Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Prevalence and Distribution of Vitreoretinal Interface Abnormalities among Urban Community Population in China Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:31:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/742686/ The aim of this research was to identify the prevalence and distribution of vitreoretinal interface abnormalities (VIAs) among urban community population in Shenyang, China. According to the WHO criteria, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 304 Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and 304 people without diabetes as control over 45 years old. The presence of VIAs was determined by standardized grading of macular optical coherence tomography (Optovue OCT; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA) scans and two-field fundus photographs in at least one eye. For both men and women, high prevalence of VIAs (70.79%) was observed among over 65-years-old T2D patients. Prevalence of VIAs was observed to be high among T2D patients in all age groups compared to normal subjects. Prevalence of VIAs increased with age in all subjects. Prevalence of components of VIAs was epiretinal membrane (ERM) 11.43%, posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) 17.76%, vitreomacular traction syndrome (VMT) 5.67%, macular cysts/macular edema (MC/ME) 4.61%, full-thickness macular hole (FTMH) 0.82%, and partial thickness macular hole (PTMH) 0.74% in any eye, respectively. ERM and MC/ME were more prevalent in T2D in both males and females. The results highlight the need for early detection using OCT and approaches for the prevention of VIAs of diabetes in urban community. Lei Liu, Song Yue, Jingyang Wu, Jiahua Zhang, Jie Lian, Desheng Huang, Weiping Teng, and Lei Chen Copyright © 2015 Lei Liu et al. All rights reserved. An Alternative Approach to Assessing Volume-of-Interest Accuracy Using CBCT and ImageJ Software: In Vitro Study Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:28:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ara/2015/329720/ Aim. This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of ImageJ software that we utilized to quantify the volume-of-interest of buccal bone, in vitro study made with the dry skull of a sheep, and the comparison was applied with a reference method. Materials and Methods. A portion of the alveolar bone has been cut, then we built an acrylic model similar to this portion that we shut off, the model was inserted in the place of the piece that we cut, and we have scanned the skull afterwards. Four measurements were made by two examiners using the manual method and ImageJ software whereby DICOM images were extracted from CBCT. The accuracy and reliability were assessed using Student’s test and ICC, when , the statistics are considered significant, and comparison is made employing SPSS and Excel. Results. The repeated measures of volume-of-interest using the manual method and the software method revealed no significant difference. Conclusion. As there is no statistical difference of volume measurements using manual method and ImageJ software, we concluded that the volume measurements with ImageJ software are reliable and accurate. Ahmed Fadili, Naeda Alehyane, Abdelali Halimi, and Fatima Zaoui Copyright © 2015 Ahmed Fadili et al. All rights reserved. Computer-Aided Decision Support for Melanoma Detection Applied on Melanocytic and Nonmelanocytic Skin Lesions: A Comparison of Two Systems Based on Automatic Analysis of Dermoscopic Images Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:26:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/579282/ Commercially available clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for skin cancer have been designed for the detection of melanoma only. Correct use of the systems requires expert knowledge, hampering their utility for nonexperts. Furthermore, there are no systems to detect other common skin cancer types, that is, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). As early diagnosis of skin cancer is essential, there is a need for a CDSS that is applicable to all types of skin lesions and is suitable for nonexperts. Nevus Doctor (ND) is a CDSS being developed by the authors. We here investigate ND’s ability to detect both melanoma and NMSC and the opportunities for improvement. An independent test set of dermoscopic images of 870 skin lesions, including 44 melanomas and 101 NMSCs, were analysed by ND. Its sensitivity to melanoma and NMSC was compared to that of Mole Expert (ME), a commercially available CDSS, using the same set of lesions. ND and ME had similar sensitivity to melanoma. For ND at 95% melanoma sensitivity, the NMSC sensitivity was 100%, and the specificity was 12%. The melanomas misclassified by ND at 95% sensitivity were correctly classified by ME, and vice versa. ND is able to detect NMSC without sacrificing melanoma sensitivity. Kajsa Møllersen, Herbert Kirchesch, Maciel Zortea, Thomas R. Schopf, Kristian Hindberg, and Fred Godtliebsen Copyright © 2015 Kajsa Møllersen et al. All rights reserved. A Simple-to-Implement Simulator for the Reactive Extrusion of Poly(Lactic Acid) in a Corotating Uniform Twin-Screw Extruder Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:25:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/458949/ The present paper deals with the poly(lactic acid) (PLA) reactive processing simulation in a uniform corotating twin-screw extruder that can be readily turned into practical applications in pilot and industrial equipment. The simulator provides a cause-effect guide that can be useful for starting an experimental setup in a reactive screw extruder for a biopolymer in a growing industry. The proposed model considers a free radical ring-opening mechanism involving the main characteristic flows inside the extruder and the non-Newtonian behavior of PLA. The characteristic behavior relating reaction rate, average molecular weights, and polydispersity against chamber number are described by S-shaped and monotonically decreasing curves, for the equipment. Numerical predictions show that this simple and easy to implement model accurately reproduces previously reported data and that the impurity concentration exhibits a marked effect over all the variables, except conversion. René O. Vargas, J. Esteban López-Aguilar, Lorenzo A. Martínez-Suástegui, and Francisco López-Serrano Copyright © 2015 René O. Vargas et al. All rights reserved. PPAR-α Agonist Fenofibrate Decreased Serum Irisin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:21:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2015/924131/ Irisin is related to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. The physiologic effects of irisin are partially mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α). We investigated the effect of fenofibrate, a PPAR-α agonist, on serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This study evaluated cross-sectional and interventional studies of 25 type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia (group A) and 40 controls (group B). Group A was treated with fenofibrate (200 mg/day) for 8 weeks. Serum irisin and clinical characteristics were examined. Serum irisin was significantly higher in group A compared with group B ( versus  ng/ml, ) and correlated with body mass index (, ), fasting blood glucose (, ), total cholesterol (, ), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (, ). In multiple regression analysis after controlling for confounders, only fasting blood glucose (, ) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (, ) were independently related to serum irisin. After 8 weeks of fenofibrate treatment, serum irisin significantly decreased in group A compared with baseline ( versus  ng/ml, ). Conclusively, fenofibrate decreased serum irisin in type 2 diabetes patients with hypertriglyceridemia, indicating that PPAR-α agonists may protect against metabolic disorders by improving irisin resistance. Xiaomeng Feng, Xia Gao, Yumei Jia, Heng Zhang, Qingrong Pan, Zhi Yao, Ning Yang, Jia Liu, Yuan Xu, Guang Wang, and Xinchun Yang Copyright © 2015 Xiaomeng Feng et al. All rights reserved. Bessel Beam Diffraction by an Aperture in an Opaque Screen Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:19:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2015/909061/ The scattering of the Bessel beam by a circular aperture in an opaque screen is investigated by the geometrical theory of diffraction approach. The geometrical optics and diffracted and scattered fields are obtained. The effect of the aperture to the scattering process is analyzed. The uniform versions of field expressions are derived. The geometrical optics and diffracted and scattered fields are examined numerically. Husnu Deniz Basdemir Copyright © 2015 Husnu Deniz Basdemir. All rights reserved. Cerebral Venous Air Embolism due to a Hidden Skull Fracture Secondary to Head Trauma Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:19:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/730808/ Cerebral venous air embolism is sometimes caused by head trauma. One of the paths of air entry is considered a skull fracture. We report a case of cerebral venous air embolism following head trauma. The patient was a 55-year-old man who fell and hit his head. A head computed tomography (CT) scan showed the air in the superior sagittal sinus; however, no skull fractures were detected. Follow-up CT revealed a fracture line in the right temporal bone. Cerebral venous air embolism following head trauma might have occult skull fractures even if CT could not show the skull fractures. Ai Hosaka, Tetsuto Yamaguchi, Fumiko Yamamoto, and Yasuro Shibagaki Copyright © 2015 Ai Hosaka et al. All rights reserved. Parenchymal Guidewire Perforation during ERCP: An Unappreciated Injury Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:18:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/670323/ ERCP is attended with certain complications, the majority of which are well known to the medical community. Other less-known complications also exist. Guidewire injury to the hepatic or pancreatic parenchyma represents one of the much less appreciated, albeit preventable, complications. In this report, we present the clinical course of three patients who sustained guidewire perforation of the pancreatic or hepatic parenchyma. In one patient, the clinical deterioration was confidently attributed to guidewire perforation of the pancreatic parenchyma. Conservative treatment was successful and unnecessary emergency surgery was thus avoided. In the other two, in whom the cause of the clinical deterioration was unclear, an emergency surgery was performed. Guidewire injury to the hepatic parenchyma was then confirmed which needed only intraperitoneal drainage, with successful outcome. M. Ezzedien Rabie, Saad Al Faris, Ali Nasser, Abdul Aziz Shahir, Yasser Al Mahdi, and Mansour Youssef Al Asmari Copyright © 2015 M. Ezzedien Rabie et al. All rights reserved. Giant Cell Fibroma in a Paediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:03:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/240374/ Giant cell fibroma is a form of fibrous tumour affecting the oral mucosa. Its occurrence is relatively rare in paediatric patients. Clinically it is presented as a painless, sessile, or pedunculated growth which is usually confused with other fibrous lesions like irritation fibromas. Here we are presenting a case where a seven-year-old male patient reported with a painless nodular growth in relation to lingual surface of 41 and 42. Considering the size and location of the lesion, excisional biopsy was performed and sent for histopathological analysis which confirmed the lesion as giant cell fibroma. Veera Kishore Kumar Reddy, Naveen Kumar, Prashant Battepati, Lalitha Samyuktha, and Swapna Priya Nanga Copyright © 2015 Veera Kishore Kumar Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Heat Flux at the Surface of Metal Foil Heater under Evaporating Sessile Droplets Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:02:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2015/391036/ Evaporating water drops on a horizontal heated substrate were investigated experimentally. The heater was made of a constantan foil with the thickness of 25 μm and size of 42 × 35 mm2. The temperature of the bottom foil surface was measured by the infrared (IR) camera. To determine the heat flux density during evaporation of liquid near the contact line, the Cauchy problem for the heat equation was solved using the temperature data. The maximum heat flux density is obtained in the contact line region and exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 5–7. The average heat flux density in the region wetted by the drop exceeds the average heat flux density from the entire foil surface by the factor of 3–5. This fact is explained by the heat influx from the foil periphery to the drop due to the relatively high heat conductivity coefficient of the foil material and high evaporation rate in the contact line region. Heat flux density profiles for pairs of sessile droplets are also investigated. Igor Marchuk, Andrey Karchevsky, Anton Surtaev, and Oleg Kabov Copyright © 2015 Igor Marchuk et al. All rights reserved. Bianchi Type-I Universe with Cosmological Constant and Quadratic Equation of State in Modified Gravity Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:00:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2015/816826/ This paper deals with the study of Bianchi type-I universe in the context of gravity. Einstein’s field equations in gravity have been solved in the presence of cosmological constant and quadratic equation of state (EoS) , where is a constant. Here, we have discussed two classes of gravity; that is, and . A set of models has been taken into consideration based on the plausible relation. Also, we have studied some physical and kinematical properties of the models. G. P. Singh and Binaya K. Bishi Copyright © 2015 G. P. Singh and Binaya K. Bishi. All rights reserved. Strong Public Health Recommendations from Weak Evidence? Lessons Learned in Developing Guidance on the Public Health Management of Meningococcal Disease Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:58:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/569235/ The evidence underpinning public health policy is often of low quality, leading to inconsistencies in recommended interventions. One example is the divergence in national policies across Europe for managing contacts of invasive meningococcal disease. Aiming to develop consistent guidance at the European level, a group of experts reviewed the literature and formulated recommendations. The group defined eight priority research questions, searched the literature, and formulated recommendations using GRADE methodology. Five of the research questions are discussed in this paper. After taking into account quality of evidence, benefit, harm, value, preference, burden on patient of the intervention, and resource implications, we made four strong recommendations and five weak recommendations for intervention. Strong recommendations related not only to one question with very low quality of evidence as well as to two questions with moderate to high quality of evidence. The weak recommendations related to two questions with low and very low quality of evidence but also to one question with moderate quality of evidence. GRADE methodology ensures a transparent process and explicit recognition of additional factors that should be considered when making recommendations for policy. This approach can be usefully applied to many areas of public health policy where evidence quality is often low. Germaine Hanquet, Pawel Stefanoff, Wiebke Hellenbrand, Sigrid Heuberger, Pierluigi Lopalco, and James M. Stuart Copyright © 2015 Germaine Hanquet et al. All rights reserved. Parameter Estimation of Induction Machine at Standstill Using Two-Stage Recursive Least Squares Method Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:46:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/567492/ This paper presents a two-stage recursive least squares (TSRLS) algorithm for the electric parameter estimation of the induction machine (IM) at standstill. The basic idea of this novel algorithm is to decouple an identifying system into two subsystems by using decomposition technique and identify the parameters of each subsystem, respectively. The TSRLS is an effective implementation of the recursive least squares (RLS). Compared with the conventional (RLS) algorithm, the TSRLS reduces the number of arithmetic operations. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed TSRLS algorithm for parameter estimation of IMs. Jinliang Zhang, Longyun Kang, Lingyu Chen, and Zhihui Xu Copyright © 2015 Jinliang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Pars Plana Vitrectomy with and without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Idiopathic Retinal Membrane Removal: A Meta-Analysis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:46:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/974568/ We conducted a meta-analysis of published retrospective studies and compared the effectiveness of pars plana vitrectomy with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (IERM). The results revealed that patients in the IERM+ILM peeling group had better BCVA after surgery within 12 months than those in IERM peeling group. But patients in the IERM peeling group showed better BCVA in the 18th month. More retrospective studies or randomized controlled trials are required to investigate and compare the long-term effect of IERM removal with and without ILM peeling. Hanhan Liu, Shanru Zuo, Chun Ding, Xunzhang Dai, and Xiaohua Zhu Copyright © 2015 Hanhan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: The Molecular Connectivity between Insulin Resistance, Obesity, and Alzheimer’s Disease Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:45:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/105828/ Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and insulin resistance are age-related conditions and increased prevalence is of public concern. Recent research has provided evidence that insulin resistance and impaired insulin signalling may be a contributory factor to the progression of diabetes, dementia, and other neurological disorders. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common subtype of dementia. Reduced release (for T2DM) and decreased action of insulin are central to the development and progression of both T2DM and AD. A literature search was conducted to identify molecular commonalities between obesity, diabetes, and AD. Insulin resistance affects many tissues and organs, either through impaired insulin signalling or through aberrant changes in both glucose and lipid (cholesterol and triacylglycerol) metabolism and concentrations in the blood. Although epidemiological and biological evidence has highlighted an increased incidence of cognitive decline and AD in patients with T2DM, the common molecular basis of cell and tissue dysfunction is rapidly gaining recognition. As a cause or consequence, the chronic inflammatory response and oxidative stress associated with T2DM, amyloid-β (Aβ) protein accumulation, and mitochondrial dysfunction link T2DM and AD. Giuseppe Verdile, Kevin N. Keane, Vinicius F. Cruzat, Sandra Medic, Miheer Sabale, Joanne Rowles, Nadeeja Wijesekara, Ralph N. Martins, Paul E. Fraser, and Philip Newsholme Copyright © 2015 Giuseppe Verdile et al. All rights reserved. Silicone Breast Implants: A Rare Cause of Pleural Effusion Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:45:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2015/652918/ Pleural effusions are one of the rarest complications reported in patients with silicone gel filled breast implants. The silicone implants have potential to provoke chronic inflammation of pleura and subsequent pulmonary complications such as pleural effusion. Herein, we report a 44-year-old female who presented with left sided pleural effusion, six weeks after a silicone breast implantation surgery. The most common infectious, inflammatory, and malignant causes of pleural effusion were excluded with pleural fluid cytology and cultures. With recurrent effusion in the setting of recent surgery, the chemical reaction to silicone breast implants was sought and exploration was performed which revealed foreign body reaction (FBR) to silicone material. The symptoms dramatically improved after the explantation. Imam H. Shaik, Bindu Gandrapu, Fernando Gonzalez-Ibarra, David Flores, Jyoti Matta, and Amer K. Syed Copyright © 2015 Imam H. Shaik et al. All rights reserved. Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:37:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2015/943867/ As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL). High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL) and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5%) in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL) and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2%) in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker. Toshiki Tanaka, Toshio Sekioka, Masakatsu Usui, and Shinsaku Imashuku Copyright © 2015 Toshiki Tanaka et al. All rights reserved. BRAF Mutations in an Italian Regional Population: Implications for the Therapy of Thyroid Cancer Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:29:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/138734/ Background. Molecular diagnostics has offered new techniques for searching for mutations in thyroid indeterminate lesions. The study’s aim was to evaluate the BRAF mutations’ incidence in an Italian regional population. Subjects and Methods. 70 Caucasian patients born in Liguria with indeterminate or suspicious cytological diagnoses. Results. A BRAF gene mutation was successfully analyzed in 56/70 patients. The mutation was BRAF V600E in 12/56 cases (21%) and BRAF K601E in 2/56 (4%). Of the BRAF mutated samples on cytological diagnosis (14/56 cases), 2/14 cases (14%) were benign on final histology and 12/14 (86%) were malignant. All BRAF-mutated cases on cytology that were found to be benign on histological examination carried the K601E mutation. Of the nonmutated BRAF cases (42/56, 75%) which were later found to be malignant on definitive histology, 5 cases were follicular carcinomas (36%), 3 cases were incidentally found to be papillary microcarcinomas (22%), 2 were cases papillary carcinomas (14%), 1 was case follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (7%), 1 was case medullary carcinoma (7%), 1 case was Hurtle cell tumor (7%), and 1 case was combined cell carcinoma and papillary oncocytic carcinoma (7%). Conclusions. The presence of the BRAF V600E mutation may suggest a more aggressive surgical approach. BRAF K601E mutation did not correlate with malignancy indexes. Eleonora Monti, Michela Bovero, Lorenzo Mortara, Giorgia Pera, Simonetta Zupo, Elena Gugiatti, Mariella Dono, Barbara Massa, Gian Luca Ansaldo, and Giusti Massimo Copyright © 2015 Eleonora Monti et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Waste Anesthetic Gas in the Postanesthesia Care Unit within the Patient Breathing Zone Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:28:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arp/2015/354184/ Potential health hazards from waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) have been a concern since the introduction of inhalational anesthetics into clinical practice. The potential to exceed recommended exposure levels (RELs) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) exists. The aim of this pilot study was to assess sevoflurane WAG levels while accounting for factors that affect inhalational anesthetic elimination. In this pilot study, 20 adult day surgery patients were enrolled with anesthesia maintained with sevoflurane. Following extubation, exhaled WAG from the patient breathing zone was measured 8 inches from the patient’s mouth in the PACU. Maximum sevoflurane WAG levels in the patient breathing zone exceeded National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) RELs for every 5-minute time interval measured during PACU Phase I. Observed WAGs in our study were explained by inhalational anesthetic pharmacokinetics. Further analysis suggests that the rate of washout of sevoflurane was dependent on the duration of anesthetic exposure. This study demonstrated that clinically relevant inhalational anesthetic concentrations result in sevoflurane WAG levels that exceed current RELs. Evaluating peak and cumulative sevoflurane WAG levels in the breathing zone of PACU Phase I and Phase II providers is warranted to quantify the extent and duration of exposure. Kenneth N. Hiller, Alfonso V. Altamirano, Chunyan Cai, Stephanie F. Tran, and George W. Williams Copyright © 2015 Kenneth N. Hiller et al. All rights reserved. Total Reconstruction of the Upper Lip Using Bilateral Nasolabial Flaps, Submental Flap, and Mucosa Graft following Complete Resection for Squamous Cell Carcinoma Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:27:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/782151/ Lip reconstruction following resection for tumour or following extensive trauma may pose a challenge. This is more so when the resection is total and a complete lip has to be constructed. We present a case of lip reconstruction following a total resection of the upper lip. The procedure used in this case was a combination of bilateral nasolabial flaps with a submental flap and buccal mucosal graft lining. We believe that this provides an alternative method of total upper lip reconstruction with minimal disruption of the facial aesthesis. O. G. Oseni, A. E. Fadare, M. O. Majaro, and P. B. Olaitan Copyright © 2015 O. G. Oseni et al. All rights reserved. A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Trial of Hydrolyzed Rice Bran versus Placebo for Radioprotective Effect on Acute Gastroenteritis Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Cervical Cancer Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:23:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/974390/ We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of hydrolyzed rice bran (HRB) on acute gastroenteritis due to chemoradiotherapy for treatment of cervical cancer. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted as an exploratory investigation of the colitis-inhibiting effects of HRB in alleviating acute-phase gastrointestinal side effects of chemoradiotherapy. The study involved 20 patients (10 in the HRB group, 10 in the control group). The patients in the control group underwent the same chemoradiotherapy regimen as those in the HRB group, but they received a placebo instead of HRB. The diarrheal side effect assessment score was lower in the HRB than control group, and a trend toward a reduction in diarrhea symptoms was observed with the oral intake of HRB. Additionally, no significant difference was observed in the administration of intestinal regulators and antidiarrheal agents, but again the assessment score was lower in the HRB than control group, and diarrhea symptoms were alleviated with the oral intake of HRB. A trend toward no need for strong antidiarrheal agents was seen. Although this study was an exploratory clinical trial, the results suggest that HRB may relieve diarrhea, an acute-phase gastrointestinal side effect of chemoradiotherapy. Yoshiyuki Itoh, Mika Mizuno, Mitsuru Ikeda, Rie Nakahara, Seiji Kubota, Junji Ito, Tohru Okada, Mariko Kawamura, Fumitaka Kikkawa, and Shinji Naganawa Copyright © 2015 Yoshiyuki Itoh et al. All rights reserved. Autoimmune Hepatitis in Brazilian Children: IgE and Genetic Polymorphisms in Associated Genes Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:21:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/679813/ Pediatric autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients present hypergammaglobulinemia, periportal CD8+ cytotoxic T cell infiltration, and cirrhosis. Autoantibody profile defines AIH types 1 and 2 in addition to strong association with HLA-DRB1. We previously detected increased IgE serum levels and sought to compare clinical and histological features according to IgE levels in AIH (, ages 1–14 years) patients. Additionally, we typed 117 patients and 227 controls for functional polymorphisms of IL4, IL13, IL5, and IL4RA genes involved in IgE switching and eosinophil maturation that might contribute to overall genetic susceptibility to AIH. Serum IgE levels were high in 55% of AIH-1, but only in 12% of AIH-2 () patients. Liver IgE was present in 91.3% of AIH-1 patients. The A alleles at both IL13 rs20541 and IL4RA rs1805011 were associated with AIH-1 (, OR = 1.55 and , OR = 2.15, resp.). Furthermore, individuals presenting homozygosis for the A allele at IL4RA rs1805011 and HLA-DRB1 and/or allele had sixfold greater risk to develop the disease (OR = 14.00, ). The novel association suggests an additional role for IgE-linked immune response genes in the pathogenesis of AIH. Léa Campos de Oliveira, Anna Carla Goldberg, Maria Lucia Carnevale Marin, Karina Rosa Schneidwind, Amanda Farage Frade, Jorge Kalil, Irene Kasue Miura, Renata Pereira Sustovich Pugliese, Vera Lucia Baggio Danesi, and Gilda Porta Copyright © 2015 Léa Campos de Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Minimal Invasive Percutaneous Osteosynthesis for Elderly Valgus Impacted Proximal Humeral Fractures with the PHILOS Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:19:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/971216/ There is a growing concern about elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment and clinical outcomes following minimal invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) with the proximal humeral internal locking system (PHILOS) for the treatment of elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fracture. Between May 2008 and May 2012, 27 patients (average age 67.3, range 61–74) with valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures were enrolled in the study. The patients were treated with MIPPO using PHILOS-plate through the anterolateral delta-splitting approach. Rehabilitation exercises were done gradually. The NEER score and Constant-Murley score were used to evaluate shoulder function. All the patients were followed up by routine radiological imaging and clinical examination. There were 15 cases of II-part greater tuberosity fractures, 10 cases of III-part greater tuberosity fractures, and 2 cases of IV-part fractures according to the NEER classification. The surgery was successful in all patients with an average follow-up of 20.8 (range: 11–34) months. The fractures united in an average of 7.2 (6–14) weeks without implant loosening. According to NEER score, there were 17 excellent, 7 satisfactory, 2 unsatisfactory, and 1 poor. The mean Constant-Murley score was . No complication including axillary nerve damage, postoperative nerve or vessel damage, infections, DVT, or death was observed. In conclusion, the MIPPO technique with the PHILOS through the anterolateral delta-splitting approach seems to be a safe and easy treatment for elderly valgus impacted proximal humeral fractures. A case-control study and longer follow-up time are needed. Hang Chen, Xiaochuan Hu, Haochen Tang, Guoyong Yang, and Ming Xiang Copyright © 2015 Hang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Sexual Dimorphisms of Adrenal Steroids, Sex Hormones, and Immunological Biomarkers and Possible Risk Factors for Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/929246/ Innate immunity and immunological biomarkers are believed to be interrelated with sex hormones and other neuroendocrine factors. Sexual dimorphism mechanisms may be operating in certain rheumatic and inflammatory diseases which occur more frequently in women than men, as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Less data have been available on altered interrelations of the combined neuroendocrine and immune (NEI) systems as risk factors for development of certain diseases. In this study, serological interrelations of NEI biomarkers are analyzed before symptomatic onset of RA (pre-RA) versus control (CN) subjects, stratified by sex. Sexual dimorphism was found in serum levels of acute serum amyloid A (ASAA), soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2Rα), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Multiple steroidal and hormonal (neuroendocrine) factors also showed highly significant sexual dimorphism in their assayed values, but less for cortisol , and not for 17-hydroxyprogesterone . After stratification by sex and risk of developing RA, differential NEI correlational patterns were observed in the interplay of the NEI systems between the pre-RA and CN groups, which deserve further investigation. Alfonse T. Masi, Azeem A. Rehman, Laura C. Jorgenson, Jennifer M. Smith, and Jean C. Aldag Copyright © 2015 Alfonse T. Masi et al. All rights reserved. Morphology Effect on Enhanced Li+-Ion Storage Performance for Ni2+/3+ and/or Co2+/3+ Doped LiMnPO4 Cathode Nanoparticles Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:17:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/970856/ The electrochemical performance of Li(Mn, M)PO4 (M = Co2+/3+, Ni2+/3+) was investigated with regard to the particle morphology. Within a controlled chemical composition, Li(Mn0.92Co0.04Ni0.04)PO4, the resultant cathode exhibited somewhat spherical-shaped nanocrystalline particles and enhanced Li+-ion storage, which was even better than the undoped LiMnPO4, up to 16% in discharge capacity at 0.05 C. The outstanding electrochemical performance is attributed to the well-dispersed spherical-shaped particle morphology, which allows the fast Li+-ion migration during the electrochemical lithiation/delithiation process, especially at high current density. Young Jun Yun, Mihye Wu, Jin Kyu Kim, Ji Young Ju, Sun Sook Lee, Ki Woong Kim, Woon Ik Park, Ha-Kyun Jung, Kwang Ho Kim, Jin-Seong Park, and Sungho Choi Copyright © 2015 Young Jun Yun et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Morphological Characterization of Cheilospirura hamulosa, Diesing, 1861 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea), from Partridges in Iran Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:17:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpr/2015/569340/ This study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (Alectoris chukar) from Taleqan County in Alborz Province, Iran. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1–12. The mean length and width of females were and  mm, while those of males were and  mm, respectively. The characteristic digitiform tail was observed in females, and the unequal spicules, caudal alae, and ten pairs of caudal papillae were seen in males. The taxonomic characteristic longitudinal cordons and muscular and glandular oesophagus were observed in both sexes. Ratio between cordons and body length in males and females was 1 : 1.33 and 1 : 1.68, respectively. Ratio between long and short spicules in males was 1 : 2.3. The average size of embryonated eggs was  μm. In the present study, C. hamulosa (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) is recorded for the first time from partridges in Iran. Therefore, the morphological characters described in this study will be useful in the future diagnostic and taxonomic studies of Acuarioidea family. Maryam Ebrahimi, Soheila Rouhani, Iraj Mobedi, Ali Rostami, Hoshang Khazan, and Mohammad Bagher Ahoo Copyright © 2015 Maryam Ebrahimi et al. All rights reserved. Successful Cognitive Aging: Between Functional Decline and Failure of Compensatory Mechanisms Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:17:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/367407/ Marc Verny, Emmanuel Moyse, and Slavica Krantic Copyright © 2015 Marc Verny et al. All rights reserved. Modulatory Effects of Astragalus Polysaccharides on T-Cell Polarization in Mice with Polymicrobial Sepsis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:57:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/826319/ Background. This study evaluated the impact of different doses of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on the functional status and phenotype of T cells during polymicrobial sepsis. Methods. On day 1 after cecal ligation and puncture, mice were treated with either saline, 100 (A100), 200 (A200), or 400 mg APS/kg body weight (BW) (A400) by an intraperitoneal injection daily for 4 days. All mice were sacrificed 5 days after the operation. Results. APS treatment reversed the sepsis-induced decrement in the T helper (Th) cell population, and the percentage of activated Th cells also increased in the spleen and Peyer’s patches. APS administration downregulated the percentages of circulating Th2 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg), and the percentage of Th17 cells in blood was upregulated in the A400 group. Weight loss and kidney injury were attenuated in the A100 and A200 groups but not in the A400 group at the end of the study. Conclusions. Treatments with 100 and 200 mg APS/kg BW reduced Treg populations and elicited a more-balanced Th1/Th2 response that consequently attenuated immunosuppression in polymicrobial sepsis. High-dose APS administration led to excessive responses of Th17 cells which may have adverse effects in sepsis-induced organ injury. Yu-Chen Hou, Jin-Ming Wu, Ming-Yang Wang, Ming-Hsun Wu, Kuen-Yuan Chen, Sung-Ling Yeh, and Ming-Tsan Lin Copyright © 2015 Yu-Chen Hou et al. All rights reserved. Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Atypical Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children from Chongqing, China: A Retrospective Study Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:56:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/802046/ Background. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a disease that had similar manifestations to chickenpox, impetigo, and measles, which is easy to misdiagnose and subsequently causes delayed therapy and subsequent epidemic. To date, no study has been conducted to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of atypical HFMD. Methods. 64 children with atypical HFMD out of 887 HFMD children were recruited, stool was collected, and viral VP1 was detected. Results. The atypical HFMD accounted for 7.2% of total HFMD in the same period (64/887) and there were two peaks in its prevalence in nonepidemic seasons. Ten children (15.6%) had manifestations of neurologic involvement, of whom 4 (6.3%) were diagnosed with severe HFMD and 1 with critically severe HFMD, but all recovered smoothly. Onychomadesis and desquamation were found in 14 patients (21.9%) and 15 patients (23.4%), respectively. The most common pathogen was coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) which accounted for 67.2%, followed by nontypable enterovirus (26.6%), enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) (4.7%), and coxsackievirus A16 (A16) (1.5%). Conclusions. Atypical HFMD has seasonal prevalence. The manifestations of neurologic involvement in atypical HFMD are mild and usually have a good prognosis. CV-A6 is a major pathogen causing atypical HFMD, but not a major pathogen in Chongqing, China. Xiang Yan, Zhen-Zhen Zhang, Zhen-Hua Yang, Chao-Min Zhu, Yun-Ge Hu, and Quan-Bo Liu Copyright © 2015 Xiang Yan et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Docking Target Functions by the Comprehensive Investigation of Protein-Ligand Energy Minima Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:56:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abi/2015/126858/ The adequate choice of the docking target function impacts the accuracy of the ligand positioning as well as the accuracy of the protein-ligand binding energy calculation. To evaluate a docking target function we compared positions of its minima with the experimentally known pose of the ligand in the protein active site. We evaluated five docking target functions based on either the MMFF94 force field or the PM7 quantum-chemical method with or without implicit solvent models: PCM, COSMO, and SGB. Each function was tested on the same set of 16 protein-ligand complexes. For exhaustive low-energy minima search the novel MPI parallelized docking program FLM and large supercomputer resources were used. Protein-ligand binding energies calculated using low-energy minima were compared with experimental values. It was demonstrated that the docking target function on the base of the MMFF94 force field in vacuo can be used for discovery of native or near native ligand positions by finding the low-energy local minima spectrum of the target function. The importance of solute-solvent interaction for the correct ligand positioning is demonstrated. It is shown that docking accuracy can be improved by replacement of the MMFF94 force field by the new semiempirical quantum-chemical PM7 method. Igor V. Oferkin, Ekaterina V. Katkova, Alexey V. Sulimov, Danil C. Kutov, Sergey I. Sobolev, Vladimir V. Voevodin, and Vladimir B. Sulimov Copyright © 2015 Igor V. Oferkin et al. All rights reserved. Transvaginal Resection of a Bladder Leiomyoma Misdiagnosed with a Vaginal Mass: A Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:55:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/981843/ Bladder leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor and it could be easily misdiagnosed with many other pelvic diseases, especially obstetrical and gynecological diseases; abdominal, laparoscopic, and transurethral resection of bladder leiomyoma have been reported. Herein, we present a case of bladder leiomyoma misdiagnosed with a vaginal mass preoperatively; the mass was isolated, enucleated from the bladder neck, and removed transvaginally; to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of intramural leiomyoma of bladder neck that has been enucleated transvaginally only without cystotomy. Fu-Fen Yin, Ning Wang, You-Lin Wang, Xiao-Ning Bi, Xiao-Hui Xu, and Yan-Kui Wang Copyright © 2015 Fu-Fen Yin et al. All rights reserved. A New Approach Using Manganese-Enhanced MRI to Diagnose Acute Mesenteric Ischemia in a Rabbit Model: Initial Experience Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:50:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/579639/ Purpose. Manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) has been applied to a wide range of biological and disease research. The purpose of the study was to use MEMRI to diagnose the acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). Methods. The institutional experimental animal ethics committee approved this study. To optimize the dose of Mn2+ infusion, a dose-dependent curve was obtained using Mn2+-enhanced T1 map MRI by an intravenous infusion 2.5–20 nmol/g body weight (BW) of 50 nmol/L MnCl2. The eighteen animals were divided into control, sham-operated, and AMI groups. AMI models were performed by ligating the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). T1 values were measured on T1 maps in regions of the small intestinal wall and relaxation rate (ΔR1) was calculated. Results. A nonlinear relationship between infused MnCl2 solution dose and increase in small intestinal wall ΔR1 was observed. Control animal exhibited significant Mn2+ clearance over time at the dose of 15 nmol/g BW. In the AMI model, ΔR1 values (0.95 ± 0.13) in the small intestinal wall were significantly lower than in control group (2.05 ± 0.19) after Mn2+ infusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion. The data suggest that MEMRI shows potential as a diagnostic technique that is directly sensitive to the poor or absent perfusion in AMI. Da-wei Zhao, Cheng Cheng, Lian-qin Kuang, Yu-long Zhang, Hai-yun Cheng, Jia-yan Min, and Yi Wang Copyright © 2015 Da-wei Zhao et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Paeoniflorin on α-Synuclein Degradation Pathway Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:44:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/182495/ Paeoniflorin (PF) is the major active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix. It plays a neuroprotective role by regulating autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In this study, we found PF significantly reduced cell damage caused by MPP+, returning cells to normal state. Cell viability significantly improved after 24 h exposure to RAPA and PF in the MPP+ group (all ). CAT and SOD activities were significantly decreased after PF and RAPA treatment, compared with MPP+ (). In addition, MPP+ activated both LC3-II and E1; RAPA increased LC3-II but inhibited E1. PF significantly upregulated both LC3-II (autophagy) and E1 (ubiquitin-proteasome pathway) expression (), promoted degradation of α-synuclein, and reduced cell damage. We show MPP+ enhanced immunofluorescence signal of intracellular α-synuclein and LC3. Fluorescence intensity of α-synuclein decreased after PF treatment. In conclusion, these data show PF reversed the decline of proteasome activity caused by MPP+ and significantly upregulated both autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, promoted the degradation of α-synuclein, and reduced cell damage. These findings suggest PF is a potential therapeutic medicine for neurodegenerative diseases. Zenglin Cai, Xinzhi Zhang, Yongjin Zhang, Xiuming Li, Jing Xu, and Xiaomin Li Copyright © 2015 Zenglin Cai et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Changes in Ovarian Follicle Growth in Iran Viper (Vipera albicornuta) Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:30:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ab/2015/953045/ The Vipera albicornuta is an economically important snake of Iran, its venom is used for antivenin production, and we need to breed the snake in the captivity. In order to know about the viper’s reproductive biology, seasonal alterations in ovarian weight, morphology, and the follicles developmental stages in Vipera albicornuta were studied using macroscopic parameters and histological examination of reproductive tissues during a year. Twenty-four female vipers were collected from mountainous zone of Bostanabad, East Azerbaijan, and Tarom in Zanjan through years 2011-2012. Evaluation of the reproductive parameters of this viper is performed for the first time in Iran. Our observation revealed that vitellogenesis cycle begins in autumn and continues till early summer; ovaries and follicles are in previtellogenesis stage in autumn and vitellogenesis in winter and during spring. Weight of ovary is heaviest in spring, ovulation occurs in late spring till early summer, and copulation is prior to ovulation. Nousha Afsharzadeh, Abdolhossein Shiravi, and Fatemeh Todehdehghan Copyright © 2015 Nousha Afsharzadeh et al. All rights reserved. Durability Study on High Calcium Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:21:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/731056/ This study presents an investigation into the durability of geopolymer concrete prepared using high calcium fly ash along with alkaline activators when exposed to 2% solution of sulfuric acid and 5% magnesium sulphate for up to 45 days. The durability was also assessed by measuring water absorption and sorptivity. Ordinary Portland cement concrete was also prepared as control concrete. The grades chosen for the investigation were M20, M40, and M60. The alkaline solution used for present study is the combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution with the ratio of 2.50. The molarity of sodium hydroxide was fixed as 12. The test specimens were  mm cubes,  mm cylinders, and  mm discs cured at ambient temperature. Surface deterioration, density, and strength over a period of 14, 28, and 45 days were observed. The results of geopolymer and ordinary Portland cement concrete were compared and discussed. After 45 days of exposure to the magnesium sulfate solution, the reduction in strength was up to 12% for geopolymer concrete and up to 25% for ordinary Portland cement concrete. After the same period of exposure to the sulphuric acid solution, the compressive strength decrease was up to 20% for geopolymer concrete and up to 28% for ordinary Portland cement concrete. Ganesan Lavanya and Josephraj Jegan Copyright © 2015 Ganesan Lavanya and Josephraj Jegan. All rights reserved. Practitioner Perspectives on Delivering Integrative Medicine in a Large, Acute Care Hospital Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:20:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/394040/ Background. We describe the process and challenges of delivering integrative medicine (IM) at a large, acute care hospital, from the perspectives of IM practitioners. To date, minimal literature that addresses the delivery of IM care in an inpatient setting from this perspective exists. Methods. Fifteen IM practitioners were interviewed about their experience delivering IM services at Abbott Northwestern Hospital (ANW), a 630-bed tertiary care hospital. Themes were drawn from codes developed through analysis of the data. Results. Analysis of interview transcripts highlighted challenges of ensuring efficient use of IM practitioner resources across a large hospital, the IM practitioner role in affecting patient experiences, and the ways practitioners navigated differences in IM and conventional medicine cultures in an inpatient setting. Conclusions. IM practitioners favorably viewed their role in patient care, but this work existed within the context of challenges related to balancing supply and demand for services and to integrating an IM program into the established culture of a large hospital. Hospitals planning IM programs should carefully assess the supply and demand dynamics of offering IM in a hospital, advocate for the unique IM practitioner role in patient care, and actively support integration of conventional and complementary approaches. Kent C. Nate, Kristen H. Griffin, Jon B. Christianson, and Jeffery A. Dusek Copyright © 2015 Kent C. Nate et al. All rights reserved. Antinociceptive Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Nociceptive Behavior of Adult Rats during the Formalin Test Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:19:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/520454/ Optimizing pain relief resulting from spinal manipulative therapies, including low velocity variable amplitude spinal manipulation (LVVA-SM), requires determining their mechanisms. Pain models that incorporate simulated spinal manipulative therapy treatments are needed for these studies. The antinociceptive effects of a single LVVA-SM treatment on rat nociceptive behavior during the commonly used formalin test were investigated. Dilute formalin was injected subcutaneously into a plantar hindpaw. Licking behavior was video-recorded for 5 minutes. Ten minutes of LVVA-SM at 20° flexion was administered with a custom-made device at the lumbar (L5) vertebra of isoflurane-anesthetized experimental rats () beginning 10 minutes after formalin injection. Hindpaw licking was video-recorded for 60 minutes beginning 5 minutes after LVVA-SM. Control rats () underwent the same methods except for LVVA-SM. The mean times spent licking the formalin-injected hindpaw of both groups 1–5 minutes after injection were not different. The mean licking time during the first 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM of experimental rats was significantly less than that of control rats (). The mean licking times of both groups during the second and third 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM were not different. Administration of LVVA-SM had a short-term, remote antinociceptive effect similar to clinical findings. Therefore, mechanistic investigations using this experimental approach are warranted. Stephen M. Onifer, William R. Reed, Randall S. Sozio, and Cynthia R. Long Copyright © 2015 Stephen M. Onifer et al. All rights reserved. A VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognition and Decision System for the Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/202934/ The phacoemulsification surgery is one of the most advanced surgeries to treat cataract. However, the conventional surgeries are always with low automatic level of operation and over reliance on the ability of surgeons. Alternatively, one imaginative scene is to use video processing and pattern recognition technologies to automatically detect the cataract grade and intelligently control the release of the ultrasonic energy while operating. Unlike cataract grading in the diagnosis system with static images, complicated background, unexpected noise, and varied information are always introduced in dynamic videos of the surgery. Here we develop a VidEo-Based Intelligent Recognitionand Decision (VEBIRD) system, which breaks new ground by providing a generic framework for automatically tracking the operation process and classifying the cataract grade in microscope videos of the phacoemulsification cataract surgery. VEBIRD comprises a robust eye (iris) detector with randomized Hough transform to precisely locate the eye in the noise background, an effective probe tracker with Tracking-Learning-Detection to thereafter track the operation probe in the dynamic process, and an intelligent decider with discriminative learning to finally recognize the cataract grade in the complicated video. Experiments with a variety of real microscope videos of phacoemulsification verify VEBIRD’s effectiveness. Shu Tian, Xu-Cheng Yin, Zhi-Bin Wang, Fang Zhou, and Hong-Wei Hao Copyright © 2015 Shu Tian et al. All rights reserved. Classes of Harmonic Functions Defined by Subordination Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:13:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/756928/ New classes of univalent harmonic functions are introduced. We give sufficient coefficient conditions for these classes. These coefficient conditions are shown to be also necessary if certain restrictions are imposed on the coefficients of these harmonic functions. By using extreme points theory we also obtain coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. Radii of convexity and starlikeness of the classes are also considered. Jacek Dziok Copyright © 2015 Jacek Dziok. All rights reserved. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:11:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/908493/ Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. Carla Marchetti, Marco Clericuzio, Barbara Borghesi, Laura Cornara, Stefania Ribulla, Fabio Gosetti, Emilio Marengo, and Bruno Burlando Copyright © 2015 Carla Marchetti et al. All rights reserved. Untreated Active Tuberculosis in Pregnancy with Intraocular Dissemination: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:09:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2015/370462/ Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that affects hundreds of millions of people across the world. However, the incidence in developed countries has decreased over the past decades causing physicians to become unfamiliar with its unspecific symptoms. Pregnant individuals are especially difficult because many symptoms of active TB can mimic normal physiological changes of pregnancy. We present a case report of a 26-year-old multiparous woman, G4P3003, at 38-week gestation with a history of positive PPD who emigrated from Ghana 6 years ago. She came to the hospital with an initial complaint of suprapubic pain, pressure, and possible leakage of amniotic fluid for the past week. Patient also complained of a productive cough for the past 3 to 4 months with a decrease in vision occurring with the start of pregnancy. Visual acuity was worse than 20/200 in both eyes. Definitive diagnosis of active TB was delayed due to patient refusal of chest X-ray. Fortunately, delay in diagnosis was minimized since patient delivered within 24 hours of admission. Active TB was confirmed with intraocular dissemination. Patient had optic atrophy OS (left eye) and papillitis, choroiditis, and uveitis OD (right eye) due to TB infiltration. Fetus was asymptomatic and anti-TB therapy was started for both patients. Shadi Rezai, Stephen LoBue, Daniel Adams, Yewande Oladipo, Ramses Posso, Tiffany Mapp, Crystal Santiago, Manisha Jain, William D. Marino, and Cassandra E. Henderson Copyright © 2015 Shadi Rezai et al. All rights reserved. Hypermethylation-Associated Silencing of miR-125a and miR-125b: A Potential Marker in Colorectal Cancer Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:08:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/345080/ Background. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be downregulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC), and some of them may function as tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). Aberrant methylation triggers the inactivation of TSGs during tumorigenesis. Patients and Methods. We investigated the methylation status of miR-125 family in CRC tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues by using bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). The expression levels of the two miRNAs were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results. The methylation frequency of miR-125a and miR-125b was higher in CRC tissues. QRT-PCR analysis showed that miR-125a and miR-125b were significantly downregulated in CRC tissues. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-125a and miR-125b were inversely correlated to CpG island methylation in CRC. Conclusions. Our results suggest that DNA hypermethylation may be involved in the inactivation of miR-125a and miR-125b in CRC, and hypermethylation of miR-125 is a potential biomarker for clinical outcome. Hui Chen and Zhiying Xu Copyright © 2015 Hui Chen and Zhiying Xu. All rights reserved. The Influence of Parkinson’s Disease Motor Symptom Asymmetry on Hand Performance: An Examination of the Grooved Pegboard Task Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:00:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/307474/ This study examined the influence of motor symptom asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease (PD) on Grooved Pegboard (GP) performance in right-handed participants. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale was used to assess motor symptoms and separate participants with PD into two groups (right-arm affected, left-arm affected) for comparison with a group of healthy older adults. Participants completed the place and replace GP tasks two times with both hands. Laterality quotients were computed to quantify performance differences between the two hands. Comparisons among the three groups indicated that when the nonpreferred hand is affected by PD motor symptoms, superior preferred hand performance (as seen in healthy older adults) is further exaggerated in tasks that require precision (i.e., place task). Regardless of the task, when the preferred hand is affected, there is an evident shift to superior left-hand performance, which may inevitably manifest as a switch in hand preference. Results add to the discussion of the relationship between handedness and motor symptom asymmetry in PD. Sara M. Scharoun, Pamela J. Bryden, Michael D. Sage, Quincy J. Almeida, and Eric A. Roy Copyright © 2015 Sara M. Scharoun et al. All rights reserved. McGrath Video Laryngoscope May Take a Longer Intubation Time Than Macintosh Laryngoscope Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:00:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jan/2015/901903/ Background. Video laryngoscopes provide better view and can improve ease of intubation compared with standard laryngoscopes. Methods. A prospective randomized study was done on 60 patients, 18 to 65 years old, comparing McGrath video laryngoscope and Macintosh laryngoscope. The aim was to compare the ease, efficacy, and usability of them during routine airway management. The primary endpoint was duration of intubation and the secondary endpoints were Cormack and Lehane grade of laryngoscopic view, number of intubation attempts, and incidence of complications. Results. There was an increase in total duration of intubation with McGrath video laryngoscope with 42.9 ± 19.5 seconds compared to Macintosh laryngoscope with 17.9 ± 4.6 seconds. In Macintosh group, 73.3% had grade I, 20% had grade II, and 6.7% had grade III Cormack Lehane view, while in McGrath group, 83.3% had grade I, 13.3% had grade II, and 3.3% had grade III. In McGrath group, 6 patients (20%) required more than 120 seconds to get intubated and only 73.3% were intubated in 1 attempt, while patients in Macintosh group had 100% successful intubation in 1 attempt. Pharyngeal trauma was seen with McGrath videolaryngoscopy. Conclusion. Duration of laryngoscopy, intubation, and total duration of intubation were significantly higher in McGrath group than in Macintosh group. McGrath group required a higher number of intubation attempts. Prerana N. Shah and Kaveri Das Copyright © 2015 Prerana N. Shah and Kaveri Das. All rights reserved. DOA Estimation Based on Sparse Signal Recovery Utilizing Double-Threshold Sigmoid Penalty Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:59:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/287915/ This paper proposes a new algorithm based on sparse signal recovery for estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of multiple sources. The problem model we build is about the sample covariance matrix fitting by unknown source powers. We enhance the sparsity by the double-threshold sigmoid penalty function which can approximate the norm accurately. Our method can distinguish closely spaced sources and does not need the knowledge of the number of the sources. In addition, our method can also perform well in low SNR. Besides, our method can handle more sources accurately than other methods. Simulations are done to certify the great performance of the proposed method. Hanbing Wang, Hui Li, and Bin Li Copyright © 2015 Hanbing Wang et al. All rights reserved. Histomorphometric Evaluation of Superovulation Effect on Follicular Development after Autologous Ovarian Transplantation in Mice Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:56:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vmi/2015/236436/ The effect of superovulation by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) on autologous transplanted ovaries in the lumbar muscles of mice was histomorphometrically evaluated using the indices of number and volume of different kind of follicles and volume of corpora lutea, ovary, and stroma. Angiogenesis was observed after mouse ovarian transplantation on days 14 and 21 after ovarian grafting. After transplantation, the total number and volume of primary and secondary follicles reduced, while PMSG superovulation increased the total number and total volume of tertiary follicles and also the ovarian volume after transplantation. Transplantation increased the average size of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles. Therefore, primary and secondary follicles can survive after autologous transplantation but their reservations diminished by increasing the time of transplantation. However, number of tertiary follicles and their response to superovulation increased over time after transplantation. Amin Tamadon, Alireza Raayat Jahromi, Farhad Rahmanifar, Mohammad Ayaseh, Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi, and Reza Moghiminasr Copyright © 2015 Amin Tamadon et al. All rights reserved. Low-Intensity Repetitive Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:55:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2015/281540/ Rhabdomyolysis is a rare condition caused by the proteins of damaged muscle cells entering the bloodstream and damaging the kidneys. Common symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are muscle pain and fatigue in conjunction with dark urine; kidney damage is a common symptom among these patients. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman who displayed myalgia in the upper extremities caused by low-intensity and high-repetition exercise. She was successfully diagnosed and treated for exertional rhabdomyolysis. This patient had no significant medical history that would induce this condition. We urge the emergency medical community to observe and monitor patients that complain of myalgia to ensure they are not suffering from rhabdomyolysis even in atypical cases. Mina Tran, Nicholas Hayden, Brandon Garcia, and Veronica Tucci Copyright © 2015 Mina Tran et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of ZnO Nanowires and Their Photovoltaic Application: ZnO Nanowires/AgGaSe2 Thin Film Core-Shell Solar Cell Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:48:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/516012/ In this investigation, hydrothermal technique was employed for the synthesis of well-aligned dense arrays of ZnO nanowires (NWs) on a wide range of substrates including silicon, soda-lime glass (SLG), indium tin oxide, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Results showed that ZnO NWs can be successfully grown on any substrate that can withstand the growth temperature (~90°C) and precursor solution chemicals. Results also revealed that there was a strong impact of growth time and ZnO seed layer deposition route on the orientation, density, diameter, and uniformity of the synthesized nanowires. A core-shell n-ZnO NWs/p-AgGaSe2 (AGS) thin film solar cell was fabricated as a device application of synthesized ZnO nanowires by decoration of nanowires with ~700 nm thick sputtering deposited AGS thin film layer, which demonstrated an energy conversion efficiency of 1.74% under 100 mW/cm2 of simulated solar illumination. Elif Peksu and Hakan Karaagac Copyright © 2015 Elif Peksu and Hakan Karaagac. All rights reserved. Frequency Distribution of Mannose Binding Lectin-2 and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Variants: Putative Markers for Tuberculosis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:47:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/gri/2015/264120/ Genetic polymorphism in Mannose Binding Lectin-2 (MBL-2) and Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) is known to influence the susceptibility to tuberculosis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency distribution of the MBL-2 promoter and structural polymorphism (−550 H/L, −221 Y/X, and +4 P/Q; R52C, G54D, and G57F) and VDR polymorphism (FokI, BsmI, TaqI, and ApaI) in healthy individuals of Indian population and comparative analysis with the global population. In Indian population, the frequency of VDR mutant alleles “f” for FokI, “b” for BsmI, “t” for TaqI, and “a” for ApaI was 25%, 54%, 30%, and 61%, respectively. The allelic frequency of MBL-2 promoter polymorphism −550 H/L was H versus L: 32% versus 68%, −221 Y/X was Y versus X: 68% versus 32%, and +4 P/Q was P versus Q: 78% versus 22%. Mutant allelic frequencies of the MBL-2 exon 1 D, B, and C allele were 6%, 11%, and 3%, respectively. Comparative analysis with global populations showed a noteworthy difference for MBL-2 and VDR polymorphism frequency distribution, indicating the ethnic variability of Indians. The study signifies the differential distribution of susceptibility genes in Indian population, which can influence the understanding of the pathophysiology of tuberculosis in Indian population. Anuroopa Gupta and Harish Padh Copyright © 2015 Anuroopa Gupta and Harish Padh. All rights reserved. Atlantoaxial Subluxation due to an Os Odontoideum in an Achondroplastic Adult: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:36:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/142586/ The authors report the first example of an adult achondroplastic dwarf with progressive quadriparesis secondary to atlantoaxial subluxation as a consequence of an os odontoideum. Actually, craniocervical region is a frequent site of compression and myelopathy in achondroplasia particularly in children as a result of small foramen magnum and hypertrophied opisthion. Moreover, very rarely in achondroplastic patients, coexistence of atlantoaxial instability as the sequel of os odontoideum can result in further compression of the already compromised cervicomedullary neural tissues, the scenario that has been reported only in five achondroplastic children. Herein, a 39-year-old achondroplastic male suffering such an extremely rare combination is presented. With C1-C2 screw rod instrumentation, atlas arch laminectomy, limited suboccipital craniectomy, and release of dural fibrous bands, reduction, decompression, and stabilization could be achieved properly resulting in steady but progressive recovery. Abolfazl Rahimizadeh, Housain F. Soufiani, Valiolah Hassani, and Ava Rahimizadeh Copyright © 2015 Abolfazl Rahimizadeh et al. All rights reserved. On Sharp Hölder Estimates of the Cauchy-Riemann Equation on Pseudoconvex Domains in with One Degenerate Eigenvalue Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:22:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/731068/ Let be a smoothly bounded pseudoconvex domain in with one degenerate eigenvalue and assume that there is a smooth holomorphic curve whose order of contact with at is larger than or equal to . We show that the maximal gain in Hölder regularity for solutions of the -equation is at most . Sanghyun Cho and Young Hwan You Copyright © 2015 Sanghyun Cho and Young Hwan You. All rights reserved. PIR Sensors Deployment with the Accessible Priority in Smart Home Using Genetic Algorithm Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:17:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/146270/ In smart home, location estimation based on PIR sensors is very popular. Existing methods by various sensors technologies and intelligent algorithms are used to achieve a high accuracy. In fact, how to deploy the PIR sensor is directly related to the accuracy. In this paper, we present an approach to deploying the PIR sensor based on the accessible priority by genetic algorithm. This paper presents a genetic algorithm that searches for an optimal or near optimal solution to the PIR sensor deployment for smart home. The fitness function of GA is based on the accessible priority of indoor areas. The accessible priority value of different area is set according to the indoor environment and daily accessible habits. The performance of the genetic algorithm was evaluated using several metrics, and the simulation results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm can optimize the network coverage in terms of accessible frequency. Dan Yang, Kaiyou Rao, Bin Xu, and Weihua Sheng Copyright © 2015 Dan Yang et al. All rights reserved. Caregiver Preferences regarding Technology’s Role in Supporting Adolescent Weight Management Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:16:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2015/153723/ Background. Health technology provides a wealth of strategies to address chronic health issues, such as childhood obesity. Few studies have assessed parental preferences regarding use of health technology to support weight management for adolescents. Objective. This study determined caregiver beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards using traditional methods and technology-based health applications to address weight management among overweight adolescents. Methods. Self-administered surveys were distributed to caregivers of children ages 11–18 years in Stony Brook Children’s Hospital outpatient offices with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age, gender. The data were entered into StudyTrax research platform and analyzed using SAS. Results.  . Mean BMI z-score = 1.95 ± 0.50. Two-thirds (65.8%) of caregivers preferred a weight management program that includes both traditional and technology components. Most parents rated involvement in program development (68.1%), access to content (72.4%) as very important. Those who believed their child’s weight was a problem were more likely than other parents to prefer a program that combined both traditional and technology components. Conclusions. Parents’ perceptions of their child’s weight drove preferences about incorporating technology elements into a weight management program. Future weight management programs should incorporate parental content preferences and be tailored to different age groups. Josette M. Bianchi-Hayes, Elinor R. Schoenfeld, Rosa Cataldo, Jiayu Huang, and Susmita Pati Copyright © 2015 Josette M. Bianchi-Hayes et al. All rights reserved. Fingolimod Real World Experience: Efficacy and Safety in Clinical Practice Thu, 26 Nov 2015 10:30:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/neuroscience/2015/389360/ Fingolimod is a multiple sclerosis treatment licensed in Europe since 2011. Its efficacy has been demonstrated in three large phase III trials, used in the regulatory submissions throughout the world. As usual, in these trials the inclusion and exclusion criteria were designed to obtain a homogeneous population, with interchangeable characteristics in the different treatment arms. Although this is the best strategy to achieve a robust answer to the investigation question, it does not guaranty the treatment efficacy in the clinical practice, since in the real world there are concomitant treatments, comorbidities, adherence, and persistence challenges. But, to make informed treatment decision for a real life patient, we need to have evidence of the treatment efficacy, what has been called treatment effectiveness. This work aims to review fingolimod effectiveness, using, as source of information, abstracts, posters, and manuscripts. This unorthodox strategy was developed because more than half of the published experience with fingolimod is still on abstracts and posters. Only a small part of the studies reviewed are already published in peer reviewed journals. Fingolimod seems to be, at least, as effective and safe as it was on clinical trials, and with its long-term experience no new safety signals were observed. Joaquim Fonseca Copyright © 2015 Joaquim Fonseca. All rights reserved. Consensus of Second-Order Multiagent Systems with Fixed Topology and Time-Delay Thu, 26 Nov 2015 09:50:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/138276/ We are concerned with the consensus problems for networks of second-order agents, where each agent can only access the relative position information from its neighbours. We aim to find the largest tolerable input delay such that the system consensus can be reached. We introduce a protocol with time-delay and fixed topology. A sufficient and necessary condition is given to guarantee the consensus. By using eigenvector-eigenvalue method and frequency domain method, it is proved that the largest tolerable time-delay is only related to the eigenvalues of the graph Laplacian. And simulation results are also provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. Xue Li, Huai Wu, and Yikang Yang Copyright © 2015 Xue Li et al. All rights reserved. Research and Correlation of Diagnostic Methods for Assessment of the State of Oil Filling in Cycloid Gearbox Thu, 26 Nov 2015 09:50:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/597841/ The paper describes the research in the area of the application of diagnostic methods for assessment of the state of oil filling in cycloid gearbox of robotic manipulator. The experiments were realized on request of the manufacturer of the cycloid gearbox. Primarily, the two different methods were compared: an induction, magnetic method with the use of measurement system Cosmos-Steel Dust Checker and an RTG method, XRF (X-ray fluorescent method, analyses with use of X-ray radiation). These analytical methods provide the identification and quantification of emerging Fe abrasion particles occurring in the oil filling of the redactor. The results of the experiment pointed to the unsuitability of the application of the induction magnetic method for the assessment of an actual technical state of the cycloid gearbox. The reason for this lies in specific construction of the cycloid gearbox, with characteristic high operation temperatures of the oil filling, small dimensions, high transferred power, and gear ratio. Petr Baron, Marek Kočiško, Jozef Dobránsky, Martin Pollák, and Tomáš Cmorej Copyright © 2015 Petr Baron et al. All rights reserved. The Interactions of -Soliton Solutions for the Generalized ()-Dimensional Variable-Coefficient Fifth-Order KdV Equation Thu, 26 Nov 2015 09:39:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/904671/ A generalized ()-dimensional variable-coefficient KdV equation is introduced, which can describe the interaction between a water wave and gravity-capillary waves better than the ()-dimensional KdV equation. The -soliton solutions of the ()-dimensional variable-coefficient fifth-order KdV equation are obtained via the Bell-polynomial method. Then the soliton fusion, fission, and the pursuing collision are analyzed depending on the influence of the coefficient ; when , the soliton fusion and fission will happen; when , the pursuing collision will occur. Moreover, the Bäcklund transformation of the equation is gotten according to the binary Bell-polynomial and the period wave solutions are given by applying the Riemann theta function method. Xiangrong Wang, Xiaoen Zhang, Yong Zhang, and Huanhe Dong Copyright © 2015 Xiangrong Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Wind Power and Load Prediction Based Frequency Control Approach for Wind-Diesel-Battery Hybrid Power System Thu, 26 Nov 2015 09:36:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/715435/ A frequency control approach based on wind power and load power prediction information is proposed for wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system (WDBHPS). To maintain the frequency stability by wind power and diesel generation as much as possible, a fuzzy control theory based wind and diesel power control module is designed according to wind power and load prediction information. To compensate frequency fluctuation in real time and enhance system disturbance rejection ability, a battery energy storage system real-time control module is designed based on ADRC (active disturbance rejection control). The simulation experiment results demonstrate that the proposed approach has a better disturbance rejection ability and frequency control performance compared with the traditional droop control approach. Chao Peng, Zhenzhen Zhang, and Jia Wu Copyright © 2015 Chao Peng et al. All rights reserved. Redox Changes Induced by General Anesthesia in Critically Ill Patients with Multiple Traumas Thu, 26 Nov 2015 09:34:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mbi/2015/238586/ The critically ill polytrauma patient is a constant challenge for the trauma team due to the complexity of the complications presented. Intense inflammatory response and infections, as well as multiple organ dysfunctions, significantly increase the rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Moreover, due to the physiological and biochemical imbalances present in this type of patients, the bioproduction of free radicals is significantly accelerated, thus installing the oxidative stress. In the therapeutic management of such patients, multiple surgical interventions are required and therefore they are being subjected to repeated general anesthesia. In this paper, we want to present the pathophysiological implications of oxidative stress in critically ill patients with multiple traumas and the implications of general anesthesia on the redox mechanisms of the cell. We also want to summarize the antioxidant treatments able to reduce the intensity of oxidative stress by modulating the biochemical activity of some cellular mechanisms. Marius Papurica, Alexandru Florin Rogobete, Dorel Sandesc, Raluca Dumache, Radu Nartita, Mirela Sarandan, Alina Carmen Cradigati, Loredana Luca, Corina Vernic, and Ovidiu Horea Bedreag Copyright © 2015 Marius Papurica et al. All rights reserved. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus) Thu, 26 Nov 2015 09:34:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2015/871345/ Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal) cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid. Horacio Vieyra, Ulises Figueroa-López, Andrea Guevara-Morales, Berenice Vergara-Porras, Eduardo San Martín-Martínez, and Miguel Ángel Aguilar-Mendez Copyright © 2015 Horacio Vieyra et al. All rights reserved. Autonomous QoS Management and Policing in Unmanaged Local Area Networks Thu, 26 Nov 2015 07:53:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2015/790375/ The high increase of bandwidth-intensive applications like high definition video streaming in home and small office environments leads to QoS challenges in hybrid wired/wireless local area networks. These networks are often not QoS aware and may contain bottlenecks in their topology. In addition, they often have a hybrid nature due to the used access technology consisting of, for example, Ethernet, wireless, and PowerLAN links. In this paper, we present the research work on a novel autonomous system for hybrid QoS in local area networks, called QoSiLAN, which does not rely on network infrastructure support but on host cooperation and works independently of the access technology. We present a new QoS Signalling Protocol, policing and admission control algorithms, and a new lightweight statistical bandwidth prediction algorithm for autonomous resource management in LANs. This new QoS framework enables link based, access-medium independent bandwidth management without network support. We provide evaluation results for the novel bandwidth prediction algorithm as well as for the QoSiLAN framework and its protocol, which highlight the features, robustness, and the effectiveness of the proposed system. Christopher Köhnen, Christian Überall, Muttukrishnan Rajarajan, Rudolf Jäger, and Veselin Rakočević Copyright © 2015 Christopher Köhnen et al. All rights reserved. 3-Dimensional Stochastic Seepage Analysis of a Yangtze River Embankment Thu, 26 Nov 2015 07:51:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/420264/ Three-dimensional stochastic simulation was performed to investigate the complexity of the seepage field of an embankment. Three-dimensional anisotropic heterogeneous steady state random seepage finite element model was developed. The material input data were derived from a statistical analysis of strata soil characteristics and geological columns. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to validate the hypothesis that the Gaussian probability distribution is applicable to the random permeability tensors. A stochastic boundary condition, the random variation of upstream and downstream water level, was taken into account in the three-dimensional finite element modelling. Furthermore, the functions of sheet-pile breakwater and catchwater were also incorporated as turbulent sources. This case, together with the variability of soil permeability, has been analyzed to investigate their influence on the hydraulic potential distributed and the random evolution of stochastic seepage field. Results from stochastic analyses have also been compared against those of deterministic analyses. The insights gained in this study suggest it is necessary, feasible, and practical to employ stochastic studies in seepage field problems. The method provides a more comprehensive stochastic algorithm than conventional ones to characterize and analyze three-dimensional random seepage field problems. Yajun Wang Copyright © 2015 Yajun Wang. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Visible Upconversion Emission in Y2O3:Er3+-Yb3+ by Addition of Thiourea and LiOH in the Phosphor Synthesis Thu, 26 Nov 2015 07:22:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/763617/ Spherical like Y2O3 nanostructures doped with Er3+ and Yb3+ ions have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The samples were prepared by using different precipitant agents in the synthesis process. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Effects of the precipitant agents on structural, morphological, and photoluminescence properties of Y2O3:Er3+-Yb3+ are studied and discussed. XRD analysis indicates that all samples, prepared with different precipitant agents, present the same cubic phase. Electron microscopy measurements show regular spherical shapes with size diameter depending on precipitant agent. Photoluminescence reveals that the samples have strong green (563 nm) and red (660 nm) emissions corresponding to 4S3/2 → 4I15/2 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+ ions, respectively. The nanophosphors prepared with both Thiourea and Lithium Hydroxide exhibit the stronger visible upconversion luminescence under 980 nm diode laser excitation. Eder Resendiz-L, Luis Armando Diaz-Torres, Luis Octavio Meza Espinoza, Claramaria Rodríguez-González, and Pedro Salas Copyright © 2015 Eder Resendiz-L et al. All rights reserved. Parameter Optimization of Single-Diode Model of Photovoltaic Cell Using Memetic Algorithm Thu, 26 Nov 2015 07:21:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2015/963562/ This study proposes a memetic approach for optimally determining the parameter values of single-diode-equivalent solar cell model. The memetic algorithm, which combines metaheuristic and gradient-based techniques, has the merit of good performance in both global and local searches. First, 10 single algorithms were considered including genetic algorithm, simulated annealing, particle swarm optimization, harmony search, differential evolution, cuckoo search, least squares method, and pattern search; then their final solutions were used as initial vectors for generalized reduced gradient technique. From this memetic approach, we could further improve the accuracy of the estimated solar cell parameters when compared with single algorithm approaches. Yourim Yoon and Zong Woo Geem Copyright © 2015 Yourim Yoon and Zong Woo Geem. All rights reserved. Inner Ear Conductive Hearing Loss and Unilateral Pulsatile Tinnitus Associated with a Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: Case Based Review and Analysis of Relationship between Intracranial Vascular Abnormalities and Inner Ear Fluids Thu, 26 Nov 2015 07:03:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2015/817313/ While pulsatile tinnitus (PT) and dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) are not rarely associated, the finding of a conductive hearing loss (CHL) in this clinical picture is unusual. Starting from a case of CHL and PT, diagnosed to be due to a DAVF, we analyzed relationship between intracranial vascular abnormalities and inner ear fluids. DAVF was treated with endovascular embolization. Following this, there was a dramatic recovery of PT and of CHL, confirming their cause-effect link with DAVF. We critically evaluated the papers reporting this association. This is the first case of CHL associated with PT and DAVF. We describe the most significant experiences and theories reported in literature, with a personal analysis about the possible relationship between vascular intracranial system and labyrinthine fluids. In conclusion, we believe that this association may be a challenge for otolaryngologists. So we suggest to consider the possibility of a DAVF or other AVMs when PT is associated with CHL, without alterations of tympanic membrane and middle ear tests. Ettore Cassandro, Claudia Cassandro, Giuliano Sequino, Alfonso Scarpa, Claudio Petrolo, and Giuseppe Chiarella Copyright © 2015 Ettore Cassandro et al. All rights reserved. IPTV Service Framework Based on Secure Authentication and Lightweight Content Encryption for Screen-Migration in Cloud Computing Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:57:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/am/2015/147320/ These days, the advancing of smart devices (e.g. smart phones, tablets, PC, etc.) capabilities and the increase of internet bandwidth enables IPTV service provider to extend their services to smart mobile devices. User can just receive their IPTV service using any smart devices by accessing the internet via wireless network from anywhere anytime in the world which is convenience for users. However, wireless network communication has well a known critical security threats and vulnerabilities to user smart devices and IPTV service such as user identity theft, reply attack, MIM attack, and so forth. A secure authentication for user devices and multimedia protection mechanism is necessary to protect both user devices and IPTV services. As result, we proposed framework of IPTV service based on secure authentication mechanism and lightweight content encryption method for screen-migration in Cloud computing. We used cryptographic nonce combined with user ID and password to authenticate user device in any mobile terminal they passes by. In addition we used Lightweight content encryption to protect and reduce the content decode overload at mobile terminals. Our proposed authentication mechanism reduces the computational processing by 30% comparing to other authentication mechanism and our lightweight content encryption reduces encryption delay to 0.259 second. Aymen Abdullah Alsaffar, Young-Rok Shin, and Eui-Nam Huh Copyright © 2015 Aymen Abdullah Alsaffar et al. All rights reserved. C-Reactive Protein and Breast Cancer: New Insights from Old Molecule Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:57:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2015/145647/ Recently an association between breast cancer and inflammation has emerged as the seventh hallmark of cancer. Chronic inflammation is a key contributor in the development and progression of carcinogenesis. Inflammatory pathways play an important role in the causation of breast cancer. C-reactive protein (CRP) an acute-phase reactant inflammatory protein is synthesized in hepatocytes in response to cytokines that are released from leucocytes within the tumor microenvironment. Several epidemiological studies appraised an association of CRP with breast cancer risk with inconsistent findings. Elevated levels at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer indicate aggressiveness of the tumor. CRP is also a well-established independent prognostic marker. Breast cancer survivors with the state of chronic inflammation are at risk of recurrence and metabolic disturbances. CRP lowering agents along with chemotherapeutic drugs will improve the survival of breast cancer patients. Also, it is a risk predictor for subsequent cardiotoxicity in patients receiving chemotherapy. The present review is aimed at elucidating the role of C-reactive protein, as an inflammatory risk marker and prognostic predictor of breast cancer. It also focuses on conflicting views on the role of CRP in breast cancer and its impact on therapeutic interventions. Shilpa Balaji Asegaonkar, Balaji Narayanrao Asegaonkar, Unmesh Vidyadhar Takalkar, Suresh Advani, and Anand Pandurang Thorat Copyright © 2015 Shilpa Balaji Asegaonkar et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Evaluation of Growth Plates around the Knees of Adolescent Soccer Players by Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:55:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/482017/ Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate growth plates around the knees in adolescent soccer players utilizing the diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). Methods. The knees and adjacent growth plates of eleven 14-year-old male soccer players were evaluated by MRI before (end of season’s summer break) and after two months of intense soccer training. MRI evaluation was conducted in coronal plane by PD-FSE and DWI. All images were screened for any major pathological changes. Later, central growth plate surface area (CGPSA) was measured and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated in two most central coronal slices divided into four regions: distal femur medial (DFM), distal femur lateral (DFL), proximal tibia medial (PTM), and proximal tibia lateral (PTL). Results. No gross pathology was diagnosed on MRI. CGPSA was not significantly reduced: DFM 278 versus 272, DFL 265 versus 261, PTM 193 versus 192, and PTL 214 versus 210. ADC decrease was statistically significant only for PTM: DFM 1.27 versus 1.22, DFL 1.37 versus 1.34, PTM 1.13 versus 1.03 (), and PTL 1.28 versus 1.22. Conclusions. DWI measurements indicate increased cellularity in growth plates around knees in footballers most prominent in PTM after intense training. No detectable differences on a standard PD-FSE sequence were observed. Zmago Krajnc, Mitja Rupreht, and Matej Drobnič Copyright © 2015 Zmago Krajnc et al. All rights reserved. What Are the Trends in Tonsillectomy Techniques in Wales? A Prospective Observational Study of 19,195 Tonsillectomies over a 10-Year Period Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:51:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/747403/ There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson’s , ) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (, ). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (, ). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. Hussein Walijee, Ali Al-Hussaini, Andrew Harris, and David Owens Copyright © 2015 Hussein Walijee et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Chronic Effect of Acoustic and Visual Cues on Gait Training in Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Study Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:49:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/978590/ In this randomized controlled study we analyse and compare the acute and chronic effects of visual and acoustic cues on gait performance in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). We enrolled 46 patients with idiopathic PD who were assigned to 3 different modalities of gait training: (1) use of acoustic cues, (2) use of visual cues, or (3) overground training without cues. All patients were tested with kinematic analysis of gait at baseline (T0), at the end of the 4-week rehabilitation programme (T1), and 3 months later (T2). Regarding the acute effect, acoustic cues increased stride length and stride duration, while visual cues reduced the number of strides and normalized the stride/stance distribution but also reduced gait speed. As regards the chronic effect of cues, we recorded an improvement in some gait parameters in all 3 groups of patients: all 3 types of training improved gait speed; visual cues also normalized the stance/swing ratio, acoustic cues reduced the number of strides and increased stride length, and overground training improved stride length. The changes were not retained at T2 in any of the experimental groups. Our findings support and characterize the usefulness of cueing strategies in the rehabilitation of gait in PD. Roberto De Icco, Cristina Tassorelli, Eliana Berra, Monica Bolla, Claudio Pacchetti, and Giorgio Sandrini Copyright © 2015 Roberto De Icco et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Apoptotic Effect of Crocin and Paclitaxel or Crocin and Radiation on MCF-7 Cells, a Type of Breast Cancer Cell Line Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:39:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2015/139349/ Background. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery are routine treatments of breast cancer. However, these methods could only improve the living survival. Nowadays the combined therapy including herbals such as crocin is to study for improving breast cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of crocin, paclitaxel, and radiation on MCF-7 cell. Methods. To evaluate the effect of crocin, paclitaxel, and radiation on survival rate of MCF-7 cells MTT assay was done. To investigate the apoptotic effect of experimental groups PI-flow cytometry was used and expression of apoptotic proteins (caspase-7, caspase-9, PARP, and p53) was studied by western blot. Results. This study revealed that the combined therapy of 0.01µmol/mL paclitaxel and 2.5 mg/mL crocin after 48 h could cause IC50 for MCF-7 cell line. This study showed that the combined therapy of 2 Gy gamma radiation with crocin could rise apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line from 21% (related to using 2 Gy gamma radiation alone) to 46.6%. Conclusion. Crocin and paclitaxel and crocin and gamma radiation had synergistic effect on MCF-7 cell line to get more significant apoptosis. Faeze Vali, Vahid Changizi, and Majid Safa Copyright © 2015 Faeze Vali et al. All rights reserved. Controllable Synthesis of Zn2GeO4 Nanorods for Photocatalytic Reduction of Aqueous Cr(VI) and Oxidation of Organic Pollutants Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:30:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/241841/ Zn2GeO4 nanorods were successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The composition, morphology, and optical properties of as-synthesized Zn2GeO4 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scan electron microscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The photocatalytic properties of Zn2GeO4 nanorods were evaluated by the reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The effects of solution pH on Cr(VI) reduction by Zn2GeO4 nanorods were studied in detail. The results indicated that the efficiency of Cr(VI) reduction was highest at pH 5.96. Moreover, Zn2GeO4 nanorods also showed excellent photocatalytic ability for the oxidation of organic pollutants such as rhodamine B and 4-nitrophenol. Jin Liu, Xiaodan Jin, Yurong Shi, and Mingming Qiao Copyright © 2015 Jin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Cognitive Radio Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks and Survivability Challenges Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:25:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/872821/ Shamik Sengupta, Walid Saad, and Abhishek Roy Copyright © 2015 Shamik Sengupta et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Comparison Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:25:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2015/428286/ Purpose. Although new elastomeric impression materials have been introduced into the market, there are still insufficient data about their mechanical features. The tensile properties of 17 hydrophilic impression materials with different consistencies were compared. Materials and Methods. 12 vinylpolysiloxane, 2 polyether, and 3 hybrid vinylpolyether silicone-based impression materials were tested. For each material, 10 dumbbell-shaped specimens were fabricated (), according to the ISO 37:2005 specifications, and loaded in tension until failure. Mean values for tensile strength, yield strength, strain at break, and strain at yield point were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (). Results. Vinylpolysiloxanes consistently showed higher tensile strength values than polyethers. Heavy-body materials showed higher tensile strength than the light bodies from the same manufacturer. Among the light bodies, the highest yield strength was achieved by the hybrid vinylpolyether silicone (2.70 MPa). Polyethers showed the lowest tensile (1.44 MPa) and yield (0.94 MPa) strengths, regardless of the viscosity. Conclusion. The choice of an impression material should be based on the specific physical behavior of the elastomer. The light-body vinylpolyether silicone showed high tensile strength, yield strength, and adequate strain at yield/brake; those features might help to reduce tearing phenomena in the thin interproximal and crevicular areas. Dino Re, Francesco De Angelis, Gabriele Augusti, Davide Augusti, Sergio Caputi, Maurizio D’Amario, and Camillo D’Arcangelo Copyright © 2015 Dino Re et al. All rights reserved. Usefulness of Ki-67, Mitoses, and Tumor Size for Predicting Metastasis in Carcinoid Tumors of the Lung: A Study of 48 Cases at a Tertiary Care Centre in Canada Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:18:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/lci/2015/545601/ Background. Evaluation of Ki-67 index in lung carcinoid tumors (LCTs) has been of interest in order to identify high risk subsets. Our objectives are (1) to evaluate the usefulness of Ki-67 index, mitoses, and tumor size in predicting metastasis and (2) to compare the Manual Conventional Method (MCM) and the Computer Assisted Image Analysis Method (CIAM) for Ki-67 calculation. Methods. We studied 48 patients with LCTs from two academic centres in Canada. For Ki-67 calculation, digital images of 5000 cells were counted using an image processing software and 2000 cells by MCM. Mitoses/10 HPF was counted. Results. We had 37 typical carcinoids (TCs) and 11 atypical carcinoids (ACs). 7/48 patients developed metastasis. There was a positive relationship between metastasis and carcinoid type () and metastasis and mitoses (≥2) (). Although not statistically significant, the mean Ki-67 index for ACs was higher than for TCs (0.95% versus 0.72%, CIAM, ). Similarly, although not statistically significant, the mean Ki-67 index for metastatic group (MG) was higher than for nonmetastatic group (NMG) (1.01% versus 0.71% by CIAM, ). However when Ki-67 index data was categorized at various levels, there is suggestion of a useful cutoff (≥0.50%) to predict metastasis (, CIAM). A significantly higher proportion of patients with mitosis ≥2 and Ki-67 index ≥0.50% had metastasis () compared to other patients. Similarly patients with tumor size ≥3 cm and Ki-67 ≥0.50% had a greater percentage of metastases than others (). Although there was a strong correlation between two (MCM versus CIAM) counting methods (, ), overall the calculated Ki-67 index was slightly higher by MCM (range 0 to 6.4, mean 1.5) compared to CIAM (range 0 to 2.9, mean 0.75). Conclusion. This study confirms that mitoses ≥2 is a powerful predictor of metastasis in LCTs. Although this is a small sample size, there is suggestion that analysis of Ki-67 index along with mitoses and tumor size may be a useful adjunct for predicting metastasis in LCTs. M. G. Joseph, A. Shibani, N. Panjwani, A. Arab, J. Shepherd, L. W. Stitt, and R. Inculet Copyright © 2015 M. G. Joseph et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Study on the Skin Lightening Practice and Health Symptoms among Female Students in Malaysia Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:06:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2015/591790/ Many cases of dermatologic complication were reported with the use of skin lightening products. This study assessed the skin lightening practice and health symptoms among female students. Self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 104 female students (56 undergraduates and 48 postgraduates) aged years in Universiti Putra Malaysia. A total of 60.6% () of the female students used skin lightening products (61.9% of undergraduates and 38.1% of postgraduates). Reasonable price (, 55.6%) and ingredients (, 46%) were considered the most important factors in the product selection. Most respondents purchased the product from drugstores (, 61.9%). Twenty-two respondents (34.9%) in this study experienced skin problem from the products they used. Skin peeling (, 12.5%) and acne (, 8.7%) were the most frequent symptoms experienced. Most of the respondents have the perception that lighter skin provides high self-esteem (, 53.8%) and looks beautiful and healthier (, 51.9%). The use of skin lightening products is common among female students in this study and some of these products can cause skin problems such as skin peeling, acne, and itching. Siti Zulaikha Rusmadi, Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, and Sarva Mangala Praveena Copyright © 2015 Siti Zulaikha Rusmadi et al. All rights reserved. New 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Based Photosensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Thu, 26 Nov 2015 06:05:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2015/637652/ 1,3,4-Oxadiazole based photosensitizers with biphenyl, naphthalene, anthracene, and triphenylamine as the electron-donating moiety were synthesized for solar cell applications. In these photosensitizers, cyano groups were introduced as the electron acceptor and the anchor group because of their high electron-withdrawing ability and strong bonding to the semiconductor. Oxadiazole isomers were used as the π-conjugation system, which bridges the donor-acceptor systems. The electrochemical and optical properties of the sensitizers were investigated both in their native form and upon incorporation into dye sensitized solar cells. The results of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements, and photocurrent voltage characteristics indicate that 1,3,4-oxadiazole pi-spacer with the anthracene moiety has the highest efficiency of 2.58%. Density functional theory was employed to optimize the structures of the sensitizers and the TiO2 cluster. Umer Mehmood, Ibnelwaleed A. Hussein, and Muhammad Daud Copyright © 2015 Umer Mehmood et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Sensing Private Property Protection Protocol Based on Cloud Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:28:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/743580/ Private property refers to something carrying private information, or expensive items; these items are very important for companies or individuals. The proposed private property protection system uses adaptive sensing technology to protect private materials in real time. In this paper, we propose an adaptive sensing private property authentication scheme which can be applied in the cloud computing. Considering a relatively safe room with a remote reader, there are several valuable items in the room. Each item is labeled with a unique tamper-evident adaptive sensor and the reader can simultaneously read a plurality of sensors. Encrypted information of items, sensors, and readers is stored in the cloud. The reader reads sensors and uploads the collected data to the cloud for further processing in real time. The proposed scheme is under the cloud environment to protect the user privacy and prevent synchronized attacks. Compared with some traditional schemes, our scheme is economical, practical, and easy to be expanded. Furthermore, it pays attention to privacy protection with real-time monitoring. Kai Fan, Wei Wang, Hui Li, and Yintang Yang Copyright © 2015 Kai Fan et al. All rights reserved. Plasmon-Enhanced Sensing: Current Status and Prospects Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:26:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/474730/ By combining different plasmonic nanostructures with conventional sensing configurations, chemical/biosensors with significantly enhanced device performance can be achieved. The fast development of plasmon-assisted devices benefits from the advance of nanofabrication technology. In this review, we first briefly show the experimental configurations for testing plasmon enhanced sensing signals and then summarize the classic nanogeometries which are extensively used in sensing applications. By design, dramatic increment of optical signals can be obtained and further applied to gas, refractive index and liquid sensing. Jiangtao Lv, Eunice Sok Ping Leong, Xiaoxiao Jiang, Shanshan Kou, Haitao Dai, Jiao Lin, Yan Jun Liu, and Guangyuan Si Copyright © 2015 Jiangtao Lv et al. All rights reserved. New Approach to Enrich Pasta with Polyphenols from Grape Marc Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:25:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/734578/ Food industry produces significant amount of waste that represents a problem for the sector. However, by-products are also promising sources of compounds which may be reused for their nutritional properties. The aim of this work is to exploit wine-making by-products, obtaining an extract by ultrasound-assisted extraction only using water as solvent. The characteristics of spaghetti enriched with grape marc were assessed and compared to control samples. In particular, total phenolic and flavonoids contents, the antioxidant activity, the cooking quality, and the sensory acceptability were evaluated at various steps of pasta production. The enriched spaghetti showed higher total phenolic and flavonoids contents and higher antioxidant activity than the control pasta. In addition, low cooking losses were found. In terms of sensory properties fortified pasta is acceptable as the traditional product, thus demonstrating that it is possible to exploit food waste to better satisfy consumer demand for healthy food products in a more sustainable perspective. V. Marinelli, L. Padalino, D. Nardiello, M. A. Del Nobile, and A. Conte Copyright © 2015 V. Marinelli et al. All rights reserved. Acerola Fruit as a Possible Antimelanotic Agent in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:18:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfp/2015/460617/ This study aimed to testify acerola’s inhibitory activity on melanosis in farmed white shrimp (L. vannamei). Shrimp samples underwent immersion in different treatments (control group (C), metabisulphite solution group (M), and acerola solution group (A)). Quality Index Method (QIM) was used to measure the shrimp shelf life, during 21 days, where microbiological, chemical, and sensory analyses were performed at each 3 days. Groups C and A exceeded the limit of mesophilic bacterial count within 15 days of storage, and for M the period was 18 days. As for the psychrophilic bacteria, C and A both crossed the limit on day 12 and M on the 15th day. Group M had the highest TVBN and pH means, followed by A and lastly C. Yet, TMA analysis showed highest values in group C, second A, and finally M. Sensory analysis determined the shelf life of groups C, M, and A as 10.5, 14.6, and 12.3 days, respectively. There were not many significant differences between the groups in all analyses; hence, dipping shrimp in acerola solutions would not suffice to inhibit melanosis formation. Further studies are needed to fully determine acerola’s antimelanosic potential. Alex Augusto Gonçalves, Adriene Rosceli Menezes de Oliveira, and Maria Rociene Abrantes Copyright © 2015 Alex Augusto Gonçalves et al. All rights reserved. The Boundedness of Some Integral Operators on Weighted Hardy Spaces Associated with Schrödinger Operators Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:07:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/823862/ Let be a Schrödinger operator acting on , , where is a nonnegative locally integrable function on . In this paper, we will first define molecules for weighted Hardy spaces associated with and establish their molecular characterizations. Then, by using the atomic decomposition and molecular characterization of , we will show that the imaginary power is bounded on for , and the fractional integral operator is bounded from to , where , , and . Hua Wang Copyright © 2015 Hua Wang. All rights reserved. Coefficient Bounds for Certain Subclasses of -Fold Symmetric Biunivalent Functions Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:06:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmath/2015/241683/ We consider two new subclasses and of consisting of analytic and -fold symmetric biunivalent functions in the open unit disk . Furthermore, we establish bounds for the coefficients for these subclasses and several related classes are also considered and connections to earlier known results are made. Şahsene Altınkaya and Sibel Yalçın Copyright © 2015 Şahsene Altınkaya and Sibel Yalçın. All rights reserved. Characterization and Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Tamarind Seeds by KOH Activation for Fe(III) Adsorption from Aqueous Solution Wed, 25 Nov 2015 14:03:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/415961/ This research studies the characterization of activated carbon from tamarind seed with KOH activation. The effects of 0.5 : 1–1.5 : 1 KOH : tamarind seed charcoal ratios and 500–700°C activation temperatures were studied. FTIR, SEM-EDS, XRD, and BET were used to characterize tamarind seed and the activated carbon prepared from them. Proximate analysis, percent yield, iodine number, methylene blue number, and preliminary test of Fe(III) adsorption were also studied. Fe(III) adsorption was carried out by 30 mL column with 5–20 ppm Fe(III) initial concentrations. The percent yield of activated carbon prepared from tamarind seed with KOH activation decreased with increasing activation temperature and impregnation ratios, which were in the range from 54.09 to 82.03 wt%. The surface functional groups of activated carbon are O–H, C=O, C–O, –CO3, C–H, and Si–H. The XRD result showed high crystallinity coming from a potassium compound in the activated carbon. The main elements found in the activated carbon by EDS are C, O, Si, and K. The results of iodine and methylene blue adsorption indicate that the pore size of the activated carbon is mostly in the range of mesopore and macropore. The average BET pore size and BET surface area of activated carbon are 67.9764 Å and 2.7167 m2/g, respectively. Finally, the tamarind seed based activated carbon produced with 500°C activation temperature and 1.0 : 1 KOH : tamarind seed charcoal ratio was used for Fe(III) adsorption test. It was shown that Fe(III) was adsorbed in alkaline conditions and adsorption increased with increasing Fe(III) initial concentration from 5 to 20 ppm with capacity adsorption of 0.0069–0.019 mg/g. Sumrit Mopoung, Phansiri Moonsri, Wanwimon Palas, and Sataporn Khumpai Copyright © 2015 Sumrit Mopoung et al. All rights reserved. Out-of-Plane Elastic Waves in 2D Models of Solids: A Case Study for a Nonlocal Discretization Scheme with Reduced Numerical Dispersion Wed, 25 Nov 2015 13:41:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/584081/ The paper addresses the problem of numerical dispersion in simulations of wave propagation in solids. This characteristic of numerical models results from both spatial discretization and temporal discretization applied to carry out transient analyses. A denser mesh of degrees of freedom could be a straightforward solution to mitigate numerical dispersion, since it provides more advantageous relation between the model length scale and considered wavelengths. However, this approach also leads to higher computational effort. An alternative approach is the application of nonlocal discretization schemes, which employ a relatively sparse spatial distribution of nodes. Numerical analysis carried out to study the propagation of elastic waves in isotropic solid materials is demonstrated. Fourier-based nonlocal discretization for continuum mechanics is introduced for a two-dimensional model undergoing out-of-plane wave propagation. The results show gradual increase of the effectiveness of this approach while expanding the region of nonlocal interactions in the numerical model. A challenging case of high ratio between the model length scale and wavelength is investigated to present capability of the proposed approach. The elaborated discretization method also provides the perspective of accurate representation of any arbitrarily shaped dispersion relation based on physical properties of modelled materials. Adam Martowicz, Massimo Ruzzene, Wieslaw J. Staszewski, Julian J. Rimoli, and Tadeusz Uhl Copyright © 2015 Adam Martowicz et al. All rights reserved. Serum CEACAM1 Elevation Correlates with Melanoma Progression and Failure to Respond to Adoptive Cell Transfer Immunotherapy Wed, 25 Nov 2015 13:31:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/902137/ Malignant melanoma is a devastating disease whose incidences are continuously rising. The recently approved antimelanoma therapies carry new hope for metastatic patients for the first time in decades. However, the clinical management of melanoma is severely hampered by the absence of effective screening tools. The expression of the CEACAM1 adhesion molecule on melanoma cells is a strong predictor of poor prognosis. Interestingly, a melanoma-secreted form of CEACAM1 (sCEACAM1) has recently emerged as a potential tumor biomarker. Here we add novel evidences supporting the prognostic role of serum CEACAM1 by using a mice xenograft model of human melanoma and showing a correlation between serum CEACAM1 and tumor burden. Moreover, we demonstrate that serum CEACAM1 is elevated over time in progressive melanoma patients who fail to respond to immunotherapy as opposed to responders and stable disease patients, thus proving a correlation between sCEACAM1, response to treatment, and clinical deterioration. R. Ortenberg, S. Sapoznik, D. Zippel, R. Shapira-Frommer, O. Itzhaki, A. Kubi, D. Zikich, M. J. Besser, J. Schachter, and G. Markel Copyright © 2015 R. Ortenberg et al. All rights reserved. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches Wed, 25 Nov 2015 13:30:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drt/2015/178564/ Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD. Sherri Melrose Copyright © 2015 Sherri Melrose. All rights reserved. An Improved Optimal Slip Ratio Prediction considering Tyre Inflation Pressure Changes Wed, 25 Nov 2015 13:22:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2015/512024/ The prediction of optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle control systems. Many studies have verified there is a definitive impact of tyre pressure change on the optimal slip ratio. However, the existing method of optimal slip ratio prediction has not taken into account the influence of tyre pressure changes. By introducing a second-order factor, an improved optimal slip ratio prediction considering tyre inflation pressure is proposed in this paper. In order to verify and evaluate the performance of the improved prediction, a cosimulation platform is developed by using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim software packages, achieving a comprehensive simulation study of vehicle braking performance cooperated with an ABS controller. The simulation results show that the braking distances and braking time under different tyre pressures and initial braking speeds are effectively shortened with the improved prediction of optimal slip ratio. When the tyre pressure is slightly lower than the nominal pressure, the difference of braking performances between original optimal slip ratio and improved optimal slip ratio is the most obvious. Guoxing Li, Tie Wang, Ruiliang Zhang, Fengshou Gu, and Jinxian Shen Copyright © 2015 Guoxing Li et al. All rights reserved. Ten-Year Follow-Up of Desarthrodesis of the Knee Joint 41 Years after Original Arthrodesis for a Bone Tumor Wed, 25 Nov 2015 13:08:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/308127/ Introduction. The main indication for knee arthrodesis in tumor surgery is a tumor that requires an extensive resection in which the joint surface cannot be preserved. We report a patient that had knee desarthrodesis 41 years after giant cell tumor resection followed by a knee arthrodesis. This is the longest reported follow-up after desarthrodesis and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA), almost ten years. Case Report. A 71-year-old man with a distal femoral giant cell tumor had undergone a resection of the distal femur and knee arthrodesis using Kuntscher nail in 1962. In July 2003 he experienced gradually increasing pain of his left knee. We performed a desarthrodesis and conversion to TKA in 2005. The postoperative period passed uneventfully as his pain and gait improved, with gradually increasing range of motion (ROM) and no infection. He now walks independently, with no brace or contractures. Conclusion. Desarthrodesis of the knee joint and conversion to TKA are a difficult surgical choice with a high complication risk. However, our patient’s life style has improved, he has no pain, and he can ascend and descend stairs more easily. The surgeon has to be very meticulous in selecting a patient for knee arthrodesis and counseling them to realize that their expectations may not be achievable. Ahmed Hamed Kassem Abdelaal, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Inatani, and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya Copyright © 2015 Ahmed Hamed Kassem Abdelaal et al. All rights reserved. Tumor-To-Tumor Metastasis of Poorly Differentiated Gastric Carcinoma to Uterine Lipoleiomyoma Wed, 25 Nov 2015 13:08:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/352369/ The rare phenomenon of tumor-to-tumor metastasis was first described in 1930. The donor neoplasm is most frequently lung or breast carcinoma, whereas intracranial meningiomas are reportedly the commonest recipient neoplasm. Here we report a case of metastasis from a primary gastric cancer to a uterine lipoleiomyoma. A 65-year-old woman presented with locally advanced gastric cancer with computed tomography (CT) evidence of peritoneal dissemination and a 9 cm pelvic mass. She underwent 16 courses of TS-1/cisplatin chemotherapy, which achieved significant tumor reduction. However, repeat CT and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 cm diameter pelvic mass adjacent to the uterus. The mass was heterogeneously hyperintense on T1- and T2-weighted images with some low signal spots on fat-suppressed T1-weighted images, suggesting a benign ovarian tumor such as a mature cystic teratoma. After 3 months, pelvic CT revealed a 10 cm multilocular cystic mass that exhibited heterogeneous enhancement after intravenous contrast administration. A diagnostic laparotomy revealed a subserosal uterine tumor extending into the right broad ligament; total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The uterine tumor showed histological features of lipoleiomyoma infiltrated by well- to moderately differentiated carcinoma cells that were similar to those of the gastric biopsy, supporting a diagnosis of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma. Ryo Kiyokoba, Hiroshi Yagi, Hideaki Yahata, Yoshiaki Kawano, Eisuke Kaneki, Kaoru Okugawa, Kenzo Sonoda, and Kiyoko Kato Copyright © 2015 Ryo Kiyokoba et al. All rights reserved. Macroscopic/Mesoscopic Computational Materials Science Modeling and Engineering Wed, 25 Nov 2015 13:07:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/319626/ Jian-Ming Lu, Jyh-Ming Ting, Mo Li, and Eugene Kogan Copyright © 2015 Jian-Ming Lu et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time Track Reallocation for Emergency Incidents at Large Railway Stations Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:52:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/296394/ After track capacity breakdowns at a railway station, train dispatchers need to generate appropriate track reallocation plans to recover the impacted train schedule and minimize the expected total train delay time under stochastic scenarios. This paper focuses on the real-time track reallocation problem when tracks break down at large railway stations. To represent these cases, virtual trains are introduced and activated to occupy the accident tracks. A mathematical programming model is developed, which aims at minimizing the total occupation time of station bottleneck sections to avoid train delays. In addition, a hybrid algorithm between the genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm is designed. The case study from the Baoji railway station in China verifies the efficiency of the proposed model and the algorithm. Numerical results indicate that, during a daily and shift transport plan from 8:00 to 8:30, if five tracks break down simultaneously, this will disturb train schedules (result in train arrival and departure delays). Wei Liu, Xiaoning Zhu, and Liujiang Kang Copyright © 2015 Wei Liu et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Recurrent Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Autologous Blood Stem Cell Transplant Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:49:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crit/2015/801082/ Background. Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) occur after solid organ transplantation. Treatment guidelines include reduction in immunosuppression (RIS), radiation, rituximab, chemotherapy, and immunological agents. We present a rare case of recurrent diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting as a PTLD in a heart transplant patient treated with autologous blood stem cell transplant (ASCT) after failure of conventional therapy. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old male presented with a neck mass. He has a history of Hodgkin’s disease status after staging laparotomy with splenectomy and heart transplantation due to dilated nonischemic cardiomyopathy 8 years prior to the development of PTLD. His examination was remarkable for right submandibular swelling. An excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell NHL. Patient received RIS, rituximab, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy with a complete remission. His lymphoma relapsed and he subsequently was treated with RICE salvage chemotherapy and consolidative high-dose chemotherapy with BEAC regimen followed by ASCT resulting in a complete remission. Conclusion. Patients with PTLD present a difficult therapeutic challenge. In this case, the patient’s prior history of Hodgkin’s disease, splenectomy, and a heart transplant appear to be unique features, the significance of which is unclear. ASCT might be a promising therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory PTLD. Bharat Malhotra, Ahmad K. Rahal, Hussam Farhoud, Dennis F. Moore Jr., and K. James Kallail Copyright © 2015 Bharat Malhotra et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Compressive Toughness and Deformability of High Ductile Fiber Reinforced Concrete Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:49:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/384902/ The compressive toughness evaluation index of HDC (high ductile fiber reinforced concrete) is studied through three groups of uniaxial compressive tests of HDC specimens with different fiber mixing amounts, and an equivalent analysis of their deformability is carried out, coming to the following conclusion: the peak strain of HDC under uniaxial compression can be up to 3.41~3.67 times as large as that of the mortar matrix; the equivalent compressive toughness index reflects the unit volume deformation energy of specimens under uniaxial compression and it can be used as the compressive toughness evaluation index of HDC; the fiber bridging effect of HDC increases the equivalent compressive toughness index and the compressive deformability up to 3 times of the mortar matrix; the relationship between the equivalent compressive toughness index and the fiber mixing amount is established according to the test results; and the fiber bridging effect of the matrix in HDC can be equaling as a large number of constraint stirrups installed in the specimens, which significantly enhances the compressive toughness and the compressive deformability of specimens. Mingke Deng, Jian Han, Haibo Liu, Meng Qin, and Xingwen Liang Copyright © 2015 Mingke Deng et al. All rights reserved. Design and Synthesis of a Novel Cationic Peptide with Potent and Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:29:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/578764/ Antibacterial and antifungal peptides have increasingly been used to combat the antibiotic-resistant microbes in recent years. KW-13, a novel cationic α-helical antibacterial peptide consisting of 13 amino acid residues, was designed and chemically synthesized. The peptide has a net charge of +6 with a total hydrophobic ratio of 38%. The antibacterial experiments revealed that KW-13 strongly inhibited the growth of human pathogenic bacteria with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 4 and 16 μg/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, while the hemolytic assay showed that this peptide did not destroy human red blood cells in vitro. Scanning electron microscopy imaging of Escherichia coli confirmed that KW-13 can damage the membrane of bacterial cells. Thus, this peptide could be a potential candidate for the treatment of infectious diseases. Wen-Ping Liu, Ya-Hui Chen, Xin Ming, and Yi Kong Copyright © 2015 Wen-Ping Liu et al. All rights reserved. Role of Time Relaxation in a One-Dimensional Diffusion-Advection Model of Water and Salt Transport Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:15:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/307312/ The transport of salt, necessarily coupled with the transport of water, through porous building materials may heavily limit their durability due to possible deterioration and structural damage. Usually, the binding of salt to the pore walls is assumed to occur instantly, as soon as the salt is transported by water to a given position. We consider the advection-diffusion model of the transport and generalize it to include possible delays in the binding. Applying the Boltzmann-Matano method, we calculate the diffusion coefficient of the salt in dependence on the salt concentration and show that it increases with the rate of binding. We apply our results to an example of the chloride transport in a lime plaster. Igor Medved’ and Robert Černý Copyright © 2015 Igor Medved’ and Robert Černý. All rights reserved. Rapamycin Protects from Type-I Peritoneal Membrane Failure Inhibiting the Angiogenesis, Lymphangiogenesis, and Endo-MT Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:12:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/989560/ Preservation of peritoneal membrane (PM) is essential for long-term survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Continuous presence of PD fluids (PDF) in the peritoneal cavity generates chronic inflammation and promotes changes of the PM, such as fibrosis, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. Mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (Endo-MT) seem to play a central role in this pathogenesis. We speculated that Rapamycin, a potent immunosuppressor, could be beneficial by regulating blood and lymphatic vessels proliferation. We demonstrate that mice undergoing a combined PD and Rapamycin treatment (PDF + Rapa group) presented a reduced PM thickness and lower number of submesothelial blood and lymphatic vessels, as well as decreased MMT and Endo-MT, comparing with their counterparts exposed to PD alone (PDF group). Peritoneal water transport in the PDF + Rapa group remained at control level, whereas PD effluent levels of VEGF, TGF-β, and TNF-α were lower than in the PDF group. Moreover, the treatment of mesothelial cells with Rapamycin in vitro significantly decreased VEGF synthesis and selectively inhibited the VEGF-C and VEGF-D release when compared with control cells. Thus, Rapamycin has a protective effect on PM in PD through an antifibrotic and antiproliferative effect on blood and lymphatic vessels. Moreover, it inhibits Endo-MT and, at least partially, MMT. Guadalupe Tirma González-Mateo, Anna Rita Aguirre, Jesús Loureiro, Hugo Abensur, Pilar Sandoval, José Antonio Sánchez-Tomero, Gloria del Peso, José Antonio Jiménez-Heffernan, Vicente Ruiz-Carpio, Rafael Selgas, Manuel López-Cabrera, Abelardo Aguilera, and Georgios Liappas Copyright © 2015 Guadalupe Tirma González-Mateo et al. All rights reserved. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:11:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ipid/2015/546705/ Objectives. This study’s objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992–1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992–1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed. Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra, Cristina de Souza Chaves, Zirlane Castelo Branco Coêlho, Naya Lúcia de Castro Rodrigues, Josias Martins Vale, Maria Jânia Teixeira, Francisco Josemar Alves de Oliveira, Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo, and Ivo Castelo Branco Coelho Copyright © 2015 Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra et al. All rights reserved. Highly Sensitive Immunochromatographic Identification of Tetracycline Antibiotics in Milk Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:04:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/347621/ A rapid immunochromatographic assay was developed for the control of tetracycline (TC). The assay is based on the competition between immobilized TC-protein conjugate and TC in a tested sample for binding with polyclonal anti-TC antibodies conjugated to colloidal gold during the flow of the sample along a membrane strip with immobilized reactants. Conjugation of colloidal gold and the total immunoglobulin (IgG) fraction of polyclonal antibodies was used to increase the assay sensitivity to ensure low content of specific antibodies in the conjugate. This allowed effective inhibition of free TC and conjugate binding in the strip test zone. Photometric marker registration allows control of the reduction of binding, thereby enhancing detection sensitivity. The proposed assay allows TC to be detected at concentrations up to 20 ng/mL, exceeding the limit of detection of the known analogues, in a wide working range (more than two orders) of 60 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL, ensured through the use of polyclonal antibodies. The assay time is 10 min. The efficiency of the designed assay is shown to identify TC in milk; the degree of recovery of TC ranges from 90 to 112%. The precision of the concentrations measurements was no more than 10%. N. A. Taranova, A. S. Kruhlik, E. A. Zvereva, V. V. Shmanai, I. I. Vashkevich, D. A. Semyonov, S. A. Eremin, A. V. Zherdev, and B. B. Dzantiev Copyright © 2015 N. A. Taranova et al. All rights reserved. Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Reshuffling Cluster Compressed Sensing Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:02:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/260913/ The existing compressed sensing (CS) based data gathering (CSDG) methods in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) usually assume that the sensed data are sparse or compressible. However, the sparsity of raw sensed data in some case is not straightforward. In this paper, we present reshuffling cluster compressed sensing based data gathering (RCCSDG) method to achieve both energy efficiency and reconstruction accuracy in WSNs. By incorporating CS into the cluster protocol, RCCSDG is able to reduce the energy consumption and support larger networks. Moreover, the sparsity of raw sensed data can be greatly improved by reshuffling pretreatment. A theoretical analysis to energy consumption of cluster head is performed, and the cost of the pretreatment is small enough to be neglected. Based on these natures, the raw sensed data can be recovered from fewer samples. Also, considering the sensed data to be of excellent temporal stability in a short time, we reshuffle them just one time in this stable period to further reduce the energy consumption of WSNs. In addition, the delay of RCCSDG is analyzed based on TDMA2 scheduling scheme. We carry out simulations on real sensor datasets. The results show that the RCCSDG can effectively compress the data transmission and decrease energy consumption of WSNs while ensuring the reconstruction accuracy. Lu Zhu, Baishan Ci, Yuanyuan Liu, and Zhizhang (David) Chen Copyright © 2015 Lu Zhu et al. All rights reserved. N-Acetylneuraminic Acid Supplementation Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rats through Transcriptional and Nontranscriptional Mechanisms Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:00:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/602313/ N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a biomarker of cardiometabolic diseases. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dietary Neu5Ac may improve cardiometabolic indices. A high fat diet (HFD) + Neu5Ac (50 or 400 mg/kg BW/day) was fed to rats and compared with HFD + simvastatin (10 mg/kg BW/day) or HFD alone for 12 weeks. Weights and serum biochemicals (lipid profile, oral glucose tolerance test, leptin, adiponectin, and insulin) were measured, and mRNA levels of insulin signaling genes were determined. The results indicated that low and high doses of sialic acid (SA) improved metabolic indices, although only the oral glucose tolerance test, serum triglycerides, leptin, and adiponectin were significantly better than those in the HFD and HFD + simvastatin groups (). Furthermore, the results showed that only high-dose SA significantly affected the transcription of hepatic and adipose tissue insulin signaling genes. The data suggested that SA prevented HFD-induced insulin resistance in rats after 12 weeks of administration through nontranscriptionally mediated biochemical changes that may have differentially sialylated glycoprotein structures at a low dose. At higher doses, SA induced transcriptional regulation of insulin signaling genes. These effects suggest that low and high doses of SA may produce similar metabolic outcomes in relation to insulin sensitivity through multiple mechanisms. These findings are worth studying further. Zhang Yida, Mustapha Umar Imam, Maznah Ismail, Norsharina Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Waiteng Wong, Hadiza Altine Adamu, Nur Diyana Md Zamri, Aini Ideris, and Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah Copyright © 2015 Zhang Yida et al. All rights reserved. Wide Local Excision for Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans: A Single-Center Series of 90 Patients Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:51:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/642549/ Background. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP), a rare low-grade sarcoma of fibroblast origin, tends to extend in a finger-like fashion beyond macroscopic tumor margins. Therefore, incomplete removal and subsequent recurrence are common. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of wide local excision (WLE) for controlling local recurrence of DFSP. Methods. The medical records of 90 DFSP patients who received WLE at our hospital between June 1992 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. WLE was conducted including a 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) safety margin according to tumor size, location, and recurrence status. Clinical and tumor characteristics and surgical methods were evaluated for risk factor analysis and local recurrence-free survival. Results. DFSP occurred most often in patients in their 30s (30%) and on the trunk (51.1%). Five patients (5.5%) experienced local recurrence during the 43.4-month follow-up period. Recurrence was found at a mean of 10.8 months after WLE. Although no factors were significantly associated with recurrence, recurrences were more frequent in head and neck. Recurrence-free survival was 87% in 6 years and 77% in 7 years. Conclusions. WLE with adequate lateral and deep margins can effectively control local recurrence rate and is a simple and effective method to treat DFSP. Byung Jun Kim, Hyeonwoo Kim, Ung Sik Jin, Kyung Won Minn, and Hak Chang Copyright © 2015 Byung Jun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Microstructure Characteristics and Properties of HVOF Sprayed Ni-Based Alloy Nano-h-BN Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:43:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/at/2015/621278/ A Ni-based alloy/nano-h-BN self-lubricating composite coating was produced on medium carbon steel by high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) spraying technique. The powder feedstocks for HVOF spraying were prepared by ball milling and agglomerated the nano-h-BN with Ni-based alloy powders. The microstructure and mechanical properties of coatings have been investigated. With the increasing of h-BN contents, some delaminations appeared gradually in the coatings and a continuous network with h-BN phase embedded formed in the metallic matrix. The average microhardness of the self-lubricating coating was a little lower for the addition of soft solid lubricant. The friction coefficient of coatings is in the ranges of 0.38–0.48 and 0.38–0.52 at ambient temperature and 400°C, respectively. The maximum bonding strength of coatings reached 23.83 MPa. Xiaofeng Zhang, Long Zhang, and Zhenyi Huang Copyright © 2015 Xiaofeng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Mean Platelet Volume and Platelet Distribution Width as Markers in the Diagnosis of Acute Gangrenous Appendicitis Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:37:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/542013/ Introduction. Acute gangrenous appendicitis (AGA) is a common medical condition; however, the grade of appendicitis usually cannot be established preoperatively. We have attempted to identify some indicators, such as the mean platelet volume (MPV) and the platelet distribution width (PDW), to diagnose AGA. Aims. To evaluate whether or not the MPV and PDW are suitable markers to diagnose AGA. Methods. A retrospective study of 160 patients with AGA and 160 healthy patients was undertaken. Disease diagnosis was confirmed based on the pathologic examination of surgical specimens. Patient white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil ratio (NR), platelet (PLT) count, MPV, PDW, and hematocrit (HCT) were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these indices in AGA. Results. There were no significant differences between the AGA and control groups in age and gender. Compared to the control group, the WBC count, NR, and PDW were significantly higher (, resp.) and the MPV and HCT were significantly lower (, resp.) in the AGA group. The diagnostic specificities of the WBC count, NR, PLT count, MPV, PDW, and HCT were 86.3%, 92.5%, 58.1%, 81.7%, 83.9%, and 66.3%, respectively. Therefore, the NR had the highest diagnostic specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. Conclusions. This is the first study to assess the MPV and PDW in patients with AGA. Our present study showed that the MPV is reduced and the PDW is increased in patients with AGA; the sensitivity of PDW was superior to the MPV. A decreased MPV value and an increased PDW could serve as two markers to diagnose AGA. The NR had the highest specificity for the diagnosis of AGA. Zhe Fan, Jiyong Pan, Yingyi Zhang, Ziyi Wang, Ming Zhu, Baoshun Yang, Lei Shi, and Huirong Jing Copyright © 2015 Zhe Fan et al. All rights reserved. No Polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum K13 Propeller Gene in Clinical Isolates from Kolkata, India Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:31:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpath/2015/374354/ Molecular markers associated with artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum are yet to be well defined. Recent studies showed that polymorphisms in K13 gene are associated with artemisinin resistance. The present study was designed to know the pattern of polymorphisms in propeller region of K13 gene among the clinical isolates collected from urban Kolkata after five years of ACT implementation. We collected 59 clinical isolates from urban Kolkata and sequenced propeller region of K13 gene in 51 isolates successfully. We did not find any mutation in any isolate. All patients responded to the ACT, a combination of artesunate + sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. The drug regimen is still effective in the study area and there is no sign of emergence of resistance against artemisinin as evidenced by wild genotype of K13 gene in all isolates studied. Moytrey Chatterjee, Swagata Ganguly, Pabitra Saha, Biswabandhu Bankura, Nandita Basu, Madhusudan Das, Subhasish K. Guha, and Ardhendu K. Maji Copyright © 2015 Moytrey Chatterjee et al. All rights reserved. Aggregate Indices Method in Soil Quality Evaluation Using the Relative Soil Quality Index Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:27:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aess/2015/253729/ This paper presents a new approach to assess the soil quality by aggregate indices using the Relative Soil Quality Index (RSQI) proposed by Ho Ngoc Pham. RSQI is integrated from the individual indices into a simple formula for overall assessment of the soil quality. RSQI is different from other approaches. Particularly, the individual indices and the weighting factors of Pham are calculated from the analytical laboratory data and the environmental standards, respectively, and not self-regulated as in methods of some other authors. In this paper, the authors applied the RSQI to assess the Soil Environmental Quality of rice intensive cultivation areas through a case study in Haiduong province in 2013. The RSQI is calculated for sampling points in 12 districts and simulated the Soil Environmental Quality on GIS map. The results show that the Soil Environmental Quality of rice intensive cultivation areas in Haiduong is predominantly divided into three levels: good, moderate, and poor. According to the report of General Statistics Office for Haiduong province, rice intensive cultivation areas in 2013 achieved a relatively high average rice yield of 5.90 tonnes per hectare; it means actual soil properties are in line with results of the research. Ho Ngoc Pham, Hai Xuan Nguyen, Anh Ngoc Nguyen, and Diep Ngoc Tran Copyright © 2015 Ho Ngoc Pham et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Coronary Collateral Circulation on In-Hospital Death in Patients with Inferior ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:26:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crp/2015/242686/ Objectives. Coronary collateral circulation (CCC) may limit the size of right ventricular (RV) infarcts but does not fully explain the relationship between CCC and clinical adverse events in patients with inferior STEMI. In this study, it was aimed to assess the relationship between preintervention angiographic evidence of CCC and clinical outcomes in patients with inferior STEMI who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods. A total of 235 inferior STEMI patients who presented within the first 12 hours from the symptom onset were included. CCC to the right coronary artery (RCA) before angioplasty were angiographically assessed, establishing two groups: 147 (63%) patients without CCC and 88 (37%) with CCC according to presence of CCC. Results. RV infarction, complete atrioventricular block, VT/VF, cardiogenic shock, and in-hospital death were noted less frequently in patients with CCC than in those without CCC. Absence of CCC to RCA was found to be the independent predictor for in-hospital death among them (odds ratio 4.0, 95% CI 1.8–12.6; ). Conclusion. Presence of angiographically detectable CCC was associated with better in-hospital outcomes including RV infarction, complete AV block, cardiogenic shock, and VT/VF in patients with inferior STEMI. Baris Yaylak, Bernas Altintas, Huseyin Ede, Erkan Baysal, Sukru Akyuz, Onder Bilge, Utkan Sevuk, Guney Erdogan, and Haci Ciftci Copyright © 2015 Baris Yaylak et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Thieno-Fused Bicyclic Compounds through New Enaminone Containing Thieno[2,3-b]pyridine Scaffold Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:26:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/382381/ New substituted thieno-fused bicyclic compounds named (1H-pyrazol-3-yl)thieno[2,3-b]pyridin-4(7H)-one derivatives (4a,b), 2-([1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-yl)-3-methyl-7-phenylthieno[2,3-b]pyridin-4(7H)-one (5), phenylthieno[2,3-b]pyridin-4(7H)-one derivatives (6a–c, 7a–c, and 8), and 3-(3-methyl-4-oxo-7-phenyl-4,7-dihydrothieno[2,3-b]pyridin-2-yl)-3-oxopropyl 4-chlorobenzoate (9) were synthesized by reacting the new enaminone (3) with different reagents. The chemical structure of the new molecules was determined by means of different spectroscopic methods such as NMR, IR, MS spectrometry, and by CHN analyses. The molecular structure of the 1,1′-(3-methyl-5-(phenylamino)thiophene-2,4-diyl)diethanone (2) was successfully solved by X-ray single crystal. Yahia Nasser Mabkhot, Salah S. Aladdi, S. S. Al-Showiman, A. M. A. Al-Majid, Assem Barakat, Hazem A. Ghabbour, and Mohamed R. Shaaban Copyright © 2015 Yahia Nasser Mabkhot et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Hydrazone Derivatives of Quinoline and Their Cu(II) and Zn(II) Complexes against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:16:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2015/153015/ A new series of quinoline hydrazone derivatives and their metal complexes have been synthesized and their biological properties have been evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37 RV strain). Most of the newly synthesized compounds displayed 100% inhibitory activity at a concentration of 6.25–25 μg/mL, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Fluorescence properties of all the synthesized compounds have been studied. Mustapha C. Mandewale, Bapu Thorat, Dnyaneshwar Shelke, and Ramesh Yamgar Copyright © 2015 Mustapha C. Mandewale et al. All rights reserved. Sphingolipids as Regulators of the Phagocytic Response to Fungal Infections Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:11:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/640540/ Fungal infections pose a significant risk for the increasing population of individuals who are immunocompromised. Phagocytes play an important role in immune defense against fungal pathogens, but the interactions between host and fungi are still not well understood. Sphingolipids have been shown to play an important role in many cell functions, including the function of phagocytes. In this review, we discuss major findings that relate to the importance of sphingolipids in macrophage and neutrophil function and the role of macrophages and neutrophils in the most common types of fungal infections, as well as studies that have linked these three concepts to show the importance of sphingolipid signaling in immune response to fungal infections. Arielle M. Bryan, Maurizio Del Poeta, and Chiara Luberto Copyright © 2015 Arielle M. Bryan et al. All rights reserved. Metformin Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Drug-Resistant Leukemia Cells Wed, 25 Nov 2015 10:01:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/lrt/2015/516460/ Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the antidiabetic drug metformin has chemosensitizing and chemopreventive effects against carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that metformin exerts varying degrees of antitumor activity against human leukemia cells, as reflected by differences in growth inhibition, apoptosis, and alterations to metabolic enzymes. In metformin-sensitive cells, autophagy was not induced but rather it blocked proliferation by means of arresting cells in the S and G2/M phases which was associated with the downregulation of cyclin A, cyclin B1, and cdc2, but not that of cyclin E. In 10E1-CEM cells that overexpress Bcl-2 and are drug-resistant, the effect of metformin on proliferation was more pronounced, also inducing the activation of the caspases 3/7 and hence apoptosis. In all sensitive cells, metformin decreased the and it modified the expression of enzymes involved in energy metabolism: PKC (PKCepsilon) and PKC (PKCdelta). In sensitive cells, metformin altered PKC and PKC expression leading to a predominance of PKC over PKC which implies a more glycolytic state. The opposite occurs in the nonresponsive cells. In conclusion, we provide new insights into the activity of metformin as an antitumoral agent in leukemia cells that could be related to its capability to modulate energy metabolism. A. Rodríguez-Lirio, G. Pérez-Yarza, M. R. Fernández-Suárez, E. Alonso-Tejerina, M. D. Boyano, and A. Asumendi Copyright © 2015 A. Rodríguez-Lirio et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Report Strategies for WBANs Using a Cloud-Assisted IDS Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:49:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/184239/ Applying an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) becomes a costly task for body sensors due to their limited resources. To solve this problem, a cloud-assisted IDS framework is proposed. We adopt a new distributed-centralized mode, where IDS agents residing in body sensors will be triggered to launch. All IDS agents are only responsible for reporting the monitored events, not intrusion decision that is processed in the cloud platform. We then employ the signaling game to construct an IDS Report Game (IDSRG) depicting interactions between a body sensor and its opponent. The pure- and mixed-strategy Bayesian Nash Equilibriums (BNEs) of the stage IDSRG are achieved, respectively. As two players interact continually, we develop the stage IDSRG into a dynamic multistage game in which the belief can be updated dynamically. Upon the current belief, the Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium (PBE) of the dynamic multistage IDSRG is attained, which helps the IDS-sensor select the optimal report strategy. We afterward design a PBE-based algorithm to make the IDS-sensor decide when to report the monitored events. Experiments show the effectiveness of the dynamic multistage IDSRG in predicting the type and optimal strategy of a malicious body sensor. Shigen Shen, Keli Hu, Longjun Huang, Hongjie Li, Risheng Han, and Qiying Cao Copyright © 2015 Shigen Shen et al. All rights reserved. Mixed and Continuous Strategy Monitor-Forward Game Based Selective Forwarding Solution in WSN Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:47:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/359780/ Wireless sensor networks are often deployed in unattended and hostile environments. Due to the resource limitations and multihop communication in WSN, selective forwarding attacks launched by compromised insider nodes are a serious threat. A trust-based scheme for identifying and isolating malicious nodes is proposed and a mixed strategy and a continuous strategy Monitor-Forward game between the sender node and its one-hop neighboring node is constructed to mitigate the selective dropping attacks in WSN. The continuous game will mitigate false positives on packet dropping detection on unreliable wireless communication channel. Simulation results demonstrate that continuous Monitor-Forward game based selective forwarding solution is an efficient approach to identifying the selective forwarding attacks in WSN. Hongmei Liao and Shifei Ding Copyright © 2015 Hongmei Liao and Shifei Ding. All rights reserved. Assigning Priorities for Fixed Priority Preemption Threshold Scheduling Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:44:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/837472/ Preemption threshold scheduling (PTS) enhances real-time schedulability by controlling preemptiveness of tasks. This benefit of PTS highly depends on a proper algorithm that assigns each task feasible scheduling attributes, which are priority and preemption threshold. Due to the existence of an efficient optimal preemption threshold assignment algorithm that works with fully assigned priority orderings, we need an optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. This paper analyzes the inefficiency or nonoptimality of the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithms for PTS. We develop theorems for exhaustively but safely pruning infeasible priority orderings while assigning priorities to tasks for PTS. Based on the developed theorems, we correct the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. We also propose a performance improved optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS proving its optimality. The empirical evaluation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Saehwa Kim Copyright © 2015 Saehwa Kim. All rights reserved. The Clinical Impact of Accurate Cystine Calculi Characterization Using Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:37:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2015/801021/ Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been suggested as the imaging modality of choice for kidney stones due to its ability to provide information on stone composition. Standard postprocessing of the dual-energy images accurately identifies uric acid stones, but not other types. Cystine stones can be identified from DECT images when analyzed with advanced postprocessing. This case report describes clinical implications of accurate diagnosis of cystine stones using DECT. William E. Haley, El-Sayed H. Ibrahim, Mingliang Qu, Joseph G. Cernigliaro, David S. Goldfarb, and Cynthia H. McCollough Copyright © 2015 William E. Haley et al. All rights reserved. A Systematic Review of Peripheral and Central Nervous System Involvement of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome, and Associated Immunological Profiles Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:19:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcd/2015/910352/ Both central (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) complications are frequent and varied in connective tissue diseases. A systematic review was conducted between 1989 and 2014 in the databases Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Library using the search terms, peripheral and central nervous complications and immunological profiles, to identify studies in specific connective tissue disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and primary Sjögren’s syndrome. A total of 675 references were identified, of which 118 were selected for detailed analysis and 22 were included in the final review with a total of 2338 participants. Our search focused only on studies upon connective tissue disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated with seroimmunological data. The reported prevalence of CNS involvement ranges from 9 to 92% across the reported studies. However, the association between CNS and PNS manifestations and seroimmunological profiles remains controversial. Τo date, no laboratory test has been shown as pathognomonic neither for CNS nor for PNS involvement. Anastasia Bougea, Evangelos Anagnostou, Giatas Konstantinos, Paraskevas George, Nikolaos Triantafyllou, and Evangelia Kararizou Copyright © 2015 Anastasia Bougea et al. All rights reserved. Probabilistic Structural Integrity Analysis of Boiling Water Reactor Pressure Vessel under Low Temperature Overpressure Event Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:10:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijne/2015/785041/ The probabilistic structural integrity of a Taiwan domestic boiling water reactor pressure vessel has been evaluated by the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. First, the analysis model was built for the beltline region of the reactor pressure vessel considering the plant specific data. Meanwhile, the flaw models which comprehensively simulate all kinds of preexisting flaws along the vessel wall were employed here. The low temperature overpressure transient which has been concluded to be the severest accident for a boiling water reactor pressure vessel was considered as the loading condition. It is indicated that the fracture mostly happens near the fusion-line area of axial welds but with negligible failure risk. The calculated results indicate that the domestic reactor pressure vessel has sufficient structural integrity until doubling of the present end-of-license operation. Hsoung-Wei Chou and Chin-Cheng Huang Copyright © 2015 Hsoung-Wei Chou and Chin-Cheng Huang. All rights reserved. Serological Evidence of Henipavirus among Horses and Pigs in Zaria and Environs in Kaduna State, Nigeria Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:07:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ab/2015/632158/ Henipavirus is an emerging, zoonotic, and lethal RNA virus comprising Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), to which fruit bats are reservoir. Husbandry practices in Nigeria allow close contact between bat reservoir and animals susceptible to Henipavirus. This cross-sectional survey investigated antibodies reactive to Henipavirus sG antigen and associated risk factors in horses and pigs in Zaria, Nigeria. Using convenience sampling, 510 sera from horses () and pigs () were screened by an indirect Henipavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (CSIRO, Australia). Structured questionnaires were employed with questions on the demographics and management of the animals. Data were analysed using SPSS-17. 5. Seroprevalence was higher for horses managed intensively (21.1%); used for sports (25.5%); watered with pipe borne water (17.9%); fed commercial feed (22.3%); and fed in the pen (17.6%). Seroprevalence was higher for pigs managed intensively (58.1%); imported (69.5%); watered with pipe-borne water (31.3%); fed commercial feed (57.4%); fed in the pen (23.4%), and fed with feed prestored in a feed house (49.5%). Horses <5 years and pigs <6 months had higher seroprevalences of 18.1% and 21.3%, while the female horses and pigs had seroprevalences of 19.8% and 22.8%, respectively. Exotic horses and pigs revealed 25.5% and 55% and horses in Igabi and pigs in Giwa revealed 24.7% and 70.2% seroprevalence, respectively (). There is a suggestive evidence of Henipavirus in horses and pigs in Zaria, Nigeria, with a huge public health implication. Local and exotic pigs and horses, pigs in Zaria and Sabon-Gari, and horses in Zaria, Sabon-Gari, and Kaduna North are associated with the seroprevalence of henipaviruses. Olaolu T. Olufemi, Jarlath U. Umoh, Asabe A. Dzikwi, and Yemisi O. Olufemi Copyright © 2015 Olaolu T. Olufemi et al. All rights reserved. Treatment with PPARα Agonist Clofibrate Inhibits the Transcription and Activation of SREBPs and Reduces Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Liver of Broiler Chickens Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:07:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2015/347245/ PPARα agonist clofibrate reduces cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in rodent liver by an inhibition of SREBP-dependent gene expression. In present study we investigated the regulation mechanisms of the triglyceride- and cholesterol-lowering effect of the PPARα agonist clofibrate in broiler chickens. We observed that PPARα agonist clofibrate decreases the mRNA and protein levels of LXRα and the mRNA and both precursor and nuclear protein levels of SREBP1 and SREBP2 as well as the mRNA levels of the SREBP1 (FASN and GPAM) and SREBP2 (HMGCR and LDLR) target genes in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group, whereas the mRNA level of INSIG2, which inhibits SREBP activation, was increased in the liver of treated broiler chickens compared to control group. Taken together, the effects of PPARα agonist clofibrate on lipid metabolism in liver of broiler chickens involve inhibiting transcription and activation of SREBPs and SREBP-dependent lipogenic and cholesterologenic gene expression, thereby resulting in a reduction of the triglyceride and cholesterol levels in liver of broiler chickens. Lijun Zhang, Chunyan Li, Fang Wang, Shenghua Zhou, Mingjun Shangguan, Lina Xue, Bianying Zhang, Fuxiang Ding, Dequan Hui, Aihua Liang, and Dongchang He Copyright © 2015 Lijun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Experiencing Commercialized Automated Demand Response Services with a Small Building Customer in Energy Market Wed, 25 Nov 2015 09:01:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/936931/ An Automated Demand Response is the most fundamental energy service that contributes to balancing the power demand with the supply, in which it realizes extensive interoperations between the power consumers and the suppliers. The OpenADR specification has been developed to facilitate the service communications, and several facilities offer primitive forms of services in a retail market. However, few researches have reported the details of such a real-world service yet, and thus we are still unaware of how it works exactly. Instead, we rely on our textbooks to design next generations of the ADR service. To overcome the discrepancy of our understanding, this paper shares our hand-on experiences on the commercialized ADR service. In particular, we deploy smart submeters to manage energy loads and install an energy management system in a small commercial facility, helping the owner participate in the ADR service that a local utility offers. The building owner makes a service contract with a qualified load aggregator based on her curtailment rate, a reference point that decides the success of her load curtailment. With the rate, the customer facility participates in three DR events for tests that last for 2, 1, and 3 hours, respectively. Our experimental results are illustrated with discussions on various aspects of the service. Eun-Kyu Lee Copyright © 2015 Eun-Kyu Lee. All rights reserved. Association of Polymorphic Variants of miRNA Processing Genes with Larynx Cancer Risk in a Polish Population Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:54:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/298378/ Laryngeal cancer (LC) is one of the most prevalent types of head and neck cancer. An increasing interest has been focused on the role of microRNA (miRNAs) in LC development. The study group consisted of 135 larynx cancer patients and 170 cancer-free individuals. Nine polymorphisms of pre-miRNA processing genes, DROSHA (rs6877842), DGCR8 (rs3757, rs417309, and rs1640299), RAN (rs14035), XPO5 (rs11077), DICER1 (rs13078 and rs3742330) and TARBP2 (rs784567), were performed by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. It was found that the frequency of the GT and the TT polymorphic variants of XPO5 gene were higher in LC patients than in controls ( and , resp.). In turn, the frequency of the CT genotype of RAN gene was higher in controls than in LC patients (). The TT and the AG of DICER1 gene ( for rs13078 and for rs3742330) as well as the AG and the GG genotypes of TARBP2 gene ( and , resp.) were associated with higher risk of LC occurrence. Our data suggested that polymorphisms of miRNA processing genes might be useful as predictive factors for the LC development. Ewa Osuch-Wojcikiewicz, Antoni Bruzgielewicz, Kazimierz Niemczyk, Olga Sieniawska-Buccella, Alicja Nowak, Anna Walczak, and Ireneusz Majsterek Copyright © 2015 Ewa Osuch-Wojcikiewicz et al. All rights reserved. Eosinophils Reduce Chronic Inflammation in Adipose Tissue by Secreting Th2 Cytokines and Promoting M2 Macrophages Polarization Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:52:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/565760/ Obesity is now recognized as a low-grade, chronic inflammatory disease that is linked to a myriad of disorders including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and liver diseases. Recently it is found that eosinophils accelerate alternative activation macrophage (AAM) polarization by secreting Th2 type cytokines such as interleukin-4 and interleukin-13, thereby reducing metainflammation in adipose tissue. In this review, we focused on the role of eosinophils in regulating metabolic homeostasis and obesity. Yi Zhang, Peng Yang, Ran Cui, Manna Zhang, Hong Li, Chunhua Qian, Chunjun Sheng, Shen Qu, and Le Bu Copyright © 2015 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Optic Disc and Optic Cup Segmentation Methodologies for Glaucoma Image Detection: A Survey Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:46:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/180972/ Glaucoma is the second leading cause of loss of vision in the world. Examining the head of optic nerve (cup-to-disc ratio) is very important for diagnosing glaucoma and for patient monitoring after diagnosis. Images of optic disc and optic cup are acquired by fundus camera as well as Optical Coherence Tomography. The optic disc and optic cup segmentation techniques are used to isolate the relevant parts of the retinal image and to calculate the cup-to-disc ratio. The main objective of this paper is to review segmentation methodologies and techniques for the disc and cup boundaries which are utilized to calculate the disc and cup geometrical parameters automatically and accurately to help the professionals in the glaucoma to have a wide view and more details about the optic nerve head structure using retinal fundus images. We provide a brief description of each technique, highlighting its classification and performance metrics. The current and future research directions are summarized and discussed. Ahmed Almazroa, Ritambhar Burman, Kaamran Raahemifar, and Vasudevan Lakshminarayanan Copyright © 2015 Ahmed Almazroa et al. All rights reserved. The Application of Time-Delay Dependent Control Model in Manufacturing Decision Optimization Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:45:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/219134/ This paper uses a time-delay dependent control model to analyze the effect of manufacturing decisions on the process of transmission from resources to capability. We establish a theoretical framework of manufacturing management process based on three terms: resource, manufacturing decision, and capability. Then we build a time-delay robust control model to analyze the robustness of manufacturing management. With the state feedback controller between manufacturing resources and decision, we find that there is an optimal decision to adjust the process of transmission from resources to capability under uncertain environment. Finally, we provide an example to prove the robustness of this model. Haifeng Guo, Bo Wang, Jianhua Zhang, Song Chen, and Yi Qiu Copyright © 2015 Haifeng Guo et al. All rights reserved. Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with Extensive Arterial Malformations Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:44:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/954628/ Goldenhar Syndrome is characterized by craniofacial, ocular and vertebral defects secondary to abnormal development of the 1st and 2nd branchial arches and vertebrae. Other findings include cardiac and vascular abnormalities. Though these associations are known, the specific anomalies are not well defined. We present a 7-month-old infant with intermittent respiratory distress that did not improve with respiratory interventions. Echocardiogram suggested a double aortic arch. Cardiac CT angiogram confirmed a right arch and aberrant, stenotic left subclavian artery, dilation of the main pulmonary artery, and agenesis of the left thyroid lobe. Repeat echocardiograms were concerning for severely dilated coronary arteries. Given dilation, a rheumatologic workup ensued, only identifying few weakly positive autoantibodies. Further imaging demonstrated narrowing of the aorta below the renal arteries and extending into the common iliac arteries and proximal femoral arteries. Given a physical exam devoid of rheumatologic findings, only weakly positive autoantibodies, normal inflammatory markers, and presence of the coronary artery dilation, the peripheral artery narrowings were not thought to be vasculitic. This case illustrates the need to identify definitive anomalies related to Goldenhar Syndrome. Although this infant’s presentation is rare, recognition of specific vascular findings will help differentiate Goldenhar Syndrome from other disease processes. Renee Frances Modica, L. Daphna Yasova Barbeau, Jennifer Co-Vu, Richard D. Beegle, and Charles A. Williams Copyright © 2015 Renee Frances Modica et al. All rights reserved. Novel Second-Order Accurate Implicit Numerical Methods for the Riesz Space Distributed-Order Advection-Dispersion Equations Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:26:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/590435/ We derive and analyze second-order accurate implicit numerical methods for the Riesz space distributed-order advection-dispersion equations (RSDO-ADE) in one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) cases, respectively. Firstly, we discretize the Riesz space distributed-order advection-dispersion equations into multiterm Riesz space fractional advection-dispersion equations (MT-RSDO-ADE) by using the midpoint quadrature rule. Secondly, we propose a second-order accurate implicit numerical method for the MT-RSDO-ADE. Thirdly, stability and convergence are discussed. We investigate the numerical solution and analysis of the RSDO-ADE in 1D case. Then we discuss the RSDO-ADE in 2D case. For 2D case, we propose a new second-order accurate implicit alternating direction method, and the stability and convergence of this method are proved. Finally, numerical results are presented to support our theoretical analysis. X. Wang, F. Liu, and X. Chen Copyright © 2015 X. Wang et al. All rights reserved. Low Threshold, Wide Dynamic Range, Tunable, All-Optical Self-Modulator Based on Fano Resonance and Out-of-Plane Coupling in a Slab Photonic Crystal with a Graphene Layer Wed, 25 Nov 2015 08:07:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2015/767495/ We demonstrate an all-optical modulator based on self-modulation in a one-dimensional slab photonic crystal (PhC) by using optical Kerr nonlinearity of graphene and Fano resonance effect. It has been shown that the effect of Fano resonance in a one-dimensional slab PhC for intensity enhancement can provide low threshold (~1 MW/cm2), high frequency (>1 THz), and wide dynamic range (>3 THz) tunability for the all-optical self-modulator. Such a self-modulator can find applications in optical pulse generations, optical clocks, frequency shifting, and so forth. Reza Asadi and Zhengbiao Ouyang Copyright © 2015 Reza Asadi and Zhengbiao Ouyang. All rights reserved. Pauci-Immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis: An ANCA-Associated Vasculitis Wed, 25 Nov 2015 07:35:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/402826/ Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a syndrome signified by a precipitous loss of renal function, with features of glomerulonephritis including dysmorphic erythrocyturia and glomerular proteinuria. RPGN is associated with extensive crescent formation, and, thus, the clinical term RPGN is often used interchangeably with the pathologic term crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). From an immunopathologic standpoint, primary RPGN is divided into pauci-immune GN (PICG), anti-GBM GN, and immune complex GN. PICG, the most common etiology of primary RPGN, refers to a necrotizing glomerulonephritis with few or no immune deposits by immunofluorescence (IF) or electron microscopy (EM). In most patients, pauci-immune CGN is a component of a systemic small vessel vasculitis such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Approximately 90% of patients with PICG have circulating ANCA antibodies, leading to the nomenclature ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Recent research has identified several other antibodies associated with PICG, which is now understood to be a complex spectrum of disease with considerable overlap in terms of clinical phenotype and outcomes. In addition, several genetic and environmental factors have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. With new prognostic classifications, enhanced understanding of immunopathologic mechanisms, and novel treatment paradigms, clinical and experimental interest in PICG remains high. Rafeel Syed, Amina Rehman, Gautam Valecha, and Suzanne El-Sayegh Copyright © 2015 Rafeel Syed et al. All rights reserved. Can Chronic Nitric Oxide Inhibition Improve Liver and Renal Dysfunction in Bile Duct Ligated Rats? Wed, 25 Nov 2015 07:20:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2015/298792/ The aims of the present work were to study the effects of chronic NO inhibition on liver cirrhosis and to analyze its relationship with liver and kidney damage markers. Two inhibitors of NO synthesis (inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), and nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME)) were administered for 6 weeks to bile duct ligated (BDL) rats 3 days after surgery. The present study showed that BDL was associated with liver injury and renal impairment. BDL increased liver NO content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. This was corroborated by increased oxidative stress, TNF-α, TGF-1β, and MMP-13 genes overexpression. Although both drugs reduced NO synthesis and TNF-α gene overexpression, only AG improved renal dysfunction and liver damage and reduced liver oxidative stress. However, L-NAME exacerbated liver and renal dysfunction. Both drugs failed to modulate TGF-1β and MMP-13 genes overexpression. In conclusion, inhibition of NO production by constitutive nitric oxide synthase (cNOS) plays a crucial role in liver injury and renal dysfunction while inhibition of iNOS by AG has beneficial effect. TNF-α is not the main cytokine responsible for liver injury in BDL model. Nitric oxide inhibition did not stop the progression of cholestatic liver damage. Mona Fouad Mahmoud, Sara Zakaria, and Ahmed Fahmy Copyright © 2015 Mona Fouad Mahmoud et al. All rights reserved. Susac’s Syndrome: A Case with Unusual Cardiac Vestibular and Imaging Manifestations Wed, 25 Nov 2015 07:20:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/419408/ Susac’s syndrome (SS) is a disease of the microvasculature of the retina, brain, and inner ear. We describe a patient with unusual manifestations of SS with possible involvement of the brainstem, cardiac arrhythmia, and MRI findings lacking the characteristic lesions found in Susac’s syndrome. Yaron River, Avi Shupak, Beatrice Tiosano, Vika Danilov, and Itzhak Braverman Copyright © 2015 Yaron River et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA-208a Dysregulates Apoptosis Genes Expression and Promotes Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis during Ischemia and Its Silencing Improves Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction Wed, 25 Nov 2015 07:10:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/479123/ Aims. miR-208a is associated with adverse outcomes in several cardiac pathologies known to have increased apoptosis, including myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated if miR-208a has proapoptotic effects on ischemic cardiomyocytes and if its silencing has therapeutic benefits in MI. Methods and Results. The effect of miR-208a on apoptosis during ischemia was studied in cultured neonatal mice myocytes transfected with agomir or antagomir. Differential gene expression was assessed using microarrays. MI was induced in male C57BL/6 mice randomly assigned to antagomir () or control group (), while sham group () had sham operation done. Antagomir group received miR208a antagomir, while control and sham group mice received vehicle only. At 7 and 28 days, echocardiography was done and thereafter hearts were harvested for analysis of apoptosis by TUNEL method, fibrosis using Masson’s trichrome, and hypertrophy using hematoxylin and eosin. miR-208a altered apoptosis genes expression and increased apoptosis in ischemic cardiomyocytes. Therapeutic inhibition of miR-208a decreased cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy, and apoptosis and significantly improved cardiac function 28 days after MI. Conclusion. miR-208a alters apoptosis genes expression and promotes apoptosis in ischemic cardiomyocytes, and its silencing attenuates apoptosis, fibrosis, and hypertrophy after MI, with significant improvement in cardiac function. Hasahya Tony, Kai Meng, Bangwei Wu, Aijia Yu, Qiutang Zeng, Kunwu Yu, and Yucheng Zhong Copyright © 2015 Hasahya Tony et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge and Attitudes of Parkinson’s Disease in Rural and Urban Mukono District, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional, Community-Based Study Wed, 25 Nov 2015 06:47:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/196150/ Background. Parkinson’s disease (PD) negatively affects the quality of life. There is limited information on PD published from Africa. Lack of adequate knowledge poses a barrier in the provision of appropriate treatment and care for individuals with PD. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in urban and rural Mukono district, central Uganda. Through the systematic sampling method, data were gathered from 377 adult participants, interviewed on selected aspects of PD knowledge and attitudes. Results. Of the 377 participants, 47% were from urban settings and 68% (260/377) were women with a median age (IQR) of 34 (26–48) years. Half of the study respondents did not know the body part involved in or apparent cause of PD. Nearly 1/3 of individuals believed that PD is a form of insanity and 17% believed that PD is contagious. Rural dwellers were more likely to have incorrect knowledge regarding selected aspects of PD. Conclusions. Understanding the cause of PD is very limited in our setting. Some beliefs about PD aetiology may potentially worsen stigma and social isolation. This study highlights the need for increasing PD awareness in our settings. Public health approaches that improve knowledge are urgently needed to promote care access and community response to Parkinson’s disease. Mark Kaddumukasa, Angelina Kakooza, Martin N. Kaddumukasa, Edward Ddumba, Levi Mugenyi, Martha Sajatovic, and Elly Katabira Copyright © 2015 Mark Kaddumukasa et al. All rights reserved. Application of Recycled Zero-Valent Iron Nanoparticle to the Treatment of Wastewater Containing Nitrobenzene Wed, 25 Nov 2015 06:29:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/392537/ Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was synthesized using iron oxide, a byproduct of pickling line at a steel work. ZVI with a mean particle size of 500 nm was synthesized. The reaction activity of the synthesized ZVI was much higher than commercial ZVI. When applied to the decomposition of nitrobenzene (NB), the ZVI particles underwent corrosion and passivation oxide film formation, resulting in particle size decrease. The NB decomposition rate increased with increasing ZVI dosage level and with decreasing pH. The solution pH increased monotonously with increasing reaction duration, whereas the aniline concentration showed a maximum at 50 min. Based on the GC/MS analysis, NB is presumed to be reduced into aniline via reductive intermediates such as azobenzene and azoxybenzene. When combined with a subsequent biological process, the synthesized ZVI will be able to decompose NB in wastewater effectively. Heon Lee, Byung-Hoon Kim, Young-Kwon Park, Sun-Jae Kim, and Sang-Chul Jung Copyright © 2015 Heon Lee et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Symptoms of Human Rotavirus Infection Observed in Children in Sokoto, Nigeria Wed, 25 Nov 2015 06:26:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/av/2015/890957/ Rotavirus has been identified among the most important causes of infantile diarrhoea, especially in developing countries. The present study was undertaken to determine the occurrence and clinical symptoms of human rotavirus disease among children presenting with varying degree of diarrhoea in selected urban hospitals in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Diarrhoea samples were collected from 200 diarrheic children younger than 5 years of age and tested using a commercially available DAKO Rotavirus ELISA kit which detects the presence of human group A rotaviruses. A questionnaire, based on WHO generic protocol, was completed for each child to generate the primary data. Of the total number of samples collected, 51 were found to be positive for human group A rotavirus indicating 25.5% prevalence of the disease in Sokoto state. The symptoms associated with the disease were analyzed and discussed. B. R. Alkali, A. I. Daneji, A. A. Magaji, and L. S. Bilbis Copyright © 2015 B. R. Alkali et al. All rights reserved. An Intercomparison between ERA-Interim Reanalysis and Observed Precipitation in Northeast China Wed, 25 Nov 2015 06:15:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/693923/ Recently, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) released a new set of reanalysis data—ERA-Interim. We make an intercomparison between ERA-Interim precipitation and observed precipitation in Northeast China. The results show that, in general, the ERA-Interim reanalysis precipitation data can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of seasonal precipitation in Northeast China well. In terms of spatial distribution, ERA-Interim precipitation is generally consistent with the observation data in different seasons in Northeast China. There is a larger difference in the center of Northeast China than in other areas between the two kinds of data. The ERA-Interim precipitation is larger than observed precipitation in most of Northeast China. In spring, autumn, and winter, the ERA-Interim precipitation value is close to the observation one, while in summer there is a large difference in Liaoning Peninsula and Changbai Mountain between the two kinds of precipitation data. In terms of temporal characteristics, the time series of the ERA-Interim precipitation matches well with the observed precipitation in whole. In different seasons, the annual variation of the ERA-Interim precipitation is well correlated with that of the observed precipitation. Jie Zhou and Junhu Zhao Copyright © 2015 Jie Zhou and Junhu Zhao. All rights reserved. Systemic Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography Wed, 25 Nov 2015 05:49:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/235742/ Objective. To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Methods. We studied 520 eligible subjects who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. The inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and D-dimer were measured. A multimarker inflammatory index was developed. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) separation processes were performed using Lipoprint System. Results. In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, several inflammatory markers (WBC count, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR) were positively related to circulating non-HDL cholesterol and remnant cholesterol (, all). Among lipoprotein subfractions, we observed a positive association of inflammatory markers with very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small LDL cholesterol, and LDL score (, all). Meanwhile, a negative association was detected between inflammatory markers and mean LDL particle size () or large HDL cholesterol (). Moreover, we found that the relationships between multimarker index quartiles and small LDL cholesterol, LDL score, and mean LDL particle size were slightly stronger in patients with CAD. Conclusions. Systemic inflammatory markers are positively correlated with small LDL cholesterol and LDL score while being negatively linked with mean LDL particle size and large HDL cholesterol, highlighting the potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk. Yan Zhang, Sha Li, Rui-Xia Xu, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Yuan-Lin Guo, Na-Qiong Wu, Jing Sun, and Jian-Jun Li Copyright © 2015 Yan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Lebesgue Decomposition Theorem and Weak Radon-Nikodým Theorem for Generalized Fuzzy Number Measures Wed, 25 Nov 2015 05:34:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/576134/ The Lebesgue type decomposition theorem and weak Radon-Nikodým theorem for fuzzy valued measures in separable Banach spaces are established. Cai-Li Zhou and Fu-Gui Shi Copyright © 2015 Cai-Li Zhou and Fu-Gui Shi. All rights reserved. De Novo Assembly of the Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Nodule Transcriptome Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:22:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/695947/ The large size and complexity of the garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome hamper its sequencing and the discovery of pea gene resources. Although transcriptome sequencing provides extensive information about expressed genes, some tissue-specific transcripts can only be identified from particular organs under appropriate conditions. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing of polyadenylated transcripts from young pea nodules and root tips on an Illumina GAIIx system, followed by de novo transcriptome assembly using the Trinity program. We obtained more than 58,000 and 37,000 contigs from “Nodules” and “Root Tips” assemblies, respectively. The quality of the assemblies was assessed by comparison with pea expressed sequence tags and transcriptome sequencing project data available from NCBI website. The “Nodules” assembly was compared with the “Root Tips” assembly and with pea transcriptome sequencing data from projects indicating tissue specificity. As a result, approximately 13,000 nodule-specific contigs were found and annotated by alignment to known plant protein-coding sequences and by Gene Ontology searching. Of these, 581 sequences were found to possess full CDSs and could thus be considered as novel nodule-specific transcripts of pea. The information about pea nodule-specific gene sequences can be applied for gene-based markers creation, polymorphism studies, and real-time PCR. Vladimir A. Zhukov, Alexander I. Zhernakov, Olga A. Kulaeva, Nikita I. Ershov, Alexey Y. Borisov, and Igor A. Tikhonovich Copyright © 2015 Vladimir A. Zhukov et al. All rights reserved. Swarm Intelligence Integrated Graph-Cut for Liver Segmentation from 3D-CT Volumes Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:21:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/823541/ The segmentation of organs in CT volumes is a prerequisite for diagnosis and treatment planning. In this paper, we focus on liver segmentation from contrast-enhanced abdominal CT volumes, a challenging task due to intensity overlapping, blurred edges, large variability in liver shape, and complex background with cluttered features. The algorithm integrates multidiscriminative cues (i.e., prior domain information, intensity model, and regional characteristics of liver in a graph-cut image segmentation framework). The paper proposes a swarm intelligence inspired edge-adaptive weight function for regulating the energy minimization of the traditional graph-cut model. The model is validated both qualitatively (by clinicians and radiologists) and quantitatively on publically available computed tomography (CT) datasets (MICCAI 2007 liver segmentation challenge, 3D-IRCAD). Quantitative evaluation of segmentation results is performed using liver volume calculations and a mean score of 80.8% and 82.5% on MICCAI and IRCAD dataset, respectively, is obtained. The experimental result illustrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. Maya Eapen, Reeba Korah, and G. Geetha Copyright © 2015 Maya Eapen et al. All rights reserved. Pharyngeal Electrical Stimulation for Treatment of Poststroke Dysphagia: Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:18:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2015/429053/ Background. Dysphagia after stroke is common, associated independently with poor outcome, and has limited treatment options. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) is a novel treatment being evaluated for treatment of poststroke dysphagia. Methods. We searched electronically for randomised controlled trials of PES in dysphagic patients within 3 months of stroke. Individual patient data were analysed using regression, adjusted for trial, age, severity, and baseline score. The coprimary outcomes were radiological aspiration (penetration aspiration score, PAS) and clinical dysphagia (dysphagia severity rating scale, DSRS) at 2 weeks; secondary outcomes included functional outcome, death, and length of stay in hospital. Results. Three completed trials were identified: 73 patients, age 72 (12) years, severity (NIHSS) 11 (6), DSRS 6.7 (4.3), mean PAS 4.3 (1.8). Compared with no/sham stimulation, PES was associated with lower PAS, 3.4 (1.7) versus 4.1 (1.7), mean difference −0.9 (), and lower DSRS, 3.5 (3.8) versus 4.9 (4.4), mean difference −1.7 (). Length of stay in hospital tended to be shorter: 50.2 (25.3) versus 71.2 (60.4) days (). Functional outcome and death did not differ between treatment groups. Conclusions. PES was associated with less radiological aspiration and clinical dysphagia and possibly reduced length of stay in hospital across three small trials. Polly Scutt, Han S. Lee, Shaheen Hamdy, and Philip M. Bath Copyright © 2015 Polly Scutt et al. All rights reserved. Cofunctional Subpathways Were Regulated by Transcription Factor with Common Motif, Common Family, or Common Tissue Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:10:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/780357/ Dissecting the characteristics of the transcription factor (TF) regulatory subpathway is helpful for understanding the TF underlying regulatory function in complex biological systems. To gain insight into the influence of TFs on their regulatory subpathways, we constructed a global TF-subpathways network (TSN) to analyze systematically the regulatory effect of common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs on subpathways. We performed cluster analysis to show that the common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs that regulated the same pathway classes tended to cluster together and contribute to the same biological function that led to disease initiation and progression. We analyzed the Jaccard coefficient to show that the functional consistency of subpathways regulated by the TF pairs with common motif, common family, or common tissue was significantly greater than the random TF pairs at the subpathway level, pathway level, and pathway class level. For example, HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha) and NR1I3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3) were a pair of TFs with common motif, common family, and common tissue. They were involved in drug metabolism pathways and were liver-specific factors required for physiological transcription. In short, we inferred that the cofunctional subpathways were regulated by common-motif, common-family, or common-tissue TFs. Fei Su, Desi Shang, Yanjun Xu, Li Feng, Haixiu Yang, Baoquan Liu, Shengyang Su, Lina Chen, and Xia Li Copyright © 2015 Fei Su et al. All rights reserved. Antimicrobial Potential of Crude Extract of Curvularia lunata, an Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Cymbopogon caesius Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:07:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmy/2015/185821/ Cymbopogon caesius grass is an aromatic tall grass species which grows in waste field and along the edges of crop fields in Karnataka. From this grass fungal endophytes were isolated on PDA medium and identified as Curvularia lunata. The fungus was cultured on Potato Dextrose broth for production of fungal metabolites. Ethyl acetate extract of the C. lunata was obtained by liquid-liquid partition of broth of endophyte and evaporation. Dried crude extract was tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method. The extract showed antimicrobial nature against all the test pathogens. Crude extract of C. lunata is highly active against Staphylococcus aureus with the inhibition percentage of 92 and Candida albicans with 81 percent inhibition. K. S. Avinash, H. S. Ashwini, H. N. Ramesh Babu, and Y. L. Krishnamurthy Copyright © 2015 K. S. Avinash et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Investigation of Benign Asbestos Pleural Effusion Tue, 24 Nov 2015 14:03:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2015/416179/ There is no detailed information about benign asbestos pleural effusion (BAPE). The aim of the study was to clarify the clinical features of BAPE. The criteria of enrolled patients were as follows: (1) history of asbestos exposure; (2) presence of pleural effusion determined by chest X-ray, CT, and thoracentesis; and (3) the absence of other causes of effusion. Clinical information was retrospectively analysed and the radiological images were reviewed. There were 110 BAPE patients between 1991 and 2012. All were males and the median age at diagnosis was 74 years. The median duration of asbestos exposure and period of latency for disease onset of BAPE were 31 and 48 years, respectively. Mean values of hyaluronic acid, adenosine deaminase, and carcinoembryonic antigen in the pleural fluid were 39,840 ng/mL, 23.9 IU/L, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Pleural plaques were detected in 98 cases (89.1%). Asbestosis was present in 6 (5.5%) cases, rounded atelectasis was detected in 41 (37.3%) cases, and diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) was detected in 30 (27.3%) cases. One case developed lung cancer (LC) before and after BAPE. None of the cases developed malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) during the follow-up. Nobukazu Fujimoto, Kenichi Gemba, Keisuke Aoe, Katsuya Kato, Takako Yokoyama, Ikuji Usami, Kazuo Onishi, Keiichi Mizuhashi, Toshikazu Yusa, and Takumi Kishimoto Copyright © 2015 Nobukazu Fujimoto et al. All rights reserved. A Novel M2M Backbone Network Architecture Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:52:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/512321/ Network architecture analysis is a curial issue for a large scale Machine-To-Machine (M2M) network. Considering an M2M backbone network which consists of distributed satellite clusters in geosynchronous orbit (GEO), a new distributed satellite cluster network (DSCN) hybrid topology architecture is proposed in this paper. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the conceptions of domains, strong/weak link, hubs, small world, and degree realizability are proposed for the first time in the DSCN based M2M backbone networks. How these features affect the network is given through analysis and simulation. By employing Network Science Theory, a strong constraint DSCN topology is presented. In addition, we compare the DSCN with several typical network topologies. Results show that the proposed hybrid architecture realizes a stunning trade-off between the efficiency and robustness. Feihong Dong, Qinfei Huang, Hongjun Li, Bo Kong, and Wei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Feihong Dong et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Power Saving Method for Mobile Walking Guidance Device Using Motion Context Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:33:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2015/540512/ It is important to recognize the motion of the user and the surrounding environment with multiple sensors. We developed a guidance system based on mobile device for visually impaired person that helps the user to walk safely to the destination in the previous study. However, a mobile device having multiple sensors spends more power when the sensors are activated simultaneously and continuously. We propose a method for reducing the power consumption of a mobile device by considering the motion context of the user. We analyze and classify the user’s motion accurately by means of a decision tree and HMM (Hidden Markov Model) that exploit the data from a triaxial accelerometer sensor and a tilt sensor. We can reduce battery power consumption by controlling the number of active ultrasonic sensors and the frame rate of the camera used to acquire spatial context around the user. This helps us to extend the operating time of the device and reduce the weight of the device’s built-in battery. Jin-Hee Lee, Yeong-Ju Lee, Minseok Song, and Byeong-Seok Shin Copyright © 2015 Jin-Hee Lee et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Analysis of the Host Effect on Phenotypical Variation of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:26:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psyche/2015/613614/ The Triatominae subfamily includes hematophagous insects, well known for their role as vectors for the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, etiologic agent of Chagas’ disease. Belminus ferroae is a triatomine that showed an increased demographic fitness when cockroaches were used as hosts. Here we compare the centroid size (CS) and wing shape between B. ferroae parents and three successive generations (O1, O2, and O3) of their offspring fed on cockroaches or mice under laboratory conditions. Morphometric analysis of the wings bugs fed on cockroaches showed a significant reduction in CS in both sexes among all generations. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) was observed in the insects fed on cockroaches (O2 and O3), as well as those bugs fed on mice (O2). Differences in the shape of wings were observed between parental and offspring wings when fed on mice, but not in males (O1, O2, and O3) or females (O1 and O2) fed on cockroaches. There was a greater wing shape similarity between the cockroach-fed offspring and their parents according to the Mahalanobis distances. Our results support the idea of higher adaptation of this Triatominae with arthropod hosts. Claudia Magaly Sandoval Ramirez, Elsa Evelia Nieves Blanco, Reinaldo Gutiérrez Marin, Diego Alexander Jaimes Mendez, Nelcy Ortiz Rodríguez, Fernando Otálora-Luna, and Elis José Aldana Copyright © 2015 Claudia Magaly Sandoval Ramirez et al. All rights reserved. Hypersurface Constrained Elasticae in Lorentzian Space Forms Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:18:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/458178/ We study geodesics in hypersurfaces of a Lorentzian space form , which are critical curves of the -bending energy functional, for variations constrained to lie on the hypersurface. We characterize critical geodesics showing that they live fully immersed in a totally geodesic and that they must be of three different types. Finally, we consider the classification of surfaces in the Minkowski 3-space foliated by critical geodesics. Óscar J. Garay, Álvaro Pámpano, and Changhwa Woo Copyright © 2015 Óscar J. Garay et al. All rights reserved. Posterior Urethral Strictures Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:17:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2015/628107/ Pelvic fracture urethral injuries are typically partial and more often complete disruptions of the most proximal bulbar and distal membranous urethra. Emergency management includes suprapubic tube placement. Subsequent primary realignment to place a urethral catheter remains a controversial topic, but what is not controversial is that when there is the development of a stricture (which is usually obliterative with a distraction defect) after suprapubic tube placement or urethral catheter removal, the standard of care is delayed urethral reconstruction with excision and primary anastomosis. This paper reviews the management of patients who suffer pelvic fracture urethral injuries and the techniques of preoperative urethral imaging and subsequent posterior urethroplasty. Joel Gelman and Eric S. Wisenbaugh Copyright © 2015 Joel Gelman and Eric S. Wisenbaugh. All rights reserved. Comment on “Analysis and Thoughts about the Negative Results of International Clinical Trials on Acupuncture” Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:15:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/637215/ Leigh Jackson Copyright © 2015 Leigh Jackson. All rights reserved. Multivisceral Resection with Performing a Double Roux-en-Y Reconstruction for Advanced Gastric Cancer Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:12:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/649723/ Background. The role of multivisceral resection, in the setting of locally advanced gastric cancer, is still debated. Previous studies have reported a higher risk for perioperative morbidity and mortality, with limited objective benefit in terms of survival. Patient. A male patient, 55 years old, was admitted to the clinic of surgery for surgical treatment of bleeding gastric ulceration. Preoperative diagnostic evaluation was performed, and patient had undergone a surgical treatment which revealed a large mass in head of the pancreas, infiltrating the hepatoduodenal ligament and transverse mesocolon. Total gastrectomy, duodenopancreatectomy, and right hemicolectomy were performed. The digestive tube continuity was reestablished by deriving the double Roux limbs. Conclusion. The aim of this case presentation is to demonstrate a method of digestive tube reconstruction by performing the double Roux-en-Y reconstruction in advanced gastric cancer when the multivisceral resection is performed. Zijah Rifatbegovic, Zlatan Mehmedovic, Majda Mehmedovic, Jasmin Hasanovic, and Amra Mestric Copyright © 2015 Zijah Rifatbegovic et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Multivariable Algorithm for Detecting and Tracing Metal Mobile Objects Employing a Simple RFID Setup Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:10:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/409617/ Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a solution for automated inventory and object detection applications. However, if RFID tags are attached to metal objects, detection errors may occur due to Foucault currents and interferences caused by multiple simultaneous reflections. Errors may increase if metal objects are moving. The paper presents a novel algorithm using RFID low-level reader variables, such as RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator), phase angle, and Doppler shift, to detect and trace metal objects. The algorithm was designed to identify if a tag is static or moving and, in the latter case, to compute its speed and direction. The algorithm differs from previous approaches since it uses a simple setup with one commercial portal reader coupled with one single element antenna. Experiments employed one tag located on one metal moving object and 12 static interferer tags, in both outdoor and indoor locations. Results show that the algorithm identifies static tags with no errors. For moving tags, the algorithm shows a maximum 12% error. The algorithm correctly estimates direction and computes object speed. Test conditions emulate fork lift speeds when carrying objects in an industrial warehouse. Wendy Navarro, Juan C. Velez, Norelli Schettini, and Maria Calle Copyright © 2015 Wendy Navarro et al. All rights reserved. Protocol for Bone Augmentation with Simultaneous Early Implant Placement: A Retrospective Multicenter Clinical Study Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:01:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2015/589135/ Purpose. To present a novel protocol for alveolar bone regeneration in parallel to early implant placement. Methods. 497 patients in need of extraction and early implant placement with simultaneous bone augmentation were treated in a period of 10 years. In all patients the same specific method was followed and grafting was performed utilizing in situ hardening fully resorbable alloplastic grafting materials consisting of β-tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate. The protocol involved atraumatic extraction, implant placement after 4 weeks with simultaneous bone augmentation, and loading of the implant 12 weeks after placement and grafting. Follow-up periods ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean of 4 years). Results. A total of 601 postextraction sites were rehabilitated in 497 patients utilizing the novel protocol. Three implants failed before loading and three implants failed one year after loading, leaving an overall survival rate of . Conclusions. This standardized protocol allows successful long-term functional results regarding alveolar bone regeneration and implant rehabilitation. The concept of placing the implant 4 weeks after extraction, augmenting the bone around the implant utilizing fully resorbable, biomechanically stable, alloplastic materials, and loading the implant at 12 weeks seems to offer advantages when compared with traditional treatment modalities. Peter Fairbairn and Minas Leventis Copyright © 2015 Peter Fairbairn and Minas Leventis. All rights reserved. Correlation of Lateral Cephalogram and Flexible Laryngoscopy with Sleep Study in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:57:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/127842/ Objective. To study the correlation between lateral cephalogram, flexible laryngoscopy, and sleep study in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Background. Screening tools should be devised for predicting OSA which could be performed on an outpatient basis. With this aim we studied the skeletal and soft tissue characteristics of proven OSA patients. Methods. A prospective study was performed in patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea by sleep study. They were evaluated clinically and subjected to lateral cephalometry and nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. The findings were matched to see if they corresponded to AHI of sleep study in severity. An attempt was made to see whether the data predicted the patients who would benefit from oral appliance or surgery as the definitive treatment in indicated cases. Results. A retropalatal collapse seen on endoscopy could be equated to the distance from mandibular plane to hyoid (MP-H) of lateral cephalometry and both corresponded to severity of AHI. At the retroglossal region, there was a significant correlation with MP-H, length of the soft palate, and AHI. Conclusion. There is significant correlation of lateral cephalogram and awake flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscopy with AHI in OSA. In unison they form an excellent screening tool for snorers. Anila Narayanan and Bini Faizal Copyright © 2015 Anila Narayanan and Bini Faizal. All rights reserved. Unilateral Crystalline Vitreoretinopathy: A Rare Entity Associated with Intraocular Inflammation Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:44:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2015/460564/ A 31-year-old Indian male presented with floaters and diminution of vision in the right eye. Ocular examination showed features of old anterior uveitis with posterior subcapsular cataract and fine, refractile crystals in the vitreous cavity and on the retinal surface. A thorough workup for all known causes of crystalline retinopathy was inconclusive. Unilateral crystalline retinopathy has been sparingly reported. This is the first report of unilateral, crystalline vitreoretinopathy in the absence of any demonstrable and known cause for intraocular crystals. Kaustubh B. Harshey, Karthik Srinivasan, Ramakrishnan Rengappa, and Kim Ramasamy Copyright © 2015 Kaustubh B. Harshey et al. All rights reserved. Solution-Based High-Density Arrays of Dielectric Microsphere Structures for Improved Crystal Quality of III-Nitride Layers on Si Substrates Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:41:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/639750/ The recent development of dielectric microsphere lithography has been able to open up new means of performing simple and easy patterning on the semiconductor surfaces. Here, we report uniform and high-density arrays of microspheres using a solution-based spin-coating method. The arrays of microspheres were used for etching mask to form the arrays of III-nitride microrods. By regrowing GaN layer on the microrod structures, high-quality GaN layer was achieved in terms of surface morphology as well as XRD characterization. To apply the advantages such as improved crystal quality and light extraction enhancement, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown and then fabricated. The regrown LEDs with microspheres showed much improved optical output power and forward voltage characteristics in the same current injection. Therefore, we believe that this approach is quite useful for the development of high efficiency LEDs for future lighting. Ho-Jun Lee, Kye-Jin Lee, Kwang-Yong Choi, Jung-Hyun Eum, Dong-Kun Lee, Dong-Seon Lee, and Si-Young Bae Copyright © 2015 Ho-Jun Lee et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-κB and AP-1 Activity” Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:37:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/326234/ Chao-Bin Yeh, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Ming-Hsien Chien, Pen-Yuan Lin, Hui-Ling Chiou, and Shun-Fa Yang Copyright © 2015 Chao-Bin Yeh et al. All rights reserved. 3D Culture of MIN-6 Cells on Decellularized Pancreatic Scaffold: In Vitro and In Vivo Study Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:36:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/432645/ Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease which is due to the lack of β cells. The ideal therapy to cure the disease is pancreas transplantation, but its application is confined to a limited number of people due to the shortage of organ and the need for life-long immunosuppression. Regenerative medicine methods such as a tissue engineered pancreas seem to provide a useful method. In order to construct a microenvironment similar to the native pancreas that is suitable for not only cell growth but also cellular function exertion, a decellularized mouse pancreas was used as a natural 3D scaffold in this experiment. MIN-6 β cells were planted in the bioscaffold. The cell engraftment was verified by HE staining and SEM. Immunostaining procedures were performed to confirm the normal function of the engrafted cells. qRT-PCR demonstrated that insulin gene expression of the recellularized pancreas was upregulated compared with conventional plate-cultured cells. In vivo experiment was also accomplished to further evaluate the function of the recellularized bioscaffold and the result was inspiring. And beyond doubt this will bring new hope for type 1 diabetic patients. Di Wu, Jian Wan, Yan Huang, Yibing Guo, Tianxin Xu, Mingyan Zhu, Xiangjun Fan, Shajun Zhu, Changchun Ling, Xiaohong Li, Jingjing Lu, Hui Zhu, Pengcheng Zhou, Yuhua Lu, and Zhiwei Wang Copyright © 2015 Di Wu et al. All rights reserved. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:28:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cridm/2015/421765/ Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment. Hasan Tak, Cengiz Koçak, Gülben Sarıcı, Nazlı Dizen Namdar, and Mehtap Kıdır Copyright © 2015 Hasan Tak et al. All rights reserved. Investigation on Structural and Optical Properties of Willemite Doped Mn2+ Based Glass-Ceramics Prepared by Conventional Solid-State Method Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:28:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/730753/ Mn-doped willemite (Zn2SiO4:Mn2+) glass-ceramics derived from ZnO-SLS glass system were prepared by a conventional melt-quenching technique followed by a controlled crystallization step employing the heat treatment process. Soda lime silica (SLS) glass waste, ZnO, and MnO were used as sources of silicon, zinc, and manganese, respectively. The obtained glass-ceramic samples were characterized using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results of XRD revealed that ZnO crystal and willemite (β-Zn2SiO4) were presented as major embedded crystalline phases. This observation was consistent with the result of FESEM which showed the presence of irregularity in shape and size of willemite crystallites. FTIR spectroscopy exhibits the structural evolution of willemite based glass-ceramics. The optical band gap shows a decreasing trend as the Mn-doping content increased. Photoluminescent technique was applied to characterize the role of Mn2+ ions when entering the willemite glass-ceramic structure. By measuring the excitation and emission spectra, the main emission peak of the glass-ceramic samples located at a wavelength of 585 nm after subjecting to 260 nm excitations. The following results indicate that the obtained glass-ceramics can be applied as phosphor materials. Nur Farhana Samsudin, Khamirul Amin Matori, Josephine Ying Chi Liew, Yap Wing Fen, Mohd Hafiz Mohd Zaid, and Zarifah Nadakkavil Alassan Copyright © 2015 Nur Farhana Samsudin et al. All rights reserved. Performance of LED Fluorescence Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Positive Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:23:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/trt/2015/794064/ Background. Despite its lower sensitivity, smear microscopy remains the main diagnostic method for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in resource-limited countries as TB culturing methods like LJ (Lowenstein-Jensen) are expensive to use as a routine base. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of LED-FM for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Zewditu Memorial Hospital and Teklehaimanot Health Center HIV/ART clinics in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Each sample was stained with ZN and Auramine O staining and examined with bright-field microscope and LED-FM microscope, respectively. LJ culture was used as a reference. Results. Out of 178 study participants, twenty-four (13.5%) patients were confirmed as positive for MTB with LJ culture. The yield of ZN microscopy and LED-FM in direct and concentrated sample was 3.9%, 8.4%, 6.2%, and 8.4%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of direct ZN microscopy were 29.2%, 100%, 100%, and 90.1%, respectively, and of LED-FM microscopy in direct sputum sample were 62.5%, 100%, 100%, and 94.5%, respectively. Conclusion. LED-FM has better sensitivity for the diagnosis of PTB in HIV positive individuals as compared to conventional ZN microscopy. LED-FM can be used as an alternative to conventional ZN microscopy. Konjit Getachew, Tamrat Abebe, Abebaw Kebede, Adane Mihret, and Getachew Melkamu Copyright © 2015 Konjit Getachew et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Colocalization of Lichen Planus and Vitiligo Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:19:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cridm/2015/840193/ We report an unusual manifestation of vitiligo colocalizing with lichen planus (LP). A 76-year-old Greek male presented with a history of a red, scaly, itchy, asymmetrical patch located at the umbilicus within a well-demarcated depigmented macule of vitiligo. Histology showed features of a lichenoid interface dermatitis, favouring a diagnosis of LP. Colocalization of LP and vitiligo has rarely been reported in the literature. After reviewing the literature, we believe that at present there is insufficient evidence to resolve the uncertainties in the aetiology of this colocalization. It seems to us that the association between LP and vitiligo is more than coincidental, but none of the theories discussed in this paper can sufficiently account for it. Rather, the association is likely to be multifactorial in its pathogenesis. David Veitch, Georgios Kravvas, Sian Hughes, and Christopher Bunker Copyright © 2015 David Veitch et al. All rights reserved. Integration of Spirituality in Medical Education in Iran: A Qualitative Exploration of Requirements Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:18:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/793085/ Background. Healthcare system has needed to provide spiritual services, and one of the reasons for not addressing spirituality in this field is lack of training in this area. This study purpose is to explore and identify main requirements for designing this education, in Iran. Materials and Methods. This is a qualitative study with conventional content analysis method. 18 participants, who were main stakeholders in spirituality, medical education, and curriculum development, were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, which continued until data saturation. Results. Three main themes and their categories were extracted from analysis of data. The themes are (1) educational needs including clinical practice needs; (2) opportunities including rich background and backup, perceived clinical need, and right context of medical education for change; and (3) challenges including challenges in academic planning and barriers to implementation. Conclusion. All stakeholders acknowledged the need for addressing spirituality in formal medical education. It seems that implementation of such programs requires attention to facilitating factors and challenges proposed by those involved. Nadereh Memaryan, Maryam Rassouli, Seyedeh Zahra Nahardani, and Parisa Amiri Copyright © 2015 Nadereh Memaryan et al. All rights reserved. Optimization and Characterization of Artesunate-Loaded Chitosan-Decorated Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) Acid Nanoparticles Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:16:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/674175/ The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation of artesunate-loaded chitosan- (CS-) decorated poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles as well as evaluate their characteristics. CS-to-PLGA mass ratio, pH of CS solution, and experimental temperature were optimized using response surface methodology to understand their effects on size and zeta potential of nanoparticles. The optimized formulation showed the close agreement between predicted and experimental values (all bias below 5%). The presence of CS was confirmed by positive surface charge and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A spherical-like shape of particles was observed in range of small size around 190 nm. This CS layer restricted initial burst release of drug from carriers in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8. In addition, CS-coated NPs enhanced the intracellular uptake, in vitro cytotoxicity, and apoptosis-induced nuclei behaviors compared with CS-uncoated NPs as well as free drug in MCF-7 and A549 cancer cells. Hoang Nhan Ho, Tuan Hiep Tran, Trong Bien Tran, Chul Soon Yong, and Chien Ngoc Nguyen Copyright © 2015 Hoang Nhan Ho et al. All rights reserved. Association between Estrogen Receptor- Gene XbaI and PvuII Polymorphisms and Periodontitis Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:13:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/741972/ Background. Certain studies have previously explored the association between the estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) gene polymorphisms and periodontitis susceptibility, although the current results are controversial. The present study, using meta-analysis, aimed to investigate the nature of the genetic susceptibility of the ER- for developing periodontitis. Methods. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, CNKI, and Wanfang databases was conducted up to January 8, 2015. Statistical manipulation was performed using Stata version 13.0 software. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confident intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association in five genetic models. Results. A total of 17 eligible case-control studies from seven identified publications consisting of nine studies for the XbaI polymorphism and eight studies for the PvuII polymorphism were included in the meta-analysis. We found elevated risk of periodontitis in XbaI XX genotype carriers. Moreover, subgroup analyses demonstrated increased risk for chronic periodontitis of XbaI XX genotype carriers, specifically in the Chinese Han female population. No significant association was observed between PvuII polymorphism and periodontitis. Conclusion. Current evidence indicated that the homozygote (XX) genotype of ER- gene XbaI polymorphism, but not PvuII mutation, may increase the risk of chronic periodontitis, specifically in the Chinese Han female population. Hong Weng, Chao Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Hu, Rui-Xia Yuan, Hong-Xia Zuo, Jin-Zhu Yan, and Yu-Ming Niu Copyright © 2015 Hong Weng et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA-381 Negatively Regulates TLR4 Signaling in A549 Cells in Response to LPS Stimulation Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:12:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/849475/ It is widely reported that miR-381 is dysregulated in various tumors. However, the specific role of miR-381 in respiratory infections has not been reported. To probe this role, A549 cells were pretreated with 1 μg/mL LPS for 24 h. The level of miR-381 was detected using RT-qPCR. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines was determined using an ELISA kit and western blotting. Bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the target genes of miR-381, and a luciferase reporter assay was used to validate the expression of the target genes. miR-381 expression was increased in A549 cells treated with LPS, which is a ligand of TLRs. Further study revealed that the overexpression of miR-381 increased the activity of NF-κB signaling, thereby increasing the expression of IL-6, TNFα, and COX-2. Further study revealed that IκBα was a target gene of miR-381. The upregulation of miR-381 under LPS stimulation contributes to respiratory infections mainly by targeting IκBα. Zhihao Xu, Dapeng Dong, Xiaofei Chen, Huaqiong Huang, and Shenglan Wen Copyright © 2015 Zhihao Xu et al. All rights reserved. Energy-Based Optimal Ranking of the Interior Modes for Reduced-Order Models under Periodic Excitation Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:02:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/348106/ This paper introduces a novel method for ranking and selecting the interior modes to be retained in the Craig-Bampton model reduction, in the case of linear vibrating systems under periodic excitation. The aim of the method is to provide an effective ranking of such modes and hence an optimal sequence according to which the interior modes should be progressively included to achieve a desired accuracy of the reduced-order model at the frequencies of interest, while keeping model dimensions to a minimum. An energy-based ranking (EBR) method is proposed, which exploits analytical coefficients to evaluate the contribution of each interior mode to the forced response of the full-order system. The application of the method to two representative systems is discussed: an ultrasonic horn and a vibratory feeder. The results show that the EBR method provides a very effective ranking of the most important interior modes and that it outperforms other state-of-the-art benchmark techniques. Ilaria Palomba, Dario Richiedei, and Alberto Trevisani Copyright © 2015 Ilaria Palomba et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Antioxidant-Enhanced Polymers in Bitumen Rheology and Bituminous Concrete Mixtures Mechanical Performance Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:57:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/214585/ This paper evaluates the effect of polymer enhancement with antioxidant in the rheological properties of bitumen and mechanical properties of bituminous concrete mixture (BCM). In this study, two antioxidant-enhanced polymers were utilized in mitigating bitumen hardening due to aging. The rheological testing consists of temperature sweep using Dynamic Shear Rheometer at various aging conditions. Critical stiffness temperature data from the sweep test suggested that enhanced polymer exhibits less long-term hardening and brittleness compared to standard polymer. The mechanical testing consists of dynamic modulus, indirect tensile, flow number, and beam fatigue tests on BCM exposed to short-term aging. Hamburg wheel tracking test was also performed to assess moisture-damage susceptibility. It is found that the enhanced-polymer BCM exhibited higher modulus, higher tensile strength ratio, improved rutting resistance, lower moisture-damage susceptibility, and slightly increased fatigue life as compared to standard-polymer BCM. Samer Dessouky, Mohammad Ilias, Dae-Wook Park, and In Tai Kim Copyright © 2015 Samer Dessouky et al. All rights reserved. Interventional Tools to Improve Prescription and Adherence to Medical Plans Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:56:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/602078/ Elísio Costa, Anna Giardini, Alexandra Prados-Torres, Caitriona Cahir, and Alessandra Marengoni Copyright © 2015 Elísio Costa et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Activating Mutations on EGFR Cellular Protein Turnover and Amino Acid Recycling Determined Using SILAC Mass Spectrometry Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:56:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcb/2015/798936/ Rapid mutations of proteins that are targeted in cancer therapy often lead to drug resistance. Often, the mutation directly affects a drug’s binding site, effectively blocking binding of the drug, but these mutations can have other effects such as changing the protein turnover half-life. Utilizing SILAC MS, we measured the cellular turnover rates of an important non-small cell lung cancer target, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Wild-type (WT) EGFR, EGFR with a single activating mutant (Del 746–750 or L858R), and the drug-resistant double mutant (L858R/T790M) EGFR were analyzed. In non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, EGFR turnover rates ranged from 28 hours in A431 cells (WT) to 7.5 hours in the PC-9 cells (Del 746–750 mutant). The measurement of EGFR turnover rate in PC-9 cells dosed with irreversible inhibitors has additional complexity due to inhibitor effects on cell viability and results were reported as a range. Finally, essential amino acid recycling (K and R) was measured in different cell lines. The recycling was different in each cell line, but the overall inclusion of the effect of amino acid recycling on calculating EGFR turnover rates resulted in a 10–20% reduction in rates. Michael J. Greig, Sherry Niessen, Scott L. Weinrich, Jun Li Feng, Manli Shi, and Ted O. Johnson Copyright © 2015 Michael J. Greig et al. All rights reserved. Deep Assessment: A Novel Framework for Improving the Care of People with Very Advanced Alzheimer’s Disease Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:51:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/749451/ Best practice in understanding and caring for people with advanced Alzheimer’s disease presents extraordinary challenges. Their severe and deteriorating cognitive impairments are such that carers find progressive difficulty in authentically ascertaining and responding to interests, preferences, and needs. Deep assessment, a novel multifaceted framework drawn from research into the experiences of others with severe cognitive impairments, has potential to empower carers and other support professionals to develop an enhanced understanding of people with advanced Alzheimer’s disease and so deliver better calibrated care in attempts to maximize quality of life. Deep assessment uses a combination of techniques, namely, Behaviour State Observation, Triangulated Proxy Reporting, and Startle Reflex Modulation Measurement, to deliver a comprehensive and deep assessment of the inner states (awareness, preferences, likes, and dislikes) of people who cannot reliably self-report. This paper explains deep assessment and its current applications. It then suggests how it can be applied to people with advanced Alzheimer’s disease to develop others’ understanding of their inner states and to help improve their quality of life. An illustrative hypothetical vignette is used to amplify this framework. We discuss the potential utility and efficacy of this technique for this population and we also propose other human conditions that may benefit from research using a deep assessment approach. Gordon Lyons, Michael Arthur-Kelly, Ami Eidels, and Aimee Mavratzakis Copyright © 2015 Gordon Lyons et al. All rights reserved. Military Simulation Big Data: Background, State of the Art, and Challenges Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:50:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/298356/ Big data technology has undergone rapid development and attained great success in the business field. Military simulation (MS) is another application domain producing massive datasets created by high-resolution models and large-scale simulations. It is used to study complicated problems such as weapon systems acquisition, combat analysis, and military training. This paper firstly reviewed several large-scale military simulations producing big data (MS big data) for a variety of usages and summarized the main characteristics of result data. Then we looked at the technical details involving the generation, collection, processing, and analysis of MS big data. Two frameworks were also surveyed to trace the development of the underlying software platform. Finally, we identified some key challenges and proposed a framework as a basis for future work. This framework considered both the simulation and big data management at the same time based on layered and service oriented architectures. The objective of this review is to help interested researchers learn the key points of MS big data and provide references for tackling the big data problem and performing further research. Xiao Song, Yulin Wu, Yaofei Ma, Yong Cui, and Guanghong Gong Copyright © 2015 Xiao Song et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Is Hippocampus Susceptible to Antinociceptive Tolerance to NSAIDs Like the Periaqueductal Grey? Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:40:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2015/350798/ Pain Research and Treatment Copyright © 2015 Pain Research and Treatment. All rights reserved. Lumbar Endoscopic Microdiscectomy: Where Are We Now? An Updated Literature Review Focused on Clinical Outcome, Complications, and Rate of Recurrence Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:33:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/417801/ Endoscopic disc surgery (EDS) for lumbar spine disc herniation is a well-known but developing field, which is increasingly spreading in the last few years. Rate of recurrence/residual, complications, and outcomes, in comparison with standard microdiscectomy (MD), is still debated and need further data. We performed an extensive review based on the last 6 years of surgical series, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses reported in international, English-written literature. Articles regarding patients treated through endoscopic transforaminal or interlaminar approaches for microdiscectomy (MD) were included in the present review. Papers focused on endoscopic surgery for other spinal diseases were not included. From July 2009 to July 2015, we identified 51 surgical series, 5 systematic reviews, and one meta-analysis reported. In lumbar EDS, rate of complications, length of hospital staying, return to daily activities, and overall patients’ satisfaction seem comparable to standard MD. Rate of recurrence/residual seems higher in EDS, although data are nonhomogeneous among different series. Surgical indication and experience of the performing surgeon are crucial factors affecting the outcome. There is growing but still weak evidence that lumbar EDS is a valid and safe alternative to standard open microdiscectomy. Statistically reliable data obtained from randomized controlled trials (better if multicentric) are desirable to further confirm these results. Giulio Anichini, Alessandro Landi, Federico Caporlingua, André Beer-Furlan, Christian Brogna, Roberto Delfini, and Emiliano Passacantilli Copyright © 2015 Giulio Anichini et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characteristic of PC/PLA/TPU Blends by Reactive Extrusion Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:28:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/393582/ To overcome the poor toughness of PC/PLA blends due to the intrinsic properties of materials and poor compatibility, thermoplastic urethane (TPU) was added to PC/PLA blends as a toughener; meantime, catalyst di-n-butyltin oxide (DBTO) was also added for catalyzing transesterification of components in order to modify the compatibility of blends. The mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of blends were investigated systematically. The results showed that the addition of TPU improves the toughness of PC/PLA blends significantly, with the increase of TPU, the elongation at break increases considerably, and the impact strength increases firstly and then falls, while the tensile strength decreases significantly and the blends exhibit a typical plastic fracture behavior. Meantime, TPU is conducive to the crystallinity of PLA in blends which is inhibited seriously by PC and damages the thermal stability of blends slightly. Moreover, the increased TPU makes the apparent viscosity of blends melt decrease due to the well melt fluidity of TPU; the melt is closer to the pseudoplasticity melt. Remarkably, the transesterification between the components improves the compatibility of blends significantly, and more uniform structure results in a higher crystallinity and better mechanical properties. Yueyun Zhou, Lifa Luo, Wenyong Liu, Guangsheng Zeng, and Yi Chen Copyright © 2015 Yueyun Zhou et al. All rights reserved. A Rank-Constrained Matrix Representation for Hypergraph-Based Subspace Clustering Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:21:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/572753/ This paper presents a novel, rank-constrained matrix representation combined with hypergraph spectral analysis to enable the recovery of the original subspace structures of corrupted data. Real-world data are frequently corrupted with both sparse error and noise. Our matrix decomposition model separates the low-rank, sparse error, and noise components from the data in order to enhance robustness to the corruption. In order to obtain the desired rank representation of the data within a dictionary, our model directly utilizes rank constraints by restricting the upper bound of the rank range. An alternative projection algorithm is proposed to estimate the low-rank representation and separate the sparse error from the data matrix. To further capture the complex relationship between data distributed in multiple subspaces, we use hypergraph to represent the data by encapsulating multiple related samples into one hyperedge. The final clustering result is obtained by spectral decomposition of the hypergraph Laplacian matrix. Validation experiments on the Extended Yale Face Database B, AR, and Hopkins 155 datasets show that the proposed method is a promising tool for subspace clustering. Yubao Sun, Zhi Li, and Min Wu Copyright © 2015 Yubao Sun et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Entity: Adult Asymptomatic Giant Vallecular Cyst Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:17:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2015/723420/ Background. Cysts in the larynx are rare and generally asymptomatic. However, large cysts in adults can be symptomatic. If they are symptomatic, they typically present with respiratory and feeding difficulties. They are usually benign in terms of pathology. Several surgical techniques may be used for treatment. Case Report. A 56-year-old man presented to our clinic with hoarseness. Routine laryngeal examination revealed a giant mass and the larynx could not be visualized. At magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a cystic mass originating from the vallecula was detected. There was no pathology at the glottic level. We planned tracheotomy for the airway and endoscopic surgery for excision. The mass was excised using CO2 laser and was reported as benign. Conclusion. An asymptomatic vallecular cyst may cause difficult intubation in any operation. It may also cause respiratory or other complications. Airway management should be led by an ear, nose, and throat surgeon, since tracheotomy may be required. Endoscopic excision with CO2 laser is a good choice for treatment in elective cases. In this report, we discuss the diagnosis and treatment of a patient with an asymptomatic giant vallecular cyst. Mümtaz Taner Torun, Ender Seçkin, Ümit Tuncel, Caner Kılıç, and Özalkan Özkan Copyright © 2015 Mümtaz Taner Torun et al. All rights reserved. A Fourier Continuation Method for the Solution of Elliptic Eigenvalue Problems in General Domains Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:17:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/184786/ We present a new computational method for the solution of elliptic eigenvalue problems with variable coefficients in general two-dimensional domains. The proposed approach is based on use of the novel Fourier continuation method (which enables fast and highly accurate Fourier approximation of nonperiodic functions in equispaced grids without the limitations arising from the Gibbs phenomenon) in conjunction with an overlapping patch domain decomposition strategy and Arnoldi iteration. A variety of examples demonstrate the versatility, accuracy, and generality of the proposed methodology. Oscar P. Bruno, Timothy Elling, and Ayon Sen Copyright © 2015 Oscar P. Bruno et al. All rights reserved. Calcium Pretreated Hevea brasiliensis Sawdust for Copper Removal: Batch and Column Study Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:07:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/495257/ Calcium pretreated Hevea brasiliensis sawdust has been used as an effective and efficient adsorbent for the removal of copper ion from the contaminated water. Batch experiment was conducted to check the effect of pH, initial concentration, contact time, and adsorbent dose. The results conclude that adsorption capacity of adsorbent was influenced by operating parameters. Maximum adsorption capacity found from the batch adsorption process was 37.74 mg/g at pH of 5.6. Various isotherm models like Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin were used to compare the theoretical and experimental data, whereas the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were applied to study the kinetics of the batch adsorption process. Dynamic studies were also conducted in packed-bed column using different bed depths and the maximum adsorption capacity of 34.29 was achieved. Characterizations of the adsorbent were done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Swarup Biswas and Umesh Mishra Copyright © 2015 Swarup Biswas and Umesh Mishra. All rights reserved. Compact Extensible Authentication Protocol for the Internet of Things: Enabling Scalable and Efficient Security Commissioning Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:01:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2015/506284/ Internet of Things security is one of the most challenging parts of the domain. Combining strong cryptography and lifelong security with highly constrained devices under conditions of limited energy consumption and no maintenance time is extremely difficult task. This paper presents an approach that combines authentication and bootstrapping protocol (TEPANOM) with Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) framework optimized for the IEEE 802.15.4 networks. The solution achieves significant reduction of network resource usage. Additionally, by application of EAP header compacting approach, further network usage savings have been reached. The EAP-TEPANOM solution has achieved substantial reduction of 42% in the number of transferred packets and 35% reduction of the transferred data. By application of EAP header compaction, it has been possible to achieve up to 80% smaller EAP header. That comprises further reduction of transferred data for 3.84% for the EAP-TEPANOM method and 10% for the EAP-TLS-ECDSA based methods. The results have placed the EAP-TEPANOM method as one of the most lightweight EAP methods from ones that have been tested throughout this research, making it feasible for large scale deployments scenarios of IoT. Marcin Piotr Pawlowski, Antonio J. Jara, and Maciej J. Ogorzalek Copyright © 2015 Marcin Piotr Pawlowski et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Management of Unilateral Soft Tissue Swelling around the Proximal Interphalangeal Joint in an Adolescent: A Case Report of Pachydermodactyly Tue, 24 Nov 2015 11:00:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/242078/ Pachydermodactyly (PDD) is a rare and benign acquired form of digital fibromatosis, characterized by asymptomatic fusiform soft tissue hypertrophy of the lateral aspect of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the fingers. The etiology of PDD remains unknown, but it usually affects healthy males around the age of puberty. It can be misdiagnosed as inflammatory rheumatic diseases, especially as juvenile chronic arthritis. Here, we report a case of PDD in an 18-year-old man who had progressive fusiform swelling of the PIP joint on his left middle finger. Although he had no pain or functional limitation of movement, he chose to undergo surgical resection of the lesion to obtain a conclusive diagnosis and to rectify the deformity’s appearance. Histologically, the lesion was characterized by coarse fibrosis in the adipose tissue, peripheral nerve fibers, and eccrine glands; this is compatible with a diagnosis of PDD. Naoki Kato, Mamoru Niitsu, Tetsuya Kawabe, Eiichi Arai, and Keizo Fukumoto Copyright © 2015 Naoki Kato et al. All rights reserved. Multienzyme Modification of Hemp Protein for Functional Peptides Synthesis Tue, 24 Nov 2015 10:41:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfp/2015/738984/ Functional foods and nutraceuticals are of special importance, particularly for their impact on human health and prevention of certain chronic diseases. Consequently, the production and properties of bioactive peptides have received an increasing scientific interest over past few years. Present work intends to compare the competence of metalloendopeptidases (“Protease N” and “Protease A”) with papain for getting functional peptides from hemp seed meal, which is an obligatory waste of hemp fiber production industry. As a measure of the functional potential hemp protein hydrolysates were analyzed for their antiradical properties in DPPH system. “Protease N” modified protein hydrolysate exhibited comparatively superior radical scavenging activity in DPPH system. Overall findings represent the importance of “Protease N,” as endopeptidase in getting peptides of good antiradical properties from various protein sources. Ranjana Das Copyright © 2015 Ranjana Das. All rights reserved. Pupillographic Sleepiness Test and Polysomnography in Nondemented Patients with Ischemic White Matter Lesions Tue, 24 Nov 2015 10:31:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jger/2015/150927/ Background. Patients with ischemic white matter lesions (WML) frequently report nonrestorative sleep or daytime sleepiness. However, subjective estimations of sleep and sleepiness can differ considerably from objective measures. The pupillographic sleepiness test (PST) could identify patients with sleep disorders requiring polysomnography (PSG) and further treatment. Methods. We performed a PST and a PSG of 35 nondemented patients with WML, who reported nonrestorative sleep or daytime sleepiness, and assessed the diagnostic value of the pupillary unrest index (PUI). Sleep parameters were compared to normative data. Results. The mean PUI of WML patients was normal (5.89 mm/min) and comparable to PUIs of patients with other neurological disorders. All 9 of the 35 WML patients (25.7%) who had a PUI above normal also had clinically relevant sleep disorders (5: sleep apnea, 7: periodic leg movements, and 4: insomnia). Six patients with a normal PUI had mild to moderate primary insomnia. Conclusion. PST and PSG parameters were physiological in most patients with WML. Age-related changes and affective and neuropsychological disorders might account for their sleep-related complaints. An elevated PUI in patients with WML seems to indicate comorbid sleep disorders that require further diagnostic evaluation and treatment (sleep apnea, insomnia with periodic leg movements, but not primary insomnia). Ralf Landwehr and Robert Liszka Copyright © 2015 Ralf Landwehr and Robert Liszka. All rights reserved. Association of Polymorphisms of Phase I Metabolizing Genes with Sister Chromatid Exchanges in Occupational Workers Exposed to Toluene Used in Paint Thinners Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:59:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/gri/2015/630296/ This study investigated genetic damage in paint workers mainly exposed to toluene as it is a major solvent used in paint thinners. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assay was used as biomarker of genotoxicity. Blood samples were collected from 30 paint workers and 30 control subjects matched with respect to age and other confounding factors except for exposure to toluene. SCE frequency was found to be significantly higher in paint workers () as compared to control individuals () (). We also investigated influence of polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1m2 genes on SCE frequency. Our results showed that there was significant increase in frequencies of SCE among the mutant genotypes of CYP2E1 and CYP1A1m2 as compared to wild genotypes. Our study indicated that long term exposure of toluene can increase genotoxic risk in paint workers. Kanu Priya, Anita Yadav, Neeraj Kumar, Sachin Gulati, Neeraj Aggarwal, and Ranjan Gupta Copyright © 2015 Kanu Priya et al. All rights reserved. Artery of Percheron Infarction as an Unusual Cause of Korsakoff’s Syndrome Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:57:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/927809/ The Korsakoff syndrome is defined as “an abnormal mental state in which memory and learning are affected out of all proportion to other cognitive functions in an otherwise alert and responsive patient.” Confabulation refers to false or erroneous memories arising, not deliberately, in the context of a neurological amnesia and is often thought of as pathognomonic of the Korsakoff syndrome. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, various studies have identified brain lesions in the thalami, mammillary bodies, and frontal cortex. We report a case of a 68-year-old male presenting with acute altered mental status on July 16, 2015. The neuropsychological dysfunctions included prominent Korsakoff’s syndrome, which became apparent when the altered mental status resolved. Amnesia was accompanied by prominent confabulation, disorientation, and lack of insight into his own disability. Neuroradiological data indicated that the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei in bilateral thalami were infarcted by occlusion of the artery of Percheron. We believe that ours is one of few reported cases of Korsakoff syndrome in a patient with infarction involving the territory of the artery of Percheron. We conclude that bilateral thalamic lesions could cause Korsakoff’s syndrome and the intralaminar and dorsomedial nuclei might be important structures in the pathogenesis of confabulation. Yongxing Zhou, Derrick Fox, Abhishek Anand, Amal Elhaj, Arushi Kapoor, Faranak Najibi, Han Kim, Roger Weir, and Annapurni Jayam-Trouth Copyright © 2015 Yongxing Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Fault Reconstruction Based on Sliding Mode Observer for Current Sensors of PMSM Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:55:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/9307560/ This paper deals with a method of phase current sensor fault reconstruction for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) drives. A new state variable is introduced so that an augmented system can be constructed to treat PMSM sensor faults as actuator faults. This method uses the PMSM two-phase stationary reference frame fault model and a sliding mode variable structure observer to reconstruct fault signals. A logic algorithm is built to isolate and identify the faulty sensor for a stator phase current fault after reconstructing the two-phase stationary reference frame fault signals, which allows the phase fault signals to be reconstructed. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the functionality of the theoretical developments. Changfan Zhang, Huijun Liao, Xiangfei Li, Jian Sun, and Jing He Copyright © 2016 Changfan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Relationship of Genetic Polymorphisms of the Chemokine, CCL5, and Its Receptor, CCR5, with Coronary Artery Disease in Taiwan Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:49:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/851683/ The chemokine receptor CCR5 polymorphism, which confers resistance to HIV infection, has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association of the chemokine, CCL5, and its receptor, CCR5, polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Taiwanese has not been studied. In this study, 483 subjects who received elective coronary angiography were recruited from Chung Shan Medical University Hospital. CCL5-403 and CCR5-59029 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found that CCL5-403 with TT genotype frequencies was significantly associated with the risk of CAD group (odds ratio = 3.063 and ). Moreover, the frequencies of CCR5-59029 with GG or GA genotype were higher than AA genotype in acute coronary syndrome individuals (odds ratio = 1.853, CI = 1.176–2.921, ). In conclusion, we found that CCL5-403 polymorphism may increase genetic susceptibility of CAD. CCL5-403 or CCR5-59029 single nucleotide polymorphism may include genotype score and it may predict cardiovascular event. Ke-Hsin Ting, Kwo-Chang Ueng, Whei-Ling Chiang, Ying-Erh Chou, Shun-Fa Yang, and Po-Hui Wang Copyright © 2015 Ke-Hsin Ting et al. All rights reserved. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations in Drinking Water in Villages along the Huai River in China and Their Association with High Cancer Incidence in Local Population Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:46:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/762832/ This study aims to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of PAHs in the drinking water of counties along the Huai River in China and study their associations with high cancer incidence in local population. We investigated 20 villages with high cancer incidence rates as the risk group and 20 villages with low rates as the control group. Water samples from each village were collected in the winter and summer seasons to analyze the concentrations of 16 PAHs. The carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were calculated for each village using a health risk assessment approach. Results showed that PAHs concentrations in 27.2% of the water samples were higher than the allowable values in China. However, no significant difference in water PAHs concentrations was observed between the risk and control groups (), and no correlation was found between water PAHs concentrations and cancer incidence in these villages. The average upper bound carcinogenic risks were less than in both groups. In conclusion, PAHs were present in the drinking water of the studied villages, but their carcinogenic risks remained within acceptable limits. PAHs in local drinking water might not be the major environmental cause of the high cancer incidences. En chun Pan, Hong Sun, Qiu jin Xu, Qin Zhang, Lin fei Liu, Xiao dong Chen, and Yan Xu Copyright © 2015 En chun Pan et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Fluctuating Surface Heat and Mass Flux on Natural Convection Flow along a Vertical Flat Plate Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:39:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/258016/ An investigation has been carried on double diffusive effect on boundary layer flow due to small amplitude oscillation in surface heat and mass flux. Extensive parametric simulations were performed in order to elucidate the effects of some important parameters, that is, Prandtl number, Schmidt number, and Buoyancy ratio parameter on flow field in conjunction with heat and mass transfer. Asymptotic solutions for low and high frequencies are obtained for the conveniently transformed governing coupled equations. Solutions are also obtained for wide ranged value of the frequency parameters. Comparisons between the asymptotic and wide ranged values are made in terms of the amplitudes and phases of the shear stress, surface heat transfer, and surface mass transfer. It has been found that the amplitudes and phase angles obtained from asymptotic solutions are found in good agreement with the finite difference solutions obtained for wide ranged value of the frequency parameter. Sharmina Hussain, Nepal C. Roy, Md. Anwar Hossain, and Suvash C. Saha Copyright © 2015 Sharmina Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Solving the Telegraph and Oscillatory Differential Equations by a Block Hybrid Trigonometrically Fitted Algorithm Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:28:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijde/2015/347864/ We propose a block hybrid trigonometrically fitted (BHT) method, whose coefficients are functions of the frequency and the step-size for directly solving general second-order initial value problems (IVPs), including systems arising from the semidiscretization of hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs), such as the Telegraph equation. The BHT is formulated from eight discrete hybrid formulas which are provided by a continuous two-step hybrid trigonometrically fitted method with two off-grid points. The BHT is implemented in a block-by-block fashion; in this way, the method does not suffer from the disadvantages of requiring starting values and predictors which are inherent in predictor-corrector methods. The stability property of the BHT is discussed and the performance of the method is demonstrated on some numerical examples to show accuracy and efficiency advantages. F. F. Ngwane and S. N. Jator Copyright © 2015 F. F. Ngwane and S. N. Jator. All rights reserved. The Impact of KLT Coder on the Image Distortion in Astronomy Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:27:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aa/2015/484379/ Presented paper is devoted to the application of Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) for compression and to study of KLT impact on the image distortion in astronomy. This transform is an optimal fit for images with Gaussian probability density function in order to minimize the root mean square error (RMSE). The main part of the encoder is proposed in relation to statistical image properties. Selected astronomical image processing algorithms are used for the encoder testing. The astrometry and point spread function distortion are selected as the most important criteria. The results are compared with JPEG2000 standard. The KLT encoder provides better results from the RMSE point of view. These results are promising and show the novel approach to the design of lossy image compression algorithms and also suitability for algorithms of image data structuring for retrieving, transfer, and distribution. Petr Pata Copyright © 2015 Petr Pata. All rights reserved. Knowledge and Perceptions of Latent Tuberculosis Infection among Chinese Immigrants in a Canadian Urban Centre Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:27:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2015/546042/ Background. Since most tuberculosis (TB) cases in immigrants to British Columbia (BC), Canada, develop from latent TB infection (LTBI), treating immigrants for LTBI can contribute to the eradication of TB. However, adherence to LTBI treatment is a challenge that is influenced by knowledge and perceptions. This research explores Chinese immigrants’ knowledge and perceptions towards LTBI in Greater Vancouver. Methods. This mixed methods study included a cross-sectional patient survey at BC’s Provincial TB clinics and two focus group discussions (FGDs) with Chinese immigrants. Data from FGDs were coded and analyzed in Simplified Chinese. Codes, themes, and selected quotes were then translated into English. Results. The survey identified a mean basic knowledge score: 40.0% (95% CI: 38.3%, 41.7%). FGDs confirmed that Chinese immigrants’ knowledge of LTBI was low, and they confused it with TB disease to the extent of experiencing LTBI associated stigma. Participants also expressed difficulties navigating the health system which impeded testing and treatment of LTBI. Online videos were the preferred format for receiving health information. Conclusion. We identified striking gaps in knowledge surrounding an LTBI diagnosis. Concerns of stigma may influence acceptance and adherence of LTBI treatment in Chinese immigrants. Integrating these findings into routine health care is recommended. Jie Gao, Nicole S. Berry, Darlene Taylor, Scott A. Venners, Victoria J. Cook, and Maureen Mayhew Copyright © 2015 Jie Gao et al. All rights reserved. Recurrence Quantification Analysis of F-Waves and the Evaluation of Neuropathies Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:25:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2015/183608/ Electrodiagnostic (EDX) patterns of neuropathic dysfunction have been based on axonal/demyelinating criteria requiring prior assumptions. This has not produced classifications of desired sensitivity or specificity. Furthermore, standard nerve conduction studies have limited reproducibility. New methodologies in EDX seem important. Recurrent Quantification Analysis (RQA) is a nonlinear method for examining patterns of recurrence. RQA might provide a unique method for the EDX evaluation of neuropathies. RQA was used to analyze F-wave recordings from the abductor hallucis muscle in 61 patients with neuropathies. Twenty-nine of these patients had diabetes as the sole cause of their neuropathies. In the other 32 patients, the etiologies of the neuropathies were diverse. Commonly used EDX variables were also recorded. RQA data could separate the 29 patients with diabetic neuropathies from the other 32 patients (). Statistically significant differences in two EDX variables were also present: compound muscle action potential amplitudes () and F-wave persistence (). RQA analysis of F-waves seemed able to distinguish diabetic neuropathies from the other neuropathies studied, and this separation was associated with specific physiological abnormalities. This study would therefore support the idea that RQA of F-waves can distinguish between types of neuropathic dysfunction based on EDX data alone without prior assumptions. Morris A. Fisher, Vijaya K. Patil, and Charles L. Webber Jr. Copyright © 2015 Morris A. Fisher et al. All rights reserved. Protective Efficacy of an Inactive Vaccine Based on the LY02 Isolate against Acute Haemophilus parasuis Infection in Piglets Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:22:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/649878/ Haemophilus parasuis can cause Glässer’s disease characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis, and meningitis. The current prevention of Glässer’s disease is mainly based on the inactive vaccines; however, the protective efficacy usually fails in heterogeneous or homologous challenges. Here, the predominant lineage of H. parasuis (LY02 strain) in Fujian province, China, characterized as serovar 5, was used to evaluate the protective immunity against acute H. parasuis infection in piglets after inactivation. Following challenging with H. parasuis, only mild lesions in the pigs immunized with the killed vaccine were observed, whereas the typical symptoms of Glässer’s disease presented in the nonimmunized piglets. A strong IgG immune response was induced by the inactive vaccine. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte levels were increased, indicating the potent cellular immune responses were elicited. The significantly high levels of IL-2, IL-4, TGF-β, and IFN-γ in sera from pigs immunized with this killed vaccine suggested that the mixed Th1 and Th2 immune responses were induced, associated with the high protection against H. parasuis infection compared to the nonimmunized animals. This study indicated that the inactivated LY02 strain of H. parasuis could serve as a potential vaccine candidate to prevent the prevalence of H. parasuis in Fujian province, China. Xiao-Hua Li, Guo-Zhen Zhao, Long-Xin Qiu, Ai-Ling Dai, Wang-Wei Wu, and Xiao-Yan Yang Copyright © 2015 Xiao-Hua Li et al. All rights reserved. Complete Resolution of Pseudomalignant Erosion in a Reflux Gastroesophageal Polyp with Proton Pump Inhibitor Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:17:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2015/657059/ Pseudomalignant erosion is a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists in the differential diagnosis of malignant neoplasms. Here, we present a challenging case of a biopsy specimen from the eroded head of a polyp at the esophagogastric junction. A malignant neoplasm could not be ruled out due to the presence of bizarre stromal cells. A second biopsy performed after the administration of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) for 4 weeks revealed endoscopic resolution of the polyp along with the complete histological resolution of the bizarre stromal cells and led to the diagnosis of pseudomalignant erosion in a reflux gastroesophageal polyp. In conclusion, histological and endoscopic response to PPI therapy is an important clue for the correct diagnosis of reflux gastroesophageal polyps with pseudomalignant erosion. Takahiko Nakajima, Haruo Yagi, Hayato Baba, Takashi Minamisaka, Shigeharu Miwa, Shinichi Hayashi, Takeshi Nishida, Hideki Hatta, Koichi Tsuneyama, and Johji Imura Copyright © 2015 Takahiko Nakajima et al. All rights reserved. Constrained Controllability of the -Difference Fractional Control Systems with Caputo Type Operator Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:15:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/638420/ The problem of controllability to a given convex target set of linear fractional systems with -difference fractional operator of Caputo type is studied. Necessary and sufficient conditions of controllability with constrained controllers for such systems are given. Problem of approximation of a continuous-time system with Caputo fractional differential by a discrete-time system with -difference fractional operator of Caputo type is discussed. Ewa Pawluszewicz Copyright © 2015 Ewa Pawluszewicz. All rights reserved. Seromuscular Colonic Flap for Intrapelvic Soft-Tissue Coverage: A Reconstructive Option for Plastic Surgeons When Traditionally Used Flaps Are Not Available Tue, 24 Nov 2015 08:59:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/563641/ Background. Reconstruction of intrapelvic defects can be a challenging problem in patients with limited regional muscle flap options and previously resected omentum. In such situations, alternative methods of mobilizing vascularized tissue may be required. Methods. A case of a patient that underwent pelvic extirpation for recurrent rectal cancer who had limited donor sites for flap reconstruction is presented. The mucosa was removed from a blind loop of colon, and a pedicled seromuscular flap based on the colonic mesentery was placed into the pelvis for vascularized soft-tissue coverage and elimination of dead space. Results. The postoperative course was only complicated by a small subcutaneous fluid collection beneath the sacrectomy skin incision, which was drained with radiological assistance. The patient recovered without any major postoperative complications. Conclusion. Seromuscular colonic flap is a useful option for soft-tissue coverage after pelvic extirpation and should be considered by plastic surgeons when other reconstruction options are not available. Johnathon Aho, Sebastian Winocour, Ziyad S. Hammoudeh, Heidi Nelson, Peter Rose, and Nho V. Tran Copyright © 2015 Johnathon Aho et al. All rights reserved. Deqi Is Double-Faced: The Acupuncture Practitioner’s and the Subject’s Perspective Tue, 24 Nov 2015 08:51:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/635089/ Background. While therapeutic acupuncture perception (deqi) has recently been investigated only for the subject’s perception, classical acupuncture discussed acupuncture perception for both the practitioner and the subject. The aim of this study was to explore the practitioner’s and the subject’s acupuncture perception during acupuncture. Methods. Explorative crossover study to quantitatively document acupuncture perception of both the practitioner and the subject. Eighty-one participants acted as a practitioner or a subject. The practitioner’s and the subject’s acupuncture perceptions were collected using self-report type checklists. Acupuncture needles were inserted to LI4 or ST36, adopting a four-phase method: insertion into shallow, middle, and deep depths, followed by twirling manipulation. Pain, transmission, dullness, and soreness feelings of the subject and thick, tangled, solid, and empty feelings of the practitioner were analyzed for their correlation. Results. The practitioner’s and the subject’s perception showed a significant correlation. Acupuncture perception varied over four phases of needling, with a tendency to be rated higher when inserted deep. Perception for LI4 was generally higher than those for ST36. Conclusion. The practitioner’s acupuncture perception was successfully documented and analyzed in relation to the subject’s acupuncture perception and different needling conditions. Chang Shik Yin, Younbyeong Chae, O-Seok Kang, Seung-Tae Kim, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Ji-Yeun Park, Hyejung Lee, and Hi-Joon Park Copyright © 2015 Chang Shik Yin et al. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Imaging of a Central Venous Dialysis Catheter Related Infected Thrombus Tue, 24 Nov 2015 08:32:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2015/724132/ Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography is becoming widely available and with novel applications. We report an interesting case of a 68-year-old lady with a central venous thrombosis coincident with both a dialysis catheter infection and a recent pacemaker insertion. Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography was unable to delineate whether the thrombosis was involved with the pacemaker wire or due to the tunneled catheter infection. The use of 3D echocardiography was able to produce distinct images aiding diagnosis. This circumvented the need for invasive investigations and inappropriate, high-risk removal of the pacing wire. This case highlights the emerging application of 3D echocardiography in routine nephrology practice. Diana Yuan Yng Chiu, Darren Green, Philip A. Kalra, and Nik Abidin Copyright © 2015 Diana Yuan Yng Chiu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Interscalene Nerve Block for Postoperative Pain Management in Patients after Shoulder Surgery Tue, 24 Nov 2015 08:30:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/902745/ Objectives. Shoulder surgery can produce severe postoperative pain and movement limitations. Evidence has shown that regional nerve block is an effective management for postoperative shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the postoperative analgesic effect of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) combined with interscalene nerve block in comparison to PCA alone after shoulder surgery. Methods. In this study, 103 patients receiving PCA combined with interscalene nerve block (PCAIB) and 48 patients receiving PCA alone after shoulder surgery were included. Patients’ characteristics, preoperative shoulder score and range of motion, surgical and anesthetic condition in addition to visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, postoperative PCA consumption, and adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results. The results showed that PCA combined with interscalene nerve block (PCAIB) group required less volume of analgesics than PCA alone group in 24 hours ( mL versus  mL, ) and 48 hours ( mL versus  mL, ) postoperatively. The incidence of dizziness in PCAIB group was significantly lower than PCA group (resp., 1.9% and 14.6%, ). VAS, nausea, and vomiting were less in group PCAIB, but in the absence of significant statistical correlation. Conclusion. Interscalene nerve block is effective postoperatively in reducing the demand for PCA analgesics and decreasing opioids-induced adverse events following shoulder surgery. Hsiu-Pin Chen, Shih-Jyun Shen, Hsin-I Tsai, Sheng-Chin Kao, and Huang-Ping Yu Copyright © 2015 Hsiu-Pin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Acute Coronary Syndrome: An Unusual Consequence of GERD Tue, 24 Nov 2015 08:27:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2015/939641/ We report a case of an 83-year-old man with history of coronary artery disease and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who presented with sudden onset nocturnal dyspnea. He was diagnosed with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction based on the electrocardiographic changes and cardiac biomarker elevation. Cardiac catheterization revealed chronic three-vessel coronary artery disease, with 2 patent grafts and 2 chronically occluded grafts. While at the hospital, the patient experienced a similar episode of nocturnal dyspnea, prompting a barium esophagram, which was suggestive of a stricture in the distal esophagus from long-standing GERD. We hypothesized that he had myocardial ischemia due to increased oxygen demand from uncontrolled GERD symptoms. He had no further ischemic episodes after increasing the dose of antireflux medication over a 6-month follow-up. After presenting our case, we review the literature on this atypical presentation of GERD causing acute coronary syndrome and discuss potential mechanisms. Chui Man Carmen Hui, Santosh K. Padala, Michael Lavelle, Mikhail T. Torosoff, Xinjun Cindy Zhu, and Mandeep S. Sidhu Copyright © 2015 Chui Man Carmen Hui et al. All rights reserved.