Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A New Method for Feedback on the Quality of Chest Compressions during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:37:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/865967/ Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves through the use of CPR feedback devices. Most feedback devices integrate the acceleration twice to estimate compression depth. However, they use additional sensors or processing techniques to compensate for large displacement drifts caused by integration. This study introduces an accelerometer-based method that avoids integration by using spectral techniques on short duration acceleration intervals. We used a manikin placed on a hard surface, a sternal triaxial accelerometer, and a photoelectric distance sensor (gold standard). Twenty volunteers provided 60 s of continuous compressions to test various rates (80–140 min−1), depths (3–5 cm), and accelerometer misalignment conditions. A total of 320 records with 35312 compressions were analysed. The global root-mean-square errors in rate and depth were below 1.5 min−1 and 2 mm for analysis intervals between 2 and 5 s. For 3 s analysis intervals the 95% levels of agreement between the method and the gold standard were within −1.64–1.67 min−1 and −1.69–1.72 mm, respectively. Accurate feedback on chest compression rate and depth is feasible applying spectral techniques to the acceleration. The method avoids additional techniques to compensate for the integration displacement drift, improving accuracy, and simplifying current accelerometer-based devices. Digna M. González-Otero, Jesus Ruiz, Sofía Ruiz de Gauna, Unai Irusta, Unai Ayala, and Erik Alonso Copyright © 2014 Digna M. González-Otero et al. All rights reserved. Prospect of Stem Cell Conditioned Medium in Regenerative Medicine Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:34:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/965849/ Background. Stem cell-derived conditioned medium has a promising prospect to be produced as pharmaceuticals for regenerative medicine. Objective. To investigate various methods to obtain stem cell-derived conditioned medium (CM) to get an insight into their prospect of application in various diseases. Methods. Systematic review using keywords “stem cell” and “conditioned medium” or “secretome” and “therapy.” Data concerning treated conditions/diseases, type of cell that was cultured, medium and supplements to culture the cells, culture condition, CM processing, growth factors and other secretions that were analyzed, method of application, and outcome were noted, grouped, tabulated, and analyzed. Results. Most of CM using studies showed good results. However, the various CM, even when they were derived from the same kind of cells, were produced by different condition, that is, from different passage, culture medium, and culture condition. The growth factor yields of the various types of cells were available in some studies, and the cell number that was needed to produce CM for one application could be computed. Conclusion. Various stem cell-derived conditioned media were tested on various diseases and mostly showed good results. However, standardized methods of production and validations of their use need to be conducted. Jeanne Pawitan Copyright © 2014 Jeanne Pawitan. All rights reserved. Assessment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis with Advanced Imaging Modalities Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:28:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/897956/ Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic disease of unknown etiology that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, usually in multiple organs. Several studies have shown that sarcoidosis might be the result of an exaggerated granulomatous reaction after exposure to unidentified antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. Cardiac involvement may occur and lead to an adverse outcome: the heart mechanics will be affected and that causes ventricular failure, and the cardiac electrical system will be disrupted and lead to third degree atrioventricular block, malignant ventricular tachycardia, and sudden cardiac death. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of this potentially devastating disease is critically important. However, sensitive and accurate imaging modalities have not been established. Recent studies have demonstrated the promising potential of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in the diagnosis and assessment of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, histological findings, and clinical features of sarcoidosis. We also introduce advanced imaging including 18F-FDG PET and cardiac MRI as more reliable diagnostic modalities for CS. Makoto Orii, Toshio Imanishi, and Takashi Akasaka Copyright © 2014 Makoto Orii et al. All rights reserved. Arcwise Connected Domains, Quasiconformal Mappings, and Quasidisks Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:27:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/419850/ We prove that a homeomorphism is a quasiconformal mapping if and only if is an arcwise connected domain for any arcwise connected domain , and is a quasidisk if and only if both and its exterior are arcwise connected domains. Yu-Ming Chu Copyright © 2014 Yu-Ming Chu. All rights reserved. Multifunctional Role of ATM/Tel1 Kinase in Genome Stability: From the DNA Damage Response to Telomere Maintenance Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:27:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/787404/ The mammalian protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a key regulator of the DNA double-strand-break response and belongs to the evolutionary conserved phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related protein kinases. ATM deficiency causes ataxia telangiectasia (AT), a genetic disorder that is characterized by premature aging, cerebellar neuropathy, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to cancer. AT cells show defects in the DNA damage-response pathway, cell-cycle control, and telomere maintenance and length regulation. Likewise, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, haploid strains defective in the TEL1 gene, the ATM ortholog, show chromosomal aberrations and short telomeres. In this review, we outline the complex role of ATM/Tel1 in maintaining genomic stability through its control of numerous aspects of cellular survival. In particular, we describe how ATM/Tel1 participates in the signal transduction pathways elicited by DNA damage and in telomere homeostasis and its importance as a barrier to cancer development. Enea Gino Di Domenico, Elena Romano, Paola Del Porto, and Fiorentina Ascenzioni Copyright © 2014 Enea Gino Di Domenico et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Laccase with Potent Antiproliferative and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitory Activities from Mycelia of Mushroom Coprinus comatus Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:26:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/417461/ A novel laccase was isolated and purified from fermentation mycelia of mushroom Coprinus comatus with an isolation procedure including three ion-exchange chromatography steps on DEAE-cellulose, CM-cellulose, and Q-Sepharose and one gel-filtration step by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The purified enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular weight of 64 kDa. It possessed a unique N-terminal amino acid sequence of AIGPVADLKV, which has considerably high sequence similarity with that of other fungal laccases, but is different from that of C. comatus laccases reported. The enzyme manifested an optimal pH value of 2.0 and an optimal temperature of 60°C using 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolone-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) as the substrate. The laccase displayed, at pH 2.0 and 37°C, Km values of 1.59 mM towards ABTS. It potently suppressed proliferation of tumor cell lines HepG2 and MCF7, and inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) with an IC50 value of 3.46 μM, 4.95 μM, and 5.85 μM, respectively, signifying that it is an antipathogenic protein. Shuang Zhao, Cheng-Bo Rong, Chang Kong, Yu Liu, Feng Xu, Qian-Jiang Miao, Shou-Xian Wang, He-Xiang Wang, and Guo-Qing Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shuang Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and P2Y12 Induction by Oligochitosan Accelerates Platelet Aggregation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:26:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/653149/ Platelet membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpiibiiia) is a receptor detected on platelets. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) activates gpiibiiia and P2Y12, causing platelet aggregation and thrombus stabilization during blood loss. Chitosan biomaterials were found to promote surface induced hemostasis and were capable of activating blood coagulation cascades by enhancing platelet aggregation. Our current findings show that the activation of the gpiibiiia complex and the major ADP receptor P2Y12 is required for platelet aggregation to reach hemostasis following the adherence of various concentrations of chitosan biomaterials [7% N,O-carboxymethylchitosan (NO-CMC) with 0.45 mL collagen, 8% NO-CMC, oligochitosan (O-C), and oligochitosan 53 (O-C 53)]. We studied gpiibiiia and P2Y12 through flow cytometric analysis and western blotting techniques. The highest expression of gpiibiiia was observed with Lyostypt (74.3 ± 7.82%), followed by O-C (65.5 ± 7.17%). Lyostypt and O-C resulted in gpiibiiia expression increases of 29.2% and 13.9%, respectively, compared with blood alone. Western blot analysis revealed that only O-C 53 upregulated the expression of P2Y12 (1.12 ± 0.03-fold) compared with blood alone. Our findings suggest that the regulation of gpiibiiia and P2Y12 levels could be clinically useful to activate platelets to reach hemostasis. Further, we show that the novel oligochitosan is able to induce the increased expression of gpiibiiia and P2Y12, thus accelerating platelet aggregation in vitro. Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Nik Soriani Yaacob, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad, Abdul Rahim Hussein, Ahmad Hazri Abdul Rashid, and Zanariah Ujang Copyright © 2014 Mercy Halleluyah Periayah et al. All rights reserved. Growth and Properties of ZnO:Al on Textured Glass for Thin Film Solar Cells Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:25:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/406495/ Aluminium induced texturing (AIT) method has been used to texture glass substrates in order to enhance the photon absorption in thin film solar cells. The resultant glass roughness has been analyzed by varying the AIT process parameters and it has been found that the deposition method of Al is a decisive factor in tuning the texture. Two types of textures, a soft (texture E) and a rough texture (texture S), were achieved from the thermally evaporated and sputtered Al layers through AIT process. Aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) layers of different thickness were deposited over both textures and over smooth glass. Haze values above 30% were obtained for texture S + AZO and above 10% for texture E + AZO. The resultant morphologies were free from sharp edges or deep valleys and the transparency and the resistivity values were also good enough to be used as front contact for thin film solar cells. In order to demonstrate the light absorption enhancement in a solar cell device, 200 nm of a-Si:H followed by 300 nm of Ag were grown over the textured and smooth substrates with AZO, and an optical absorption enhancement of 35% for texture E and 53% for texture S was obtained in comparison to the smooth substrate. Marta Lluscà, Aldrin Antony, and Joan Bertomeu Copyright © 2014 Marta Lluscà et al. All rights reserved. New Described Dermatological Disorders Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:24:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/616973/ Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH) syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH) syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.” Müzeyyen Gönül, Bengu Cevirgen Cemil, Havva Ozge Keseroglu, and Havva Kaya Akis Copyright © 2014 Müzeyyen Gönül et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of a Prime-Boost Strategy with the Ts87 Vaccine against Trichinella spiralis Infection in Mice Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:20:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/326860/ Trichinellosis is a widespread zoonosis primarily caused by Trichinella spiralis. Mucosal immunity is crucial for preventing Trichinella spiralis infection. In our previous study, a DNA vaccine with the Trichinella antigen Ts87 delivered by an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicited partial protection against Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. In the current study, to elicit a more robust immune response and develop a potent vaccination strategy against trichinellosis, a heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimen for Ts87 was used in mice and the protective efficacy was evaluated compared to the homologous DNA prime-boost or protein prime-boost immunization alone. The results revealed that the DNA-prime/protein-boost vaccination with Ts87 induced higher levels of both humoral and cellular immune responses. The challenge results showed that mice with the DNA-prime/protein-boost vaccination displayed higher muscle larval reduction than those immunized with DNA prime-boost or protein prime-boost. The results demonstrated that mice vaccinated with Ts87 in a DNA-prime/protein-boost strategy effectively elicited a local IgA response and mixed Th1/Th2 immune response that might be responsible for improved protection against Trichinella spiralis infection. Yuan Gu, Bin Zhan, Yaping Yang, Xiaodi Yang, Xi Zhao, Lei Wang, Jing Yang, Kuo Bi, Yunyun Wang, and Xinping Zhu Copyright © 2014 Yuan Gu et al. All rights reserved. Creatine, L-Carnitine, and ω3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation from Healthy to Diseased Skeletal Muscle Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:19:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/613890/ Myopathies are chronic degenerative pathologies that induce the deterioration of the structure and function of skeletal muscle. So far a definitive therapy has not yet been developed and the main aim of myopathy treatment is to slow the progression of the disease. Current nonpharmacological therapies include rehabilitation, ventilator assistance, and nutritional supplements, all of which aim to delay the onset of the disease and relieve its symptoms. Besides an adequate diet, nutritional supplements could play an important role in the treatment of myopathic patients. Here we review the most recent in vitro and in vivo studies investigating the role supplementation with creatine, L-carnitine, and ω3 PUFAs plays in myopathy treatment. Our results suggest that these dietary supplements could have beneficial effects; nevertheless continued studies are required before they could be recommended as a routine treatment in muscle diseases. Giuseppe D’Antona, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Piero Micheletti, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Roberto Aquilani, Enzo Nisoli, Mariangela Rondanelli, and Maria Daglia Copyright © 2014 Giuseppe D’Antona et al. All rights reserved. The Mcm2-7 Replicative Helicase: A Promising Chemotherapeutic Target Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:15:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/549719/ Numerous eukaryotic replication factors have served as chemotherapeutic targets. One replication factor that has largely escaped drug development is the Mcm2-7 replicative helicase. This heterohexameric complex forms the licensing system that assembles the replication machinery at origins during initiation, as well as the catalytic core of the CMG (Cdc45-Mcm2-7-GINS) helicase that unwinds DNA during elongation. Emerging evidence suggests that Mcm2-7 is also part of the replication checkpoint, a quality control system that monitors and responds to DNA damage. As the only replication factor required for both licensing and DNA unwinding, Mcm2-7 is a major cellular regulatory target with likely cancer relevance. Mutations in at least one of the six MCM genes are particularly prevalent in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, head and neck, and prostrate, and MCM mutations have been shown to cause cancer in mouse models. Moreover various cellular regulatory proteins, including the Rb tumor suppressor family members, bind Mcm2-7 and inhibit its activity. As a preliminary step toward drug development, several small molecule inhibitors that target Mcm2-7 have been recently discovered. Both its structural complexity and essential role at the interface between DNA replication and its regulation make Mcm2-7 a potential chemotherapeutic target. Nicholas E. Simon and Anthony Schwacha Copyright © 2014 Nicholas E. Simon and Anthony Schwacha. All rights reserved. CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer in Northeast China Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:13:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/236361/ Purpose. To investigate the association between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and the overall survival of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) in Northeast China. Methods. 282 sporadic CRC patients were recruited in this study. We selected MLH1, MGMT, p16, APC, MINT1, MINT31, and RUNX3 as the CIMP panel markers. The promoter methylation was assessed by methylation sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM). Proportional hazards-regression models were fitted with computing hazard ratios (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results. 12.77% (36/282) of patients were CIMP-0, 74.1% (209/282) of patients were CIMP-L, and 13.12% (37/282) of patients were CIMP-H. The five-year survival of the 282 CRC patients was 58%. There was significant association between APC gene promoter methylation and CRC overall survival (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.05–2.46; ). CIMP-H was significantly associated with worse prognosis compared to CIMP-0 (HR = 3.06; 95% CI: 1.19–7.89; ) and CIMP-L (HR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.11–3.48; ), respectively. While comparing with the combine of CIMP-L and CIMP-0 (CIMP-L/0), CIMP-H also presented a worse prognosis (HR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.02–5.24; ). Conclusion. CIMP-H may be a predictor of a poor prognosis of CRC in Northeast China patients. Xia Li, Fulan Hu, Yibaina Wang, Xiaoping Yao, Zuoming Zhang, Fan Wang, Guizhi Sun, Bin-Bin Cui, Xinshu Dong, and Yashuang Zhao Copyright © 2014 Xia Li et al. All rights reserved. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Applications of MWCNTs/TiO2 Composite Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:10:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/475713/ The multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/titanium dioxide (P25) composite in different ratios was prepared using simple evaporation and drying process. The composite was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of this composite was investigated using degradation of the Bismarck brown R dye (BBR). An optimal MWCNTs/TiO2 ratio of 0.5% (w/w) was found to achieve the maximum rate of BBR degradation. It was observed that the composite exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with TiO2. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity performance of the MWCNTs/P25 composite is explained in terms of recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In addition, MWCNTs act as a dispersing support to control the morphology of TiO2 particles in the MWCNTs/TiO2 composite. Ahmed M. Kamil, Falah H. Hussein, Ahmed F. Halbus, and Detlef W. Bahnemann Copyright © 2014 Ahmed M. Kamil et al. All rights reserved. Crystal Structure of a Conserved Hypothetical Protein MJ0927 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii Reveals a Novel Quaternary Assembly in the Nif3 Family Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:06:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/171263/ A Nif3 family protein of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, MJ0927, is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Although several structures of bacterial Nif3 proteins are known, no structure representing archaeal Nif3 has yet been reported. The crystal structure of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii MJ0927 was determined at 2.47 Å resolution to understand the structural differences between the bacterial and archaeal Nif3 proteins. Intriguingly, MJ0927 is found to adopt an unusual assembly comprising a trimer of dimers that forms a cage-like architecture. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays indicate that MJ0927 binds to both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. Structural analysis of MJ0927 reveals a positively charged region that can potentially explain its DNA-binding capability. Taken together, these data suggest that MJ0927 adopts a novel quartenary architecture that could play various DNA-binding roles in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Sheng-Chia Chen, Chi-Hung Huang, Chia Shin Yang, Shu-Min Kuan, Ching-Ting Lin, Shan-Ho Chou, and Yeh Chen Copyright © 2014 Sheng-Chia Chen et al. All rights reserved. Motion Freeze for Respiration Motion Correction in PET/CT: A Preliminary Investigation with Lung Cancer Patient Data Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:05:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/167491/ Purpose. Respiratory motion presents significant challenges for accurate PET/CT. It often introduces apparent increase of lesion size, reduction of measured standardized uptake value (SUV), and the mismatch in PET/CT fusion images. In this study, we developed the motion freeze method to use 100% of the counts collected by recombining the counts acquired from all phases of gated PET data into a single 3D PET data, with correction of respiration by deformable image registration. Methods. Six patients with diagnosis of lung cancer confirmed by oncologists were recruited. PET/CT scans were performed with Discovery STE system. The 4D PET/CT with the Varian real-time position management for respiratory motion tracking was followed by a clinical 3D PET/CT scan procedure in the static mode. Motion freeze applies the deformation matrices calculated by optical flow method to generate a single 3D effective PET image using the data from all the 4D PET phases. Results. The increase in SUV and decrease in tumor size with motion freeze for all lesions compared to the results from 3D and 4D was observed in the preliminary data of lung cancer patients. In addition, motion freeze substantially reduced tumor mismatch between the CT image and the corresponding PET images. Conclusion. Motion freeze integrating 100% of the PET counts has the potential to eliminate the influences induced by respiratory motion in PET data. Tzung-Chi Huang, Kuei-Ting Chou, Yao-Ching Wang, and Geoffrey Zhang Copyright © 2014 Tzung-Chi Huang et al. All rights reserved. Bridging Photonics and Optoelectronics Curriculum for the Solar Photovoltaic and LED Industries Thu, 28 Aug 2014 15:05:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/146810/ The gap between learning courses and practical demands has existed in Taiwanese solar photovoltaic and LED industries; therefore, this study attempts to analyze the existing curriculum design of universities. This study collected the current 103 course programs from all optoelectronics-related departments in Taiwanese 36 colleges and universities and sorted these curriculums by three domains of education objectives theory. This theoretical framework was verified on the basis of samples from 150 Taiwanese industrial experts and 354 optoelectronics-related undergraduates and postgraduates. We found that the levels of correlation among the independent variables including cognitive, affective, and skill-based domains and the dependent variable employability are all positively related to each other. We also found the currently curriculum design in Taiwanese universities rarely fit into theory of education objectives from the results of multiple regression analysis. Industrial and student’s group also have few consistent ideas on courses within the curriculum. Finally in order to bridge the gap between learning and practical application, the study provides an idea on curriculum design and suggests that curriculum review should be executed by industrial experts to confirm the courses related to the employability. Yu-Shan Su and Han-Chao Chang Copyright © 2014 Yu-Shan Su and Han-Chao Chang. All rights reserved. Cr(VI) Removal from Aqueous by Adsorption on Amine-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica Prepared from Silica Fume Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:40:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/765856/ Amino-functionalized mesoporous silica MCM-41 materials have been prepared to develop efficient adsorbents of Cr(VI) in wastewater, using silica fume as silica source. Functionalization with amino groups has been carried out by using grafting method. The materials have been characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen (N2) adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Adsorption potential of the material for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution was investigated by varying experimental conditions such as pH, initial metal concentration, and contact time. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm by linear regression analysis, and the results show that the adsorption equilibrium data obeyed the Langmuir model. In addition, the kinetics analysis revealed that the overall adsorption process was successfully fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Xitong Li, Caiyun Han, Wenjie Zhu, Wenhui Ma, Yongming Luo, Yang Zhou, Jie Yu, and Kuixian Wei Copyright © 2014 Xitong Li et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation and Response of Stiffened Plates Subjected to Noncontact Underwater Explosion Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:17:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/752586/ A numerical simulation has been carried out to examine the response of steel plates with different arrangement of stiffeners and subjected to noncontact underwater explosion (UNDEX) with different shock loads. Numerical analysis of the underwater explosion phenomena is implemented in the nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. The aim of this work is to enhance the dynamic response to resist UNDEX. Special emphasis is focused on the evolution of mid-point displacements. Further investigations have been performed to study the effects of including material damping and the rate-dependant material properties at different shock loads. The results indicate that stiffeners configurations and shock loads affect greatly the overall performance of steel plates and sensitive to the materials data. Also, the numerical results can be used to obtain design guidelines of floating structures to enhance resistance of underwater shock damage, since explosive tests are costly and dangerous. Elsayed Fathallah, Hui Qi, Lili Tong, and Mahmoud Helal Copyright © 2014 Elsayed Fathallah et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Opioid Drug Use during Pregnancy and Its Impact on Perinatal Morbidity, Mortality, and the Costs of Medical Care in the United States Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:14:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2014/906723/ Objective. To identify factors associated with opioid use during pregnancy and to compare perinatal morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs between opioid users and nonusers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of pregnancy-related discharges from 1998 to 2009 using the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient database in the United States. We scanned ICD-9-CM codes for opioid use and perinatal outcomes. Costs of care were estimated from hospital charges. Survey logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal opioid use and each outcome; generalized linear modeling was used to compare hospitalization costs by opioid use status. Results. Women who used opioids during pregnancy experienced higher rates of depression, anxiety, and chronic medical conditions. After adjusting for confounders, opioid use was associated with increased odds of threatened preterm labor, early onset delivery, poor fetal growth, and stillbirth. Users were four times as likely to have a prolonged hospital stay and were almost four times more likely to die before discharge. The mean per-hospitalization cost of a woman who used opioids during pregnancy was $5,616 (95% CI: $5,166–$6,067), compared to $4,084 (95% CI: $4,002–$4,166) for nonusers. Conclusion. Opioid use during pregnancy is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and increased healthcare costs. Valerie E. Whiteman, Jason L. Salemi, Mulubrhan F. Mogos, Mary Ashley Cain, Muktar H. Aliyu, and Hamisu M. Salihu Copyright © 2014 Valerie E. Whiteman et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Back Propagation Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm Neural Network for Stream Flow Prediction Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:13:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jces/2014/290127/ Comparison of stream flow prediction models has been presented. Stream flow prediction model was developed using typical back propagation neural network (BPNN) and genetic algorithm coupled with neural network (GANN). The study uses daily data from Nethravathi River basin (Karnataka, India). The study demonstrates the prediction ability of GANN. The statistical tests show that GANN model performs much better when compared to BPNN model. C. Chandre Gowda and S. G. Mayya Copyright © 2014 C. Chandre Gowda and S. G. Mayya. All rights reserved. Fiber Visualization with LIC Maps Using Multidirectional Anisotropic Glyph Samples Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:04:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbi/2014/401819/ Line integral convolution (LIC) is used as a texture-based technique in computer graphics for flow field visualization. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), LIC bridges the gap between local approaches, for example directionally encoded fractional anisotropy mapping and techniques analyzing global relationships between brain regions, such as streamline tracking. In this paper an advancement of a previously published multikernel LIC approach for high angular resolution diffusion imaging visualization is proposed: a novel sampling scheme is developed to generate anisotropic glyph samples that can be used as an input pattern to the LIC algorithm. Multicylindrical glyph samples, derived from fiber orientation distribution (FOD) functions, are used, which provide a method for anisotropic packing along integrated fiber lines controlled by a uniform random algorithm. This allows two- and three-dimensional LIC maps to be generated, depicting fiber structures with excellent contrast, even in regions of crossing and branching fibers. Furthermore, a color-coding model for the fused visualization of slices from T1 datasets together with directionally encoded LIC maps is proposed. The methodology is evaluated by a simulation study with a synthetic dataset, representing crossing and bending fibers. In addition, results from in vivo studies with a healthy volunteer and a brain tumor patient are presented to demonstrate the method's practicality. Mark Höller, Kay-M. Otto, Uwe Klose, Samuel Groeschel, and Hans-H. Ehricke Copyright © 2014 Mark Höller et al. All rights reserved. Precoding Method Interference Management for Quasi-EVD Channel Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:03:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/678578/ The Cholesky decomposition-block diagonalization (CD-BD) interference alignment (IA) for a multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) relay system is proposed, which designs precoders for the multiple access channel (MAC) by employing the singular value decomposition (SVD) as well as the mean square error (MSE) detector for the broadcast Hermitian channel (BHC) taken advantage of in our design. Also, in our proposed CD-BD IA algorithm, the relaying function is made use to restructure the quasieigenvalue decomposition (quasi-EVD) equivalent channel. This approach used for the design of BD precoding matrix can significantly reduce the computational complexity and proposed algorithm can address several optimization criteria, which is achieved by designing the precoding matrices in two steps. In the first step, we use Cholesky decomposition to maximize the sum-of-rate (SR) with the minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection. In the next step, we optimize the system BER performance with the overlap of the row spaces spanned by the effective channel matrices of different users. By iterating the closed form of the solution, we are able not only to maximize the achievable sum-of-rate (ASR), but also to minimize the BER performance at a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region. Wei Duan, Wei Song, Sang Seob Song, and Moon Ho Lee Copyright © 2014 Wei Duan et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Metaheuristic-Based Approach for the Aerodynamic Optimization of Small Hybrid Wind Turbine Rotors Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:02:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/746319/ This work presents a novel framework for the aerodynamic design and optimization of blades for small horizontal axis wind turbines (WT). The framework is based on a state-of-the-art blade element momentum model, which is complemented with the XFOIL 6.96 software in order to provide an estimate of the sectional blade aerodynamics. The framework considers an innovative nested-hybrid solution procedure based on two metaheuristics, the virtual gene genetic algorithm and the simulated annealing algorithm, to provide a near-optimal solution to the problem. The objective of the study is to maximize the aerodynamic efficiency of small WT (SWT) rotors for a wide range of operational conditions. The design variables are (1) the airfoil shape at the different blade span positions and the radial variation of the geometrical variables of (2) chord length, (3) twist angle, and (4) thickness along the blade span. A wind tunnel validation study of optimized rotors based on the NACA 4-digit airfoil series is presented. Based on the experimental data, improvements in terms of the aerodynamic efficiency, the cut-in wind speed, and the amount of material used during the manufacturing process were achieved. Recommendations for the aerodynamic design of SWT rotors are provided based on field experience. José F. Herbert-Acero, Jaime Martínez-Lauranchet, Oliver Probst, Santos Méndez-Díaz, Krystel K. Castillo-Villar, Manuel Valenzuela-Rendón, and Pierre-Elouan Réthoré Copyright © 2014 José F. Herbert-Acero et al. All rights reserved. Screening for Bioactive Metabolites in Plant Extracts Modulating Glucose Uptake and Fat Accumulation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/156398/ Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of seven different food and medicinal plants were tested in a screening platform for identification of extracts with potential bioactivity related to insulin-dependent glucose uptake and fat accumulation. The screening platform included a series of in vitro bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of golden root (Rhodiola rosea) and common elder (Sambucus nigra) as well as the dichloromethane extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) were able to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake in both adipocytes and myotubes while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but were not able to activate PPARγ, indicating a PPARγ-independent effect on glucose uptake. Rime B. El-Houri, Dorota Kotowska, Louise C. B. Olsen, Sumangala Bhattacharya, Lars P. Christensen, Kai Grevsen, Niels Oksbjerg, Nils Færgeman, Karsten Kristiansen, and Kathrine B. Christensen Copyright © 2014 Rime B. El-Houri et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Antihypertensive Drug Enalapril on Oxidative Stress Markers and Antioxidant Enzymes in Kidney of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/608512/ Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension and hypertension induced organ damage. This study examined the effect of enalapril, an antihypertensive drug, on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes in kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administered SHR. Male rats were divided into four groups (SHR, SHR+enalapril, SHR+L-NAME, and SHR+enalapril+L-NAME). Enalapril (30 mg kg−1 day−1) was administered from week 4 to week 28 and L-NAME (25 mg kg−1 day−1) was administered from week 16 to week 28 in drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured during the experimental period. At the end of experimental periods, rats were sacrificed; urine, blood, and kidneys were collected for the assessment of creatinine clearance, total protein, total antioxidant status (TAS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), as well as histopathological examination. Enalapril treatment significantly enhanced the renal TAS level () and SOD activity (), reduced the TBARS levels (), and also prevented the renal dysfunction and histopathological changes. The results indicate that, besides its hypotensive and renoprotective effects, enalapril treatment also diminishes oxidative stress in the kidneys of both the SHR and SHR+L-NAME groups. G. Chandran, K. N. S. Sirajudeen, Nik Syamimi Nik Yusoff, M. Swamy, and Mutum S. Samarendra Copyright © 2014 G. Chandran et al. All rights reserved. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:57:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ac/2014/363071/ Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE), regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients. Siafu Ibahati Sempeho, Hee Taik Kim, Egid Mubofu, and Askwar Hilonga Copyright © 2014 Siafu Ibahati Sempeho et al. All rights reserved. Radiation Pneumonitis after Radiotherapy of Neck Lymphoma Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:41:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2014/614984/ Radiotherapy is still one of the effective means for treatment of malignant tumors up to now. Particularly, it is an indispensable effective measure for treatment of some lymphoma patients. In routine work, radiation pneumonitis (RP) is the most significant complication of acute treatment-related toxicities in lung cancer; however, serious radioactive pneumonia is rare for the radiotherapy of neck lymphoma because the volume of the lungs affected by radiation dose was very small. We report a lymphoma case, where the patient had undergone radiotherapy for the bilateral neck and bilateral supraclavicular/infraclavicular area. Following completion of radiotherapy, the patient developed severe radiation pneumonitis. Min Wei, Jun Cai, Tao Tong, Shihua Yu, Yonghua Yang, Weijia Zhang, and Jiyuan Yang Copyright © 2014 Min Wei et al. All rights reserved. Autophagy in Development, Cell Differentiation, and Homeodynamics: From Molecular Mechanisms to Diseases and Pathophysiology Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:39:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/349623/ Ioannis P. Nezis, Maria I. Vaccaro, Rodney J. Devenish, and Gábor Juhász Copyright © 2014 Ioannis P. Nezis et al. All rights reserved. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix in a Pregnant Patient Diagnosed with Liquid Based Cytology and Cell Block Immunocytochemistry Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:36:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2014/971464/ Definitive cytomorphologic diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix is possible but can be challenging in routine cervicovaginal cancer screening specimens. Several small series of reported cases of cervical small cell carcinoma have shown this uncommon malignancy to represent fewer than 2% of all invasive cervical cancers. This tumor type is associated with poor prognosis and rapid disease progression and can develop to an advanced stage in the interval between screening visits. Only rare case reports of small cell carcinoma arising in gravid cervices are known. In the current case a 29-year-old, gravida 6, para 2, pregnant (10-week gestation) female presented with postcoital bleeding. A definitive diagnosis of small cell carcinoma of the cervix was made possible by liquid based Pap testing with ancillary cell block preparation allowing for immunocytochemical characterization of the lesional cell population. Mawuli F. Attipoe and Charles D. Sturgis Copyright © 2014 Mawuli F. Attipoe and Charles D. Sturgis. All rights reserved. Defect Characterization Based on Eddy Current Technique: Technical Review Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:31:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/182496/ Eddy current testing is widely used for nondestructive evaluation of metallic structures in characterizing numerous types of defects occurring in various locations. It offers remarkable advantages over other nondestructive techniques because of its ease of implementation. This paper presents a technical review of Eddy current technique in various scope of defect detection. The first part presents Eddy current evaluation on various defects location and orientation such as steam generator tubes, stress crack corrosion, and fatigue cracks. The next section analyzes the use of pulsed Eddy current and pulsed Eddy current thermography as an alternative method for monitoring the growth of cracks with the aid of computational techniques for postsignal analysis. Ruzlaini Ghoni, Mahmood Dollah, Aizat Sulaiman, and Fadhil Mamat Ibrahim Copyright © 2014 Ruzlaini Ghoni et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Asymptotic Properties of Zero Dynamics for Sampled-Data Systems in the Case of a Time Delay Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:24:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/817534/ It is well known that the existence of unstable zero dynamics is recognized as a major barrier in many control systems, and deeply limits the achievable control performance. When a continuous-time system with relative degree greater than or equal to three is discretized using a zero-order hold (ZOH), at least one of the zero dynamics of the resulting sampled-data model is obviously unstable for sufficiently small sampling periods, irrespective of whether they involve time delay or not. Thus, attention is here focused on continuous-time systems with time delay and relative degree two. This paper analyzes the asymptotic behavior of zero dynamics for the sampled-data models corresponding to the continuous-time systems mentioned above, and further gives an approximate expression of the zero dynamics in the form of a power series expansion up to the third order term of sampling period. Meanwhile, the stability of the zero dynamics is discussed for sufficiently small sampling periods and a new stability condition is also derived. The ideas presented here generalize well-known results from the delay-free control system to time-delay case. Cheng Zeng, Shan Liang, Jiaqi Zhong, and Yingying Su Copyright © 2014 Cheng Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Virulence Factor Genes in the Baltic Sea Region Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:19:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/427254/ The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of different virulence factor (VF) genes in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from the Baltic Sea region. A total of 432 strains of phenotypically ESBL positive E. coli were collected from 20 institutions located in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the region of St. Petersburg in Russia from January to May 2012 and analyzed for phylogenetic group and prevalence of 23 VF genes. The strains were collected from clinical material (urine, blood, wound, and respiratory tract). Bacterial isolates were compared according to phylogenetic group, clinical material, and geographical origin. Most of the VF genes were concentrated within phylogenetic group B2 and/or D. When comparing strains isolated from different countries, it was found that strains originating from Estonia and Latvia belonged mainly to group B2 and strains from Lithuania and Russia mainly to groups B2 and D. The P-fimbrial adhesin gene papEF was more prevalent in Russian strains, colicin gene cvaC in Lithuanian strains, and capsular gene kpsMTII in Latvian strains; serum resistant gene traT was less prevalent in Estonian strains. The regional differences of VF genes remained statistically significant after taking into account the phylogenetic distribution in the countries. Jana Lillo, Kristiine Pai, Arta Balode, Mariia Makarova, Kristi Huik, Siiri Kõljalg, Marina Ivanova, Lidia Kaftyreva, Jolanta Miciuleviciene, Paul Naaber, Kristel Parv, Anastasia Pavelkovich, Tiiu Rööp, Karolin Toompere, Ludmila Suzhaeva, and Epp Sepp Copyright © 2014 Jana Lillo et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Role of MicroRNAs in the Chemoresistance of Pancreatic Cancer Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:14:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/678401/ Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely severe disease where the mortality and incidence rates are almost identical. This is mainly due to late diagnosis and limited response to current treatments. The tumor macroenvironment/microenvironment have been frequently reported as the major contributors to chemoresistance in PDAC, preventing the drugs from reaching their intended site of action (i.e., the malignant duct cells). However, the recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has provided new directions for research on mechanisms underlying response to chemotherapy. Due to their tissue-/disease-specific expression and high stability in tissues and biofluids, miRNAs represent new promising diagnostic and prognostic/predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Furthermore, several studies have documented that selected miRNAs, such as miR-21 and miR-34a, may influence response to chemotherapy in several tumor types, including PDAC. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in PDAC and recent advances in understanding their role in chemoresistance through multiple molecular mechanisms. Ingrid Garajová, Tessa Y. Le Large, Adam E. Frampton, Christian Rolfo, Johannes Voortman, and Elisa Giovannetti Copyright © 2014 Ingrid Garajová et al. All rights reserved. Formalization of Matrix Theory in HOL4 Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:12:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/195276/ Matrix theory plays an important role in modeling linear systems in engineering and science. To model and analyze the intricate behavior of complex systems, it is imperative to formalize matrix theory in a metalogic setting. This paper presents the higher-order logic (HOL) formalization of the vector space and matrix theory in the HOL4 theorem proving system. Formalized theories include formal definitions of real vectors and matrices, algebraic properties, and determinants, which are verified in HOL4. Two case studies, modeling and verifying composite two-port networks and state transfer equations, are presented to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of our work. Zhiping Shi, Yan Zhang, Zhenke Liu, Xinan Kang, Yong Guan, Jie Zhang, and Xiaoyu Song Copyright © 2014 Zhiping Shi et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Compliance to Gluten-Free Diet in Children with Celiac Disease Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:09:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/248402/ Aim. To identify the predictors of compliance to gluten free diet in children with celiac disease. Methods. 134 children in the study group were assessed for dietary compliance followed by a questionnaire based interview. Psychosocial parameters were assessed by standard Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC). Dietary compliant and noncompliant groups were compared and assessed for factors affecting the dietary compliance. Predictability of all of these factors was assessed using binary logistic regression analysis with backward elimination to find out the best predictors of compliance. Results. In the study group, 88 (65.67%) were found to be strictly compliant. Factors that were found to be significantly associated with compliance were age at presentation, nuclear families, mother’s education, and parents having better knowledge of celiac disease. Parents’ and child’s attitude towards his having to follow a restrictive diet and child’s feelings were also shown to be significantly associated with compliance. Binary logistic regression analysis with backward elimination demonstrated that age at presentation, family type, child’s attitude, and child’s behaviour made a significant contribution to prediction. Conclusions. These results will contribute to the current body of research by providing health care practitioners with a framework for better dietary instruction to ensure maximum adherence to GFD. Anu Garg and Rajkumar Gupta Copyright © 2014 Anu Garg and Rajkumar Gupta. All rights reserved. Positive Relationship between Total Antioxidant Status and Chemokines Observed in Adults Thu, 28 Aug 2014 12:08:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/693680/ Objective. Human evidence is limited regarding the interaction between oxidative stress biomarkers and chemokines, especially in a population of adults without overt clinical disease. The current study aims to examine the possible relationships of antioxidant and lipid peroxidation markers with several chemokines in adults. Methods. We assessed cross-sectional associations of total antioxidant status (TAS) and two lipid peroxidation markers malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with a suite of serum chemokines, including CXCL-1 (GRO-), CXCL-8 (IL-8), CXCL-10 (IP-10), CCL-2 (MCP-1), CCL-5 (RANTES), CCL-8 (MCP-2), CCL-11 (Eotaxin-1), and CCL-17 (TARC), among 104 Chinese adults without serious preexisting clinical conditions in Beijing before 2008 Olympics. Results. TAS showed significantly positive correlations with MCP-1 (, ), MCP-2 (, ), Eotaxin-1 (, ), and TARC (, ). The positive correlations remained unchanged after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol drinking status. No associations were found between any of the chemokines measured in this study and MDA or TBARS. Similar patterns were observed when the analyses were limited to nonsmokers. Conclusion. Total antioxidant status is positively associated with several chemokines in this adult population. Yanli Li, Richard W. Browne, Matthew R. Bonner, Furong Deng, Lili Tian, and Lina Mu Copyright © 2014 Yanli Li et al. All rights reserved. A Note on Starshaped Sets in 2-Dimensional Manifolds without Conjugate Points Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:49:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2014/675735/ Let be complete, simply connected n-dimensional Riemannian manifolds without conjugate points. Assume that is starshaped where . For every point , define : y lies on some geodesic segment in S from x to a point of kerS. There is a finite collection of all maximal sets whose union is S. Further, ker in . Adem Kılıcman and Wedad Saleh Copyright © 2014 Adem Kılıcman and Wedad Saleh. All rights reserved. Summation Formulas Obtained by Means of the Generalized Chain Rule for Fractional Derivatives Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:49:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jca/2014/820951/ In 1970, several interesting new summation formulas were obtained by using a generalized chain rule for fractional derivatives. The main object of this paper is to obtain a presumably new general formula. Many special cases involving special functions of mathematical physics such as the generalized hypergeometric functions, the Appell function, and the Lauricella functions of several variables are given. S. Gaboury and R. Tremblay Copyright © 2014 S. Gaboury and R. Tremblay. All rights reserved. Microstructure and Properties of SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE Composite Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/356273/ SCE-Al2O3 was the nano-Al2O3 modified by supercritical ethanol and the surface of SCE-Al2O3 was coated with active group. 4,4′-diaminodiphenylmethane bismaleimide (MBMI) was used as matrix; 3,3′-diallyl bisphenol A (BBA) and bisphenol-A diallyl ether (BBE) were used as reactive diluent, polyethersulfone (PES) as toughening agent, and SCE-Al2O3 as modifier; SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE nanocomposite was prepared through in situ sol-gel method. The mechanism of composite toughened by PES was observed and analyzed. FTIR indicated that the reaction between MBMI and allyl compound occurred and SCE-Al2O3 had doped into the polymer matrix. SEM showed that PES particle was inlaid in matrix and presented as a two-phase structure in matrix. The heat resistance, dielectric properties, and mechanical properties of SCE-Al2O3/PES-MBAE nanocomposites were evaluated. The results showed that with the incorporation of PES, although the toughness of the material improved, the heat resistance and dielectric properties of material declined, meanwhile. The adulteration of SCE-Al2O3 could remedy the harmful effect caused by PES, while the content of SCE-Al2O3 was reasonable. The decomposition temperature, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss of composite were 441.23°C, 3.63 (100 Hz), and 1.52 × 10−3 (100 Hz); the bending strength and impact strength were 129.22 MPa and 13.19 kJ/mm2, respectively, when the content of SCE-Al2O3 was 3 wt% and PES was 5 wt%. Yufei Chen, Qiwang Dai, Xiwang Zhang, and Tao Feng Copyright © 2014 Yufei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Effect of Vermicompost Application on Biological Properties of an Alkaline Soil with High Lime Content from Mediterranean Region of Turkey Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:46:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/395282/ This study was conducted to investigate direct short-term impact of vermicompost on some soil biological properties by monitoring changes after addition of vermicompost as compared to farmyard manure in an alkaline soil with high lime content from semiarid Mediterranean region of Turkey. For this purpose, mixtures of soil and organic fertilizers in different doses were incubated under greenhouse condition. Soil samples collected in regular intervals were analyzed for biological parameters including dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria. Even though soil dehydrogenase activity appeared to be dose-independent based on overall evaluation, organic amendments were found to elevate dehydrogenase activity when sampling periods are evaluated individually. β-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase activity, and aerobic mesophilic bacterial numbers in vermicompost treatments fluctuated but remained significantly above the control. A slight but statistically significant difference was detected between organic amendments in terms of urease activity. Vermicompost appeared to more significantly increase bacterial number in soil. Clearly, vermicompost has a potential to be used as an alternative to farmyard manure to improve and maintain soil biological activity in alkaline calcareous soils from the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Further studies are needed to assess its full potential for these soils. Ilker Uz and Ismail Emrah Tavali Copyright © 2014 Ilker Uz and Ismail Emrah Tavali. All rights reserved. Adaptive Low-Power Listening MAC Protocol Based on Transmission Rates Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:45:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/473132/ Even though existing low-power listening (LPL) protocols have enabled ultra-low-power operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN), they do not address trade-off between energy and delay, since they focused only on energy aspect. However, in recent years, a growing interest in various WSN applications is requiring new design factors, such as minimum delay and higher reliability, as well as energy efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we propose a novel sensor multiple access control (MAC) protocol, transmission rate based adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol (TRA-MAC), which is a kind of preamble-based LPL but is capable of controlling preamble sensing cycle adaptively to transmission rates. Through experiments, it is demonstrated that TRA-MAC enables LPL cycle (LC) and preamble transmission length to adapt dynamically to varying transmission rates, compensating trade-off between energy and response time. Kwang-il Hwang and Gangman Yi Copyright © 2014 Kwang-il Hwang and Gangman Yi. All rights reserved. Finite and Infinite Arithmetic Progressions Related to Beta-Expansion Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:44:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/678769/ Let and be the -expansion of . Denote by the set of positions where the digit 1 appears in . We consider the sets of points such that contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions and includes infinite arithmetic progressions, respectively. Their sizes are investigated from the topological, metric, and dimensional viewpoints. Bing Li and Chao Ma Copyright © 2014 Bing Li and Chao Ma. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Lignin Biopolymer Isolation from Hybrid Poplar by Organosolv Pretreatments Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:42:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2014/194726/ Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource that has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of biomaterials and biofuels. In the present study, the fractionation of different lignin biopolymers from hybrid poplar based on organosolv pretreatments using 80% aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol at 220°C for 30 min was investigated. The isolated lignin fractions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the lignin fraction obtained with aqueous ethanol (EOL) possessed the highest yield and the strongest thermal stability compared with other lignin fractions. In addition, other lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (1.16–1.46%) though lignin preparation extracted with 1-butanol (BOL) was incongruent (7.53%). 2D HSQC spectra analysis revealed that the four lignin fractions mainly consisted of -O-4′ linkages combined with small amounts of - and -5′ linkages. Furthermore, substitution of in -O-4′ substructures had occurred due to the effects of dissolvent during the autocatalyzed alcohol organosolv pretreatments. Therefore, aqueous ethanol was found to be the most promising alcoholic organic solvent compared with other alcohols to be used in noncatalyzed processes for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery. Miao Wu, Jinhui Pang, Xueming Zhang, and Runcang Sun Copyright © 2014 Miao Wu et al. All rights reserved. Quantum Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on Artificial Fish Swarm Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:36:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/592682/ Quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm is a new intelligent optimization algorithm; the algorithm has less parameters and is easily implemented. In view of the existing quantum behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm for the premature convergence problem, put forward a quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm based on artificial fish swarm. The new algorithm based on quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm, introducing the swarm and following activities, meanwhile using the adaptive parameters, to avoid it falling into local extremum of population. The experimental results show the improved algorithm to improve the optimization ability of the algorithm. Dong Yumin and Zhao Li Copyright © 2014 Dong Yumin and Zhao Li. All rights reserved. Fast Stiffness Matrix Calculation for Nonlinear Finite Element Method Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:36:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/932314/ We propose a fast stiffness matrix calculation technique for nonlinear finite element method (FEM). Nonlinear stiffness matrices are constructed using Green-Lagrange strains, which are derived from infinitesimal strains by adding the nonlinear terms discarded from small deformations. We implemented a linear and a nonlinear finite element method with the same material properties to examine the differences between them. We verified our nonlinear formulation with different applications and achieved considerable speedups in solving the system of equations using our nonlinear FEM compared to a state-of-the-art nonlinear FEM. Emir Gülümser, Uğur Güdükbay, and Sinan Filiz Copyright © 2014 Emir Gülümser et al. All rights reserved. Application of a New Membership Function in Nonlinear Fuzzy PID Controllers with Variable Gains Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:36:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/482489/ This paper proposes a nonlinear fuzzy PID control algorithm, whose membership function (MF) is adjustable, is universal, and has a wide adjustable range. Appling this function to fuzzy control theory will increase system’s tunability. The continuity of this function is proved. This method was employed in the simulation and HIL experiments. Effectiveness and feasibility of this function are demonstrated in the results. Xuda Zhang, Hong Bao, Jingli Du, and Congsi Wang Copyright © 2014 Xuda Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Nonunion of the First Sternocostal Synchondrosis Accompanied by Sternoclavicular Joint Synovitis Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:35:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2014/798329/ Injury to the sternocostal synchondrosis of the first rib is quite rare. We report one such case in a 50-year-old man with nonunion of the first sternocostal synchondrosis accompanied by synovitis of the sternoclavicular joint. He first underwent arthroscopic surgery of the left sternoclavicular joint. Postoperatively, the patient’s symptoms decreased by half, but another pain and crepitus at the inferior lateral portion of the sternoclavicular joint developed. Since MRI and functional CT reexaminations revealed nonunion of the first sternocostal synchondrosis, resection arthroplasty of the first sternocostal joint was performed. This resulted in immediate resolution of the symptoms. At 2-year follow-up, his symptoms disappeared entirely with no limited range of motion of the shoulder. Makoto Takeuchi, Tomohiro Goto, Kiminori Yukata, Naoto Suzue, Daisuke Hamada, Toshihiko Nishisho, Ichiro Tonogai, Tetsuya Matsuura, and Koichi Sairyo Copyright © 2014 Makoto Takeuchi et al. All rights reserved. Study of an Amorphous Silicon Oxide Buffer Layer for p-Type Microcrystalline Silicon Oxide/n-Type Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells and Their Temperature Dependence Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:34:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/251508/ Intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (i-a-SiO:H) films were used as front and rear buffer layers in crystalline silicon heterojunction (c-Si-HJ) solar cells. The surface passivity and effective lifetime of these i-a-SiO:H films on an n-type silicon wafer were improved by increasing the CO2/SiH4 ratios in the films. Using i-a-SiO:H as the front and rear buffer layers in c-Si-HJ solar cells was investigated. The front i-a-SiO:H buffer layer thickness and the CO2/SiH4 ratio influenced the open-circuit voltage , fill factor (FF), and temperature coefficient (TC) of the c-Si-HJ solar cells. The highest total area efficiency obtained was 18.5%  mV,  mA/cm2, and . The TC normalized for this c-Si-HJ solar cell efficiency was −0.301%/°C. Taweewat Krajangsang, Apichan Moollakorn, Sorapong Inthisang, Amornrat Limmanee, Kobsak Sriprapha, Nattaphong Boriraksantikul, Tianchai Taratiwat, Nirod Akarapanjavit, and Jaran Sritharathikhun Copyright © 2014 Taweewat Krajangsang et al. All rights reserved. Dictionary-Based Image Denoising by Fused-Lasso Atom Selection Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:34:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/368602/ We proposed an efficient image denoising scheme by fused lasso with dictionary learning. The scheme has two important contributions. The first one is that we learned the patch-based adaptive dictionary by principal component analysis (PCA) with clustering the image into many subsets, which can better preserve the local geometric structure. The second one is that we coded the patches in each subset by fused lasso with the clustering learned dictionary and proposed an iterative Split Bregman to solve it rapidly. We present the capabilities with several experiments. The results show that the proposed scheme is competitive to some excellent denoising algorithms. Ao Li and Hayaru Shouno Copyright © 2014 Ao Li and Hayaru Shouno. All rights reserved. A Computing Approach with the Heat-Loss Model for the Transient Analysis of Liquid Metal Natural Circulation Loop Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:33:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2014/769346/ The transient behaviors of natural circulation loop (NCL) are important for the system reliability under postulated accidents. The heat loss and structure thermal inertia may influence the transient behaviors of NCL greatly, so a transient analysis model with consideration of heat loss was developed based on the MATLAB/Simulink to predict the thermal-hydraulic characteristic of liquid metal NCL. The transient processes including the start-up, the loss of pump, and the shutdown of thermal-hydraulic ADS lead bismuth loop (TALL) experimental facility were simulated by using the model. A good agreement is obtained to validate the transient model. The appended structure would provide significant thermal inertia and flatten the temperature distribution in the transients. The oscillations of temperature and flow rate are also weakened. The temperature difference between hot leg and cold leg would increase with the decrease of heat loss, so the flow rate increases as well. However, a significant increase of hot section temperature may cause a failure of facility integrity due to the decrease of heat loss. Hence, the full power of the core tank may also be limited. Daogang Lu, Xun Zhang, and Chao Guo Copyright © 2014 Daogang Lu et al. All rights reserved. A Conservative Treatment Approach to Replacing a Missing Anterior Tooth Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:33:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/625784/ An implant-supported crown or conventionally fixed partial denture is the most common treatment modality to replace a missing anterior tooth but a more conservative approach, with a fiber reinforced composite resin FPD, can be used to replace a missing anterior tooth in young patients or when the patient does not agree for an implant, or conventional FPD or RPD therapy. It is an esthetic, conservative single sitting chairside procedure which can be used as a definitive treatment alternative in certain clinical situations for esthetic and functional replacement of a missing anterior tooth. To achieve desirable results, putty matrix was used for proper positioning of the pontic during direct fabrication of FRCFPD. Kunwarjeet Singh, Nidhi Gupta, Nandini Unnikrishnan, Vikram Kapoor, Dhruv Arora, and Poonam K. Khinnavar Copyright © 2014 Kunwarjeet Singh et al. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Thrombosis in Giant Aneurysm of the Anterior Communicating Artery Complex in Pediatric Age: Five-Year Follow-Up Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:33:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2014/236041/ Intracranial aneurysms are rare in the pediatric population, especially in infancy, representing less than 1% of all aneurysms. In this age group, they are more frequent at the carotid bifurcation and in the posterior circulation, with a greater number of giant aneurysms and spontaneous aneurysm thrombosis when compared with the adults. They are life-threatening, and, therefore, early investigation, characterization of the lesion, and treatment are essential. The appropriate management depends on the child’s condition, aneurysm characteristics, and the experience of a multidisciplinary team. Noninvasive and radiation-free imagiological studies play an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up of these young patients. We present the case of a 3-month-old boy with an intracranial hemorrhage secondary to the rupture of a giant aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery complex, with spontaneous thrombosis, which is a rare situation due to its location. A conservative approach was assumed and noninvasive evolutive imagiological studies revealed a reduction in the thrombosed aneurysm size and no signs of recanalization. The child recovered to his baseline neurological condition and has had no rehemorrhage until 5 years of follow-up. Vítor M. Gonçalves, N. Cristino, and M. Cunha e Sá Copyright © 2014 Vítor M. Gonçalves et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis with Concomitant Features of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:33:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/341304/ Case Reports in Rheumatology Copyright © 2014 Case Reports in Rheumatology. All rights reserved. A Miniature Integrated Navigation System for Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:33:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2014/748940/ This paper presents the development of a low cost miniature navigation system for autonomous flying rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The system incorporates measurements from a low cost single point GPS and a triaxial solid state inertial/magnetic sensor unit. The navigation algorithm is composed of three modules running on a microcontroller: the sensor calibration module, the attitude estimator, and the velocity and position estimator. The sensor calibration module relies on a recursive least square based ellipsoid hypothesis calibration algorithm to estimate biases and scale factors of accelerometers and magnetometers without any additional calibration equipment. The attitude estimator is a low computational linear attitude fusion algorithm that effectively incorporates high frequency components of gyros and low frequency components of accelerometers and magnetometers to guarantee both accuracy and bandwidth of attitude estimation. The velocity and position estimator uses two cascaded complementary filters which fuse translational acceleration, GPS velocity, and position to improve the bandwidth of velocity and position. The designed navigation system is feasible for miniature UAVs due to its low cost, simplicity, miniaturization, and guaranteed estimation errors. Both ground tests and autonomous flight tests of miniature unmanned helicopter and quadrotor have shown the effectiveness of the proposed system, demonstrating its promise in UAV systems. Yu Xu, Wenda Sun, and Ping Li Copyright © 2014 Yu Xu et al. All rights reserved. Global Existence of Solution to Initial Boundary Value Problem for Bipolar Navier-Stokes-Poisson System Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:32:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/214546/ This paper concerns initial boundary value problem for 3-dimensional compressible bipolar Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations with density-dependent viscosities. When the initial data is large, discontinuous, and spherically symmetric, we prove the global existence of the weak solution. Jian Liu and Haidong Liu Copyright © 2014 Jian Liu and Haidong Liu. All rights reserved. Time-Dependent Global Attractor for a Class of Nonclassical Parabolic Equations Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:32:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/748321/ Based on the recent theory of time-dependent global attractors in the works of Conti et al. (2013) and di Plinio et al. (2011), we prove the existence of time-dependent global attractors as well as the regularity of the time-dependent global attractor for a class of nonclassical parabolic equations. Fang-hong Zhang Copyright © 2014 Fang-hong Zhang. All rights reserved. On Descriptions of Particle Transverse Momentum Spectra in High Energy Collisions Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:32:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2014/293873/ The transverse momentum spectra obtained in the frame of an isotropic emission source are compared in terms of Tsallis, Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein distributions and the Tsallis forms of the latter three standard distributions. It is obtained that, at a given set of parameters, the standard distributions show a narrower shape than their Tsallis forms which result in wide and/or multicomponent spectra with the Tsallis distribution in between. A comparison among the temperatures obtained from the distributions is made with a possible relation to the Boltzmann temperature. An example of the angular distributions of projectile fragments in nuclear collisions is given. Fu-Hu Liu, Ya-Qin Gao, and Hua-Rong Wei Copyright © 2014 Fu-Hu Liu et al. All rights reserved. Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:32:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/106209/ The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. Huirong Feng, C. W. Lim, Liqun Chen, Xinnian Zhou, Chengjun Zhou, and Yi Lin Copyright © 2014 Huirong Feng et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:30:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/514652/ This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. Omar Tayan, Muhammad N. Kabir, and Yasser M. Alginahi Copyright © 2014 Omar Tayan et al. All rights reserved. Wave Breaking Phenomenon for DGH Equation with Strong Dissipation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:28:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/169423/ The present work is mainly concerned with the Dullin-Gottwald-Holm (DGH) equation with strong dissipative term. We establish some sufficient conditions to guarantee finite time blow-up of strong solutions. Zhengguang Guo and Min Zhao Copyright © 2014 Zhengguang Guo and Min Zhao. All rights reserved. Construction of Monitoring Model and Algorithm Design on Passenger Security during Shipping Based on Improved Bayesian Network Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:27:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/158652/ A large number of data is needed by the computation of the objective Bayesian network, but the data is hard to get in actual computation. The calculation method of Bayesian network was improved in this paper, and the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was obtained. Then, the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was used to reason Bayesian network model when the data is limited. The security of passengers during shipping is affected by various factors, and it is hard to predict and control. The index system that has the impact on the passenger safety during shipping was established on basis of the multifield coupling theory in this paper. Meanwhile, the fuzzy-precise Bayesian network was applied to monitor the security of passengers in the shipping process. The model was applied to monitor the passenger safety during shipping of a shipping company in Hainan, and the effectiveness of this model was examined. This research work provides guidance for guaranteeing security of passengers during shipping. Jiali Wang, Qingnian Zhang, and Wenfeng Ji Copyright © 2014 Jiali Wang et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of N-Doped TiO2-ZrO2 Composite Films under Electric Field and Heat Treatment and Assessment of Their Removal of Methylene Blue from Solution Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:26:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/129540/ TiO2-ZrO2 composite film with the grain size of 50 nm was synthesized by electric field and heat (EF&H) treatments. Portions of O atoms in the TiO2 network structure were replaced by N atoms as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, suggesting formation of a nonstoichiometric compound on the composite film. The UV-Vis spectra of the film suggested that the visible light with wavelength of 550 nm could be absorbed for the N-doped composite film after EF&H treatment in comparison to a cutoff wavelength of 400 nm for the composite film without EF treatment. Photocatalytic experiments showed that the degradation rate of methylene blue by N-doped composite films increased significantly under visible light irradiation. The partial replacement of O by doped N played a very important role in narrowing the band gap and improving the visible light photocatalytic reactivity. Lefu Mei, Ranfang Zuo, Jing Xie, Libing Liao, and Hao Ding Copyright © 2014 Lefu Mei et al. All rights reserved. Beyond Bullying: Consideration of Additional Research for the Assessment and Prevention of Potential Rampage School Violence in the United States Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:26:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2014/109297/ For approximately 15 years there have been a number of episodes of rampage school violence in elementary/high school and higher education in the United States. Initial responses included implementation of antibullying programs, disciplinary measures, and increased law security measures. As the incidences have continued, it has become apparent that a more collaborative and interdisciplinary approach is needed for prevention. This paper offers a review of research literature as it applies to proposed innovative strategies for collaborative research, prevention, and intervention in the school setting. Evonn Welton, Shernavaz Vakil, and Bridgie Ford Copyright © 2014 Evonn Welton et al. All rights reserved. Development and Application of a ZigBee-Based Building Energy Monitoring and Control System Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:25:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/528410/ Increasing in energy consumption, particularly with the ever-increasing growth and development of urban systems, has become a major concern in most countries. In this paper, the authors propose a cost-effective ZigBee-based building energy monitoring and control system (ZBEMCS), which is composed of a gateway, a base station, and sensors. Specifically, a new hardware platform for power sensor nodes is developed to perform both local/remote power parameter measurement and power on/off switching for electric appliances. The experimental results show that the ZBEMCS can easily monitor energy usage with a high level of accuracy. Two typical applications of ZBEMCS such as subentry metering and household metering of building energy are presented. The former includes lighting socket electricity, HVAC electricity, power electricity and special electricity. The latter includes household metering according to the campus’s main function zone and each college or department. Therefore, this system can be used for energy consumption monitoring, long-term energy conservation planning, and the development of automated energy conservation for building applications. Changhai Peng and Kun Qian Copyright © 2014 Changhai Peng and Kun Qian. All rights reserved. Fault Detection and Diagnosis for Gas Turbines Based on a Kernelized Information Entropy Model Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:24:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/617162/ Gas turbines are considered as one kind of the most important devices in power engineering and have been widely used in power generation, airplanes, and naval ships and also in oil drilling platforms. However, they are monitored without man on duty in the most cases. It is highly desirable to develop techniques and systems to remotely monitor their conditions and analyze their faults. In this work, we introduce a remote system for online condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of gas turbine on offshore oil well drilling platforms based on a kernelized information entropy model. Shannon information entropy is generalized for measuring the uniformity of exhaust temperatures, which reflect the overall states of the gas paths of gas turbine. In addition, we also extend the entropy to compute the information quantity of features in kernel spaces, which help to select the informative features for a certain recognition task. Finally, we introduce the information entropy based decision tree algorithm to extract rules from fault samples. The experiments on some real-world data show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. Weiying Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Rui Tang, Shuying Li, and Wei Wu Copyright © 2014 Weiying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfr/2014/179415/ The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI) are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score) for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas. Andrew Evans, Richard Odom, Lynn Resler, W. Mark Ford, and Steve Prisley Copyright © 2014 Andrew Evans et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Pathway in the Treatment of Nocardial Brain Abscesses following Systemic Infections Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:22:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/584934/ Nocardial infections are commonly encountered in patients with immunocompromised states. Cerebral nocardiosis is an uncommon clinical entity, representing only 2% of all cerebral abscesses. It has a higher mortality rate, especially for multiple cerebral lesions in immunocompromised hosts following systemic infections. However, an optimal treatment policy to deal with these immunocompromised patients in Asia is still lacking. We retrospectively reviewed the subjects with nocardial brain abscesses from 2001 to 2011 at our medical center. All of them had multiple brain abscesses, underlying with immunocompromised state following systemic infections. All cases were under steroid control due to their comorbidities for more than six months. The comorbidities and misdiagnosis often lead to poor prognosis. The change in the environments of the microorganisms caused by immunosuppressive agents and multiple antibiotic uses may play an important role in this critical disorder. Aggressive craniotomy should be performed in time to avoid grievous neurological outcomes. Our conclusion is that early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic uses should be implemented promptly, and aggressive craniotomy should be performed for nocardial brain abscesses in subjects with systemic infections under an immunocompromised status. Yun-Cong Zheng, Tse-Lun Wang, Jee-Ching Hsu, Yung-Hsing Hsu, Wen-Hsing Hsu, Chih-Liang Wang, Aij-Lie Kwan, and Chih-Lung Lin Copyright © 2014 Yun-Cong Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Shift Performance Test and Analysis of Multipurpose Vehicle Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:20:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/378176/ This paper presented an analysis of the gear shifting performances of a multipurpose vehicle transmission in driving condition by Ricardo’s Gear Shift Quality Assessment (GSQA) system. The performances of the transmission included the travel and effort of the gear shift lever and synchronizing time. The mathematic models of the transmission including the gear shift mechanism and synchronizer were developed in MATLAB. The model of the gear shift mechanism was developed to analyze the travel map of the gear shift lever and the model of the synchronizer was developed to obtain the force-time curve of the synchronizer during the slipping time. The model of the synchronizer was used to investigate the relationship between the performances of the transmission and the variation of parameters during gear shifting. The mathematic models of the gear shift mechanism and the synchronizer provided a rapid design and verification method for the transmission with ring spring. Can Yang, Lin Hua, Zhou Wang, and Yaohua He Copyright © 2014 Can Yang et al. All rights reserved. Research on the Vibration Characteristics of the New Type of Passive Super Static Vibratory Platform Based on the Multiobjective Parameter Optimization Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/569289/ In order to reduce impact on payload due to vibration, the new type of passive super static vibratory platform and its dynamic mathematical model were established. In order to obtain the best performance of this platform, the method of multiobjective parameter optimization was applied to decide the parameters such as stiffness coefficient and damping coefficient. Then studying the dynamics inherent characteristic of the platform, the result shows the new type of passive super static vibratory platform has relatively low natural frequency and can effectively reduce the vibration of the high frequency range that means this new type of passive super static vibratory platform was suitable for the satellite payload work environment. Based on the simulation, the experimental platform was manufactured and tested on the platform with random forced vibration; the result shows the new type of passive super static vibratory platform has an obvious vibration damping effect. Jiaqiang E, Cheng Qian, Teng Liu, and Guanlin Liu Copyright © 2014 Jiaqiang E et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Nonlinear Laser Imaging of Human Skin: A Review Thu, 28 Aug 2014 10:55:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/903589/ Nonlinear optical microscopy has the potential of being used in vivo as a noninvasive imaging modality for both epidermal and dermal imaging. This paper reviews the capabilities of nonlinear microscopy as a noninvasive high-resolution tool for clinical skin inspection. In particular, we show that two-photon fluorescence microscopy can be used as a diagnostic tool for characterizing epidermal layers by means of a morphological examination. Additional functional information on the metabolic state of cells can be provided by measuring the fluorescence decay of NADH. This approach allows differentiating epidermal layers having different structural and cytological features and has the potential of diagnosing pathologies in a very early stage. Regarding therapy follow-up, we demonstrate that nonlinear microscopy could be successfully used for monitoring the effect of a treatment. In particular, combined two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation microscopy were used in vivo for monitoring collagen remodeling after microablative fractional laser resurfacing and for quantitatively monitoring psoriasis on the basis of the morphology of epidermal cells and dermal papillae. We believe that the described microscopic modalities could find in the near future a stable place in a clinical dermatological setting for quantitative diagnostic purposes and as a monitoring method for various treatments. Riccardo Cicchi, Dimitrios Kapsokalyvas, and Francesco Saverio Pavone Copyright © 2014 Riccardo Cicchi et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Amount of Water in the Synthesis of B-TiO2: Orange II Photodegradation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 10:00:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpho/2014/721216/ A series of boron-doped TiO2 photocatalysts (2% B-TiO2) with different water/alkoxide molar ratio were synthesized by conventional sol-gel method. The prepared samples were characterized by BET measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS), and diffuse-reflectance UV-vis. The phase anatase was present, but unexpectedly a small amount of rutile phase was formed with low and excess water in the synthesis. Additionally it has been observed that the increase in the molar ratio of water significantly increases the values of band gap energy and the specific surface area. Results showed that degradation of Orange II azo dye increases with surface area, particle size, boron, and water content in photocatalysis. The boron species were introduced in the tricoordinated form. M. May-Lozano, G. M. Ramos-Reyes, R. López-Medina, S. A. Martínez-Delgadillo, J. Flores-Moreno, and I. Hernández-Pérez Copyright © 2014 M. May-Lozano et al. All rights reserved. Walking Adaptability after a Stroke and Its Assessment in Clinical Settings Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:58:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srt/2014/591013/ Control of walking has been described by a tripartite model consisting of stepping, equilibrium, and adaptability. This review focuses on walking adaptability, which is defined as the ability to modify walking to meet task goals and environmental demands. Walking adaptability is crucial to safe ambulation in the home and community environments and is often severely compromised after a stroke. Yet quantification of walking adaptability after stroke has received relatively little attention in the clinical setting. The objectives of this review were to examine the conceptual challenges for clinical measurement of walking adaptability and summarize the current state of clinical assessment for walking adaptability. We created nine domains of walking adaptability from dimensions of community mobility to address the conceptual challenges in measurement and reviewed performance-based clinical assessments of walking to determine if the assessments measure walking adaptability in these domains. Our literature review suggests the lack of a comprehensive well-tested clinical assessment tool for measuring walking adaptability. Accordingly, recommendations for the development of a comprehensive clinical assessment of walking adaptability after stroke have been presented. Such a clinical assessment will be essential for gauging recovery of walking adaptability with rehabilitation and for motivating novel strategies to enhance recovery of walking adaptability after stroke. Chitralakshmi K. Balasubramanian, David J. Clark, and Emily J. Fox Copyright © 2014 Chitralakshmi K. Balasubramanian et al. All rights reserved. Growth of Horizontal Nanopillars of CuO on NiO/ITO Surfaces Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:48:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jns/2014/635308/ We have demonstrated hydrothermal synthesis of rectangular pillar-like CuO nanostructures at low temperature (~60°C) by selective growth on top of NiO porous structures film deposited using chemical bath deposition method at room temperature using indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate as a substrate. The growth of CuO not only filled the NiO porous structures but also formed the big nanopillars/nanowalls on top of NiO surface. These nanopillars could have significant use in nanoelectronics devices or can also be used as p-type conducting wires. The present study is limited to the surface morphology studies of the thin nanostructured layers of NiO/CuO composite materials. Structural, morphological, and absorption measurement of the CuO/NiO heterojunction were studied using state-of-the-art techniques like X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and UV spectroscopy. The CuO nanopillars/nanowalls have the structure in order of (5 ± 1.0) μm × (2.0 ± 0.3) μm; this will help to provide efficient charge transport in between the different semiconducting layers. The energy band gap of NiO and CuO was also calculated based on UV measurements and discussed. Siddharth Joshi, Mrunmaya Mudigere, L. Krishnamurthy, and G. L. Shekar Copyright © 2014 Siddharth Joshi et al. All rights reserved. Continuous Femoral Nerve Block versus Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Knee Mobility and Long-Term Pain in Patients Receiving Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:46:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/569107/ Objectives. To evaluate the comparative analgesia effectiveness and safety of postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) and their impact on knee function and chronic postoperative pain. Methods. Participants were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (group CFNB) or intravenous patient controlled analgesia (group PCIA). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores for knee and incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were compared. postoperative pain and salvage medication at rest or during mobilization 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively were also recorded. Results. After discharge from the hospital and rehabilitation of joint function, patients in group CFNB reported significantly improved knee flexion and less incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively (). Analgesic rescue medications were significantly reduced in patients receiving CFNB ( and , resp.). Conclusion. With standardized rehabilitation therapy, continuous femoral nerve block analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic postoperative pain, improved motility of replaced joints, and reduced the dosages of rescue analgesic medications, suggesting a recovery-enhancing effect of peripheral nerve block analgesia. Lihua Peng, Li Ren, Peipei Qin, Jing Chen, Ping Feng, Haidan Lin, and Min Su Copyright © 2014 Lihua Peng et al. All rights reserved. OCH Ameliorates Bone Marrow Failure in Mice via Downregulation of T-Bet Expression Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:46:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/928743/ The aim of this study is to evaluate the immune mechanism of OCH in the treatment of AA (also named bone marrow failure, BMF) induced in mice. OCH at a dose of 400 μg/kg was injected intraperitoneally (I.P.) prior to the induction of BMF. Our study showed that the incidence of BMF was 100% in BMF group and 13% in OCH treatment group. Significant higher level of IL-4 and lower level of IFN-γ were observed in OCH group than that in BMF group () as well as untreated group over BMF (). However, there was no significant difference between OCH and untreated group. Compared with untreated, the expression level of T-bet in OCH and BMF was all significantly higher. However, T-bet expression level was lower in OCH than in BMF. In addition, OCH treatment increased NKT cell fractions of bone marrow and the colonies of CFU-GM. In conclusion, treatment of OCH prior to the induction of BMF could prevent the incidence of BMF possibly through downregulating T-bet expression leading to the transition of immune response from Th1 to Th2, suggesting OCH might be a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of BMF or AA. Xiaohong Qiao, Xiaotian Xie, Wei Shi, Jinqing Tang, Yuexia Shao, and Fuxing Li Copyright © 2014 Xiaohong Qiao et al. All rights reserved. Low-Power Optically Controlled Patch Antenna of Reconfigurable Beams Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:45:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/978258/ A novel compact beam-reconfigurable patch antenna based on light control of no more than 30 mW optical powers is successfully demonstrated. It consists of one T-shape driven patch and one slot-etched parasitic patch. A silicon dice is employed as the photoconductive switch that is bridged across the slot center for optical control of reconfigurable beams. The antenna greatly reduces the total optical powers required for reconfigurable beams. Such design is based on the fact that the current phase change of the parasitic patch is sensitive to the conductivity of the silicon dice. A few conductivity changes of the silicon dice induced by the optical light can lead to a big phase change of the parasitic patch currents, eventually resulting in reconfigurable beams with low optical power requirement. Deshuang Zhao, Yifei Han, Feng Liang, Qiaoli Zhang, and Bing-Zhong Wang Copyright © 2014 Deshuang Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Characterization and Screening for Sheath Blight Resistance Using Malaysian Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/434257/ Two field isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were isolated from infected paddy plants in Malaysia. These isolates were verified via ITS-rDNA analysis that yielded ~720 bp products of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region, respectively. The sequenced products showed insertion and substitution incidences which may result in strain diversity and possible variation in disease severity. These strains showed some regional and host-specific relatedness via Maximum Likelihood and further phylogenetic analysis via Maximum Parsimony showed that these strains were closely related to R. solani AG1-1A (with 99-100% identity). Subsequent to strain verification and analysis, these isolates were used in the screening of twenty rice varieties for tolerance or resistance to sheath blight via mycelial plug method where both isolates (1801 and 1802) showed resistance or moderate resistance to Teqing, TETEP, and Jasmine 85. Isolate 1802 was more virulent based on the disease severity index values. This study also showed that the mycelial plug techniques were efficient in providing uniform inoculum and humidity for screening. In addition this study shows that the disease severity index is a better mode of scoring for resistance compared to lesion length. These findings will provide a solid basis for our future breeding and screening activities at the institution. Kalaivani Nadarajah, Nurfarahana Syuhada Omar, Marhamah Md. Rosli, and Ong Shin Tze Copyright © 2014 Kalaivani Nadarajah et al. All rights reserved. Responses of a Highly Accelerated Life Test System to Impacts from Different Designs of Hammers Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:44:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/380305/ The response of a table to the impact of its driving hammer in the highly accelerated life test (HALT) system depends on, among other things, the location of the hammer, the presence of multiple hammers, and the angle at which the hammer is mounted to the table. The present study investigated the response of a table to a variety of impacts from different combinations of hammers. It began with a theoretical analysis of the forces of impact exerted by hammers which led to the calculation of the corresponding displacement. These theoretical calculations revealed the mechanics of the HALT system to help explain the working principles behind this complex system. Then a simulation model was built to check the accuracy of the theoretical results. Finally, the accelerations of a table in a real HALT system were measured. These data showed good agreement with the experimental results and computer simulation. The responses of HALT systems have not been investigated thoroughly to date. The current study can help equipment designers and end users better understand the working principles of this kind of systems. It can be considered a breakthrough in terms of improving the performance of reliability testing with this kind of system. Yeong-Shu Chen and Le Hong Chuong Copyright © 2014 Yeong-Shu Chen and Le Hong Chuong. All rights reserved. The Influence of Tone Inventory on ERP without Focal Attention: A Cross-Language Study Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:44:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/961563/ This study investigates the effect of tone inventories on brain activities underlying pitch without focal attention. We find that the electrophysiological responses to across-category stimuli are larger than those to within-category stimuli when the pitch contours are superimposed on nonspeech stimuli; however, there is no electrophysiological response difference associated with category status in speech stimuli. Moreover, this category effect in nonspeech stimuli is stronger for Cantonese speakers. Results of previous and present studies lead us to conclude that brain activities to the same native lexical tone contrasts are modulated by speakers’ language experiences not only in active phonological processing but also in automatic feature detection without focal attention. In contrast to the condition with focal attention, where phonological processing is stronger for speech stimuli, the feature detection (pitch contours in this study) without focal attention as shaped by language background is superior in relatively regular stimuli, that is, the nonspeech stimuli. The results suggest that Cantonese listeners outperform Mandarin listeners in automatic detection of pitch features because of the denser Cantonese tone system. Hong-Ying Zheng, Gang Peng, Jian-Yong Chen, Caicai Zhang, James W. Minett, and William S-Y. Wang Copyright © 2014 Hong-Ying Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Symbiotic Plant Peptides Eliminate Candida albicans Both In Vitro and in an Epithelial Infection Model and Inhibit the Proliferation of Immortalized Human Cells Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:43:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/320796/ The increasing number of multidrug-resistant microbes now emerging necessitates the identification of novel antimicrobial agents. Plants produce a great variety of antimicrobial peptides including hundreds of small, nodule-specific cysteine-rich NCR peptides that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, govern the differentiation of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria and, in vitro, can display potent antibacterial activities. In this study, the potential candidacidal activity of 19 NCR peptides was investigated. Cationic NCR peptides having an isoelectric point above 9 were efficient in killing Candida albicans, one of the most common fungal pathogens of humans. None of the tested NCR peptides were toxic for immortalized human epithelial cells at concentrations that effectively killed the fungus; however, at higher concentrations, some of them inhibited the division of the cells. Furthermore, the cationic peptides successfully inhibited C. albicans induced human epithelial cell death in an in vitro coculture model. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cationic NCR peptides in the treatment of candidiasis. Lilla Ördögh, Andrea Vörös, István Nagy, Éva Kondorosi, and Attila Kereszt Copyright © 2014 Lilla Ördögh et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Evaluation and Mechanistic Investigation of Antioxidant Activity of Fullerenols Using β-Carotene Bleaching Assay Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:43:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/802596/ Antioxidant activity of hydroxylated fullerenes, so-called fullerenols, against lipid peroxyl radical was evaluated by β-carotene bleaching assay. All samples showed moderate to high antioxidant activity (%AOA), especially for C60(OH)12 (70.1) and C60(OH)44 (66.0) as compared with 8, 24, 26, and 36 hydroxylated ones (31.7–62.8). The detection of the possible products was conducted in the model reaction of both fullerenols and C60 with methyl linoleate by MALDI-TOF-MS. These results suggested that the two possible mechanisms, such as C-addition to double bonds and H-abstraction from –OH groups, are involved in the present radical scavenging reaction. Hiroshi Ueno, Shizuka Yamakura, Riya S. Arastoo, Takumi Oshima, and Ken Kokubo Copyright © 2014 Hiroshi Ueno et al. All rights reserved. Rural Credit and Farms Efficiency: Modelling Farmers Credit Allocation Decisions, Evidences from Benin Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:43:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecri/2014/309352/ This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using the multistage sampling procedure. The stochastic frontier truncated-normal with conditional mean model is used to assess allocation schemes effects on technical efficiency. Tobit model reveals the impact of farmers’ sociodemographic characteristics on efficiency scores. Results reveal that farm revenue (about 2,262,566 Fcfa on average) is positively correlated with land acreage, quantity of labour, and costs of fertilizers and insecticides. Farmers’ behaviors respond to six schemes which are categorized in two allocations contexts: out-farm and in-farm allocations. The model shows that only scheme (e) positively impacts technical efficiency. This scheme refers to the decision to invest credit to purchase better quality of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and so forth. The positive effect of the scheme (c) may be significant under conditions of farmers’ education level improvement. Then, scheme (e) is a better investment for all farmers, but effect of credit allocation to buy agricultural materials is positive only for educated farmers. Efficiency scores are reduced by household size and gender of the household head. Therefore a household with more than 10 members and a woman as head is likely to not be technically efficient. Comlan Hervé Sossou, Freddy Noma, and Jacob A. Yabi Copyright © 2014 Comlan Hervé Sossou et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between CCR and NT-proBNP in Chinese HF Patients, and Their Correlations with Severity of HF Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:42:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/106252/ Aim. To evaluate the relationship between creatinine clearance rate (CCR) and the level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in heart failure (HF) patients and their correlations with HF severity. Methods and Results. Two hundred and one Chinese patients were grouped according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification as NYHA 1-2 and 3-4 groups and 135 cases out of heart failure patients as control group. The following variables were compared among these three groups: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, NT-proBNP, creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), and CCR. The biomarkers of NT-proBNP, Cr, UA, LVEDD, and CCR varied significantly in the three groups, and these variables were positively correlated with the NHYA classification. The levels of NT-proBNP and CCR were closely related to the occurrence of HF and were independent risk factors for HF. At the same time, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of NT-proBNP and CCR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve suggested that the NT-proBNP and CCR have high accuracy for diagnosis of HF and have clinical diagnostic value. Conclusion. NT-proBNP and CCR may be important biomarkers in evaluating the severity of HF. Zhigang Lu, Bo Wang, Yunliang Wang, Xueqing Qian, Wei Zheng, and Meng Wei Copyright © 2014 Zhigang Lu et al. All rights reserved. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: Consequences of Its Hydrophobicity in the Oxidative Functions and Cytokine Release by Leukocytes Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:42:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/793629/ Numerous anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis. NADPH oxidases are multienzymatic complexes involved in many inflammatory diseases. Here, we studied the importance of the CAPE hydrophobicity on cell-free antioxidant capacity, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase and hypochlorous acid production, and release of TNF-α and IL-10 by activated leukocytes. The comparison was made with the related, but less hydrophobic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. Cell-free studies such as superoxide anion scavenging assay, triene degradation, and anodic peak potential measurements showed that the alterations in the hydrophobicity did not provoke significant changes in the oxidation potential and antiradical potency of the tested compounds. However, only CAPE was able to inhibit the production of superoxide anion by activated leukocytes. The inhibition of the NADPH oxidase resulted in the blockage of production of hypochlorous acid. Similarly, CAPE was the more effective inhibitor of the release of TNF-α and IL-10 by Staphylococcus aureus stimulated cells. In conclusion, the presence of the catechol moiety and the higher hydrophobicity were essential for the biological effects. Considering the involvement of NADPH oxidases in the genesis and progression of inflammatory diseases, CAPE should be considered as a promising anti-inflammatory drug. Luana Chiquetto Paracatu, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes Faria, Camila Quinello, Camila Rennó, Patricia Palmeira, Maria Luiza Zeraik, Luiz Marcos da Fonseca, and Valdecir Farias Ximenes Copyright © 2014 Luana Chiquetto Paracatu et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Prevents the Melanogenesis in Murine B16/F10 Melanoma Cells Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:40:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/695797/ The purpose of this study was to investigate if PPAR plays a role in the melanogenesis. B16/F10 cells were divided into five groups: control, melanin stimulating hormone (-MSH), -MSH+retinol, -MSH+GW9662 (PPAR antagonist), and GW9662. Cells in the control group were cultured in the Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM) for 48 hrs. To initiate the melanogenesis, cells in all -MSH groups were cultured in medium containing -MSH (10 nM) for 48 hrs. Cells were treated simultaneously with retinol (5 μM) in the -MSH+retinol group. Instead of retinol, GW9662 (10 μM) was cocultured in the -MSH+GW9662 group. Cells in the final group were cultured in the DMEM with GW9662. All the analyses were carried out 48 hours after treatments. The -MSH was able to increase cell number, melanin production, and the activity of tyrosinase, the limiting enzyme in melanogenesis. These -MSH-induced changes were prevented either by retinol or by GW9662. Further analyses of the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione, catalase, and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed that -MSH treatment raised the activity of SOD which was dependent on PPAR level. According to our results, the -MSH-induced melanogenesis was PPAR dependent, which also modulated the expression of SOD. Jiun-Han Chen, Junn-Liang Chang, Pei-Ru Chen, Yun-Ju Chuang, Shih-Tsang Tang, Shwu-Fen Pan, Tzer-Bin Lin, Kang-Hua Chen, and Mei-Jung Chen Copyright © 2014 Jiun-Han Chen et al. All rights reserved. Research of Ant Colony Optimized Adaptive Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:38:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/239130/ Energy management control strategy of hybrid electric vehicle has a great influence on the vehicle fuel consumption with electric motors adding to the traditional vehicle power system. As vehicle real driving cycles seem to be uncertain, the dynamic driving cycles will have an impact on control strategy’s energy-saving effect. In order to better adapt the dynamic driving cycles, control strategy should have the ability to recognize the real-time driving cycle and adaptively adjust to the corresponding off-line optimal control parameters. In this paper, four types of representative driving cycles are constructed based on the actual vehicle operating data, and a fuzzy driving cycle recognition algorithm is proposed for online recognizing the type of actual driving cycle. Then, based on the equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, an ant colony optimization algorithm is utilized to search the optimal control parameters “charge and discharge equivalent factors” for each type of representative driving cycle. At last, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the accuracy of the proposed fuzzy recognition algorithm and the validity of the designed control strategy optimization method. Linhui Li, Haiyang Huang, Jing Lian, Baozhen Yao, Yafu Zhou, Jing Chang, and Ning’an Zheng Copyright © 2014 Linhui Li et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid on Intestinal Mucosal Mechanical Barrier of Rats with Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Acetic Acid Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:37:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/218383/ In this study, a rat model with acetic acid-induced PI-IBS was used to study the role of HXZQ oral liquid in repairing the colonic epithelial barrier and reducing intestinal permeability. Pathomorphism of colonic tissue, epithelial ultrastructure, DAO activity in serum, and the protein expression of ZO-1 and occludin were examined to investigate protective effect mechanisms of HXZQ on intestinal mucosa barrier and then present experimental support for its use for prevention and cure of PI-IBS. Yao Liu, Wei Liu, Qiu-Xian Peng, Jiang-Li Peng, Lin-Zhong Yu, and Jian-Lan Hu Copyright © 2014 Yao Liu et al. All rights reserved. Genetics of Keratoconus: Where Do We Stand? Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:35:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/641708/ Keratoconus is a progressive thinning and anterior protrusion of the cornea that results in steepening and distortion of the cornea, altered refractive powers, and reduced vision. Keratoconus has a complex multifactorial etiology, with environmental, behavioral, and multiple genetic components contributing to the disease pathophysiology. Using genome-wide and candidate gene approaches several genomic loci and genes have been identified that highlight the complex molecular etiology of this disease. The review focuses on current knowledge of these genetic risk factors associated with keratoconus. Khaled K. Abu-Amero, Abdulrahman M. Al-Muammar, and Altaf A. Kondkar Copyright © 2014 Khaled K. Abu-Amero et al. All rights reserved. Quinolone-Containing Therapies in the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:30:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/151543/ Fluoroquinolones, especially levofloxacin, are used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori worldwide. Many consensus guidelines recommend that the second-line rescue therapy for H. pylori eradication consists of a proton pump inhibitor, a quinolone, and amoxicillin as an option. Unfortunately, quinolone is well associated with a risk of developing bacterial resistance. In this paper, we review quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens and the challenges that influence the efficacy of eradication. It is generally suggested that the use of levofloxacin should be confined to “rescue” therapy only, in order to avoid a further rapid increase in the resistance of H. pylori to quinolone. The impact of quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens on public health issues such as tuberculosis treatment must always be taken into account. Exposure to quinolone is relevant to delays in diagnosing tuberculosis and the development of drug resistance. Extending the duration of treatment to 14 days improves eradication rates by >90%. Tailored therapy to detect fluoroquinolone-resistant strains can be done by culture-based and molecular methods to provide better eradication rates. Molecular methods are achieved by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of a gyrA mutation, which is predictive of treatment failure with quinolones-containing triple therapy. Seng-Kee Chuah, Wei-Chen Tai, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Chih-Ming Liang, and Tsung-Hui Hu Copyright © 2014 Seng-Kee Chuah et al. All rights reserved. Traumatic Penile Injury: From Circumcision Injury to Penile Amputation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:48:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/375285/ The treatment of external genitalia trauma is diverse according to the nature of trauma and injured anatomic site. The classification of trauma is important to establish a strategy of treatment; however, to date there has been less effort to make a classification for trauma of external genitalia. The classification of external trauma in male could be established by the nature of injury mechanism or anatomic site: accidental versus self-mutilation injury and penis versus penis plus scrotum or perineum. Accidental injury covers large portion of external genitalia trauma because of high prevalence and severity of this disease. The aim of this study is to summarize the mechanism and treatment of the traumatic injury of penis. This study is the first review describing the issue. Jae Heon Kim, Jae Young Park, and Yun Seob Song Copyright © 2014 Jae Heon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Data Mining of the Thermal Performance of Cool-Pipes in Massive Concrete via In Situ Monitoring” Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:45:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/608179/ Zheng Zuo, Yu Hu, Qingbin Li, and Liyuan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Zheng Zuo et al. All rights reserved. Continuous Electrical Current and Zinc Sulphate Administered by Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Skin Healing in Diabetic Rats Induced by Alloxan: Morphological and Ultrastructural Analysis Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:44:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2014/980232/ Purpose. Evaluated the effects of continuous electrical current (CEC) or zinc administrated by transdermal iontophoresis (Zn+TDI). Methods. 120 male Wistar rats were submitted to an incision surgery at the anterior region of abdomen and distributed into 6 experimental groups with 40 animals: 3 diabetic groups and 3 normal groups, untreated and treated with CEC alone or with Zn + TDI. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups with 10 rats each to be evaluated on the 4th, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after surgery. In each period, clinical and laboratory parameters from the animals were analyzed. Results. The analysis by optical and scanning electron microscopy showed a delay in the phases of wound healing in diabetic rats without treatment in all periods of the experiment; breaking strength (BS) was significantly reduced in skin scars of untreated diabetic rats when compared to other groups. In contrast, BS in skin scars of nondiabetic groups and diabetic rats treated with Zn + TDI showed significant increase in those, besides not presenting delayed healing. Conclusion. Electrical stimulation of surgical wounds used alone or in association with zinc by TDI is able to consistently improve the morphological and ultrastructural changes observed in the healing of diabetic animals. Lucas Langoni Cassettari, Pedro Colli Rocha Dias, Amanda Natália Lucchesi, Maurício Ferraz de Arruda, Érika Veruska Paiva Ortolan, Mariângela Esther A. Marques, and César Tadeu Spadella Copyright © 2014 Lucas Langoni Cassettari et al. All rights reserved. Workload-Aware and CPU Frequency Scaling for Optimal Energy Consumption in VM Allocation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:42:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/906098/ In the problem of VMs consolidation for cloud energy saving, different workloads will ask for different resources. Thus, considering workload characteristic, the VM placement solution will be more reasonable. In the real world, different workload works in a varied CPU utilization during its work time according to its task characteristics. That means energy consumption related to both the CPU utilization and CPU frequency. Therefore, only using the model of CPU frequency to evaluate energy consumption is insufficient. This paper theoretically verified that there will be a CPU frequency best suit for a certain CPU utilization in order to obtain the minimum energy consumption. According to this deduction, we put forward a heuristic CPU frequency scaling algorithm VP-FS (virtual machine placement with frequency scaling). In order to carry the experiments, we realized three typical greedy algorithms for VMs placement and simulate three groups of VM tasks. Our efforts show that different workloads will affect VMs allocation results. Each group of workload has its most suitable algorithm when considering the minimum used physical machines. And because of the CPU frequency scaling, VP-FS has the best results on the total energy consumption compared with the other three algorithms under any of the three groups of workloads. Zhen Liu, Yongchao Xiang, and Xiaoya Qu Copyright © 2014 Zhen Liu et al. All rights reserved. Violence in Intimate Relationships: A Comparison between Married and Dating Couples Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:42:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcrim/2014/897093/ This study examines the attitudes about intimate violence and compares the prevalence of abuse reported by married and dating participants, by type of abuse and sex of respondent. A sample of 3,716 participants, aged 15 to 67 years, filled in one attitudinal questionnaire and a self-report instrument on abuse perpetration and victimization. Attitudinal data revealed a general disapproval of violence use, with greater violence support among males and married participants. When comparing violence in both relational contexts, we found that, in terms of perpetration, more dating partners reported physical abuse and severe forms of physical abuse than married partners. Suggestions for future research are discussed. Carla Machado, Carla Martins, and Sónia Caridade Copyright © 2014 Carla Machado et al. All rights reserved. Existence of Multiple Solutions for Fourth-Order Elliptic Problem Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:41:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/780989/ By using the variant fountain theorem, we study the existence of multiple solutions for a class of superquadratic fourth-order elliptic problem with Navier boundary value condition. Hua Gu and Tianqing An Copyright © 2014 Hua Gu and Tianqing An. All rights reserved. Niosomes of Ascorbic Acid and α-Tocopherol in the Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Model in Male Rats Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:41:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/816103/ The objective of the present study was to prepare a stable iv injectable formulation of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in preventing the cerebral ischemia. Different niosomal formulations were prepared by Span and Tween mixed with cholesterol. The physicochemical characteristics of niosomal formulations were evaluated in vitro. For in vivo evaluation, the rats were made ischemic by middle cerebral artery occlusion model for 30 min and the selected formulation was used for determining its neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemia. Neuronal damage was evaluated by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The encapsulation efficiency of ascorbic acid was increased to more than 84% by remote loading method. The cholesterol content of the niosomes, the hydrophilicity potential of the encapsulated compounds, and the preparation method of niosomes were the main factors affecting the mean volume diameter of the prepared vesicles. High physical stability of the niosomes prepared from Span 40 and Span 60 was demonstrated due to negligible size change of vesicles during 6 months storage at 4–8°C. In vivo studies showed that ST60/Chol 35 : 35 : 30 niosomes had more neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic injuries in male rats than free ascorbic acid. Jaleh Varshosaz, Somayeh Taymouri, Abbas Pardakhty, Majid Asadi-Shekaari, and Abodolreza Babaee Copyright © 2014 Jaleh Varshosaz et al. All rights reserved. Unraveling the Complex Relationship Triad between Lipids, Obesity, and Inflammation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:41:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/502749/ Obesity today stands at the intersection between inflammation and metabolic disorders causing an aberration of immune activity, and resulting in increased risk for diabetes, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and pulmonary inflammation to name a few. Increases in mortality and morbidity in obesity related inflammation have initiated studies to explore different lipid mediated molecular pathways of attempting resolution that uncover newer therapeutic opportunities of anti-inflammatory components. Majorly the thromboxanes, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, and so forth form the group of lipid mediators influencing inflammation. Of special mention are the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids that regulate inflammatory mediators of interest in hepatocytes and adipocytes via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. They also exhibit profound effects on eicosanoid production. The inflammatory cyclooxygenase pathway arising from arachidonic acid is a critical step in the progression of inflammatory responses. New oxygenated products of omega-3 metabolism, namely, resolvins and protectins, behave as endogenous mediators exhibiting powerful anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory actions via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this review we attempt to discuss the complex pathways and links between obesity and inflammation particularly in relation to different lipid mediators. Shahida A. Khan, Ashraf Ali, Sarah A. Khan, Solafa A. Zahran, Ghazi Damanhouri, Esam Azhar, and Ishtiaq Qadri Copyright © 2014 Shahida A. Khan et al. All rights reserved. Reliability Analysis of the Proportional Mean Residual Life Order Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:40:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/142169/ The concept of mean residual life plays an important role in reliability and life testing. In this paper, we introduce and study a new stochastic order called proportional mean residual life order. Several characterizations and preservation properties of the new order under some reliability operations are discussed. As a consequence, a new class of life distributions is introduced on the basis of the anti-star-shaped property of the mean residual life function. We study some reliability properties and some characterizations of this class and provide some examples of interest in reliability. M. Kayid, S. Izadkhah, and H. Alhalees Copyright © 2014 M. Kayid et al. All rights reserved. The Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve B632 Inhibited the Growth of Enterobacteriaceae within Colicky Infant Microbiota Cultures Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:39:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/301053/ Infant colic is a common gastrointestinal disorder of newborns, mostly related to imbalances in the composition of gut microbiota and particularly to the presence of gas-producing coliforms and to lower levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Probiotics could help to contain this disturbance, with formulations consisting of Lactobacillus strains being the most utilized. In this work, the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium breve B632 that was specifically selected for its ability to inhibit gas-producing coliforms, was challenged against the Enterobacteriaceae within continuous cultures of microbiota from a 2-month-old colicky infant. As confirmed by RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, B. breve B632 persisted in probiotic-supplemented microbiota cultures, accounting for the 64% of Bifidobacteria at the steady state. The probiotic succeeded in inhibiting coliforms, since FISH and qPCR revealed that the amount of Enterobacteriaceae after 18 h of cultivation was 0.42 and 0.44 magnitude orders lower in probiotic-supplemented microbiota cultures than in the control ones. These results support the possibility to move to another level of study, that is, the administration of B. breve B632 to a cohort of colicky newborns, in order to observe the behavior of this strain in vivo and to validate its effect in colic treatment. Marta Simone, Caterina Gozzoli, Andrea Quartieri, Giuseppe Mazzola, Diana Di Gioia, Alberto Amaretti, Stefano Raimondi, and Maddalena Rossi Copyright © 2014 Marta Simone et al. All rights reserved. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:38:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/735413/ Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Marlena Kłak, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Jan Borysowski, and Andrzej Górski Copyright © 2014 Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak et al. All rights reserved. Cortical Source Multivariate EEG Synchronization Analysis on Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment in Type 2 Diabetes Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:38:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/523216/ Is synchronization altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and normal cognitive functions subjects in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)? Resting eye-closed EEG data were recorded in 8 aMCI subjects and 11 age-matched controls in T2DM. Three multivariate synchronization algorithms (-estimator (), synchronization index (SI), and global synchronization index (GSI)) were used to measure the synchronization in five ROIs of sLORETA sources for seven bands. Results showed that aMCI group had lower synchronization values than control groups in parietal delta and beta2 bands, temporal delta and beta2 bands, and occipital theta and beta2 bands significantly. Temporal (; ) and occipital (; ) theta values were significantly positive correlated with Boston Name Testing. In sum, each of methods reflected that the cortical source synchronization was significantly different between aMCI and control group, and these difference correlated with cognitive functions. Dong Cui, Jing Liu, Zhijie Bian, Qiuli Li, Lei Wang, and Xiaoli Li Copyright © 2014 Dong Cui et al. All rights reserved. A Test Data Compression Scheme Based on Irrational Numbers Stored Coding Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:30:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/982728/ Test question has already become an important factor to restrict the development of integrated circuit industry. A new test data compression scheme, namely irrational numbers stored (INS), is presented. To achieve the goal of compress test data efficiently, test data is converted into floating-point numbers, stored in the form of irrational numbers. The algorithm of converting floating-point number to irrational number precisely is given. Experimental results for some ISCAS 89 benchmarks show that the compression effect of proposed scheme is better than the coding methods such as FDR, AARLC, INDC, FAVLC, and VRL. Hai-feng Wu, Yu-sheng Cheng, Wen-fa Zhan, Yi-fei Cheng, Qiong Wu, and Shi-juan Zhu Copyright © 2014 Hai-feng Wu et al. All rights reserved. Free and Forced Vibration Analysis of an Infilled Steel Frame: Experimental, Numerical, and Analytical Methods Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:29:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/439591/ Structural frames with masonry infill panels make up a significant portion of the buildings constructed in earthquake-prone areas prior to the developing of the seismic design standards. In this paper, the effects of masonry panels on the vibration response of an infilled steel-frame building are investigated. Various ambient and steady state forced vibration tests are carried out to realize the dynamic characteristics of the system. 3D finite element models of the building with and without infill panels are provided based on marcomodeling theorem. A set of analytical approximate formulas are also derived to estimate the vibrational period. The natural frequencies of the building are computed using numerical, analytical, and experimental methods. The results show that neglecting the effect of infill panels leads to considerable error. Moreover, it is shown that there is good agreement among the results obtained by the three methods considering the effect of infill panels. Mohammad Amin Hariri-Ardebili, Hamid Rahmani Samani, and Masoud Mirtaheri Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Amin Hariri-Ardebili et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Features and Molecular Analysis of Hb H Disease in Taiwan Thu, 28 Aug 2014 08:28:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/271070/ Thalassemia is highly prevalent in Taiwan, but limited data are available about the association between genotypes and clinical manifestations in Taiwanese patients with Hb H disease. Here, we studied α-globin gene abnormalities and clinical features in Taiwanese patients with Hb H disease. Of the 90 patients, sixty-four (71.1%) were deletional and twenty-six (28.9%) were nondeletional Hb H disease. The () type of -thalassemia mutation was detected in the majority of patients (>95%). The most common genotype was (), followed by (). After further investigation of the genotype-phenotype correlation in 68 patients, we found that patients with nondeletional Hb H disease had more severe clinical features than those with deletional Hb H disease, including younger age at diagnosis, more requirement of blood transfusions, and larger proportion of patients with splenomegaly, hepatomegaly or jaundice. This is probably a consequence of the lower hemoglobin levels and the higher Hb H levels. The clinical severity was highly variable even among patients with an identical genotype, and the diversity was much more profound among patients with () genotype. Therefore, predicting the phenotype directly from the genotype in Hb H disease remains relatively difficult in Taiwan. Yu-Hua Chao, Kang-Hsi Wu, Han-Ping Wu, Su-Ching Liu, Ching-Tien Peng, and Maw-Sheng Lee Copyright © 2014 Yu-Hua Chao et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Study between the Surgeon’s Intraoperative Evaluation and Histopathology for Diagnosis of Laryngeal Lesions Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:33:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/635251/ Objective. To compare the surgeon’s evaluation and histopathology for diagnosis of laryngeal lesions. Material. A clinical survey was distributed to laryngeal surgeons, ENT clinicians, and students in 2013 at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Rostock. Participants were asked to anonymously identify laryngeal pathologies and to assess the severity of the lesion starting from hyperplasia and inflammation over moderate dysplasia to early laryngeal cancer. Images of similar clinical laryngeal lesions were demonstrated in a multiple-choice modus to assess the surgeon’s intraoperative evaluation. The questionnaires were digitally processed and evaluated. The results were correlated with histopathology and compared between experienced laryngeal surgeons, clinicians inexperienced in laryngeal surgery, and medical students from the Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock. Results. Sensitivity and specificity varied among the various groups, being highest in experienced laryngeal surgeons. In this group, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and accuracy were 85%, 56%, 44%, 90%, and 65%, respectively. In 4% and 31%, laryngeal disease was underdiagnosed and overdiagnosed, respectively. In this group, Kappa statistics resulted in Kappa 0.32 (). Conclusion. This clinical survey clearly demonstrates that conformity between histopathology and evaluation of the laryngeal lesion depends on the surgeon’s experience. Benjamin von Stülpnagel, Robert Hagen, Bernhard Olzowy, Gabriele Witt, Hans Wilhelm Pau, and Tino Just Copyright © 2014 Benjamin von Stülpnagel et al. All rights reserved. Noncoding RNAs as Novel Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:21:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/591703/ Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common diagnosed malignant disease in men worldwide. Although serum PSA test dramatically improved the early diagnosis of PCa, it also led to an overdiagnosis and as a consequence to an overtreatment of patients with an indolent disease. New biomarkers for diagnosis, prediction, and monitoring of the disease are needed. These biomarkers would enable the selection of patients with aggressive or progressive disease and, hence, would contribute to the implementation of individualized therapy of the cancer patient. Since the FDA approval of the long noncoding PCA3 RNA-based urine test for the diagnosis of PCa patients, many new noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) associated with PCa have been discovered. According to their size and function, ncRNAs can be divided into small and long ncRNAs. NcRNAs are expressed in (tumor) tissue, but many are also found in circulating tumor cells and in all body fluids as protein-bound or incorporated in extracellular vesicles. In these protected forms they are stable and so they can be easily analyzed, even in archival specimens. In this review, the authors will focus on ncRNAs as novel biomarker candidates for PCa diagnosis, prediction, prognosis, and monitoring of therapeutic response and discuss their potential for an implementation into clinical practice. C. G. H. Rönnau, G. W. Verhaegh, M. V. Luna-Velez, and J. A. Schalken Copyright © 2014 C. G. H. Rönnau et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Response of Ecological Capacity to Land-Use/Cover Change in Wuhan City: A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Approach Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:20:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/794323/ This research examined the spatiotemporal patterns of land-use/cover and the dynamics of ecological capacity in response to land-use/cover change in Wuhan city, central China. The data were derived from five years’ remote-sensed images, that is, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010. This paper used an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS techniques, ecological capacity and the bilateral dynamic degree models. The results are as follows. (1) From 1990 to 2010, remarkable changes in land-use/cover have occurred within the studied area, and the most prominent characteristics of the changes were continuous decline of arable land and rapid increase of built-up land. (2) The total ecological capacity dropped from in 1990 to in 2010. The eastern, western, and southern parts had higher ecological capacity whereas the northwestern hilly areas and the central district had lower ecological capacity. (3) Due to the conversion from arable land to built-up land, the ecological capacity losses during 1990–1995, 1995–2000, 2000–2005, and 2005–2010 were , , , and , respectively. The study would contribute to better understanding of the effects of land-use dynamics and the evolution of ecological capacity, which can provide scientific basis for land management and environment protection. Ying Wang, Xiangmei Li, and Jiangfeng Li Copyright © 2014 Ying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Video Superresolution via Parameter-Optimized Particle Swarm Optimization Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:12:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/373425/ Video superresolution (VSR) aims to reconstruct a high-resolution video sequence from a low-resolution sequence. We propose a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm named as parameter-optimized multiple swarms PSO (POMS-PSO). We assessed the optimization performance of POMS-PSO by four standard benchmark functions. To reconstruct high-resolution video, we build an imaging degradation model. In view of optimization, VSR is converted to an optimization computation problem. And we take POMS-PSO as an optimization method to solve the VSR problem, which overcomes the poor effect, low accuracy, and large calculation cost in other VSR algorithms. The proposed VSR method does not require exact movement estimation and does not need the computation of movement vectors. In terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), sharpness, and entropy, the proposed VSR method based POMS-PSO showed better objective performance. Besides objective standard, experimental results also proved the proposed method could reconstruct high-resolution video sequence with better subjective quality. Yunyi Yan, Yujie He, Yingying Hu, and Baolong Guo Copyright © 2014 Yunyi Yan et al. All rights reserved. From Caristi’s Theorem to Ekeland’s Variational Principle in -Complete Metric-Like Spaces Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:11:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/319619/ We discuss the extension of some fundamental results in nonlinear analysis to the setting of -complete metric-like spaces. Then, we show that these extensions can be obtained via the corresponding results in standard metric spaces. Mohamed Jleli, Bessem Samet, Calogero Vetro, and Francesca Vetro Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Jleli et al. All rights reserved. IoT-Based Smart Garbage System for Efficient Food Waste Management Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:07:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/646953/ Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost issues. Therefore, in this paper, an IoT-based smart garbage system (SGS) is proposed to reduce the amount of food waste. In an SGS, battery-based smart garbage bins (SGBs) exchange information with each other using wireless mesh networks, and a router and server collect and analyze the information for service provisioning. Furthermore, the SGS includes various IoT techniques considering user convenience and increases the battery lifetime through two types of energy-efficient operations of the SGBs: stand-alone operation and cooperation-based operation. The proposed SGS had been operated as a pilot project in Gangnam district, Seoul, Republic of Korea, for a one-year period. The experiment showed that the average amount of food waste could be reduced by 33%. Insung Hong, Sunghoi Park, Beomseok Lee, Jaekeun Lee, Daebeom Jeong, and Sehyun Park Copyright © 2014 Insung Hong et al. All rights reserved. Radiofrequency Thermoablation of HCC Larger Than 3 cm and Less Than 5 cm Proximal to the Gallbladder without Gallbladder Isolation: A Single Center Experience Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:04:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/896527/ Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is an effective minimally invasive treatment for nonsurgical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but ablation of tumors close to the gallbladder could be associated with several complications. We report our experience on the treatment of HCC close to the gallbladder with RFA. Eight RFA procedures were performed in eight patients with HCC larger than 3 cm and less than 5 cm close to the gallbladder. In all cases, a percutaneous approach was used. There were no major complications. Only in two patients a minimal wall thickening of the gallbladder was observed. Contrast enhanced computed tomography carried out after 30 days from the first procedure showed complete necrosis in seven patients (87%). Only one patient had local recurrence at 11 months of followup. Although limited, our experience suggests that, after careful preprocedural planning, in experienced hands and with appropriate technology, percutaneous RFA could be safely performed even for lesions larger than 3 cm located in close adjacency to the gallbladder. Antonio Orlacchio, Fabrizio Chegai, Costantino Del Giudice, Mariangela Massaccesi, Elisa Costanzo, Elena Di Caprera, and Giovanni Simonetti Copyright © 2014 Antonio Orlacchio et al. All rights reserved. A Chaotic Cryptosystem for Images Based on Henon and Arnold Cat Map Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:01:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/536930/ The rapid evolution of imaging and communication technologies has transformed images into a widespread data type. Different types of data, such as personal medical information, official correspondence, or governmental and military documents, are saved and transmitted in the form of images over public networks. Hence, a fast and secure cryptosystem is needed for high-resolution images. In this paper, a novel encryption scheme is presented for securing images based on Arnold cat and Henon chaotic maps. The scheme uses Arnold cat map for bit- and pixel-level permutations on plain and secret images, while Henon map creates secret images and specific parameters for the permutations. Both the encryption and decryption processes are explained, formulated, and graphically presented. The results of security analysis of five different images demonstrate the strength of the proposed cryptosystem against statistical, brute force and differential attacks. The evaluated running time for both encryption and decryption processes guarantee that the cryptosystem can work effectively in real-time applications. Ali Soleymani, Md Jan Nordin, and Elankovan Sundararajan Copyright © 2014 Ali Soleymani et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine for Cancer Patients 2014 Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:47:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/326179/ Thomas Efferth, Sookyung Lee, Yoshiharu Motoo, and Sven Schröder Copyright © 2014 Thomas Efferth et al. All rights reserved. A New Wavelet Method for Solving a Class of Nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm Integral Equations Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:35:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/975985/ A new approach, Coiflet-type wavelet Galerkin method, is proposed for numerically solving the Volterra-Fredholm integral equations. Based on the Coiflet-type wavelet approximation scheme, arbitrary nonlinear term of the unknown function in an equation can be explicitly expressed. By incorporating such a modified wavelet approximation scheme into the conventional Galerkin method, the nonsingular property of the connection coefficients significantly reduces the computational complexity and achieves high precision in a very simple way. Thus, one can obtain a stable, highly accurate, and efficient numerical method without calculating the connection coefficients in traditional Galerkin method for solving the nonlinear algebraic equations. At last, numerical simulations are performed to show the efficiency of the method proposed. Xiaomin Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaomin Wang. All rights reserved. Handling Fault Diagnosis Problem of Linear-Analogue Circuits with Voltage Phasor Measurement Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:34:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/879402/ This paper proposes a novel method to estimate the influence of hard-fault in linear-analogue circuit system based on the measurement of voltage phasor with assistant branch introduced. Furthermore, a new fault diagnosis strategy based on the voltage phasor modeling is established, and the tolerance influence on the corresponding voltage measurement is also discussed. The actual analogue circuit test shows us that the proposed method is effective and reliable to locate the accurate fault signature in voltage measurement for the fault diagnosis. As a matter of fact, it includes both the amplitude and phase information in a complex value form when the linear-analogue circuit is under the AC test. Besides, it can be also applied to ambiguous groups and the sensitive test-frequencies determination in the process of fault diagnosis,while the effectiveness of multifrequencies test has also been testified through test-frequencies sweeping investigation and the maximum error evaluation of fault component value in the second circuit example. Xin Gao, HouJun Wang, and Zhen Liu Copyright © 2014 Xin Gao et al. All rights reserved. On Power Idealization Filter Topologies of Lattice Implication Algebras Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:33:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/812145/ The aim of this paper is to introduce power idealization filter topologies with respect to filter topologies and power ideals of lattice implication algebras, and to investigate some properties of power idealization filter topological spaces and their quotient spaces. Shi-Zhong Bai and Xiu-Yun Wu Copyright © 2014 Shi-Zhong Bai and Xiu-Yun Wu. All rights reserved. On Distribution Reduction and Algorithm Implementation in Inconsistent Ordered Information Systems Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/307468/ As one part of our work in ordered information systems, distribution reduction is studied in inconsistent ordered information systems (OISs). Some important properties on distribution reduction are studied and discussed. The dominance matrix is restated for reduction acquisition in dominance relations based information systems. Matrix algorithm for distribution reduction acquisition is stepped. And program is implemented by the algorithm. The approach provides an effective tool for the theoretical research and the applications for ordered information systems in practices. For more detailed and valid illustrations, cases are employed to explain and verify the algorithm and the program which shows the effectiveness of the algorithm in complicated information systems. Yanqin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yanqin Zhang. All rights reserved. A New Look at the Coefficients of a Reciprocal Generating Function Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:33:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/613947/ We study a special property of free cumulants. We prove that coefficients of a reciprocal generating function correspond to “free cumulants with the first two elements in the same block.” Wiktor Ejsmont Copyright © 2014 Wiktor Ejsmont. All rights reserved. Adjusting Control Packet Transmission Intervals in Low Power Sensor Systems Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:32:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/139682/ In order to construct an efficient wireless sensor system, it is necessary to increase the lifetime of its battery-operated sensor nodes. To this end, a wireless body sensor system adopts a transmission power control (TPC) mechanism. However, existing TPC mechanisms adjust the transmission power level (TPL) according to the received signal strength indication (RSSI) value of the most recently received data packet. Therefore, they do not effectively cope with dynamically changing wireless body channel environments. In particular, when a wireless channel is unstable, changes in the TPL should be avoided to prevent energy consumption due to unnecessary transmission and reception of control packets. Accordingly, this paper proposes a new TPC mechanism that adaptively changes the control packet transmission interval on the basis of the current channel condition. Further, actual sensors are used to experimentally verify that the proposed mechanism (1) performs well in all channel environments and (2) facilitates the construction of an efficient wireless body sensor system. Gangman Yi, Daeun Yu, and Namgi Kim Copyright © 2014 Gangman Yi et al. All rights reserved. Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Neonatal Mice Induces Changes in the Adulthood in the Immune Response to Taenia crassiceps without Modifications of Parasite Loads Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/498681/ Industrial growth has increased the exposition to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDC’s), which are exogenous agents with agonist or antagonist action of endogenous steroid hormones that may affect the course of parasite infections. We wanted to determine if the exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, to both male and female mice affected the immune response and their susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. In all infected groups, females showed higher parasite loads than males, and neonatal DES administration did not modify this pattern. In the spleen, noninfected mice showed sex-related differences in the percentage of the CD8+ subpopulation, but DES decreased the percentage of CD3+, CD19+, and CD8+ subpopulations in infected mice. In the mesenteric lymphatic node (MNL), DES showed a dimorphic effect in the percentage of CD19+ cells. Regarding estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) expression, DES treatment induced a reduction in the expression of this receptor in both noninfected female and male mice in the spleen, which was decreased only in males in CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in MNL cell subpopulations. Our study is the first one to demonstrate that DES neonatal treatment in male and female mice affects the immune cell percentage, without effect on the susceptibility to T. crassiceps cysticercosis. Karen E. Nava-Castro, Jorge Morales-Montor, Alejandra Ortega-Hernando, and Ignacio Camacho-Arroyo Copyright © 2014 Karen E. Nava-Castro et al. All rights reserved. Analysis and Simulation of the Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Based on Parallel Immune Optimization in Cognitive Wireless Networks Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:31:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/623670/ Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency. Wu Huixin, Mo Duo, and Li He Copyright © 2014 Wu Huixin et al. All rights reserved. Approximate Sparsity and Nonlocal Total Variation Based Compressive MR Image Reconstruction Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:31:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/137616/ Recent developments in compressive sensing (CS) show that it is possible to accurately reconstruct the magnetic resonance (MR) image from undersampled -space data by solving nonsmooth convex optimization problems, which therefore significantly reduce the scanning time. In this paper, we propose a new MR image reconstruction method based on a compound regularization model associated with the nonlocal total variation (NLTV) and the wavelet approximate sparsity. Nonlocal total variation can restore periodic textures and local geometric information better than total variation. The wavelet approximate sparsity achieves more accurate sparse reconstruction than fixed wavelet and norm. Furthermore, a variable splitting and augmented Lagrangian algorithm is presented to solve the proposed minimization problem. Experimental results on MR image reconstruction demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms many existing MR image reconstruction methods both in quantitative and in visual quality assessment. Chengzhi Deng, Shengqian Wang, Wei Tian, Zhaoming Wu, and Saifeng Hu Copyright © 2014 Chengzhi Deng et al. All rights reserved. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:30:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/452362/ Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation. Anitha Vijaya Kumar and Akilandeswari Jeyapal Copyright © 2014 Anitha Vijaya Kumar and Akilandeswari Jeyapal. All rights reserved. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:29:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/615927/ A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1) the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2) under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3) the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors. Dongdong Zhang, Yaxin Huang, Qilin Zhao, Fei Li, Feng Li, and Yifeng Gao Copyright © 2014 Dongdong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Low Complexity Mode Decision for 3D-HEVC Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:29:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/392505/ High efficiency video coding- (HEVC-) based 3D video coding (3D-HEVC) developed by joint collaborative team on 3D video coding (JCT-3V) for multiview video and depth map is an extension of HEVC standard. In the test model of 3D-HEVC, variable coding unit (CU) size decision and disparity estimation (DE) are introduced to achieve the highest coding efficiency with the cost of very high computational complexity. In this paper, a fast mode decision algorithm based on variable size CU and DE is proposed to reduce 3D-HEVC computational complexity. The basic idea of the method is to utilize the correlations between depth map and motion activity in prediction mode where variable size CU and DE are needed, and only in these regions variable size CU and DE are enabled. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can save about 43% average computational complexity of 3D-HEVC while maintaining almost the same rate-distortion (RD) performance. Qiuwen Zhang, Nana Li, and Yong Gan Copyright © 2014 Qiuwen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Study of Natural Supercavitation Influenced by Rheological Properties of Turbulent Drag-Reducing Additives Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:27:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/275316/ Natural supercavitations in water and turbulent drag-reducing solution were numerically simulated using unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) scheme with mixture-multiphase model. The Cross viscosity equation was adopted to represent the fluid property of aqueous solution of drag-reducing additives. The characteristics of natural supercavity configuration and overall resistance of the navigating body were presented, respectively. The numerical simulation results indicated that, at the same cavitation number, the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient of navigating body in solution is smaller than that in water; the surface tension plays an important role in incepting and maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation, drag reduction, and decrease of turbulent vortex structures. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the available experimental data. Chen-Xing Jiang and Feng-Chen Li Copyright © 2014 Chen-Xing Jiang and Feng-Chen Li. All rights reserved. Dynamic of the Cellular Immune Response at the Dermal Site of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and Leishmania (V.) braziliensis Infection in Sapajus apella Primate Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:26:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/134236/ The purpose of this study was to characterize the immunopathological response in the skin of S. apella infected with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis parasites, the main causative agents of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis in South America. In infected animals, amastigote forms of L. (L.) amazonensis could be detected till 120 days postinfection (PI), while, in L. (V.) braziliensis infection, parasites could be detected until 180 days PI in the skin sections. CD20+ cells were detected throughout the experimental time in both groups as well as in CD3+ cells, which appeared to be activated because high densities of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS+) cells were detected at 60 and 90 days PI in both studied groups. After 60 and 120 days PI, decrease in iNOS+ cells was observed in L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis, respectively, which was associated with parasite clearance. Increase in lysozyme+ cells was observed during the experimental infections, which also can be associated with parasite killing. Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Luiz Felipe Domingues Passero, Thaise Yumie Tomokane, Fernanda de Camargo Francesquini, Mussya Cisotto Rocha, Claudia Maria de Castro Gomes, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett, and Fernando Tobias Silveira Copyright © 2014 Márcia Dalastra Laurenti et al. All rights reserved. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:25:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/579054/ Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5 mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. Xiong Wang, Li Ma, En-jing Zhang, Ji-li Zou, Hao Guo, Si-wei Peng, and Jin-hu Wu Copyright © 2014 Xiong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Extracts from Vatica diospyroides Type SS Fruit Show Low Dose Activity against MDA-MB-468 Breast Cancer Cell-Line via Apoptotic Action Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:23:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/479602/ Very strong antiproliferative action of V. diospyroides type SS fruit extracts (IC50 range of 1.60-17.45 µg/mL) in MDA-MB-468 cell-line was observed in an MTT assay. After dosing of an extract concentration at half IC50 to cell line for 24 to 72 hours, treated cells were subjected to Annexin V-FITC/PI binding assay, followed by FACS and western blot analyses. Significant apoptotic death was observed with all extract treatments and both exposure times. Dosing with acetone extract of pericarp and cotyledon induced the highest apoptotic populations (33 and 32%, resp.), with the lowest populations of viable cells (65 and 67%, resp.). During 24 to 72 hours of dosing with methanolic extract of pericarp, the populations of viable and early apoptotic cells decreased significantly from 72.40 to 71.32% and from 12.00 to 6.36%, respectively, while the late apoptotic and nonviable cell populations continuously increased from 15.30 to 19.18% and from 0.30 to 3.14%, respectively. The expression of Bax increased within 12–48 hours of dosing, confirming apoptosis induced by time-dependent responses. The mutant p53 of MDA-MB-468 cells was expressed. Our results indicate that apoptosis and time-dependent therapeutic actions contribute to the cytotoxic effects of V. diospyroides type SS fruit on MDA-MB-468 cell. Theera Srisawat, Yaowapa Sukpondma, Siriphon Chimplee, Kanyanatt Kanokwiroon, Aman Tedasen, and Potchanapond Graidist Copyright © 2014 Theera Srisawat et al. All rights reserved. Color Image Authentication and Recovery via Adaptive Encoding Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:23:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/350753/ We describe an authentication and recovery scheme for color image protection based on adaptive encoding. The image blocks are categorized based on their contents and different encoding schemes are applied according to their types. Such adaptive encoding results in better image quality and more robust image authentication. The approximations of the luminance and chromatic channels are carefully calculated, and for the purpose of reducing the data size, differential coding is used to encode the channels with variable size according to the characteristic of the block. The recovery data which represents the approximation and the detail of the image is embedded for data protection. The necessary data is well protected by using error correcting coding and duplication. The experimental results demonstrate that our technique is able to identify and localize image tampering, while preserving high quality for both watermarked and recovered images. Chun-Hung Chen, Yuan-Liang Tang, and Wen-Shyong Hsieh Copyright © 2014 Chun-Hung Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica Derived Fiber for Weight Management Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:05:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/943713/ Sedentary lifestyle and caloric overconsumption are the key determinants of the escalating obesity prevalence. Reducing dietary fat absorption may help to induce a negative energy balance and thus help in managing weight problem. Apart from approved drug therapies, weight problems may also be aided with alternative and natural treatments. This paper compiled and reviewed the efficacy and safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) derived fiber, in reducing dietary fat absorption and promoting weight loss. Evidence reviewed shows that Litramine IQP-G-002AS displays efficacy in promoting fat excretion and weight loss in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies (including an unpublished pilot study). With a daily dosage of 3 g over a seven-day period, Litramine IQP-G-002AS showed an increased faecal fat excretion compared with placebo (15.8% (SD 5.8%) versus 4.6% (SD 3.1%); P < 0.001). In a 12-week study, significant greater weight loss (3.8 kg (SD 1.8 kg) versus 1.4 kg (SD 2.6 kg); P < 0.001) was observed in overweight and obese subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-002AS as compared to placebo. No relevant gastrointestinal side effects have been reported for Litramine IQP-G-002AS at the dosages studied. Pee-Win Chong, Kai-Zhia Lau, Joerg Gruenwald, and Ralf Uebelhack Copyright © 2014 Pee-Win Chong et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Studies of Covering Rough Set Models Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:03:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/502724/ Many different proposals exist for the definition of lower and upper approximation operators in covering-based rough sets and so many different covering rough set models are built correspondingly. It is meaningful to explore the connection of these covering rough set models for their applications in practice. In this paper, we establish relationships between the most commonly used operators in covering rough set models. We investigate the conditions under which two types of upper approximation operations are identical. Zhaohao Wang Copyright © 2014 Zhaohao Wang. All rights reserved. Nucleophilic Addition of Reactive Dyes on Amidoximated Acrylic Fabrics Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:02:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/305930/ Seven reactive dyes judiciously selected based on chemical structures and fixation mechanisms were applied at 2% owf of shade on amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Amidoximated acrylic fabric has been obtained by a viable amidoximation process. The dyeability of these fabrics was evaluated with respect to the dye exhaustion, fixation, and colour strength under different conditions of temperature and dyeing time. Nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes show higher colour data compared to nucleophilic substitution ones. FTIR studies further implicate the binding of reactive dyes on these fabrics. A tentative mechanism is proposed to rationalize the high fixation yield obtained using nucleophilic addition type reactive dyes. Also, the levelling and fastness properties were evaluated for all dyes used. Excellent to good fastness and levelling properties were obtained for all samples irrespective of the dye used. The result of investigation offers a new method for a viable reactive dyeing of amidoximated acrylic fabrics. Reda M. El-Shishtawy, Manal M. El-Zawahry, Fatma Abdelghaffar, and Nahed S. E. Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Reda M. El-Shishtawy et al. All rights reserved. Amino Acid Sequence and Structural Comparison of BACE1 and BACE2 Using Evolutionary Trace Method Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:59:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/482463/ Beta-amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) and beta-amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 2 (BACE2), members of aspartyl protease family, are close homologues and have high similarity in their protein crystal structures. However, their enzymatic properties differ leading to disparate clinical consequences. In order to identify the residues that are responsible for such differences, we used evolutionary trace (ET) method to compare the amino acid conservation patterns of BACE1 and BACE2 in several mammalian species. We found that, in BACE1 and BACE2 structures, most of the ligand binding sites are conserved which indicate their enzymatic property of aspartyl protease family members. The other conserved residues are more or less randomly localized in other parts of the structures. Four group-specific residues were identified at the ligand binding site of BACE1 and BACE2. We postulated that these residues would be essential for selectivity of BACE1 and BACE2 biological functions and could be sites of interest for the design of selective inhibitors targeting either BACE1 or BACE2. Hoda Mirsafian, Adiratna Mat Ripen, Amir Feisal Merican, and Saharuddin Bin Mohamad Copyright © 2014 Hoda Mirsafian et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison Study of Portable Foot-to-Foot Bioelectrical Impedance Scale to Measure Body Fat Percentage in Asian Adults and Children Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:57:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/475659/ Objective. To compare the measurements of body fat percentage (BF%) using the foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (FTF-BIA) with the direct segmental multifrequency BIA (DSM-BIA). Methods. There were 36 men and 52 women ( years) with 57% Malays, 30% Chinese, and 13% Indian. For children, there were 45 boys and 26 girls ( years) with 52% Malay, 15% Chinese, and 33% Indian. Results. Mean height for men was 168.4 cm, 11 cm taller than women. Men were 10 kg heavier than women at 70 kg. BF% in women was 32% and 33% whereas BF% in men was 23% and 25% when measured using FTF-BIA and DSM-BIA, respectively. In children, BF% measured with FTF-BIA and DSM-BIA was 49% and 46%, respectively. The correlations were significant for men (, SEE = 2.80), women (, SEE = 3.31), boys (, SEE = 5.44), and girls (, SEE = 5.27). The BF% in underweight/normal (, SEE = 2.47) and that in overweight/obese adults (, SEE = 3.61) were strongly correlated. The correlations were significant in normal/underweight (, SEE = 3.78) and obese/overweight children (, SEE = 6.49). All ethnic groups showed significant correlation with BF%. Malay adults (, SEE = 3.27) and children (, SEE = 0.88) showed significant mean differences in BF%. Conclusion. The FTF-BIA showed higher accuracy for all normal/underweight and Chinese group with acceptable overestimation in children and underestimation in adults. Caution should be taken when interpreting BF% depending on gender, BMI, and ethnicity. Pei Ying Sim, Tin Tin Su, Hazreen Abd Majid, Azmi Mohamed Nahar, and Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin Copyright © 2014 Pei Ying Sim et al. All rights reserved. Comparisons of Hydraulic Performance in Permanent Maglev Pump for Water-Jet Propulsion Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:56:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/438176/ The operation of water-jet propulsion can generate nonuniform inflow that may be detrimental to the performance of the water-jets. To reduce disadvantages of the nonuniform inflow, a rim-driven water-jet propulsion was designed depending on the technology of passive magnetic levitation. Insufficient understanding of large performance deviations between the normal water-jets (shaft) and permanent maglev water-jets (shaftless) is a major problem in this paper. CFD was directly adopted in the feasibility and superiority of permanent maglev water-jets. Comparison and discussion of the hydraulic performance were carried out. The shaftless duct firstly has a drop in hydraulic losses (), since it effectively avoids the formation and evolution of the instability secondary vortex by the normalized helicity analysis. Then, the shaftless intake duct improves the inflow field of the water-jet pump, with consequencing the drop in the backflow and blocking on the blade shroud. So that the shaftless water-jet pump delivers higher flow rate and head to the propulsion than the shaft. Eventually, not only can the shaftless model increase the thrust and efficiency, but it has the ability to extend the working range and broaden the high efficiency region as well. Puyu Cao, Yang Wang, K. X. Qian, and Guidong Li Copyright © 2014 Puyu Cao et al. All rights reserved. Characterizations of MV-Algebras Based on the Theory of Falling Shadows Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/951796/ Based on the falling shadow theory, the concept of falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals as a generalization of that of a -fuzzy (implicative) ideal is proposed in MV-algebras. The relationships between falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals and -fuzzy (implicative) ideals are discussed, and conditions for a falling fuzzy (implicative) ideal to be a -fuzzy (implicative) ideal are provided. Some characterizations of falling fuzzy (implicative) ideals are presented by studying proprieties of them. The product and the up product operations on falling shadows and the upset of a falling shadow are established, by which -fuzzy ideals are investigated based on probability spaces. Yongwei Yang, Xiaolong Xin, and Pengfei He Copyright © 2014 Yongwei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Spillways Scheduling for Flood Control of Three Gorges Reservoir Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:53:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/921767/ This study proposes a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize the spillways scheduling for reservoir flood control. Unlike the conventional reservoir operation model, the proposed MILP model specifies the spillways status (including the number of spillways to be open and the degree of the spillway opened) instead of reservoir release, since the release is actually controlled by using the spillway. The piecewise linear approximation is used to formulate the relationship between the reservoir storage and water release for a spillway, which should be open/closed with a status depicted by a binary variable. The control order and symmetry rules of spillways are described and incorporated into the constraints for meeting the practical demand. Thus, a MILP model is set up to minimize the maximum reservoir storage. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) and IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio (CPLEX) software are used to find the optimal solution for the proposed MILP model. The China’s Three Gorges Reservoir, whose spillways are of five types with the total number of 80, is selected as the case study. It is shown that the proposed model decreases the flood risk compared with the conventional operation and makes the operation more practical by specifying the spillways status directly. Maoyuan Feng and Pan Liu Copyright © 2014 Maoyuan Feng and Pan Liu. All rights reserved. On the Maximum Estrada Index of 3-Uniform Linear Hypertrees Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:52:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/637865/ For a simple hypergraph on vertices, its Estrada index is defined as , where are the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. In this paper, we determine the unique 3-uniform linear hypertree with the maximum Estrada index. Faxu Li, Liang Wei, Jinde Cao, Feng Hu, and Haixing Zhao Copyright © 2014 Faxu Li et al. All rights reserved. Explore the Most Potential Supplier’s Selection Determinants in Modern Supply Chain Management Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:51:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/390878/ To increment the research reliability, validity, and representativeness, this study creatively cross-employed the factor analysis (FA) and the grey relational analysis (GRA) methods. The results of the 144 fully completed questionnaires are analyzed by FA and then these results were utilized in second questionnaires design of 15 experts. Furthermore, the results of these second questionnaires were further analyzed by GRA in order to explore the most potential supplier’s selection determinants in the modern supply chain management (MSCM). Beyond a series of measurements, the measured results have induced three contributive findings: (1) the empirical interviewed industrialists reported concern that suppliers have to provide a higher material yield rate and material delivery on time rate for the qualitative increment as well as a higher supplier’s gross margin ROI for the financial stabilization in MSCM; (2) the 15 experts concluded that material insurance rate is an important attribute to estimate risky assessments and the supplier’s gross margin ROI and warehouse operations cost as a percentage of sales are critical elements in the financial evaluations of potential suppliers; and (3) Supplier’s gross margin ROI, outbound freight cost as a percentage of sales, and material insurance rate are the three most decisive determinants in MSCM. Ming-Yuan Hsieh, Tung-Ming Yan, Chih-Cheng Huang, and Chuen-Jiuan Jane Copyright © 2014 Ming-Yuan Hsieh et al. All rights reserved. Energy-Aware Real-Time Task Scheduling for Heterogeneous Multiprocessors with Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:50:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/287475/ Energy consumption in computer systems has become a more and more important issue. High energy consumption has already damaged the environment to some extent, especially in heterogeneous multiprocessors. In this paper, we first formulate and describe the energy-aware real-time task scheduling problem in heterogeneous multiprocessors. Then we propose a particle swarm optimization (PSO) based algorithm, which can successfully reduce the energy cost and the time for searching feasible solutions. Experimental results show that the PSO-based energy-aware metaheuristic uses 40%–50% less energy than the GA-based and SFLA-based algorithms and spends 10% less time than the SFLA-based algorithm in finding the solutions. Besides, it can also find 19% more feasible solutions than the SFLA-based algorithm. Weizhe Zhang, Hucheng Xie, Boran Cao, and Albert M. K. Cheng Copyright © 2014 Weizhe Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Analysis of an Epidemic-Species Hybrid Dynamical System Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:40:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/810312/ We consider an epidemic-species hybrid dynamical system. The disease is spread among the prey only and the infected prey can reproduce virus. The predator only eats the infected prey. Mathematical analyses are given for the system with regard to the existence of equilibria, local stability, Hopf bifurcation, and the orbital stability of the Hopf bifurcating limit cycle. We further analyse the system under impulsive releasing of virus and predator. Jing Hui, Jian-Hua Pang, and Dong-Rong Lin Copyright © 2014 Jing Hui et al. All rights reserved. Global Stabilization of High-Order Time-Delay Nonlinear Systems under a Weaker Condition Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:28:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/931520/ Under the weaker condition on the system growth, this paper further investigates the problem of global stabilization by state feedback for a class of high-order nonlinear systems with time-varying delays. By skillfully using the homogeneous domination approach, a continuous state feedback controller is successfully designed, which preserves the equilibrium at the origin and guarantees the global asymptotic stability of the resulting closed-loop system. A simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design procedure. Nengwei Zhang, Enbin Zhang, and Fangzheng Gao Copyright © 2014 Nengwei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics, Operator Theory, and Infinite Holomorphy Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:27:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/690542/ Alfred Peris, Manuel Maestre, Miguel Martín, and Yun Sung Choi Copyright © 2014 Alfred Peris et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Based on Uncertainty and Disturbance Estimator Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:27:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/982101/ This paper presents an original adaptive sliding mode control strategy for a class of nonlinear systems on the basis of uncertainty and disturbance estimator. The nonlinear systems can be with parametric uncertainties as well as unmatched uncertainties and external disturbances. The novel adaptive sliding mode control has several advantages over traditional sliding mode control method. Firstly, discontinuous sign function does not exist in the proposed adaptive sliding mode controller, and it is not replaced by saturation function or similar approximation functions as well. Therefore, chattering is avoided in essence, and the chattering avoidance is not at the cost of reducing the robustness of the closed-loop systems. Secondly, the uncertainties do not need to satisfy matching condition and the bounds of uncertainties are not required to be unknown. Thirdly, it is proved that the closed-loop systems have robustness to parameter uncertainties as well as unmatched model uncertainties and external disturbances. The robust stability is analyzed from a second-order linear time invariant system to a nonlinear system gradually. Simulation on a pendulum system with motor dynamics verifies the effectiveness of the proposed method. Yue Zhu and Sihong Zhu Copyright © 2014 Yue Zhu and Sihong Zhu. All rights reserved. Emerging Anticancer Potentials of Goniothalamin and Its Molecular Mechanisms Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:25:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/536508/ The treatment of most cancers is still inadequate, despite tremendous steady progress in drug discovery and effective prevention. Nature is an attractive source of new therapeutics. Several medicinal plants and their biomarkers have been widely used for the treatment of cancer with less known scientific basis of their functioning. Although a wide array of plant derived active metabolites play a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer, more extensive scientific evaluation of their mechanisms is still required. Styryl-lactones are a group of secondary metabolites ubiquitous in the genus Goniothalamus that have demonstrated to possess antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. A large body of evidence suggests that this activity is associated with the induction of apoptosis in target cells. In an effort to promote further research on the genus Goniothalamus, this review offers a broad analysis of the current knowledge on Goniothalamin (GTN) or 5, 6, dihydro-6-styryl-2-pyronone (C13H12O2), a natural occurring styryl-lactone. Therefore, it includes (i) the source of GTN and other metabolites; (ii) isolation, purification, and (iii) the molecular mechanisms of actions of GTN, especially the anticancer properties, and summarizes the role of GTN which is crucial for drug design, development, and application in future for well-being of humans. Mohamed Ali Seyed, Ibrahim Jantan, and Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Ali Seyed et al. All rights reserved. Fast SAR Image Change Detection Using Bayesian Approach Based Difference Image and Modified Statistical Region Merging Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:25:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/862875/ A novel fast SAR image change detection method is presented in this paper. Based on a Bayesian approach, the prior information that speckles follow the Nakagami distribution is incorporated into the difference image (DI) generation process. The new DI performs much better than the familiar log ratio (LR) DI as well as the cumulant based Kullback-Leibler divergence (CKLD) DI. The statistical region merging (SRM) approach is first introduced to change detection context. A new clustering procedure with the region variance as the statistical inference variable is exhibited to tailor SAR image change detection purposes, with only two classes in the final map, the unchanged and changed classes. The most prominent advantages of the proposed modified SRM (MSRM) method are the ability to cope with noise corruption and the quick implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed method is superior in both the change detection accuracy and the operation efficiency. Han Zhang, Weiping Ni, Weidong Yan, Hui Bian, and Junzheng Wu Copyright © 2014 Han Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Sinusoidal Generator with π/4-Shifted Four/Eight Voltage Outputs Employing Four Grounded Components and Two/Six Active Elements Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:21:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apec/2014/480590/ This paper presents a new circuit proposal for multiphase sine-wave generation, employing two active elements and four grounded passive elements. The proposed oscillator provides four 45° phase-shifted voltage outputs. Incorporation of additional inverters for generation of eight-phase outputs is further shown. Simultaneous current outputs can also be generated with additional output stages. The compact circuit structure is studied for nonideal and parasitic effects and simulation results are given, which are in good agreement with the theory. The utility of the proposal for π/4-QPSK generation is explored as an interesting application example with supporting results. Sudhanshu Maheshwari Copyright © 2014 Sudhanshu Maheshwari. All rights reserved. Angiotensin II Removes Kidney Resistance Conferred by Ischemic Preconditioning Thu, 28 Aug 2014 05:10:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/602149/ Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) renders resistance to the kidney. Strong IPC triggers kidney fibrosis, which is involved in angiotensin II (AngII) and its type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling. Here, we investigated the role of AngII/AT1R signal pathway in the resistance of IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R injury. IPC of kidneys was generated by 30 minutes of bilateral renal ischemia and 8 days of reperfusion. Sham-operation was performed to generate control (non-IPC) mice. To examine the roles of AngII and AT1R in IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R, IPC kidneys were subjected to either 30 minutes of bilateral kidney ischemia or sham-operation following treatment with AngII, losartan (AT1R blocker), or AngII plus losartan. IPC kidneys showed fibrotic changes, decreased AngII, and increased AT1R expression. I/R dramatically increased plasma creatinine concentrations in non-IPC mice, but not in IPC mice. AngII treatment in IPC mice resulted in enhanced morphological damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses, with functional impairment, whereas losartan treatment reversed these effects. However, AngII treatment in non-IPC mice did not change I/R-induced injury. AngII abolished the resistance of IPC kidneys to subsequent I/R via the enhancement of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, suggesting that the AngII/AT1R signaling pathway is associated with outcome in injury-experienced kidney. Hee-Seong Jang, Jee In Kim, Jinu Kim, Jeen-Woo Park, and Kwon Moo Park Copyright © 2014 Hee-Seong Jang et al. All rights reserved. Human Locomotion under Reduced Gravity Conditions: Biomechanical and Neurophysiological Considerations Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/547242/ Reduced gravity offers unique opportunities to study motor behavior. This paper aims at providing a review on current issues of the known tools and techniques used for hypogravity simulation and their effects on human locomotion. Walking and running rely on the limb oscillatory mechanics, and one way to change its dynamic properties is to modify the level of gravity. Gravity has a strong effect on the optimal rate of limb oscillations, optimal walking speed, and muscle activity patterns, and gait transitions occur smoothly and at slower speeds at lower gravity levels. Altered center of mass movements and interplay between stance and swing leg dynamics may challenge new forms of locomotion in a heterogravity environment. Furthermore, observations in the lack of gravity effects help to reveal the intrinsic properties of locomotor pattern generators and make evident facilitation of nonvoluntary limb stepping. In view of that, space neurosciences research has participated in the development of new technologies that can be used as an effective tool for gait rehabilitation. Francesca Sylos-Labini, Francesco Lacquaniti, and Yuri P. Ivanenko Copyright © 2014 Francesca Sylos-Labini et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Quantification of Human and Animal Viruses to Differentiate the Origin of the Fecal Contamination Present in Environmental Samples” Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/675857/ Sílvia Bofill-Mas, Marta Rusiñol, Xavier Fernandez-Cassi, Anna Carratalà, Ayalkibet Hundesa, and Rosina Girones Copyright © 2014 Sílvia Bofill-Mas et al. All rights reserved. Arthroscopic Fixation of Cell Free Polymer-Based Cartilage Implants with a Bioinspired Polymer Surface on the Hip Joint: A Cadaveric Pilot Study Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/717912/ This study investigates the adhesion capacity of a polyglycolic acid- (PGA-) hyaluronan scaffold with a structural modification based on a planar polymer (PM) surface in a cadaver cartilage defect model. Two cadaver specimens were used to serially test multiple chondral matrices. In a cadaver hip model, cell free polymer-based cartilage implants with a planar bioinspired PM surface (PGA-PM-scaffolds) were implanted arthroscopically on 10 mm × 15 mm full-thickness femoral hip cartilage lesions. Unprocessed cartilage implants without a bioinspired PM surface were used as control group. The cartilage implants were fixed without and with the use of fibrin glue on femoral hip cartilage defects. After 50 movement cycles and removal of the distraction, a rearthroscopy was performed to assess the outline attachment and integrity of the scaffold. The fixation techniques without and with fibrin fixation showed marginal differences for outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation after 50 cycles. The PGA-PM-scaffolds with fibrin fixation achieved a higher score in terms of the attachment, integrity, and endpoint fixation than the PGA-scaffold on the cartilage defect. Relating to the outline attachment, area coverage, scaffold integrity, and endpoint fixation, the fixation with PGA-PM-scaffolds accomplished significantly better results compared to the PGA-scaffolds . PGA-PM-scaffolds demonstrate increased observed initial fixation strength in cadaver femoral head defects relative to PGA-scaffold, particularly when fibrin glue is used for fixation. Matthias Lahner, Christian Duif, Andreas Ficklscherer, Christian Kaps, Lukas Kalwa, and Tobias Seidl Copyright © 2014 Matthias Lahner et al. All rights reserved. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/918536/ Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo’s two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. Zhou Jingjing, Cheng Di, Wang Weiming, Jin Rong, and Wu Xiaochun Copyright © 2014 Zhou Jingjing et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Inverse Optimal Control for Rehabilitation Robot Systems Using Actor-Critic Algorithm Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/285248/ The higher goal of rehabilitation robot is to aid a person to achieve a desired functional task (e.g., tracking trajectory) based on assisted-as-needed principle. To this goal, a new adaptive inverse optimal hybrid control (AHC) combining inverse optimal control and actor-critic learning is proposed. Specifically, an uncertain nonlinear rehabilitation robot model is firstly developed that includes human motor behavior dynamics. Then, based on this model, an open-loop error system is formed; thereafter, an inverse optimal control input is designed to minimize the cost functional and a NN-based actor-critic feedforward signal is responsible for the nonlinear dynamic part contaminated by uncertainties. Finally, the AHC controller is proven (through a Lyapunov-based stability analysis) to yield a global uniformly ultimately bounded stability result, and the resulting cost functional is meaningful. Simulation and experiment on rehabilitation robot demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Fancheng Meng and Yaping Dai Copyright © 2014 Fancheng Meng and Yaping Dai. All rights reserved. Multiobjective Synergistic Scheduling Optimization Model for Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles under Different Grid-Connected Modes Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/179583/ In order to promote grid’s wind power absorptive capacity and to overcome the adverse impacts of wind power on the stable operation of power system, this paper establishes benefit contrastive analysis models of wind power and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) under the optimization goal of minimum coal consumption and pollutant emission considering multigrid connected modes. Then, a two-step adaptive solving algorithm is put forward to get the optimal system operation scheme with the highest membership degree based on the improved constraints method and fuzzy decision theory. Thirdly, the IEEE36 nodes 10-unit system is used as the simulation system. Finally, the sensitive analysis for PHEV’s grid connected number is made. The result shows the proposed algorithm is feasible and effective to solve the model. PHEV’s grid connection could achieve load shifting effect and promote wind power grid connection. Especially, the optimization goals reach the optimum in fully optimal charging mode. As PHEV’s number increases, both abandoned wind and thermal power generation cost would decrease and the peak and valley difference of load curve would gradually be reduced. Liwei Ju, Zhongfu Tan, Huanhuan Li, Xiaobao Yu, and Huijuan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Liwei Ju et al. All rights reserved. Compositional Simulation on the Flow of Polymeric Solution Alternating CO2 through Heavy Oil Reservoir Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/978465/ Water-alternating-gas (WAG) method provides superior mobility control of CO2 and improves sweep efficiency. However, WAG process has some problems in highly viscous oil reservoir such as gravity overriding and poor mobility ratio. To examine the applicability of carbon dioxide to recover viscous oil from highly heterogeneous reservoirs, this study suggests polymer-alternating-gas (PAG) process. The process involves a combination of polymer flooding and CO2 injection. In this numerical model, high viscosity of oil and high heterogeneity of reservoir are the main challenges. To confirm the effectiveness of PAG process in the model, four processes (waterflooding, continuous CO2 injection, WAG process, and PAG process) are implemented and recovery factor, WOR, and GOR are compared. Simulation results show that PAG method would increase oil recovery over 45% compared with WAG process. The WAG ratio of 2 is found to be the optimum value for maximum oil recovery. The additional oil recovery of 3% through the 2 WAG ratio is achieved over the base case of 1 : 1 PAG ratio and 180 days cycle period. Moon Sik Jeong, Jinhyung Cho, Jinsuk Choi, Ji Ho Lee, and Kun Sang Lee Copyright © 2014 Moon Sik Jeong et al. All rights reserved. A Parametric Study of the Impact of the Cooling Water Site Specific Conditions on the Efficiency of a Pressurized Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijne/2014/569658/ In this study, the thermal analysis for the impact of the cooling seawater site specific conditions on the thermal efficiency of a conceptual pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant (PWR NPP) is presented. The PWR NPP thermal performance depends upon the heat transfer analysis of steam surface condenser accounting for the key parameters such as the cooling seawater salinity and temperature that affect the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient and fouling factor. The study has two aspects: the first one is the impact of the temperature and salinity within a range of (290 K–310 K and 0.00–60000 ppm) on the seawater thermophysical properties such as density, specific heat, viscosity, and thermal conductivity that reflect a reduction in the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient from 2.25 kW/m2 K to 1.265 kW/m2 K at temperature and salinity of 290 K and 0.00 ppm and also from 2.35 kW/m2 K to 1.365 kW/m2 K at temperature and salinity of 310 K and 60000 ppm, whereas the second aspect is the fouling factor variations due to the seawater salinity. The analysis showed that the two aspects have a significant impact on the computation of the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient, whereas the increase of seawater salinity leads to a reduction in the condenser overall heat transfer coefficient. Mohamed M. A. Ibrahim and Mohamed R. Badawy Copyright © 2014 Mohamed M. A. Ibrahim and Mohamed R. Badawy. All rights reserved. An Environmentally Friendly Process for the Preparation of UHMWPE As-Spun Fibres Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2014/480149/ The extrusion of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibres cannot be achieved by conventional extrusion processes due to its very high melt viscosity. To overcome this limitation, UHMWPE is first dissolved in a petrochemical to form a gel before extrusion. The petrochemicals used to dissolve the polymer then need to be removed using other chemicals making the process unfriendly to the environment. This article is focused on finding an environmentally friendly, natural solution to replace these chemicals and altering the process to potentially reduce the process cost. Abdul Waqar Rajput, Anwar ul Aleem, and Farooq Ahmed Arain Copyright © 2014 Abdul Waqar Rajput et al. All rights reserved. An Algorithm to Select the Optimal Program Based on Rough Sets and Fuzzy Soft Sets Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/514369/ Combining rough sets and fuzzy soft sets, we propose an algorithm to obtain the optimal decision program. In this algorithm, firstly, according to fuzzy soft sets, we build up information systems; secondly, we compute the significance of each parameter according to rough set theory; thirdly, combining subjective bias, we give an algorithm to obtain the comprehensive weight of each parameter; at last, we put forward a method to choose the optimal program. Example shows that the optimal algorithm is effective and rational. Liu Wenjun and Li Qingguo Copyright © 2014 Liu Wenjun and Li Qingguo. All rights reserved. Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Obtained after In Vitro Hydrolysis of Pea (Pisum sativum var. Bajka) Globulins Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/438459/ Pea seeds represent a valuable source of active compounds that may positively influence health. In this study, the pea globulins were digested in vitro under gastrointestinal condition and potentially bioaccessible angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were identified. The degree of hydrolysis after pepsin, 14.42%, and pancreatin, 30.65%, were noted. The peptides with the highest ACE inhibitory properties were separated using ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Thirteen peptides fractions were obtained but only four showed potential antihypertensive properties. The highest inhibitory activity was determined for the fraction F8 (IC50 = 0.0014 mg/mL). This fraction was separated on Sephadex G10 and two peptide fractions were obtained. The peptides fraction (B) with the highest ACE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.073 mg/mL) was identified by ESI-MS/MS. The sequences of ACE inhibitory peptides were GGSGNY, DLKLP, GSSDNR, MRDLK, and HNTPSR. Based on Lineweaver-Burk plots for the fraction B, the kinetic parameters as , , and and mode of inhibition were determined. This fraction belongs to uncompetitive inhibitor of ACE activity. The seeds of pea are the source of precursor protein, which releases the ACE inhibitory peptides as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis. Anna Jakubczyk and Barbara Baraniak Copyright © 2014 Anna Jakubczyk and Barbara Baraniak. All rights reserved. On Local Convergence Analysis of Inexact Newton Method for Singular Systems of Equations under Majorant Condition Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/498016/ We present a local convergence analysis of inexact Newton method for solving singular systems of equations. Under the hypothesis that the derivative of the function associated with the singular systems satisfies a majorant condition, we obtain that the method is well defined and converges. Our analysis provides a clear relationship between the majorant function and the function associated with the singular systems. It also allows us to obtain an estimate of convergence ball for inexact Newton method and some important special cases. Fangqin Zhou Copyright © 2014 Fangqin Zhou. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Preliminary Properties of Novel Poly(aryl ether)s Containing β-Naphthalene Pendant Group Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/353540/ Two novel poly(aryl ether)s containing β-naphthalene pendant group were synthesized and the structures of these polymers were confirmed by 1HNMR spectroscopy. The polymers exhibited good thermal stabilities with high Tg of 256°C and 274°C, respectively. The polymers are soluble in common organic solvents, such as DMAc, DMSO, CH2Cl2, and CHCl3, and can be electrospun into microfiber (1–5 µm) with lots of nanopores (<100 nm) from CHCl3 solution. These fibers showed high hydrophobicity, and the contact angle of fibers is above 120°. L. Wang, D. Tao, X. Z. Xiang, and G. M. Zhu Copyright © 2014 L. Wang et al. All rights reserved. Characterisation of Potential Antidiabetic-Related Proteins from Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (Grey Oyster Mushroom) by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/131607/ Pleurotus pulmonarius has been reported to have a potent remedial effect on diabetic property and considered to be an alternative for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ammonium sulphate precipitated protein fractions from P. pulmonarius basidiocarps. Preliminary results demonstrated that 30% (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fraction (F30) inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase activity (24.18%), and 100% (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fraction (F100) inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity (41.80%). Following RP-HPLC purification, peak 3 from F30 fraction demonstrated inhibition towards α-glucosidase at the same time with meagre inhibition towards α-amylase activity. Characterisation of proteins using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS demonstrated the presence of four different proteins, which could be implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level via various mechanisms. Therefore, this study revealed the presence of four antidiabetic-related proteins which are profilin-like protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, trehalose phosphorylase-like (TP-like) protein, and catalase-like protein. Hence, P. pulmonarius basidiocarps have high potential in lowering blood glucose level, reducing insulin resistance and vascular complications. Nurul Azwa Abd. Wahab, Noorlidah Abdullah, and Norhaniza Aminudin Copyright © 2014 Nurul Azwa Abd. Wahab et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Electrophoretic Deposition for Fabricating Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/126053/ Titanium dioxide (TiO2) film was deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate by electrophoretic deposition method (EPD). TiO2 films were prepared with different I2 dosages, electric field intensities and deposition time (D.T.), electrophotic deposition times. By different I2 dosages, electric field intensities, deposition time, electrophotic deposition times fabricated TiO2 films and compared photoelectric characteristics of TiO2 films to find optimal parameters which were the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency. And use electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to measure the Nyquist plots under different conditions and analyze the impendence of dye-sensitized solar cells at the internal heterojunction. According to the experimental results, the I2 dosage was 0.025 g which obtained the optimal characteristic parameters. Thickness of TiO2 film was 10.6 μm, the open-circuit voltage () was 0.77 V, the short-circuit current density () was 7.20 mA/cm2, the fill factor (F.F.) was 53.41%, and photovoltaic conversion efficiency (η) was 2.96%. Jung-Chuan Chou, Shen-Chang Lin, Yi-Hung Liao, Jui-En Hu, Shen-Wei Chuang, and Chin-Hui Huang Copyright © 2014 Jung-Chuan Chou et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Study of Thermal and Flow Characteristics of Plate-Fin Heat Sink with Longitudinal Vortex Generator Installed on the Ground Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/245759/ This study applied the commercial software ANSYS CFD (FLUENT), for simulating the transient flow field and investigating the influence of each parameter of longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs) on the thermal flux of a plate-fin heat sink. Vortex generator was set in front of plate-fin heat sink and under the channel, which was in common-flow-down (CFD) and common-flow-up (CFU) conditions, which have the result of vortex generator of delta winglet pair (DWP). In this study the parameters were varied, such as the minimum transverse distance between winglet pair, the attack angle of the vortex generator, fins number, the fin height, and the distance between the vortex generator and plate-fin. The coolant fluid flew into the fin-to-fin channel and pushed the vortex from different geometry toward the bottom. This phenomenon took off the heat from the plate to enhance the heat transfer. The numerical results indicated that the LVGs located close to the plate-fin heat sink are zero with the attack angle being 30°, presenting optimal overall conditions. Yen-Tso Chang, Han-Ching Lin, Chi-Jui Huang, Go-Long Tsai, and Jinn-Feng Jiang Copyright © 2014 Yen-Tso Chang et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Analytical Approaches Demonstrate a Complex Relationship of Genetic and Nongenetic Factors with Cisplatin- and Carboplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Lung Cancer Patients Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/937429/ Background. Cisplatin and carboplatin cause nephrotoxicity by forming platinum-DNA adducts and lead to cell death. Methods. One-hundred and sixteen Taiwanese lung cancer patients who received cisplatin or carboplatin more than twice were recruited, and their genotypes were determined. The risk of renal dysfunction, injury to the kidney, failure of kidney function, loss of kidney function, and end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) criteria were used to evaluate the occurrence of nephrotoxicity. A logistic regression, multiple regression with a classification and regression tree (CART), and the Framingham study risk score were used to analyze interactions between genetic and nongenetic factors in producing platinum-induced nephrotoxicity. Results. ERCC1 118C and TP53 72Arg polymorphisms were associated with increased risks of platinum-induced nephrotoxicity. Other risk factors found included the platinum type, baseline serum creatinine (Scr), coadministration of vinorelbine, and the number of chemotherapy cycles. The overall prediction rate of the CART was 82.7%, with a sensitivity of 0.630 and specificity of 0.896. The Framingham study risk prediction model contained 7 factors. Its prediction rate was 84.5%, with a sensitivity of 0.643 and specificity of 0.909. Conclusions. Genetic polymorphisms of ERCC1 and TP53 are risk factors for nephrotoxicity. The CART analysis may provide a clinically applicable model to predict the risk of cisplatin- and carboplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. H. Eugene Liu, Kuan-Jen Bai, Yu-Chen Hsieh, Ming-Chih Yu, Chun-Nin Lee, Jer-Hua Chang, Han-Lin Hsu, Pei-Chih Lu, and Hsiang-Yin Chen Copyright © 2014 H. Eugene Liu et al. All rights reserved. Fare Optimality Analysis of Urban Rail Transit under Various Objective Functions Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2014/910736/ Urban rail transit fare strategies include fare structures and fare levels. We propose a rail transit line fare decision based on an operating plan that falls under elastic demand. Combined with the train operation plan, considering flat fare and distance-based fare, and based on the benefit analysis of both passenger flow and operating enterprises, we construct the objective functions and build an optimization model in terms of the operators’ interests, the system’s efficiency, system regulation goals, and the system costs. The solving algorithm based on the simulated annealing algorithm is established. Using as an example the Changsha Metro Line 2, we analyzed the optimized results of different models under the two fare structures system. Finally the recommendations of fare strategies are given. Lianbo Deng, Zhao Zhang, Kangni Liu, Wenliang Zhou, and Junfeng Ma Copyright © 2014 Lianbo Deng et al. All rights reserved. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/863984/ Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (). The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin) were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG). Chunjian Zhao, Chunying Li, Shuaihua Liu, and Lei Yang Copyright © 2014 Chunjian Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Cognitive Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks over Nakagami- Fading Channels Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/630823/ Considering the effect of imperfect channel state information (CSI), we study the performance of a cluster-based cognitive multihop wireless sensor network with decode-and-forward (DF) partial relay selection over Nakagami-m fading channels. The closed-form expressions for the exact outage probability and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary system are derived and validated by simulations. Asymptotic outage analysis in high SNR regime reveals that the diversity order is determined by the minimum fading severity parameter of all the secondary transmission links, irrespective of the CSI imperfection. It is shown that the fading severity of the secondary transmission links has more influence on the outage performance than that of the interference links. We also conclude that, for secondary nodes whose transmit power is restricted by the interference constraint of the primary user, increasing the number of relaying hops is an effective way to improve their transmission performance. Besides, increasing the number of available relays in each relay cluster can mitigate the performance degradation caused by CSI imperfection. Xing Zhang, Jia Xing, Zhi Yan, Yue Gao, and Wenbo Wang Copyright © 2014 Xing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Visual Learning Alters the Spontaneous Activity of the Resting Human Brain: An fNIRS Study Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/631425/ Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) has been widely used to investigate spontaneous brain activity that exhibits correlated fluctuations. RSFC has been found to be changed along the developmental course and after learning. Here, we investigated whether and how visual learning modified the resting oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) functional brain connectivity by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). We demonstrate that after five days of training on an orientation discrimination task constrained to the right visual field, resting HbO functional connectivity and directed mutual interaction between high-level visual cortex and frontal/central areas involved in the top-down control were significantly modified. Moreover, these changes, which correlated with the degree of perceptual learning, were not limited to the trained left visual cortex. We conclude that the resting oxygenated hemoglobin functional connectivity could be used as a predictor of visual learning, supporting the involvement of high-level visual cortex and the involvement of frontal/central cortex during visual perceptual learning. Haijing Niu, Hao Li, Li Sun, Yongming Su, Jing Huang, and Yan Song Copyright © 2014 Haijing Niu et al. All rights reserved. Safety of Nicergoline as an Agent for Management of Cognitive Function Disorders Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/610103/ Nicergoline is a semisynthetic ergot derivative and has a selective alpha-1A adrenergic receptor blocking property and also other additional mechanisms of actions, both in the brain and in the periphery. It is in clinical use for over three decades in over fifty countries for conditions such as cerebral infarction, acute and chronic peripheral circulation disorders, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease and has been found to be beneficial in a variety of other conditions. However, concerns about its safety have been raised, especially after the European medicines agency’s (EMEA’s) restriction in the use of all ergot derivatives including nicergoline. But, most of the available literature and data suggest that the adverse events with nicergoline are mild and transient. Further, none of the available treatment options for cognitive disorders afford definitive resolution of symptoms. In this backdrop, we discuss the pharmacology of nicergoline with special emphasis on the safety of this compound, especially when used in patients suffering from cognitive function disorders. Bernd Saletu, Amit Garg, and Ahsan Shoeb Copyright © 2014 Bernd Saletu et al. All rights reserved. Viola tricolor Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Exhibits Antiangiogenic Activity on Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/625792/ In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions (0–800 μg/mL) of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Taghi Ghorbani Hesari, Seyed Mohsen Mortazavian, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Zahra Tayarani-Najaran, and Ahmad Ghorbani Copyright © 2014 Hamid Reza Sadeghnia et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Test of Suprathreshold Acuity in Noise in Brazilian Portuguese: A New Method for Hearing Screening and Surveillance Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/652838/ This paper describes the development of a speech-in-noise test for hearing screening and surveillance in Brazilian Portuguese based on the evaluation of suprathreshold acuity performances. The SUN test (Speech Understanding in Noise) consists of a list of intervocalic consonants in noise presented in a multiple-choice paradigm by means of a touch screen. The test provides one out of three possible results: “a hearing check is recommended” (red light), “a hearing check would be advisable” (yellow light), and “no hearing difficulties” (green light) (Paglialonga et al., Comput. Biol. Med. 2014). This novel test was developed in a population of 30 normal hearing young adults and 101 adults with varying degrees of hearing impairment and handicap, including normal hearing. The test had 84% sensitivity and 76% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening and 83% sensitivity and 86% specificity to detect disabling hearing impairment. The test outcomes were in line with the degree of self-perceived hearing handicap. The results found here paralleled those reported in the literature for the SUN test and for conventional speech-in-noise measures. This study showed that the proposed test might be a viable method to identify individuals with hearing problems to be referred to further audiological assessment and intervention. Nara Vaez, Liliane Desgualdo-Pereira, and Alessia Paglialonga Copyright © 2014 Nara Vaez et al. All rights reserved. Static and Dynamic Experimental Analysis of the Galloping Stability of Porous H-Section Beams Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/746826/ The phenomenon of self-induced vibrations of prismatic beams in a cross-flow has been studied for decades, but it is still of great interest due to their important effects in many different industrial applications. This paper presents the experimental study developed on a prismatic beam with H-section. The aim of this analysis is to add some additional insight into the behaviour of the flow around this type of bodies, in order to reduce galloping and even to avoid it. The influence of some relevant geometrical parameters that define the H-section on the translational galloping behaviour of these beams has been analysed. Wind loads coefficients have been measured through static wind tunnel tests and the Den Hartog criterion applied to elucidate the influence of geometrical parameters on the galloping properties of the bodies under consideration. These results have been completed with surface pressure distribution measurements and, besides, dynamic tests have been also performed to verify the static criterion. Finally, the morphology of the flow past the tested bodies has been visualised by using smoke visualization techniques. Since the rectangular section beam is a limiting case of the H-section configuration, the results here obtained are compared with the ones published in the literature concerning rectangular configurations; the agreement is satisfactory. F. Gandia, J. Meseguer, and A. Sanz-Andrés Copyright © 2014 F. Gandia et al. All rights reserved. Novel RNA Markers in Prostate Cancer: Functional Considerations and Clinical Translation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/765207/ The availability of ultra-high throughput DNA and RNA sequencing technologies in recent years has led to the identification of numerous novel transcripts, whose functions are unknown as yet. Evidence is accumulating that many of these molecules are deregulated in diseases, including prostate cancer, and potentially represent novel targets for diagnosis and therapy. In particular, functional genomic analysis of microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in cancer is likely to contribute insights into tumor development. Here, we compile recent efforts to catalog differential expression of miRNA and lncRNA in prostate cancer and to understand RNA function in tumor progression. We further highlight technologies for molecular characterization of noncoding RNAs and provide an overview of current activities to exploit them for the diagnosis and therapy of this complex tumor. Julia M. A. Pickl, Doreen Heckmann, Leonie Ratz, Sabine M. Klauck, and Holger Sültmann Copyright © 2014 Julia M. A. Pickl et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring of the Deposition of PAHs and Metals Produced by a Steel Plant in Taranto (Italy) Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/598301/ A high time-resolved monitoring campaign of bulk deposition of PAHs and metals was conducted near the industrial area and at an urban background site in province of Taranto (Italy) in order to evaluate the impact of the biggest European steel plant. The deposition fluxes of the sum of detected PAHs at the industrial area ranged from 92 to 2432 ng m−2d−1. In particular the deposition fluxes of BaP, BaA, and BkF were, on average, 10, 14, and 8 times higher than those detected at the urban background site, respectively. The same finding was for metals. The deposition fluxes of Ni (19.8 µg m−2 d−1) and As (2.2 µg m−2 d−1) at the industrial site were about 5 times higher than those at the urban background site, while the deposition fluxes of Fe (57 mg m−2d−1) and Mn (1.02 mg m−2d−1) about 31 times higher. Precipitation and wind speed played an important role in PAH deposition fluxes. Fe and Mn fluxes at the industrial site resulted high when wind direction favored the transport of air masses from the steel plant to the receptor site. The impact of the industrial area was also confirmed by IP/(IP + BgP), IP/BgP, and BaP/BgP diagnostic ratios. M. Amodio, G. de Gennaro, A. Di Gilio, and M. Tutino Copyright © 2014 M. Amodio et al. All rights reserved. Viscoelastic Characterization of Long-Eared Owl Flight Feather Shaft and the Damping Ability Analysis Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/709367/ Flight feather shaft of long-eared owl is characterized by a three-parameter model for linear viscoelastic solids to reveal its damping ability. Uniaxial tensile tests of the long-eared owl, pigeon, and golden eagle flight feather shaft specimens were carried out based on Instron 3345 single column material testing system, respectively, and viscoelastic response of their stress and strain was described by the standard linear solid model. Parameter fitting result obtained from the tensile tests shows that there is no significant difference in instantaneous elastic modulus for the three birds’ feather shafts, but the owl shaft has the highest viscosity, implying more obvious viscoelastic performance. Dynamic mechanical property was characterized based on the tensile testing results. Loss factor () of the owl flight feather shaft was calculated to be 1.609 ± 0.238, far greater than those of the pigeon (0.896 ± 0.082) and golden eagle (1.087 ± 0.074). It is concluded that the long-eared owl flight feather has more outstanding damping ability compared to the pigeon and golden eagle flight feather shaft. Consequently, the long-eared owl flight feathers can dissipate the vibration energy more effectively during the flying process based on the principle of damping mechanism, for the purpose of vibration attenuation and structure radiated noise reduction. Jia-li Gao, Jin-kui Chu, Le Guan, Hai-xin Shang, and Zhen-kun Lei Copyright © 2014 Jia-li Gao et al. All rights reserved. Automated Image Analysis of Lung Branching Morphogenesis from Microscopic Images of Fetal Rat Explants Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/820214/ Background. Regulating mechanisms of branching morphogenesis of fetal lung rat explants have been an essential tool for molecular research. This work presents a new methodology to accurately quantify the epithelial, outer contour, and peripheral airway buds of lung explants during cellular development from microscopic images. Methods. The outer contour was defined using an adaptive and multiscale threshold algorithm whose level was automatically calculated based on an entropy maximization criterion. The inner lung epithelium was defined by a clustering procedure that groups small image regions according to the minimum description length principle and local statistical properties. Finally, the number of peripheral buds was counted as the skeleton branched ends from a skeletonized image of the lung inner epithelia. Results. The time for lung branching morphometric analysis was reduced in 98% in contrast to the manual method. Best results were obtained in the first two days of cellular development, with lesser standard deviations. Nonsignificant differences were found between the automatic and manual results in all culture days. Conclusions. The proposed method introduces a series of advantages related to its intuitive use and accuracy, making the technique suitable to images with different lighting characteristics and allowing a reliable comparison between different researchers. Pedro L. Rodrigues, Nuno F. Rodrigues, Duarte Duque, Sara Granja, Jorge Correia-Pinto, and João L. Vilaça Copyright © 2014 Pedro L. Rodrigues et al. All rights reserved. AREDS Formula, Warfarin, and Bleeding: A Case Report from the Michigan Anticoagulation Quality Improvement Initiative Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/754147/ Importance. The anticoagulant warfarin has been shown to interact with other medications, vitamin K containing foods, and over-the-counter products. These interactions may inhibit or potentiate the effect of warfarin, resulting in serious clotting or bleeding events. Observations. We report the case of an 84-year-old woman with atrial fibrillation, prescribed warfarin in May 2010 for stroke prevention. Her international normalized ratio (INR) was stable until April 2013, when she was prescribed AREDS (Age Related Eye Disease Study) formula pills, an eye vitamin compound, to slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration. This change was not reported to the Anticoagulation Service. Eighteen days later, she presented to the ED with groin and back pain and an INR of 10.4. An abdominal CT revealed a retroperitoneal hemorrhage with extension in multiple muscles. Both warfarin and AREDS were discontinued and the patient was discharged to subacute rehabilitation. This case was reviewed by the Anticoagulation Service and actions were taken to prevent similar adverse events. Conclusions. This report provides an example of the potential danger of supplement use, in this case, AREDS formula, in patients prescribed warfarin, and the importance of communicating medication changes to the providers responsible for warfarin management. Eric Puroll, Steven T. Heidt, Brian Haymart, James B. Froehlich, and Eva Kline-Rogers Copyright © 2014 Eric Puroll et al. All rights reserved. A Scale-Free Topology Construction Model for Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/764698/ A local-area and energy-efficient (LAEE) evolution model for wireless sensor networks is proposed. The process of topology evolution is divided into two phases. In the first phase, nodes are distributed randomly in a fixed region. In the second phase, according to the spatial structure of wireless sensor networks, topology evolution starts from a network of very small size which contains the sink, grows with an energy-efficient preferential attachment rule in the new node’s local-area, and stops until all nodes are connected into network. Both analysis and simulation results show that the degree distribution of LAEE follows the power law. The comparison shows that this topology construction model has better tolerance against energy depletion or random failure than other nonscale-free WSN topologies. Lurong Jiang, Xinyu Jin, Yongxiang Xia, Bo Ouyang, Duanpo Wu, and Xi Chen Copyright © 2014 Lurong Jiang et al. All rights reserved. A QoS Aware Resource Allocation Strategy for 3D A/V Streaming in OFDMA Based Wireless Systems Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/419236/ Three-dimensional (3D) video is expected to be a “killer app” for OFDMA-based broadband wireless systems. The main limitation of 3D video streaming over a wireless system is the shortage of radio resources due to the large size of the 3D traffic. This paper presents a novel resource allocation strategy to address this problem. In the paper, the video-plus-depth 3D traffic type is considered. The proposed resource allocation strategy focuses on the relationship between 2D video and the depth map, handling them with different priorities. It is formulated as an optimization problem and is solved using a suboptimal heuristic algorithm. Numerical results show that the proposed scheme provides a better quality of service compared to conventional schemes. Young-uk Chung, Yong-Hoon Choi, Suwon Park, and Hyukjoon Lee Copyright © 2014 Young-uk Chung et al. All rights reserved. PUAR: Performance and Usage Aware Routing Algorithm for Long and Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/464963/ Aiming at requirements of performance and usage in the monitoring of tunnels with the long and linear structure, this work demonstrates a low-energy and quality of service- (QoS-) supported uneven clustering routing algorithm based on the labor cost called PUAR. PUAR realizes uneven clusters by a designed cluster radius related to the distance and the labor cost, with consideration of the residual energy and spatial layout of sensor nodes in the cluster head selection. With QoS support, PUAR uses the quality of link to reduce the packet loss and shortens the total transmitting distance to reduce the average delivery delay in multihop transmission. For the usage requirements of tunnel monitoring, PUAR utilizes the labor cost of replacing batteries to realize local or global energy balance. According to the analysis and simulation results, PUAR is found to achieve low-power consumption and reliable QoS support, and it can also reduce the operating cost of tunnel monitoring. Bin He and Gang Li Copyright © 2014 Bin He and Gang Li. All rights reserved. Lentivirus Mediated siRNA against GluN2B Subunit of NMDA Receptor Reduces Nociception in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/871637/ Although neuropathic pain (NP) is still not fully understood by scientists and clinicians alike, studies suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in the induction and maintenance of NP. A promising treatment for NP is through the downregulation of NMDA subunit GluN2B by RNA interference; however, naked siRNA (small interference RNA) is not effective in long-term treatments. In order to concoct a viable prolonged treatment for NP, Lv-siGluN2B (lentivirus carrying siRNA targeting GluN2B subunit) was prepared and the antinociception effects were observed in chronic constriction injury (CCI) rats in the present study. Results showed that Lv-siGluN2B was transduced into spinal cord cells after intrathecal injections and effectively reduced the nociception induced by sciatic nerve ligation while inhibiting the mRNA and protein expression of GluN2B. This antinociception effect lasted approximately 7 weeks. These findings suggest that GluN2B subunit could be a target for NP treatment and Lv-siGluN2B represents a new potential option for long-term treatment of NP. Feixiang Wu, Ruirui Pan, Jiaying Chen, Megumi Sugita, Caiyang Chen, Yong Tao, Weifeng Yu, and Yuming Sun Copyright © 2014 Feixiang Wu et al. All rights reserved. LRRK2 G2385R and R1628P Mutations Are Associated with an Increased Risk of Parkinson’s Disease in the Malaysian Population Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/867321/ The LRRK2 gene has been associated with both familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The G2019S variant is commonly found in North African Arab and Caucasian PD patients, but this locus is monomorphic in Asians. The G2385R and R1628P variants are associated with a higher risk of developing PD in certain Asian populations but have not been studied in the Malaysian population. Therefore, we screened the G2385R and R1628P variants in 1,202 Malaysian subjects consisting of 695 cases and 507 controls. The G2385R and R1628P variants were associated with a 2.2-fold () and 1.2-fold () increased risk of PD, respectively. Our data concur with other reported findings in Chinese, Taiwanese, Singaporean, and Korean studies. Aroma Agape Gopalai, Shen-Yang Lim, Jing Yi Chua, Shelisa Tey, Thien Thien Lim, Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim, Ai Huey Tan, Gaik Bee Eow, Zariah Abdul Aziz, Santhi Datuk Puvanarajah, Shanthi Viswanathan, Irene Looi, Soo Kun Lim, Li Ping Tan, Yip Boon Chong, Chong Tin Tan, Yi Zhao, E. K. Tan, and Azlina Ahmad-Annuar Copyright © 2014 Aroma Agape Gopalai et al. All rights reserved. Litter Production and Nutrient Dynamic on a Moso Bamboo Plantation following an Extreme Disturbance of 2008 Ice Storm Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/750865/ Ice storm is known to play a role in determining forest succession and litter dynamics constitute an important aspect of nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. However, ice storm effects on amount and pattern of litterfall are not clearly understood. We investigated litter production and litter leaf nutrient dynamic in a moso bamboo plantation in China following an extreme disturbance of ice storm in 2008. The litterfall in on-years was significantly lower than in off-years. Ice storm caused total litterfall increasing from 16.68% to 35.60% and greatly disturbed the litterfall peak rhythm especially in the on-year. The litter leaf nutrient concentrations at two latitudes significantly fluctuated after ice-snow disaster in 2008, litter leaf stoichiometric traits indicated that litter leaf chemistry showed more easily decomposition with higher C/P ratio, N/P ratio, and lower C/N ratio. It is clear from this study that litterfall restoration dynamic would result in long-term changes in litter nutrient cycling and may help predicting below ground carbon dynamic in future research as well as subtropical forest inventories following extreme disturbance. Xiaogai Ge, Benzhi Zhou, and Yilin Tang Copyright © 2014 Xiaogai Ge et al. All rights reserved. Altered Regional Homogeneity in Rolandic Epilepsy: A Resting-State fMRI Study Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/960395/ Children with rolandic epilepsy (RE) are often associated with cognitive deficits and behavioral problems. Findings from neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies in RE have now demonstrated dysfunction not only in rolandic focus, but also in distant neuronal circuits. Little is known, however, about whether there is distributed abnormal spontaneous brain activity in RE. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI), the present study aimed to determine whether children with RE show abnormal local synchronization during resting state and, if so, whether these changes could be associated with the behavioral/clinical characteristics of RE. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) in children with RE and healthy children was computed on resting-state functional MRI data. In comparison with healthy children, children with RE showed increased ReHo in the central, premotor, and prefrontal regions, while they showed decreased ReHo in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole. In addition, the ReHo value in the left orbitofrontal cortex negatively was corrected with performance intelligence quotient in the children with RE. The aberrant local synchronization, not strictly related to primary site of the typical rolandic focus, indicates the neuropathophysiological mechanism of RE. The study findings may shed new light on the understanding of neural correlation of neuropsychological deficiencies in the children with RE. Ye-Lei Tang, Gong-Jun Ji, Yang Yu, Jue Wang, Zhong-Jin Wang, Yu-Feng Zang, Wei Liao, and Mei-Ping Ding Copyright © 2014 Ye-Lei Tang et al. All rights reserved. Substance Use in the Club Scene of Rome: A Pilot Study Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/617546/ Objective. Over the last few years, a wide number of unregulated substances have been marketed on the Web and in smart and head shops; they are usually advertised as legal alternatives to commonly known drugs and are defined as “smart drugs,” “legal highs,” and “novel psychoactive substances” (NPS). Aim of our work is to describe use habits and distribution of NPS in a population of young adults in Rome club scene. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was proposed to subjects over 18 years of age at the entrance of 5 nightclubs in Rome. Socioeconomic characteristics and substance use were investigated. Results. Preliminary results give evidence that 78% of respondents have a lifetime history of NPS use. In addition, 56% of the sample has consumed illicit drugs in the past and 39% has used psychoactive substances in the 12 hours preceding the questionnaire administration. Conclusions. A significant proportion of subjects report use of novel psychoactive substances; traditional illicit drugs consumption, particularly cocaine, appears to be very high as well in the club scene. These data highlight a serious public health challenge, since pharmacological, toxicological, and psychopathological effects linked to interactions among all these substances may be unpredictable and sometimes fatal in vulnerable individuals. Alessandro Emiliano Vento, Giovanni Martinotti, Eduardo Cinosi, Matteo Lupi, Tiziano Acciavatti, Dario Carrus, Rita Santacroce, Eleonora Chillemi, Ludovica Bonifaci, Massimo di Giannantonio, Ornella Corazza, and Fabrizio Schifano Copyright © 2014 Alessandro Emiliano Vento et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Time-Delay Characteristics and Structural Optimization Design of Marine Gas Turbine Intercooler Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/701843/ Aiming at the rapid mobility of marine gas turbine and the dynamic time-delay problem of intercooler for intercooled cycle marine gas turbine, the dynamic simulation model of intercooler was set up based on effectiveness-number of transfer units (-NTU) and lumped parameter method in this paper. The model comprehensively considers related physical properties dependent on temperature. Dynamic response characteristics of gas outlet temperature and pressure and coolant outlet temperature of intercooler with different materials and coolants in the change of operation condition of marine gas turbine were analyzed in detail. Besides, this paper explored the use of simulated annealing algorithm for structural optimization of intercooler. The results showed that both material and coolant were the significant factors that affected the heat transfer and dynamic performance of intercooler. The heat transfer and dynamic performance of the intercooler obtained by using simulated annealing algorithm were better than those of preliminary design. Ning-bo Zhao, Xue-you Wen, and Shu-ying Li Copyright © 2014 Ning-bo Zhao et al. All rights reserved. In-Line Ultrasonic Monitoring for Sediments Stuck on Inner Wall of a Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/731621/ This research verified the applicability and effectiveness of the ultrasonic monitoring of sediments stuck on the inner wall of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes. For identifying the transmittance of acoustic energy and the speed of sound in the PVC material, the pulse-echo ultrasonic testing was conducted for PVC sheets of different thicknesses. To simulate the solidified sediment, the hot melt adhesive (HMA) was covered on the inner wall of the PVC pipe in different heights. From the experiment, the speeds of sound in the PVC and the HMA materials were obtained as about 2258 and 2000 m/s, respectively. The thickness of the materials was calculated through the signal processing such as taking the absolute value and low pass filtering, the echo detection, and the measurement of the time of flight. The errors between actual and measured thicknesses of PVC sheets were below 5%. In the case of the substance stuck on the inner wall, the errors were below 2.5%. Since the pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection is available on the outer surface and its measurement accuracy was over 95%, it can be an efficient and effective in-service structural health monitoring for the sediment on the wall of PVC pipes. Hogeon Seo, Kyoungjun Lee, and Kyung-Young Jhang Copyright © 2014 Hogeon Seo et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Simulated Microgravity on Purinergic Signaling Is Different between Individual Culture and Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cell Coculture Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/413708/ Exposure to microgravity conditions causes cardiovascular deconditioning in astronauts during spaceflight. Until now, no specific drugs are available for countermeasure, since the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play key roles in various vascular functions, many of which are regulated by purinergic 2 (P2) receptors. However, their function in ECs and SMCs under microgravity conditions is still unclear. In this study, primary ECs and SMCs were isolated from bovine aorta and verified with specific markers. We show for the first time that the P2 receptor expression pattern is altered in ECs and SMCs after 24 h exposure to simulated microgravity using a clinostat. However, conditioned medium compensates this change in specific P2 receptors, for example, P2X7. Notably, P2 receptors such as P2X7 might be the important players during the paracrine interaction. Additionally, ECs and SMCs secreted different cytokines under simulated microgravity, leading into a pathogenic proliferation and migration. In conclusion, our data indicate P2 receptors might be important players responding to gravity changes in ECs and SMCs. Since some artificial P2 receptor ligands are applied as drugs, it is reasonable to assume that they might be promising candidates against cardiovascular deconditioning in the future. Yu Zhang, Patrick Lau, Andreas Pansky, Matthias Kassack, Ruth Hemmersbach, and Edda Tobiasch Copyright © 2014 Yu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Positivity of Fundamental Matrix and Exponential Stability of Delay Differential System Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/490816/ The classical Wazewski theorem established that nonpositivity of all nondiagonal elements is necessary and sufficient for nonnegativity of the fundamental (Cauchy) matrix and consequently for applicability of the Chaplygin approach of approximate integration for system of linear ordinary differential equations Results on nonnegativity of the Cauchy matrix for system of delay differential equations which were based on nonpositivity of all diagonal elements, were presented in the previous works. Then examples, which demonstrated that nonpositivity of nondiagonal coefficients is not necessary for systems of delay equations, were found. In this paper first sufficient results about nonnegativity of the Cauchy matrix of the delay system without this assumption are proven. A necessary condition of nonnegativity of the Cauchy matrix is proposed. On the basis of these results on nonnegativity of the Cauchy matrix, necessary and sufficient conditions of the exponential stability of the delay system are obtained. Alexander Domoshnitsky, Roman Shklyar, Mikhail Gitman, and Valery Stolbov Copyright © 2014 Alexander Domoshnitsky et al. All rights reserved. Developing Mobile BIM/2D Barcode-Based Automated Facility Management System Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/374735/ Facility management (FM) has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D) graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM) uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D) object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD). This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM) system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment. Yu-Cheng Lin, Yu-Chih Su, and Yen-Pei Chen Copyright © 2014 Yu-Cheng Lin et al. All rights reserved. A Multianalyzer Machine Learning Model for Marine Heterogeneous Data Schema Mapping Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/248467/ The main challenges that marine heterogeneous data integration faces are the problem of accurate schema mapping between heterogeneous data sources. In order to improve the schema mapping efficiency and get more accurate learning results, this paper proposes a heterogeneous data schema mapping method basing on multianalyzer machine learning model. The multianalyzer analysis the learning results comprehensively, and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system is introduced for output results’ evaluation and multi factor quantitative judging. Finally, the data mapping comparison experiment on the East China Sea observing data confirms the effectiveness of the model and shows multianalyzer’s obvious improvement of mapping error rate. Wang Yan, Le Jiajin, and Zhang Yun Copyright © 2014 Wang Yan et al. All rights reserved. Method for Determining the Weight of Functional Objectives on Manufacturing System Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/242368/ We propose a three-dimensional integrated weight determination to solve manufacturing system functional objectives, where consumers are weighted by triangular fuzzy numbers to determine the enterprises. The weights, subjective parts are determined by the expert scoring method, the objective parts are determined by the entropy method with the competitive advantage of determining. Based on the integration of three methods and comprehensive weight, we provide some suggestions for the manufacturing system. This paper provides the numerical example analysis to illustrate the feasibility of this method. Qingshan Zhang, Wei Xu, and Jiekun Zhang Copyright © 2014 Qingshan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Smoothing Strategies Combined with ARIMA and Neural Networks to Improve the Forecasting of Traffic Accidents Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/152375/ Two smoothing strategies combined with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and autoregressive neural networks (ANNs) models to improve the forecasting of time series are presented. The strategy of forecasting is implemented using two stages. In the first stage the time series is smoothed using either, 3-point moving average smoothing, or singular value Decomposition of the Hankel matrix (HSVD). In the second stage, an ARIMA model and two ANNs for one-step-ahead time series forecasting are used. The coefficients of the first ANN are estimated through the particle swarm optimization (PSO) learning algorithm, while the coefficients of the second ANN are estimated with the resilient backpropagation (RPROP) learning algorithm. The proposed models are evaluated using a weekly time series of traffic accidents of Valparaíso, Chilean region, from 2003 to 2012. The best result is given by the combination HSVD-ARIMA, with a MAPE of 0 : 26%, followed by MA-ARIMA with a MAPE of 1 : 12%; the worst result is given by the MA-ANN based on PSO with a MAPE of 15 : 51%. Lida Barba, Nibaldo Rodríguez, and Cecilia Montt Copyright © 2014 Lida Barba et al. All rights reserved. Using the Neurofibromatosis Tumor Predisposition Syndromes to Understand Normal Nervous System Development Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2014/915725/ Development is a tightly regulated process that involves stem cell self-renewal, differentiation, cell-to-cell communication, apoptosis, and blood vessel formation. These coordinated processes ensure that tissues maintain a size and architecture that is appropriate for normal tissue function. As such, tumors arise when cells acquire genetic mutations that allow them to escape the normal growth constraints. In this regard, the study of tumor predisposition syndromes affords a unique platform to better understand normal development and the process by which normal cells transform into cancers. Herein, we review the processes governing normal brain development, discuss how brain cancer represents a disruption of these normal processes, and highlight insights into both normal development and cancer made possible by the study of tumor predisposition syndromes. Cynthia Garcia and David H. Gutmann Copyright © 2014 Cynthia Garcia and David H. Gutmann. All rights reserved. An Efficient Frequency Recognition Method Based on Likelihood Ratio Test for SSVEP-Based BCI Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/908719/ An efficient frequency recognition method is very important for SSVEP-based BCI systems to improve the information transfer rate (ITR). To address this aspect, for the first time, likelihood ratio test (LRT) was utilized to propose a novel multichannel frequency recognition method for SSVEP data. The essence of this new method is to calculate the association between multichannel EEG signals and the reference signals which were constructed according to the stimulus frequency with LRT. For the simulation and real SSVEP data, the proposed method yielded higher recognition accuracy with shorter time window length and was more robust against noise in comparison with the popular canonical correlation analysis- (CCA-) based method and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator- (LASSO-) based method. The recognition accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) obtained by the proposed method was higher than those of the CCA-based method and LASSO-based method. The superior results indicate that the LRT method is a promising candidate for reliable frequency recognition in future SSVEP-BCI. Yangsong Zhang, Li Dong, Rui Zhang, Dezhong Yao, Yu Zhang, and Peng Xu Copyright © 2014 Yangsong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetics of Two Alkaloids after Oral Administration of Rhizoma Coptidis Extract in Normal Rats and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/845048/ A comparative pharmacokinetic study of berberine and palmatine after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract (96 mg/kg, containing berberine 22 mg/kg and palmatine 5 mg/kg based on body weight) was performed in normal and postinflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats, induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. Quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 13 different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. The significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors, such as , , , and CL/, of berberine and palmatine were found between normal and PI-IBS model rats. The results indicated that PI-IBS pathological conditions in rats could alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug. Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are usually carried out on healthy animals. However, we should pay more attention to the fact that the change of pharmacokinetic behavior plays an important role on efficacy. It is essential to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug in disease status. Zipeng Gong, Ying Chen, Ruijie Zhang, Yinghan Wang, Qing Yang, Yan Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Shuangrong Gao, Hailin Wang, Xiaoxin Zhu, Yu Dong, Yujie Li, and Yajie Wang Copyright © 2014 Zipeng Gong et al. All rights reserved. Inequalities in the Use of Family Planning in Rural Nepal Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/636439/ This paper explores inequalities in the use of modern family planning methods among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in rural Nepal. Data from the 2012 Nepal Household Survey (HHS) were utilized, which employed a stratified, three-stage cluster design to obtain a representative sample of 9,016 households from rural Nepal. Within the sampled households, one woman of reproductive age was randomly selected to answer the survey questions related to reproductive health. Only four out of every ten rural MWRA were using a modern family planning method. Short-acting and permanent methods were most commonly used, and long-acting reversible contraceptives were the least likely to be used. Muslims were less likely to use family planning compared to other caste/ethnic groups. Usage was also lower among younger women (likely to be trying to delay or space births) than older women (likely to be trying to limit their family size). Less educated women were more likely to use permanent methods and less likely to use short-term methods. To increase the CPR, which has currently stalled, and continue to reduce the TFR, Nepal needs more focused efforts to increase family planning uptake in rural areas. The significant inequalities suggest that at-risk groups need additional targeting by demand and supply side interventions. Suresh Mehata, Yuba Raj Paudel, Bhogendra Raj Dotel, Dipendra Raman Singh, Pradeep Poudel, and Sarah Barnett Copyright © 2014 Suresh Mehata et al. All rights reserved.