic activities. Since no study is available on the effects of heavy metals at molecular level in developing octopuses, herein we exposed 1-day-old paralarvae for 24 h to 10, 100, and 1000 μg/L of CdCl2 or MnCl2. Cd exerted a concentration-dependent inhibition of survival and a reduction in growth rate was shown while Mn exposure did not affect the survival rate even at the highest concentrations. Gene expression profiles of hsp70, sod, cat, and gst genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and defined patterns of transcription were observed. Moreover posttranscriptional analyses were also performed suggesting the impairment of metabolic functions, under strong oxidative conditions (as occurred in paralarvae exposed to Cd) or the complete detoxification events (as occurred in paralarvae exposed to Mn). Aldo Nicosia, Monica Salamone, Salvatore Mazzola, and Angela Cuttitta Copyright © 2015 Aldo Nicosia et al. All rights reserved. An Investigation of Abrasive Water Jet Machining on Graphite/Glass/Epoxy Composite Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:57:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijme/2015/627218/ In the present research work, the effect of abrasive water jet (AWJ) machining parameters such as jet operating pressure, feed rate, standoff distance (SOD), and concentration of abrasive on kerf width produced on graphite filled glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite is investigated. Experiments were conducted based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal arrays and the process parameters were optimized to obtain small kerf. The main as well as interaction effects of the process parameters were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression models were developed to predict kerf width. The results show that the operating pressure, the SOD, and the feed rate are found to be significantly affecting the top kerf width and their contribution to kerf width is 24.72%, 12.38%, and 52.16%, respectively. Further, morphological study is made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) on the samples that were machined at optimized process parameters. It was observed that AWJ machined surfaces were free from delamination at optimized process parameters. Deepak Doreswamy, Basavanna Shivamurthy, Devineni Anjaiah, and N. Yagnesh Sharma Copyright © 2015 Deepak Doreswamy et al. All rights reserved. Pan-Genome Analysis of Human Gastric Pathogen H. pylori: Comparative Genomics and Pathogenomics Approaches to Identify Regions Associated with Pathogenicity and Prediction of Potential Core Therapeutic Targets Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:54:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/139580/ Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen implicated as the major cause of peptic ulcer and second leading cause of gastric cancer (~70%) around the world. Conversely, an increased resistance to antibiotics and hindrances in the development of vaccines against H. pylori are observed. Pan-genome analyses of the global representative H. pylori isolates consisting of 39 complete genomes are presented in this paper. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed close relationships among geographically diverse strains of H. pylori. The conservation among these genomes was further analyzed by pan-genome approach; the predicted conserved gene families (1,193) constitute ~77% of the average H. pylori genome and 45% of the global gene repertoire of the species. Reverse vaccinology strategies have been adopted to identify and narrow down the potential core-immunogenic candidates. Total of 28 nonhost homolog proteins were characterized as universal therapeutic targets against H. pylori based on their functional annotation and protein-protein interaction. Finally, pathogenomics and genome plasticity analysis revealed 3 highly conserved and 2 highly variable putative pathogenicity islands in all of the H. pylori genomes been analyzed. Amjad Ali, Anam Naz, Siomar C Soares, Marriam Bakhtiar, Sandeep Tiwari, Syed S Hassan, Fazal Hanan, Rommel Ramos, Ulisses Pereira, Debmalya Barh, Henrique César Pereira Figueiredo, David W. Ussery, Anderson Miyoshi, Artur Silva, and Vasco Azevedo Copyright © 2015 Amjad Ali et al. All rights reserved. Conformational B-Cell Epitope Prediction Method Based on Antigen Preprocessing and Mimotopes Analysis Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:48:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/257030/ Identification of epitopes which invokes strong humoral responses is an essential issue in the field of immunology. Various computational methods that have been developed based on the antigen structures and the mimotopes these years narrow the search for experimental validation. These methods can be divided into two categories: antigen structure-based methods and mimotope-based methods. Though new methods of the two kinds have been proposed in these years, they cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in various circumstances. In this paper, we proposed a new conformational B-cell epitope prediction method based on antigen preprocessing and mimotopes analysis. The method classifies the antigen surface residues into “epitopes” and “nonepitopes” by six epitope propensity scales, removing the “nonepitopes” and using the preprocessed antigen for epitope prediction based on mimotope sequences. The proposed method gives out the mean F score of 0.42 on the testing dataset. When compared with other publicly available servers by using the testing dataset, the new method yields better performance. The results demonstrate the proposed method is competent for the conformational B-cell epitope prediction. Pingping Sun, Haixu Ju, Baowen Zhang, Yu Gu, Bo Liu, Yanxin Huang, Huijie Zhang, and Yuxin Li Copyright © 2015 Pingping Sun et al. All rights reserved. Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma: A ceRNA Analysis Pointed to a Crosstalk between SOX2, TP53, and microRNA Biogenesis Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:46:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/439370/ It has been suggested that cancer stem cells (CSC) may play a central role in oncogenesis, especially in undifferentiated tumours. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has characteristics suggestive of a tumour enriched in CSC. Previous studies suggested that the stem cell factor SOX2 has a preeminent hierarchical role in determining the characteristics of stem cells in SW1736 ATC cell line. In detail, silencing SOX2 in SW1736 is able to suppress the expression of the stem markers analysed, strongly sensitizing the line to treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, in order to further investigate the role of SOX2 in ATC, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) analysis was conducted in order to isolate new functional partners of SOX2. Among the interactors, of particular interest are genes involved in the biogenesis of miRNAs (DICER1, RNASEN, and EIF2C2), in the control cell cycle (TP53, CCND1), and in mitochondrial activity (COX8A). The data suggest that stemness, microRNA biogenesis and functions, p53 regulatory network, cyclin D1, and cell cycle control, together with mitochondrial activity, might be coregulated. Walter Arancio, Valeria Carina, Giuseppe Pizzolanti, Laura Tomasello, Maria Pitrone, Concetta Baiamonte, Marco Calogero Amato, and Carla Giordano Copyright © 2015 Walter Arancio et al. All rights reserved. Measurement Properties and Implementation of a Checklist to Assess Leadership Skills during Interdisciplinary Rounds in the Intensive Care Unit Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:40:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/951924/ The implementation of interdisciplinary teams in the intensive care unit (ICU) has focused attention on leadership behavior. A daily recurrent situation in ICUs in which both leadership behavior and interdisciplinary teamwork are integrated concerns the interdisciplinary rounds (IDRs). Although IDRs are recommended to provide optimal interdisciplinary and patient-centered care, there are no checklists available for leading physicians. We tested the measurement properties and implementation of a checklist to assess the quality of leadership skills in interdisciplinary rounds. The measurement properties of the checklist, which included 10 essential quality indicators, were tested for interrater reliability and internal consistency and by factor analysis. The interrater reliability among 3 raters was good (κ, 0.85) and the internal consistency was acceptable (α, 0.74). Factor analysis showed all factor loadings on 1 domain (>0.65). The checklist was further implemented during videotaped IDRs which were led by senior physicians and in which 99 patients were discussed. Implementation of the checklist showed a wide range of “no” and “yes” scores among the senior physicians. These results may underline the need for such a checklist to ensure tasks are synchronized within the team. Elsbeth C. M. Ten Have, Raoul E. Nap, and Jaap E. Tulleken Copyright © 2015 Elsbeth C. M. Ten Have et al. All rights reserved. The Importance of the Lifelike Esthetic Appearance of All-Ceramic Restorations on Anterior Teeth Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:40:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/704348/ The success of rehabilitation will not depend on just clinical procedures. A proper dental technique (ceramist) is required as well as the respect for some biomimetic principles to obtain the desired final result. This study has the purpose of describing a prosthetic rehabilitation with laminate veneers and all-ceramic crowns of a patient unsatisfied with a previous esthetic treatment because of the negligence of some biomimetic principles. A 45-year-old female patient was admitted to the dental clinic complaining about the lifelike appearance of her all-ceramic restorations. Before the fabrication of new restorations, a mock-up was conducted to verify the patient’s satisfaction. A ceramist conducted all the fabrication process so that surface characterizations could be visually verified and the lifelike appearance of natural tooth could be reproduced. After the cementation procedure, the patient reported being satisfied with the lifelike appearance of the new restorations. Based on the clinical findings of the present case report, it can be concluded that the reproduction of the lifelike esthetic appearance of natural teeth and the visualization of the final results before definitive procedures are essential to obtain the clinical success. Daniela Micheline dos Santos, Amália Moreno, Aljomar José Vechiato-Filho, Liliane da Rocha Bonatto, Aldiéris Alves Pesqueira, Murilo César Bento Laurindo Júnior, Rodrigo Antonio de Medeiros, Emily Vivianne Freitas da Silva, and Marcelo Coelho Goiato Copyright © 2015 Daniela Micheline dos Santos et al. All rights reserved. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Family: Insight into the Role of Growth Factors in Regulation of Fracture Healing Biology and Potential Clinical Applications Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:34:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/137823/ The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF-β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF-β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors’ involvement have shown that TGF-β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF-β family in the fracture healing process. Łukasz A. Poniatowski, Piotr Wojdasiewicz, Robert Gasik, and Dariusz Szukiewicz Copyright © 2015 Łukasz A. Poniatowski et al. All rights reserved. Luminescence Properties of CaF2 Nanostructure Activated by Different Elements Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:33:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/136402/ Nanostructures of calcium fluoride (CaF2) doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu, and Ag were synthesized by the coprecipitation method and studied for their thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence (PL) properties. The PL emission spectrum of pure CaF2 nanostructure has a broad band in the 370–550 nm range. Similar spectra were observed in case of doped samples, beside extra bands related to these impurities. The maximum PL intensity was observed in Eu doped sample. The TL results of Eu, Cu, Ag, and Tb doped samples show weak glow peaks below 125°C, whereas Dy doped one is found to be highly sensitive with a prominent peak at 165°C. This sample was further exposed to a wide range of gamma rays exposures from 137Cs source. The response curve is linear in the 100 Gy-10 kGy range. It is also observed that the particle size of CaF2 nanostructure was significantly reduced by increasing Dy concentration. These results showed that Dy is a proper activator in the host of CaF2 nanostructure, providing a highly sensitive dosimeter in a wide range of exposures and also plays a role as a controlling agent for particle size growth. Numan Salah, Najlaa D. Alharbi, Sami S. Habib, and S. P. Lochab Copyright © 2015 Numan Salah et al. All rights reserved. Anti-HMGB1 Monoclonal Antibody Ameliorates Immunosuppression after Peripheral Tissue Trauma: Attenuated T-Lymphocyte Response and Increased Splenic CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Require HMGB1 Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:33:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/458626/ Although tissue-derived high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in many aspects of inflammation and tissue injury after trauma, its role in trauma-induced immune suppression remains elusive. Using an established mouse model of peripheral tissue trauma, which includes soft tissue and fracture components, we report here that treatment with anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody ameliorated the trauma-induced attenuated T-cell responses and accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the spleens seen two days after injury. Our data suggest that HMGB1 released after tissue trauma contributes to signaling pathways that lead to attenuation of T-lymphocyte responses and enhancement of myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion. Xiangcai Ruan, Sophie S. Darwiche, Changchun Cai, Melanie J. Scott, Hans-Christoph Pape, and Timothy R. Billiar Copyright © 2015 Xiangcai Ruan et al. All rights reserved. Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defect as a Cause of Palpitations and Dyspnea in an Adult: A Diagnostic Imaging Challenge Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:29:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/128462/ Sinus venosus atrial septal defects (SV-ASD) have nonspecific clinical presentations and represent a diagnostic imaging challenge. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) remains the initial diagnostic imaging modality. However, detection rates have been as low as 12%. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) improves diagnostic accuracy though it may not detect commonly associated partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging provides a noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific imaging modality of SV-ASD. We describe a case of an adult male with exercise-induced, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia who presented with palpitations and dyspnea. Despite nondiagnostic imaging results on TTE, CMR proved to be instrumental in visualizing a hemodynamically significant SV-ASD with PAPVR that ultimately led to surgical correction. Michael S. Donovan, David Kassop, Robert A. Liotta, and Edward A. Hulten Copyright © 2015 Michael S. Donovan et al. All rights reserved. Icariin Prevents Amyloid Beta-Induced Apoptosis via the PI3K/Akt Pathway in PC-12 Cells Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/235265/ Icariin is a prenylated flavonol glycoside derived from the Chinese herb Epimedium sagittatum that exerts a variety of pharmacological activities and shows promise in the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of icariin against amyloid beta protein fragment 25–35 () induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that icariin dose-dependently increased cell viability and decreased -induced apoptosis, as assessed by MTT assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Results of western blot analysis revealed that the selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 suppressed icariin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that the protective effects of icariin are associated with activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. LY294002 also blocked the icariin-induced downregulation of proapoptotic factors Bax and caspase-3 and upregulation of antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 in -treated PC12 cells. These findings provide further evidence for the clinical efficacy of icariin in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Dongdong Zhang, Zhe Wang, Chenxia Sheng, Weijun Peng, Shan Hui, Wei Gong, and Shuai Chen Copyright © 2015 Dongdong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Synergistic Effect of Nanoporous Nickel Phosphates on Novel Intumescent Flame Retardant Polypropylene Composites Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:26:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/289298/ A char forming agent (CFA) and silica-gel microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (Si-MCAPP) were selected to form novel intumescent flame retardant system to prepare flame retardant polypropylene (PP) composites, and then the influences of nanoporous nickel phosphates (NiP) on the thermal and flame retardant properties of flame retardant PP composites were studied by the real time FTIR (RTFTIR) spectra, limited oxygen index (LOI) test, and the scanning electron microscopy. RTFTIR shows the addition of NiP can improve the thermal stability of flame retardant PP composites. LOI test shows LOI value is increased with the increase of the content of NiP, and the optimized concentration of NiP is 1.0%. Furthermore, smoke toxicity of the novel flame retardant PP composites was studied by mice experiment. The upper limit of the no death smoke concentration of the composite is 12.37 mg/L. Shibin Nie, Chi Zhang, Chao Peng, De-yi Wang, Daowei Ding, and Qingliang He Copyright © 2015 Shibin Nie et al. All rights reserved. Stability Criterion of Linear Stochastic Systems Subject to Mixed /Passivity Performance Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:23:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/831576/ The control scheme and passivity theory are applied to investigate the stability criterion of continuous-time linear stochastic system subject to mixed performance. Based on the stochastic differential equation, the stochastic behaviors can be described as multiplicative noise terms. For the considered system, the control scheme is applied to deal with the problem on minimizing output energy. And the asymptotical stability of the system can be guaranteed under desired initial conditions. Besides, the passivity theory is employed to constrain the effect of external disturbance on the system. Moreover, the Itô formula and Lyapunov function are used to derive the sufficient conditions which are converted into linear matrix inequality (LMI) form for applying convex optimization algorithm. Via solving the sufficient conditions, the state feedback controller can be established such that the asymptotical stability and mixed performance of the system are achieved in the mean square. Finally, the synchronous generator system is used to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed design method. Cheung-Chieh Ku, Chih-Peng Lu, and Min-Ta Li Copyright © 2015 Cheung-Chieh Ku et al. All rights reserved. Deletion of Ovarian Hormones Induces a Sickness Behavior in Rats Comparable to the Effect of Lipopolysaccharide Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/627642/ Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of sickness behaviors. The effects of female gonadal hormones on both neuroinflammation and depression have also been well considered. In the present study, the capability of deletion of ovarian hormones to induce sickness-like behaviors in rats was compared with the effect lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The groups were including Sham, OVX, Sham-LPS, and OVX-LPS. The Sham-LPS and OVX-LPS groups were treated with LPS (250 μg/kg) two hours before conducting the behavioral tests. In the forced swimming (FST), the immobility times in both OVX and Sham-LPS groups were higher than that of Sham (). In open-field (OP) test, the central crossing number by OVX and Sham-LPS groups were lower than Sham () while there were no significant differences between OVX-LPS and OVX groups. In elevated plus maze (EPM), the percent of entries to the open arm by both OVX and Sham-LPS groups was lower than that of Sham group (). The results of present study showed that deletion of ovarian hormones induced sickness behaviors in rats which were comparable to the effects of LPS. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand the mechanism(s) involved. Hamid Azizi-Malekabadi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Masoume Pourganji, Hoda Zabihi, Mohsen Saeedjalali, and Akbar Anaeigoudari Copyright © 2015 Hamid Azizi-Malekabadi et al. All rights reserved. A Printed Monopole Antenna for Triple-Band WLAN/WiMAX Applications Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:14:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/254268/ A new compact design of monopole antenna for triple-band WLAN/WiMAX applications with two band-notches based on broadband antenna is presented. By introducing a stub loaded ground and two new paper clip structures etched on radiation patch, a compact overall dimension 31 mm 33 mm 1 mm and three separated operating bands effectively covering 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN bands and 2.5/3.5/5.5 GHz WiMAX bands can be achieved. Compared with familiar U type slot, the introduced compact paper clip structure can save about 37% of dimension regions, which could effectively improve efficiency of band-notch formation. Simulated and measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna has good dipole-like radiation characteristics with appreciable gain across the operating bands. Besides, main parameters of the two etched paper clip structures are investigated to control the positions and bandwidths of the two stop-bands, respectively, on basis of which the three working bands can be adjusted independently. Huiqing Zhai, Lu Liu, Zhihui Ma, and Changhong Liang Copyright © 2015 Huiqing Zhai et al. All rights reserved. Deciphering Autoimmune Pancreatitis, a Great Mimicker: Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 29 Jan 2015 06:02:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2015/924532/ Background. Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an atypical chronic inflammatory pancreatic disease that appears to involve autoimmune mechanisms. In recent years, AIP has presented as a new clinical entity with its protean pancreaticobiliary and systemic presentations. Its unique pathology and overlap of clinical and radiological features and absence of serological markers foster the disease’s unique position. We report a case of diffuse type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice managed with biliary sphincterotomy, stent placement, and corticosteroids. A 50-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice. Workup showed elevated liver function tests (LFT) suggestive of obstructive jaundice, MRCP done showed diffusely enlarged abnormal appearing pancreas with loss of normal lobulated contours, and IgG4 antibody level was 765 mg/dL. EUS revealed a diffusely hypoechoic and rounded pancreatic parenchyma with distal common bile duct (CBD) stricture and dilated proximal CBD and common hepatic duct (CHD). ERCP showed tight mid to distal CBD stricture that needed dilatation, sphincterotomy, and placement of stent that led to significant improvement in the symptoms and bilirubin level. Based on clinical, radiological, and immunological findings, a definitive diagnosis of AIP was made. Patient was started on prednisone 40 mg/day and she clinically responded in 4 weeks. Satya Allaparthi, Mohammed Sageer, and Mark J. Sterling Copyright © 2015 Satya Allaparthi et al. All rights reserved. Health-Seeking Behaviors and Self-Care Practices of People with Filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study Wed, 28 Jan 2015 17:33:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2015/260359/ Background. Lymphatic filariasis is endemic in Nepal. This study aimed to investigate health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial Lymphoedema in Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using qualitative methods in three endemic districts. Twenty-three patients with current Lymphoedema were recruited in the study. Results. Hydrocele was found to be a well-known condition and a major health problem in the studied communities. People with Lymphoedema primarily sought health care from traditional healers, whereas sometimes home-based care was their first treatment. Later Ayurvedic and allopathic hospital-based care were sought. Respondents reported various psychological problems such as difficulty in engaging in sexual intercourse, anxiety, worry and stress, depression, low self-esteem, feeling weak, fear of being abandoned, and fear of transmitting disease to the children. Standard foot care practices except washing were largely absent. Conclusions. Lymphoedema in the limbs and hydrocele were found to be major health problems. The traditional health care providers were the first contact of care for the majority of respondents. Only a few patients had been practicing standard foot care practices. Ram Kumar Adhikari, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand, Shiva Raj Mishra, Kamal Ranabhat, Amrit Pokharel, Pramila Devkota, Durga Mishra, Yadu Chandra Ghimire, Khageshwor Gelal, Rajan Paudel, and Rajendra Raj Wagle Copyright © 2015 Ram Kumar Adhikari et al. All rights reserved. A Filled Function Method Dominated by Filter for Nonlinearly Global Optimization Wed, 28 Jan 2015 16:47:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/245427/ This work presents a filled function method based on the filter technique for global optimization. Filled function method is one of the effective methods for nonlinear global optimization, since it can effectively find a better minimizer. Filter technique is applied to local optimization methods for its excellent numerical results. In order to optimize the filled function method, the filter method is employed for global optimizations in this method. A new filled function is proposed first, and then the algorithm and its properties are proved. The numerical results are listed at the end. Wei Wang, Xiaoshan Zhang, and Min Li Copyright © 2015 Wei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Ni/SiO2 Catalyst Prepared with Nickel Nitrate Precursor for Combination of CO2 Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane: Characterization and Deactivation Mechanism Investigation Wed, 28 Jan 2015 16:44:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/659402/ The performance of Ni/SiO2 catalyst in the process of combination of CO2 reforming and partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas was studied. The Ni/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by using incipient wetness impregnation method with nickel nitrate as a precursor and characterized by FT-IR, TG-DTA, UV-Raman, XRD, TEM, and H2-TPR. The metal nickel particles with the average size of 37.5 nm were highly dispersed over the catalyst, while the interaction between nickel particles and SiO2 support is relatively weak. The weak NiO-SiO2 interaction disappeared after repeating oxidation-reduction-oxidation in the fluidized bed reactor at 700°C, which resulted in the sintering of metal nickel particles. As a result, a rapid deactivation of the Ni/SiO2 catalysts was observed in 2.5 h reaction on stream. Sufang He, Lei Zhang, Suyun He, Liuye Mo, Xiaoming Zheng, Hua Wang, and Yongming Luo Copyright © 2015 Sufang He et al. All rights reserved. Brilliant Green Dye Elimination from Water Using Psidium guajava Leaves and Solanum tuberosum Peels as Adsorbents in Environmentally Benign Way Wed, 28 Jan 2015 15:52:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/126036/ The aim of this study is to check the feasibility of Psidium guajava (Guava) leaves and peels of Solanum tuberosum (Potato) as biosorbents in removal of Brilliant Green (BG) in batch mode. Surface analysis of biosorbents was done by FT-IR and quantitatively analyzed by Boehm titration. The removal of dye was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Isothermal modeling was studied by using Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherms. Various isothermal parameters for adsorption of Brilliant Green such as  mg/g, 1.173 mg/g , and −2.397 KJ/mol were noted for Solanum tuberosum peels (PP) and Psidium guajava leaves (GL), respectively. Similarly pH, moisture content, and various metals were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that leaves of Psidium guajava were more effective for removal of Brilliant Green. Rabia Rehman, Tariq Mahmud, and Maria Irum Copyright © 2015 Rabia Rehman et al. All rights reserved. Funicular Myelosis in a Butcher: It Was the Cream Cans Wed, 28 Jan 2015 15:44:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/827168/ Background. Funicular myelosis is a known consequence of exposure to nitrous oxide. Nevertheless, there are only a few clinical trials assessing its long-term effects and there is no literature about the role of nutritional vitamin B12 supplementation in the context of nitrous oxide abuse. Case Descriptions. We diagnosed funicular myelosis in a young butcher, who consumed high amounts of meat regularly. Since the diagnostic process did not reveal any metabolic causes, reinterrogation of the patient uncovered recreational abuse of nitrous oxide out of whipped cream can gas cartridges. After stopping abuse and supplementation of vitamin B12, the patient recovered almost completely. Conclusions. In our case, even high nutritional vitamin B12 uptake could not compensate the noxious effects of nitrous oxide. Since there are emerging reports of increasing misuse, this should be considered in the diagnostic and therapeutic care of patients with nitrous oxide abuse. Furthermore, our case emphasizes that patients with vitamin B12 deficiency should be assessed for nitrous oxide abuse. Fabian Wolpert, Krisztina Baráth, Janis Brakowski, Roland Renzel, Michael Linnebank, and Andreas R. Gantenbein Copyright © 2015 Fabian Wolpert et al. All rights reserved. Insufflation with Humidified and Heated Carbon Dioxide in Short-Term Laparoscopy: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 28 Jan 2015 15:36:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/412618/ Background. We tested the hypothesis that warm-humidified carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation would reduce postoperative pain and morphine requirement compared to cold-dry CO2 insufflation. Methods. A double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to compare warm, humidified CO2 and cold-dry CO2. Patients with benign uterine diseases were randomized to either treatment () or control () group during laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy. Primary endpoints of the study were rest pain, movement pain, shoulder-tip pain, and cough pain at 2, 4, 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively, measured by visual analogue scale. Secondary outcomes were morphine consumption, rejected boli, temperature change, recovery room stay, and length of hospital stay. Results. There were no significant differences in all baseline characteristics. Shoulder-tip pain at 6 h postoperatively was significantly reduced in the intervention group. Pain at rest, movement pain, and cough pain did not differ. Total morphine consumption and rejected boli at 24 h postoperatively were significantly higher in the control group. Temperature change, recovery room stay, and length of hospital were similar. Conclusions. Warm, humidified insufflation gas significantly reduces postoperative shoulder-tip pain as well as morphine demand. This trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registration Number  DRKS00003853 (German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS)). Anja Herrmann and Rudy Leon De Wilde Copyright © 2015 Anja Herrmann and Rudy Leon De Wilde. All rights reserved. Simple Model for Simulating Characteristics of River Flow Velocity in Large Scale Wed, 28 Jan 2015 15:26:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/520893/ We propose a simple computer based phenomenological model to simulate the characteristics of river flow velocity in large scale. We use shuttle radar tomography mission based digital elevation model in grid form to define the terrain of catchment area. The model relies on mass-momentum conservation law and modified equation of motion of falling body in inclined plane. We assume inelastic collision occurs at every junction of two river branches to describe the dynamics of merged flow velocity. Husin Alatas, Dyo D. Prayuda, Achmad Syafiuddin, May Parlindungan, Nurjaman O. Suhendra, and Hidayat Pawitan Copyright © 2015 Husin Alatas et al. All rights reserved. Diabetes-Resistant NOR Mice Are More Severely Affected by Streptozotocin Compared to the Diabetes-Prone NOD Mice: Correlations with Liver and Kidney GLUT2 Expressions Wed, 28 Jan 2015 15:08:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/450128/ Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) mice are susceptible strains for Type 1 diabetes development, and Nonobese Diabetes-Resistant (NOR) mice are defined as suitable controls for NOD mice in non-MHC-related research. Diabetes is often accelerated in NOD mice via Streptozotocin (STZ). STZ is taken inside cells via GLUT2 transmembrane carrier proteins, the major glucose transporter isoforms in pancreatic beta cells, liver, kidneys, and the small intestine. We observed severe adverse effects in NOR mice treated with STZ compared to NOD mice that were made diabetic with a similar dose. We suggested that the underlying mechanism could be differential GLUT2 expressions in pancreatic beta cells, yet immunofluorescent and immunohistochemical studies revealed similar GLUT2 expression levels. We also detected GLUT2 expression profiles in NOD and NOR hepatic and renal tissues by western blot analysis and observed considerably higher GLUT2 expression levels in liver and kidney tissues of NOR mice. Although beta cell GLUT2 expression levels are frequently evaluated as a marker predicting STZ sensitivity in animal models, we report here very different diabetic responses to STZ in two different animal strains, in spite of similar initial GLUT2 expressions in beta cells. Furthermore, use of NOR mice in STZ-mediated experimental diabetes settings should be considered accordingly. S. Kahraman, C. Aydin, G. O. Elpek, E. Dirice, and A. D. Sanlioglu Copyright © 2015 S. Kahraman et al. All rights reserved. Local Inflammation in Fracture Hematoma: Results from a Combined Trauma Model in Pigs Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:59:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/126060/ Background. Previous studies showed significant interaction between the local and systemic inflammatory response after severe trauma in small animal models. The purpose of this study was to establish a new combined trauma model in pigs to investigate fracture-associated local inflammation and gain information about the early inflammatory stages after polytrauma. Material and Methods. Combined trauma consisted of tibial fracture, lung contusion, liver laceration, and controlled hemorrhage. Animals were mechanically ventilated and under ICU-monitoring for 48 h. Blood and fracture hematoma samples were collected during the time course of the study. Local and systemic levels of serum cytokines and diverse alarmins were measured by ELISA kit. Results. A statistical significant difference in the systemic serum values of IL-6 and HMGB1 was observed when compared to the sham. Moreover, there was a statistical significant difference in the serum values of the fracture hematoma of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and HMGB1 when compared to the systemic inflammatory response. However a decrease of local proinflammatory concentrations was observed while anti-inflammatory mediators increased. Conclusion. Our data showed a time-dependent activation of the local and systemic inflammatory response. Indeed it is the first study focusing on the local and systemic inflammatory response to multiple-trauma in a large animal model. K. Horst, D. Eschbach, R. Pfeifer, S. Hübenthal, M. Sassen, T. Steinfeldt, H. Wulf, S. Ruchholtz, H. C. Pape, and F. Hildebrand Copyright © 2015 K. Horst et al. All rights reserved. Helicase and Its Interacting Factors: Regulation Mechanism, Characterization, Structure, and Application for Drug Design Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:39:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/909047/ Cheng-Yang Huang, Yoshito Abe, Huangen Ding, and I-Fang Chung Copyright © 2015 Cheng-Yang Huang et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Mechanical and Thermal Stability Properties of Modified Rice Straw Fiber Blend with Polycaprolactone Composite Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:39:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/712415/ Journal of Nanomaterials Copyright © 2015 Journal of Nanomaterials. All rights reserved. Obstacle Avoidance Algorithm for 7-DOF Redundant Anthropomorphic Arm Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:38:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2015/540259/ To deal with the problem of obstacle avoidance for redundant robots, an obstacle avoidance algorithm based on the internal motion of the 7-DOF redundant anthropomorphic arm is presented. The motion of that critical points move away from the closest points on the obstacles is defined as obstacle avoiding motion. Two transitioning variables were used to make a smooth, continuous transition between the primary and the secondary tasks. Using this approach, the robot can get the target configuration while avoiding the obstacles. Finally, the validity of the obstacle avoidance algorithm based on transitioning between tasks is manifested by simulation. The results show that, for the obstacle avoiding problem, the redundant robot not only can realize the obstacle avoidance, but also prevents the conflict between tasks by the proposed approach. Haoyu Shen, Hongtao Wu, Bai Chen, Yanjie Jiang, and Cheng Yan Copyright © 2015 Haoyu Shen et al. All rights reserved. Clearance Rate and BP-ANN Model in Paraquat Poisoned Patients Treated with Hemoperfusion Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:37:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/298253/ In order to investigate the effect of hemoperfusion (HP) on the clearance rate of paraquat (PQ) and develop a clearance model, 41 PQ-poisoned patients who acquired acute PQ intoxication received HP treatment. PQ concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). According to initial PQ concentration, study subjects were divided into two groups: Low-PQ group (0.05–1.0 μg/mL) and High-PQ group (1.0–10 μg/mL). After initial HP treatment, PQ concentrations decreased in both groups. However, in the High-PQ group, PQ levels remained in excess of 0.05 μg/mL and increased when the second HP treatment was initiated. Based on the PQ concentrations before and after HP treatment, the mean clearance rate of PQ calculated was 73 ± 15%. We also established a backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model, which set PQ concentrations before HP treatment as input data and after HP treatment as output data. When it is used to predict PQ concentration after HP treatment, high prediction accuracy () can be obtained in this model. In conclusion, HP is an effective way to clear PQ from the blood, and the PQ concentration after HP treatment can be predicted by BP-ANN model. Lufeng Hu, Guangliang Hong, Jianshe Ma, Xianqin Wang, Guanyang Lin, Xiuhua Zhang, and Zhongqiu Lu Copyright © 2015 Lufeng Hu et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Progression of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Complicated with Ulcerative Colitis Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:35:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2015/125718/ Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a cholestatic condition with unknown etiology and long-standing, progressive course, leading to cirrhosis and requiring orthotropic liver transplant. In approximately 80%, primary sclerosing cholangitis is accompanied by inflammatory bowel disease, and in most cases the recognition of bowel disease precedes the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. We describe a case of 22-year-old male diagnosed simultaneously with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis, with a medical history suggesting uncommon prior development of the liver disease. Five months after the initial diagnosis, we observed advanced lesions of bile tree due to progression of primary sclerosing cholangitis, which led to the unusually fast necessity for the orthotopic liver transplant. Piotr Pardak, Ewa Walczak, and Rafał S. Filip Copyright © 2015 Piotr Pardak et al. All rights reserved. Duodenal Aspirates for Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth: Yield, PPIs, and Outcomes after Treatment at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:34:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/971582/ Duodenal aspirates are not commonly collected, but they can be easily used in detection of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use has been proposed to contribute to the development of SIBO. We aimed to determine the yield of SIBO-positive cultures detected in duodenal aspirates, the relationship between SIBO and PPI use, and the clinical outcomes of patients identified by this method. In a retrospective study, we analyzed electronic medical records from 1263 consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy at a tertiary medical center. Aspirates were collected thought out the third and fourth portions of the duodenum, and cultures were considered to be positive for SIBO if they produced more than 100,000 cfu/mL. Culture analysis of duodenal aspirates identified SIBO in one-third of patients. A significantly higher percentage of patients with SIBO use PPIs than patients without SIBO, indicating a possible association. Similar proportions of patients with SIBO improved whether or not they received antibiotic treatment, calling into question the use of this expensive therapy for this disorder. Diana L. Franco, Molly B. Disbrow, Allon Kahn, Laura M. Koepke, Lucinda A. Harris, M. Edwyn Harrison, Michael D. Crowell, and Francisco C. Ramirez Copyright © 2015 Diana L. Franco et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Total Saponins of Panax Notoginseng on Steroid-Induced Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head In Vivo and In Vitro Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:31:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/165679/ This research was designed to investigate the protective effects of TSPN on steroid-induced avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) and the likely mechanisms of those effects. As an in vivo study, TSPN was shown to be protective against steroid-induced ANFH due to the upregulation of VEGF-A. Furthermore, TSPN attenuated the apoptosis of osteocytes and reduced the expression of Caspase-3 relative to the model group. As an in vitro study, TSPN exerted a concentration-dependent protective effect against apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, TSPN (at a dose of 100 μg/mL) significantly reversed the dexamethasone-induced augmentation of Caspase-3 expression and activity. Therefore, our study demonstrated that TSPN had a protective effect against steroid-induced ANFH that was related to the upregulation of VEGF-A and the inhibition of apoptosis and Caspase-3 activation. Heng-feng Yuan, Jian-feng Pan, Shuo Li, Chang-an Guo, Shu-hao Liu, and Zuo-qin Yan Copyright © 2015 Heng-feng Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:27:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/343075/ We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual’s needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. Sanaz Aazami, Khadijah Shamsuddin, and Syaqirah Akmal Copyright © 2015 Sanaz Aazami et al. All rights reserved. Nurses’ Experience of Using an Application to Support New Parents after Early Discharge: An Intervention Study Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijta/2015/851803/ Background. A development towards earlier postnatal discharge presents a challenge to find new ways to provide information and support to families. A possibility is the use of telemedicine. Objective. To explore how using an app in nursing practice affects the nurses’ ability to offer support and information to postnatal mothers who are discharged early and their families. Design. Participatory design. An app with a chat, a knowledgebase, and automated messages was tried out between hospital and parents at home. Settings. The intervention took place on a postnatal ward with approximately 1,000 births a year. Participants. At the onset of the intervention, 17 nurses, all women, were working on the ward. At the end of the intervention, 16 nurses were employed, all women. Methods. Participant observation and two focus group interviews. The data analysis was inspired by systematic text condensation. Results. The nurses on the postnatal ward consider that the use of the app gives families easier access to timely information and support. Conclusions. The app gives the nurses the possibility to offer support and information to the parents being early discharged. The app is experienced as a lifeline that connects the homes of the new parents with the hospital. Dorthe Boe Danbjørg, Lis Wagner, Bjarne Rønde Kristensen, and Jane Clemensen Copyright © 2015 Dorthe Boe Danbjørg et al. All rights reserved. Robust Adaptive Beamforming Based on Worst-Case and Norm Constraint Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:22:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/765385/ A novel robust adaptive beamforming based on worst-case and norm constraint (RAB-WC-NC) is presented. The proposed beamforming possesses superior robustness against array steering vector (ASV) error with finite snapshots by using the norm constraint and worst-case performance optimization (WCPO) techniques. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and superiority of the proposed algorithm. Hongtao Li, Ke Wang, Chaoyu Wang, Yapeng He, and Xiaohua Zhu Copyright © 2015 Hongtao Li et al. All rights reserved. Strategy for the Management of Diabetic Macular Edema: The European Vitreo-Retinal Society Macular Edema Study Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:17:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/352487/ Objective. To compare the efficacy of different therapies in the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Design. Nonrandomized, multicenter clinical study. Participants. 86 retina specialists from 29 countries provided clinical information on 2,603 patients with macular edema including 870 patients with DME. Methods. Reported data included the type and number of treatment(s) performed, the pre- and posttreatment visual acuities, and other clinical findings. The results were analyzed by the French INSEE (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies). Main Outcome Measures. Mean change of visual acuity and mean number of treatments performed. Results. The change in visual acuity over time in response to each treatment was plotted in second order polynomial regression trend lines. Intravitreal triamcinolone monotherapy resulted in some improvement in vision. Treatment with threshold or subthreshold grid laser also resulted in minimal vision gain. Anti-VEGF therapy resulted in more significant visual improvement. Treatment with pars plana vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling alone resulted in an improvement in vision greater than that observed with anti-VEGF injection alone. In our DME study, treatment with vitrectomy and ILM peeling alone resulted in the better visual improvement compared to other therapies. Ron Adelman, Aaron Parnes, Zofia Michalewska, Barbara Parolini, Claude Boscher, and Didier Ducournau Copyright © 2015 Ron Adelman et al. All rights reserved. Investigating the Effect of Thermal Annealing Process on the Photovoltaic Performance of the Graphene-Silicon Solar Cell Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:16:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2015/626201/ Graphene-silicon (Gr-Si) Schottky solar cell has attracted much attention recently as promising candidate for low-cost photovoltaic application. For the fabrication of Gr-Si solar cell, the Gr film is usually transferred onto the Si substrate by wet transfer process. However, the impurities induced by this process at the graphene/silicon (Gr/Si) interface, such as H2O and O2, degrade the photovoltaic performance of the Gr-Si solar cell. We found that the thermal annealing process can effectively improve the photovoltaic performance of the Gr-Si solar cell by removing these impurities at the Gr/Si interface. More interestingly, the photovoltaic performance of the Gr-Si solar cell can be improved, furthermore, when exposed to air environment after the thermal annealing process. Through investigating the characteristics of the Gr-Si solar cell and the properties of the Gr film (carrier density and sheet resistance), we point out that this phenomenon is caused by the natural doping effect of the Gr film. Lifei Yang, Xiaolei Wu, Xin Shen, Xuegong Yu, and Deren Yang Copyright © 2015 Lifei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Targeting Histone Deacetylases: A Novel Approach in Parkinson’s Disease Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:14:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/303294/ The worldwide prevalence of movement disorders is increasing day by day. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder. In general, the clinical manifestations of PD result from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Although the exact underlying mechanisms leading to neural cell death in this disease remains unknown, the genetic causes are often established. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the neurological disease conditions. The acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins are carried out by opposing actions of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. In the recent past, studies with HDAC inhibitors result in beneficial effects in both in vivo and in vitro models of PD. Various clinical trials have also been initiated to investigate the possible therapeutic potential of HDAC inhibitors in patients suffering from PD. The possible mechanisms assigned for these neuroprotective actions of HDAC inhibitors involve transcriptional activation of neuronal survival genes and maintenance of histone acetylation homeostasis, both of which have been shown to be dysregulated in PD. In this review, the authors have discussed the putative role of HDAC inhibitors in PD and associated abnormalities and suggest new directions for future research in PD. Sorabh Sharma and Rajeev Taliyan Copyright © 2015 Sorabh Sharma and Rajeev Taliyan. All rights reserved. To Evaluate Antimicrobial Properties of Platelet Rich Plasma and Source of Colonization in Pressure Ulcers in Spinal Injury Patients Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:12:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ulcers/2015/749585/ Background. Exposure of pressure ulcers (PrUs), particularly to urine and feces, leads to increased colonization of wounds. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the source of microbial colonization and antimicrobial properties of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in controlling it in PrUs. Methods. Twenty-five patients of spinal cord injury (SCI) with at least two PrUs were taken for the study. Local application of autologous PRP on one PrU (case) was compared with saline dressing on the other PrU (control). Urine cultures, urethral meatus, PrUs, and perineal swabs were taken at weekly interval for five weeks. Result. Colonization rate of PrUs (case) decreased from 92% at enrollment to 24% at the 5th week but did not significantly decrease in PrUs (control) from enrollment (84%) to the 5th week (76%). Association between PrU (case) and perineal cultures was observed for Staphylococcus aureus at enrollment 41% (, ) and at the 2nd week 47% (, ). 47% association between PrU (control) and perineal cultures at enrollment (, ) and 29% association at the 2nd week (, ) were observed for Staphylococcus aureus. There was association between bacteria present in perineum/urine and those colonizing PrUs. Conclusion. There is a significant association between PrUs colonization and bacteria present in local environment (urine and feces). Local application of autologous PRP changes the “biological milieu” of the PrUs through its antimicrobial properties leading to reduction in bacterial colonization. Roop Singh, Raj Kumar Dhayal, Paramjit Kumar Sehgal, and Rajesh K. Rohilla Copyright © 2015 Roop Singh et al. All rights reserved. Insight into Bone-Derived Biological Apatite: Ultrastructure and Effect of Thermal Treatment Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:07:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/601025/ Objectives. This study aims at examining the ultrastructure of bone-derived biological apatite (BAp) from a series of small vertebrates and the effect of thermal treatment on its physiochemical properties. Materials and Methods. Femurs/fin rays and vertebral bodies of 5 kinds of small vertebrates were firstly analyzed with X-ray microtomography. Subsequently, BAp was obtained with thermal treatment and low power plasma ashing, respectively. The properties of BAp, including morphology, functional groups, and crystal characteristics were then analyzed. Results. The bones of grouper and hairtail were mainly composed of condensed bone. Spongy bone showed different distribution in the bones from frog, rat, and pigeon. No significant difference was found in bone mineral density of condensed bone and trabecular thickness of spongy bone. Only platelet-like crystals were observed for BAp obtained by plasma ashing, while rod-like and irregular crystals were both harvested from the bones treated by sintering. A much higher degree of crystallinity and larger crystal size but a lower content of carbonate were detected in the latter. Conclusion. Platelet-like BAp is the common inorganic component of vertebrate bones. BAp distributing in condensed and spongy bone may exhibit differing thermal reactivity. Thermal treatment may alter BAp’s in vivo structure and composition. Quan Liu, Haobo Pan, Zhuofan Chen, and Jukka Pekka Matinlinna Copyright © 2015 Quan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Frequency of Migraine as a Chief Complaint in Otolaryngology Outpatient Practice Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:03:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/173165/ Objective. To identify the frequency of typical (headache and dizziness) and common atypical (ear fullness, pressure, pain, tinnitus, facial fullness, and nasal congestion) migraine symptoms as chief complaints among patients presenting to otolaryngology clinic. Methods. This is a descriptive study of prospectively collected data from a general otolaryngology practice. Typical migraine presentations were diagnosed by applying international headache society (IHS) criteria for migraine headache and Neuhauser’s criteria for migrainous vertigo. Atypical otologic and rhinologic migraine symptoms were diagnosed using individualized criteria. Charts were reviewed at 6-month interval from the first presentation. Results. Out of 1002 consecutive patients, 10.8% presented with “migrainous chief complaint.” All migrainous chief complaint patients had a history of headache but not all of them presented with headache. Corrected female to male ratio in the migraine group was 3 to 1; age distributions were significantly different between the migraine and nonmigraine groups by applying -test. Out of the atypical complaints, 86% of the patients had a history of concomitant typical presentation. Conclusion. Actual diagnostic criteria for migraine do not satisfy the diversity of its presentation. Investigating the history of migraine is enough to diagnose most atypical presentations. Sound knowledge about migraine seems essential for any ENT practitioner. Omar Sabra, Maria Muhammad Ali, Maha Al Zayer, and Saleh Altuwaijri Copyright © 2015 Omar Sabra et al. All rights reserved. Modeling the Responses to Resistance Training in an Animal Experiment Study Wed, 28 Jan 2015 14:03:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/914860/ The aim of the present study was to test whether systems models of training effects on performance in athletes can be used to explore the responses to resistance training in rats. 11 Wistar Han rats (277 ± 15 g) underwent 4 weeks of resistance training consisting in climbing a ladder with progressive loads. Training amount and performance were computed from total work and mean power during each training session. Three systems models relating performance to cumulated training bouts have been tested: (i) with a single component for adaptation to training, (ii) with two components to distinguish the adaptation and fatigue produced by exercise bouts, and (iii) with an additional component to account for training-related changes in exercise-induced fatigue. Model parameters were fitted using a mixed-effects modeling approach. The model with two components was found to be the most suitable to analyze the training responses (; ). In conclusion, the accuracy in quantifying training loads and performance in a rodent experiment makes it possible to model the responses to resistance training. This modeling in rodents could be used in future studies in combination with biological tools for enhancing our understanding of the adaptive processes that occur during physical training. Antony G. Philippe, Guillaume Py, François B. Favier, Anthony M. J. Sanchez, Anne Bonnieu, Thierry Busso, and Robin Candau Copyright © 2015 Antony G. Philippe et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Survival of Human Autologous Fat Transplantation by Adipose-Derived Stem-Cells-Assisted Lipotransfer Combined with bFGF Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:58:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/968057/ Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) transplanted along with autologous adipose tissue may improve fat graft survival; however, the efficacy of ASCs has been diluted by low vascularization. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) may improve the effects of ASCs because it owns the property to boost angiogenesis. In the present study, human fat tissues were mixed with ASCs, ASCs plus 100 U bFGF, or medium as the control and then injected subcutaneously into immunologically compromised nude mice for 12 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that mixture with the ASCs significantly increased the weight and volume of the fat grafts compared to control grafts, and histological analysis revealed that both ASCs and ASCs plus bFGF grafts consisted predominantly of adipose tissue and had significantly less fibrosis but greater microvascular density compared with control and also grafts mixed with ASCs had a high expression of angiogenic factors. More importantly, the bFGF treated fat grafts shown elevate in survival, vascularization, and angiogenic factors expression when compared with the grafts that received ASCs alone. These results indicated that bFGF together with ASCs can enhance the efficacy of autologous fat transplantation and increase blood vessel generation involved in the benefits from bFGF. Aimei Jiang, Ming Li, Wenjing Duan, Yilong Dong, and Yanmei Wang Copyright © 2015 Aimei Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Purpose of Introduction as a Predictor of Invasiveness among Introduced Shrubs in Rwanda Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:58:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jb/2015/167186/ The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species’ purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley) A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive. Jean Leonard Seburanga Copyright © 2015 Jean Leonard Seburanga. All rights reserved. New Insights into Malignant B-Cell Disorders Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:56:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/128084/ Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis, Kazuyuki Shimizu, Panayiotis Panayiotidis, and Gerassimos A. Pangalis Copyright © 2015 Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis et al. All rights reserved. Microbe-Assisted Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of Monodispersed Tb3+-Doped ZnS Nanocrystals Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:52:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/519303/ Tb3+-doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Tb3+) nanocrystals were synthesized by spray precipitation with sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) culture at room temperature. The morphology of the SRB and ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL mechanism of ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals was further analyzed, and the effects of Tb3+ ion concentration on the luminescence properties of ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals were studied. ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals showed a sphalerite phase, and the prepared ZnS:Tb3+ nanocrystals had high luminescence intensity under excitation at 369 nm. The main peak position of the absorption spectra positively blueshifted with increasing concentrations of Tb3+ dopant. Based on the strength of the peak of the excitation and emission spectra, we inferred that the optimum concentration of the Tb3+ dopant is 5 mol%. Four main emission peaks were obtained under excitation at 369 nm:489 nm (5D4→7F6), 545 nm (5D4→7F5), 594 nm (5D4→7F4), and 625 nm (5D4→7F3). Our findings suggest that nanocrystals have potential applications in photoelectronic devices and biomarkers. Zhanguo Liang, Jun Mu, Lei Han, and Hongquan Yu Copyright © 2015 Zhanguo Liang et al. All rights reserved. Health Safety of Soft Drinks: Contents, Containers, and Microorganisms Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:51:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/128697/ Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers, for example, in the expanding area of functional drinks. Extensive legislation has been put in place to ensure that soft drinks manufacturers conform to established national and international standards. Consumers trust that the soft drinks they buy are safe and their quality is guaranteed. They also expect to be provided with information that can help them to make informed decisions about the purchase of products and that the information on product labels is not false or misleading. This paper provides a broad overview of available scientific knowledge and cites numerous studies on various aspects of soft drinks and their implications for health safety. Particular attention is given to ingredients, including artificial flavorings, colorings, and preservatives and to the lesser known risks of microbiological and chemical contamination during processing and storage. Dorota Kregiel Copyright © 2015 Dorota Kregiel. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Nanoscale Heterostructures Comprised of Metal Nanowires, Carbon Nanotubes, and Metal Nanoparticles: Investigation of Their Structure and Electrochemical Properties Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:45:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/125970/ One-dimensional nanoscale heterostructures comprised of multisegment gold-nickel nanowires, carbon nanotube, and nickel nanoparticles were fabricated in a unique approach combining top-down and bottom-up assembly methods. Porous alumina template was utilized for sequential electrodeposition of gold and nickel nanowire segments. This was followed by chemical vapor deposition growth of carbon nanotubes on multisegment gold-nickel nanowires, where nickel segment also acted as a carbon nanotube growth catalyst. The aligned arrays of these gold-nickel-carbon nanotube heterostructures were released from porous alumina template and then subjected to wet-chemical process to be decorated with nickel/nickel oxide core/shell nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were utilized for morphology, interface, defect, and structure characterization. The electrochemical performance of these heterostructures was studied using cyclic voltammetry method and the specific capacitance of various heterostructures was estimated and compared. Nitin Chopra, Junchi Wu, and Paaras Agrawal Copyright © 2015 Nitin Chopra et al. All rights reserved. Mycosis Fungoides in Iranian Population: An Epidemiological and Clinicopathological Study Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:45:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jsc/2015/306543/ Background. Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Extensive studies on Iranian MF patients are absent. The present study aimed to produce updated clinical information on Iranian MF patients. Methods. This was a retrospective, descriptive, single-center study, including all cases of MF seen in the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Isfahan, Iran, between 2003 and 2013. Data systematically recorded for each patient included clinical, biological, histological, and molecular findings. Results. Eighty-six patients with clinical and histologic diagnosis of MF were included in the study. Thirty-nine patients (45.3%) were male. Female predominance was observed in patients (male : female ratio is 1 : 1.2). Patients were between 7 and 84 years of age (median: 41). The interval from disease onset to diagnosis ranged from 0 to 55 years (median: 1 year). Eighteen cases (20.9%) had unusual variants of MF. The most common types included hypopigmented and poikilodermatous MF. Childhood cases of MF constituted 5.8% (5/86) of all patients. The early stages were seen in 82 cases (95.34%). Conclusion. The major differences in epidemiologic characteristics of MF in Iran are the lack of male predominance and the lower age of patients at the time of diagnosis. Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini, Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini, Hamidreza Sadeghiyan, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Jamshid Najafian, and Mohsen Pourazizi Copyright © 2015 Farahnaz Fatemi Naeini et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiological Study of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Vientiane, Lao PDR, in 1990s Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:25:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/235934/ Phylogenetic analysis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) was conducted using core-premembrane and envelope gene sequence data of two strains from Vientiane, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, in 1993 and five from Okinawa, Japan, in 2002 and 2003, and previously published strains. The two Vientiane strains designated as LaVS56 and LaVS145 belonged to genotype 1 (G1) and the same subcluster of G1 as Australian strain in 2000, Thai strains in 1982–1985 and 2004-2005, and Vietnamese strain in 2005, but were distinct from the subcluster of recently distributing G1 strains widely in Asia including Okinawan strains and recent Lao strain in 2009. These clusters with own distinct distributions indicated involvements of different mechanisms and routes of spreading viruses and clarified that Australian G1 strain is from Southeast Asia, not from East Asia. Both Vientiane strains were antigenically close to P19-Br (G1, isolate, Thailand), but distinct from Nakayama (G3, prototype strain, Japan), Beijing-1 (G3, laboratory strain, China), and JaGAr#01 (G3, laboratory strain, Japan), demonstrated by cross-neutralization tests using polyclonal antisera. These results together with seroepidemiologic study conducted in Vientiane strongly suggest that diversified JEV cocirculated there in early 1990s. Mika Saito, Douangdao Soukaloun, Khampe Phongsavath, Bounlay Phommasack, and Yoshihiro Makino Copyright © 2015 Mika Saito et al. All rights reserved. Osseointegration of Implants Surface-Treated with Various Diameters of TiO2 Nanotubes in Rabbit Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:17:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/634650/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of implants which were surface-treated with various diameters of TiO2 nanotubes (30 nm, 70 nm, and 100 nm) in rabbit. Resorbable blast media (RBM) surfaced implants (Osstem, Busan, Korea) 3.5 mm in diameter and 8.5 mm in length were designated as the control group and the implants surface-treated with various diameters of nanotubes (30 nm, 70 nm, and 100 nm) with the same shapes were designated as the experimental groups. The implants were maintained unloaded for 4 and 12 weeks. After this period, the animals were sacrificed and micro-CT analysis, histomorphometric analysis (bone to implant contact (BIC), bone volume (BV)), and removal torque test were performed. Micro-CT analysis, histomorphometric analysis, and removal torque test results all showed the similar pattern, showing that 70 nm experimental group had the highest value at 4 weeks while 30 nm experimental group had the highest value at 12 weeks. Therefore, on the basis of the results above, it can be concluded that 30 nm and 70 nm TiO2 nanotubes may have positive effects on osteogenesis and osseointegration depending on the healing time. Cheul-Goo Kang, Young-Bum Park, Hyunmin Choi, Seunghan Oh, Keun-Woo Lee, Seong-Ho Choi, and June-Sung Shim Copyright © 2015 Cheul-Goo Kang et al. All rights reserved. The Oncofetal Protein IMP3: A Novel Grading Tool and Predictor of Poor Clinical Outcome in Human Gliomas Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:06:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/413897/ Morphologic criteria illustrated in WHO guidelines are the most significant prognostic factor in human gliomas, but novel biomarkers are needed to identify patients with a poorer outcome. The present study examined the expression of the oncofetal protein IMP3 in a series of 135 patients affected by high-grade (grade III and IV) gliomas, correlating the results with proliferative activity, molecular parameters, and clinical and follow-up data. Overall, IMP3 expression was higher in glioblastomas (68%) than in grade III tumors (20%, ), and IMP3-positive high-grade gliomas showed a shorter overall and disease-free survival than negative ones ( and , resp.). IMP3 expression was significantly associated with the absence of mutations of IDH1 gene () and with the unmethylated phenotype of MGMT in high-grade gliomas (). High Ki67 levels were correlated with better prognosis in glioblastomas but IMP3 expression was not correlated with the proliferation index. These findings confirm the role of IMP3 as a marker of poor outcome, also in consideration of its association with IDH1 wild-type phenotype and MGMT unmethylated status. The data suggest that IMP3 staining could identify a subgroup of patients with poor prognosis and at risk of recurrence in high-grade gliomas. Alessandro Del Gobbo, Valentina Vaira, Lucia Ferrari, Carlo Patriarca, Andrea Di Cristofori, Dario Ricca, Manuela Caroli, Paolo Rampini, Silvano Bosari, and Stefano Ferrero Copyright © 2015 Alessandro Del Gobbo et al. All rights reserved. The Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Implant Surface with Different Size of TiO2 Nanotube in Rats Wed, 28 Jan 2015 13:02:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/581713/ With the development of nanotechnology, many researches have shown that nanometer-scaled materials especially TiO2 nanotube have a positive effect on cellular behavior and surface characteristics of implant, which are considered to be crucial factors in osseointegration. However, it has not yet been verified which nanotube size is effective in osseointegration in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant surface-treated with different size of TiO2 nanotubes on osseointegration in rat femur. The customized implants (threaded and nonthreaded type), surface-treated with different diameter of TiO2 nanotubes (30 nm, 50 nm, 70 nm, and 100 nm nanotube), were placed on both sides of the femur of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old). Rats were sacrificed at 2 and 6 weeks following surgery; then the specimens were collected by perfusion fixation and the osseointegration of implants was evaluated by radiographic and histologic analyses and removal torque value test. The mean of bone area (%) and the mean of removal torque were different in each group, indicating that the difference in TiO2 nanotube size may influence new bone formation and osseointegration in rats. Young-Ah Yi, Young-Bum Park, Hyunmin Choi, Keun-Woo Lee, Sun-Jai Kim, Kwang-Mahn Kim, Seunghan Oh, and June-Sung Shim Copyright © 2015 Young-Ah Yi et al. All rights reserved. Large-Vessel Vasculitis: Interobserver Agreement and Diagnostic Accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET/CT Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:54:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/914692/ Introduction. 18F-FDG-PET visualises inflammation. Both atherosclerosis and giant cell arteritis cause vascular inflammation, but distinguishing the two may be difficult. The goal of this study was to assess interobserver agreement and diagnostic accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET for the detection of large artery involvement in giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods. 31 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans were selected from 2 databases. Four observers assessed vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake, initially without and subsequently with predefined observer criteria (i.e., vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake compared to liver or femoral artery 18F-FDG uptake). External validation was performed by two additional observers. Sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG-PET were determined by comparing scan results to a consensus diagnosis. Results. The highest interobserver agreement (kappa: 0.96 in initial study and 0.79 in external validation) was observed when vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake higher than liver uptake was used as a diagnostic criterion, although agreement was also good without predefined criteria (kappa: 0.68 and 0.85). Sensitivity and specificity were comparable for these methods. The criterion of vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake equal to liver 18F-FDG uptake had low specificity. Conclusion. Standardization of image assessment for vascular wall 18F-FDG uptake promotes observer agreement, enables comparative studies, and does not appear to result in loss of diagnostic accuracy compared to nonstandardized assessment. K. D. F. Lensen, E. F. I. Comans, A. E. Voskuyl, C. J. van der Laken, E. Brouwer, A. T. Zwijnenburg, L. M. Pereira Arias-Bouda, A. W. J. M. Glaudemans, R. H. J. A. Slart, and Y. M. Smulders Copyright © 2015 K. D. F. Lensen et al. All rights reserved. Searching for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of 130Te with CUORE Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:41:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2015/879871/ Neutrinoless double-beta (0) decay is a hypothesized lepton-number-violating process that offers the only known means of asserting the possible Majorana nature of neutrino mass. The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an upcoming experiment designed to search for 0 decay of 130Te using an array of 988 TeO2 crystal bolometers operated at 10 mK. The detector will contain 206 kg of 130Te and have an average energy resolution of 5 keV; the projected 0 decay half-life sensitivity after five years of livetime is 1.6 × 1026 y at 1 (9.5 × 1025 y at the 90% confidence level), which corresponds to an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass in the range 40–100 meV (50–130 meV). In this paper, we review the experimental techniques used in CUORE as well as its current status and anticipated physics reach. D. R. Artusa, F. T. Avignone III, O. Azzolini, M. Balata, T. I. Banks, G. Bari, J. Beeman, F. Bellini, A. Bersani, M. Biassoni, C. Brofferio, C. Bucci, X. Z. Cai, A. Camacho, L. Canonica, X. G. Cao, S. Capelli, L. Carbone, L. Cardani, M. Carrettoni, N. Casali, D. Chiesa, N. Chott, M. Clemenza, S. Copello, C. Cosmelli, O. Cremonesi, R. J. Creswick, I. Dafinei, A. Dally, V. Datskov, A. De Biasi, M. M. Deninno, S. Di Domizio, M. L. di Vacri, L. Ejzak, D. Q. Fang, H. A. Farach, M. Faverzani, G. Fernandes, E. Ferri, F. Ferroni, E. Fiorini, M. A. Franceschi, S. J. Freedman, B. K. Fujikawa, A. Giachero, L. Gironi, A. Giuliani, J. Goett, P. Gorla, C. Gotti, T. D. Gutierrez, E. E. Haller, K. Han, K. M. Heeger, R. Hennings-Yeomans, H. Z. Huang, R. Kadel, K. Kazkaz, G. Keppel, Yu. G. Kolomensky, Y. L. Li, C. Ligi, X. Liu, Y. G. Ma, C. Maiano, M. Maino, M. Martinez, R. H. Maruyama, Y. Mei, N. Moggi, S. Morganti, T. Napolitano, S. Nisi, C. Nones, E. B. Norman, A. Nucciotti, T. O’Donnell, F. Orio, D. Orlandi, J. L. Ouellet, M. Pallavicini, V. Palmieri, L. Pattavina, M. Pavan, M. Pedretti, G. Pessina, V. Pettinacci, G. Piperno, C. Pira, S. Pirro, E. Previtali, V. Rampazzo, C. Rosenfeld, C. Rusconi, E. Sala, S. Sangiorgio, N. D. Scielzo, M. Sisti, A. R. Smith, L. Taffarello, M. Tenconi, F. Terranova, W. D. Tian, C. Tomei, S. Trentalange, G. Ventura, M. Vignati, B. S. Wang, H. W. Wang, L. Wielgus, J. Wilson, L. A. Winslow, T. Wise, A. Woodcraft, L. Zanotti, C. Zarra, B. X. Zhu, and S. Zucchelli Copyright © 2015 D. R. Artusa et al. All rights reserved. Anti-EGFR Antibody Reduces Lung Nodules by Inhibition of EGFR-Pathway in a Model of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:36:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/315240/ EGFR belongs to the HER/ErbB family of tyrosine kinase receptors and its activation in cancer cells has been linked with increased proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade neoplasm that occurs sporadically or in association with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic, multisystem disorder characterized by hamartomas in several organs. From chylous of a LAM/TSC patient, we previously isolated smooth muscle-like LAM/TSC cells whose proliferation depends on EGF and monoclonal anti-EGFR antibodies reduced proliferation and caused cell death. We demonstrated that the dependency from EGF was caused by the absence of tuberin. To study the role of EGFR pathway in vivo, we developed a mouse model by administration of LAM/TSC cells to female nude mice. LAM/TSC cells caused pulmonary airspace enlargement and, after 30 weeks, nodule formation which express EGFR. Anti-EGFR antibody decreased the number and dimension of lung nodules likely for the inhibition of Erk and S6 signaling, reversed the pulmonary alterations, and reduced lymphatic and blood vessels. Moreover, in pulmonary nodules anti-EGFR antibody reduced the positivity to estrogen and progesterone receptors which enhance survival of LAM cells and Snail expression. These results suggest that the inhibition of EGFR signalling has a potential in treatment of LAM/TSC lung alterations. Elena Lesma, Eloisa Chiaramonte, Silvia Ancona, Emanuela Orpianesi, Anna Maria Di Giulio, and Alfredo Gorio Copyright © 2015 Elena Lesma et al. All rights reserved. Wavelet Network Model Based on Multiple Criteria Decision Making for Forecasting Temperature Time Series Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:36:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/385876/ Due to nonlinear and multiscale characteristics of temperature time series, a new model called wavelet network model based on multiple criteria decision making (WNMCDM) has been proposed, which combines the advantage of wavelet analysis, multiple criteria decision making, and artificial neural network. One case for forecasting extreme monthly maximum temperature of Miyun Reservoir has been conducted to examine the performance of WNMCDM model. Compared with nearest neighbor bootstrapping regression (NNBR), the probability of relative error smaller than 10% increases from 65.79% to 84.21% (forecast period ) and from 51.35% to 91.89% by WNMCDM model. Similarly, the probability of relative error smaller than 20% increases from 84.21% to 97.37% and from 81.08% to 91.89% by WNMCDM model. Therefore, WNMCDM model is superior to NNBR model in forecasting temperature time series. Jian Zhang, Xiao-hua Yang, and Xiao-juan Chen Copyright © 2015 Jian Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Practical Guidelines: Lung Transplantation in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis” Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:36:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/698460/ T. O. Hirche, C. Knoop, H. Hebestreit, D. Shimmin, A. Solé, J. S. Elborn, H. Ellemunter, P. Aurora, M. Hogardt, T. O. F. Wagner, and ECORN-CF Study Group Copyright © 2015 T. O. Hirche et al. All rights reserved. Proposal for a New Noncontact Method for Measuring Tongue Moisture to Assist in Tongue Diagnosis and Development of the Tongue Image Analyzing System, Which Can Separately Record the Gloss Components of the Tongue Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:35:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/249609/ Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese) medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS), which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously. Toshiya Nakaguchi, Kanako Takeda, Yuya Ishikawa, Takeshi Oji, Satoshi Yamamoto, Norimichi Tsumura, Keigo Ueda, Koichi Nagamine, Takao Namiki, and Yoichi Miyake Copyright © 2015 Toshiya Nakaguchi et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging in the Study of the Course of Posterior Uveitis Disorders Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:32:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/247469/ Background. To evaluate the correlation of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) with indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in patients with various posterior uveitis disorders. Methods. Interventional case series including 23 eyes of 15 patients with diagnosis of a specific type of retinochoroiditis, such as acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE), serpiginous-like choroiditis, multifocal choroiditis (MFC), Harada disease, and syphilitic retinochoroiditis. Also, some cases with undefined retinochoroiditis were included. FAF and ICGA were performed and correlated at baseline and during follow-up after treatment. Results. In ICGA, early hypofluorescence was found to be the hallmark of acute choroidal inflammation, resolving in later stages and remaining in the late phase in areas with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) damage. Poorly defined hyperautofluorescent areas correlated with acute choroidal lesions. Hypoautofluorescent delineation suggested the initiation of RPE healing processes, correlating well with the late phase of ICGA and delineating the RPE damage. Early hyperautofluorescence with late hypofluorescence in ICGA indicated the presence of primary RPE involvement. Conclusion. FAF contributes to the interpretation of RPE disease and may be a useful tool for the follow-up of progressive inflammatory disorders. Comparative evaluation of FAF and ICGA allows a characterization of the sequence of inflammatory events and the level of tissue affected. Panagiotis Malamos, Panos Masaoutis, Ilias Georgalas, Stelios Maselos, Konstantinos Andrianopoulos, Chryssanthi Koutsandrea, and Nikos N. Markomichelakis Copyright © 2015 Panagiotis Malamos et al. All rights reserved. A General Class of Derivative Free Optimal Root Finding Methods Based on Rational Interpolation Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:31:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/934260/ We construct a new general class of derivative free -point iterative methods of optimal order of convergence using rational interpolant. The special cases of this class are obtained. These methods do not need Newton’s iterate in the …first step of their iterative schemes. Numerical computations are presented to show that the new methods are efficient and can be seen as better alternates. Fiza Zafar, Nusrat Yasmin, Saima Akram, and Moin-ud-Din Junjua Copyright © 2015 Fiza Zafar et al. All rights reserved. Is Infusion of Subhypnotic Propofol as Effective as Dexamethasone in Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Related to Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy? A Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:18:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/349806/ Background. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is one of common complications in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subhypnotic (1 mg/kg/h) infusion of propofol with dexamethasone on PONV in patients undergoing LC. Methods. A total of 120 patients were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups; patients of group dexamethasone (group D) were administrated 8 mg dexamethasone before induction of anesthesia, patients of group propofol (group P) were infused to subhypnotic (1 mg/kg/h) propofol during operation and patients of group control (group C) were applied infusion of 10% intralipid. The incidence of PONV and needs for rescue analgesic and antiemetic were recorded in the first 24 h postoperatively. Results. In the 0–24 h, the incidence of PONV was significantly lower in the group D and group P compared with the group C (37.5%, 40%, and 72.5%, resp.). There was no significant difference in the incidence of PONV and use of antiemetics and analgesic between group D and group P. Conclusion. We concluded that infusion of propofol 1 mg/kg/h is as effective as dexamethasone for the prevention of PONV during the first 24 hours after anesthesia in patients undergoing LC. Mine Celik, Aysenur Dostbil, Mehmet Aksoy, Ilker Ince, Ali Ahiskalioglu, Mehmet Comez, and Ali Fuat Erdem Copyright © 2015 Mine Celik et al. All rights reserved. Some New Sets of Sequences of Fuzzy Numbers with Respect to the Partial Metric Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:18:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/735703/ In this paper, we essentially deal with Köthe-Toeplitz duals of fuzzy level sets defined using a partial metric. Since the utilization of Zadeh’s extension principle is quite difficult in practice, we prefer the idea of level sets in order to construct some classical notions. In this paper, we present the sets of bounded, convergent, and null series and the set of sequences of bounded variation of fuzzy level sets, based on the partial metric. We examine the relationships between these sets and their classical forms and give some properties including definitions, propositions, and various kinds of partial metric spaces of fuzzy level sets. Furthermore, we study some of their properties like completeness and duality. Finally, we obtain the Köthe-Toeplitz duals of fuzzy level sets with respect to the partial metric based on a partial ordering. Uğur Kadak and Muharrem Ozluk Copyright © 2015 Uğur Kadak and Muharrem Ozluk. All rights reserved. High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II) in Water Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:15:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/723276/ Graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). RGO/PVB modified GCE was used for fabricating an electrochemical sensor for detecting Cu (II) in water. The analysis results showed that RGO/PVB modified GCE had good analytical results with the linear range of 0.06–2.2 μM, detection limit of 4.10 nM (), and the sensitivity of 103.51 μAμM−1cm−2. Rui Ding, Zhimin Luo, Xiuling Ma, Xiaoping Fan, Liqun Xue, Xiuzhu Lin, and Sheng Chen Copyright © 2015 Rui Ding et al. All rights reserved. Anticytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Induced Autoimmune Hypophysitis: A Case Report and Literature Review Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:11:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2015/570293/ Objective. We describe a case of autoimmune hypophysitis induced by the anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) agent, ipilimumab. Methods. Case presentation and review of the literature. Results. Autoimmune hypophysitis, a previously described rare disorder, is being recognized more frequently as a side effect of novel immunomodulatory agents used in the treatment of malignancies such as melanoma. CTLA-4 agents are associated with immune-related adverse effects (irAE) which occur as a result of activation (or lack of inactivation) of the immune response. This impacts not only malignant cells but also different host organ-systems. Autoimmune hypophysitis is one of several endocrinopathies associated with these agents. Conclusion. It is important that endocrinologists become familiar with the endocrinopathies, such as autoimmune hypophysitis, associated with new immunomodulator agents which are being used with increasing frequency to treat a variety of malignancies. Deborah Majchel and Mary T. Korytkowski Copyright © 2015 Deborah Majchel and Mary T. Korytkowski. All rights reserved. Tricorns and Multicorns of -Iteration Scheme Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:03:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/417167/ Complex graphics of dynamical system have striking features of fractals and become a wide area of research due to their beauty and complexity of their nature. The aim of this paper is to study dynamics of relative superior tricorns and multicorns using -iteration schemes. Several examples are presented to explore the geometry of relative superior tricorns and multicorns for antipolynomial of complex polynomial for . Shin Min Kang, Arif Rafiq, Abdul Latif, Abdul Aziz Shahid, and Young Chel Kwun Copyright © 2015 Shin Min Kang et al. All rights reserved. Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity of N-Doped TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Acephate Degradation Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:01:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/527070/ Highly ordered nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-doped TiO2) nanotube arrays were prepared by anodic oxidation method and then annealed in a N2 atmosphere to obtain N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The samples were characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), and UV-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis) spectrum. Degradation of the insecticide acephate under the visible light was used as a model to examine the visible-light photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The results show that N type doping has no notable effects on the morphology and structure of TiO2 nanotube arrays. After N type doping, the N replaces a small amount of O in TiO2, forming an N–Ti–O structure. This shifts the optical absorption edge and enhances absorption of the visible light. N-doped TiO2 nanotube arrays subjected to annealing at 500°C in N2 atmosphere show the strongest photocatalytic activity and reach a degradation rate of 84% within 2 h. Xinlei Zhang, Juan Zhou, Yufen Gu, and Ding Fan Copyright © 2015 Xinlei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Combined Liposuction and Excision of Lipomas: Long-Term Evaluation of a Large Sample of Patients Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:58:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psi/2015/625396/ Background. Lipomas are benign tumors of mature fat cells. They can be removed by liposuction, yet this technique is seldom employed because of concerns that removal may be incomplete and recurrence may be more frequent than after conventional excision. Objectives. We assessed the short- and long-term clinical outcomes and recurrence of combined liposuction and limited surgical excision of subcutaneous lipomas. Methods. From 2003 to 2012, 25 patients with 48 lipomas were treated with liposuction followed by direct excision through the same incision to remove residual lipomatous tissue. Initial postoperative follow-up ranged from 1 week to 3 months, and long-term outcomes, complications, and recurrence were surveyed 1 to 10 years postoperatively. Results. Lipomas on the head, neck, trunk, and extremities ranged from 1 to 15 cm in diameter. Early postoperative hematoma and seromas were managed by aspiration. Among 23 survey respondents (92%), patients were uniformly pleased with the cosmetic results; none reported recurrent lipoma. Conclusions. The combination of liposuction and excision is a safe alternative for lipoma removal; malignancy and recurrence are uncommon. Liposuction performed through a small incision provides satisfactory aesthetic results in most cases. Once reduced in size, residual lipomatous and capsular tissue can be removed without expanding the incision. These favorable outcomes support wider application of this technique in appropriate cases. Libby R. Copeland-Halperin, Vincenza Pimpinella, and Michelle Copeland Copyright © 2015 Libby R. Copeland-Halperin et al. All rights reserved. CT Perfusion: Technical Developments and Current and Future Applications Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:56:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/397521/ Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Lorenzo Preda, Alessandro Cianfoni, and Luca Volterrani Copyright © 2015 Maria Antonietta Mazzei et al. All rights reserved. Improving Shape Retrieval by Integrating AIR and Modified Mutual NN Graph Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:54:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/am/2015/372172/ In computer vision, image retrieval remained a significant problem and recent resurgent of image retrieval also relies on other postprocessing methods to improve the accuracy instead of solely relying on good feature representation. Our method addressed the shape retrieval of binary images. This paper proposes a new integration scheme to best utilize feature representation along with contextual information. For feature representation we used articulation invariant representation; dynamic programming is then utilized for better shape matching followed by manifold learning based postprocessing modified mutual NN graph to further improve the similarity score. We conducted extensive experiments on widely used MPEG-7 database of shape images by so-called bulls-eye score with and without normalization of modified mutual NN graph which clearly indicates the importance of normalization. Finally, our method demonstrated better results compared to other methods. We also computed the computational time with another graph transduction method which clearly shows that our method is computationally very fast. Furthermore, to show consistency of postprocessing method, we also performed experiments on challenging ORL and YALE face datasets and improved baseline results. Nouman Qadeer, Dongting Hu, Xiabi Liu, Shahzad Anwar, and Malik Saad Sultan Copyright © 2015 Nouman Qadeer et al. All rights reserved. Separation of the Proximal Humeral Epiphysis in the Newborn: Rapid Diagnosis with Ultrasonography Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:49:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/825413/ Separation of the proximal humeral epiphysis (SPHE) is a well-known occurrence and may occur secondary to trauma, infection, and nonaccidental trauma. Since most newborns do not have the proximal humeral epiphysis ossified at birth, the diagnosis may be difficult to make on routine radiographs. Ultrasonography of the shoulder in the newborn is rapid, noninvasive, and nonionizing imaging techniques which can diagnose SPHE. In this report, we describe and emphasize the diagnostic utility of state-of-the-art ultrasonography for the diagnosis of SPHE. Rachelle Goldfisher and John Amodio Copyright © 2015 Rachelle Goldfisher and John Amodio. All rights reserved. First-Order Regular and Degenerate Identification Differential Problems Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:46:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/393624/ We are concerned with both regular and degenerate first-order identification problems related to systems of differential equations of weakly parabolic type in Banach spaces. Several applications to partial differential equations and systems will be given in a subsequent paper to show the fullness of our abstract results. A. Favini, A. Lorenzi, and H. Tanabe Copyright © 2015 A. Favini et al. All rights reserved.