Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Conjunctival Metastasis as an Initial Sign of Small Cell Lung Cancer Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:48:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/614353/ Introduction. To report a case of a conjunctival metastasis as the initial manifestation of small cell lung cancer. Methods. Observational case report. Results. A 50-year-old man without known systemic disease developed a conjunctival mass in his right eye. He underwent incisional biopsy of the tumor and systemic evaluation. Histopathologically, the conjunctival mass was a metastatic small cell carcinoma. Further evaluation revealed a primary small cell lung carcinoma with metastasis to liver and bones. The primary and metastatic tumors were treated with chemotherapy. Conclusion. Conjunctival metastasis may be the initial manifestation of lung cancer. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a deep conjunctival mass. Afsun Sahin, Nilgun Yildirim, Deniz Goren Sahin, Hikmet Basmak, and Mustafa Acikalin Copyright © 2014 Afsun Sahin et al. All rights reserved. 35 m Vertical Free Fall: How Impact Surface Influences Survival Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:39:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2014/805213/ We describe the accidental free fall of a 23-year-old construction worker, who fell 13 stories (approximately 35 meters) from a false work landing on a toilet container. On impact he broke through the roof of the container, which attenuated his fall and made his survival possible. The patient sustained a central spleen rupture, liver laceration, subdural hematoma, blunt thoracic trauma with a left-sided hematothorax and right-sided pneumothorax with serial bilateral rib fractures, and an unstable fracture of the 10th thoracic vertebra. Two thoracic drainages were inserted in the emergency department before the patient underwent emergency surgery for the management of his intra-abdominal injuries. On the third day after trauma the unstable fracture of the 10th thoracic vertebra was stabilized with an internal fixator. Following extubation on day 8 after trauma the patient did not show any peripheral neurological deficits but cerebral affection with a general slowdown. After only 21 days, the patient was discharged from the hospital to a rehabilitation center where work specific rehabilitation was started. Although the patient is not suffering from physical afflictions from the injury his daily life abilities are still limited due to cerebral damage. C. Ehrnthaller and F. Gebhard Copyright © 2014 C. Ehrnthaller and F. Gebhard. All rights reserved. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:34:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jvm/2014/923561/ As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6%) of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode), with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%). In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150). Furthermore, female animals (; 95% CI: 0.60–1.84) and animals with moderate body condition (; 95% CI: 0.80–1.79) are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria. Olubukola Deborah Adedipe, Emmanuel Chibuike Uwalaka, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, Oyeduntan Adejoju Adediran, and Simeon Idowu Babalola Cadmus Copyright © 2014 Olubukola Deborah Adedipe et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress Markers and C-Reactive Protein Are Related to Severity of Heart Failure in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:23:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/147040/ Background. The aim of study was to determine relationships between functional capacity (NYHA class), left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF), hemodynamic parameters, and biomarkers of redox state and inflammation in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Methods. DCM patients (, aged years), NYHA class IIV, and LVEF % were studied. Controls comprised age-matched healthy volunteers (). Echocardiography and right heart catheterization were performed. Serum activities of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes (MnSOD and CuZnSOD), concentrations of uric acid (UA), malondialdehyde (MDA), and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Results. MnSOD, UA, hs-CRP, and MDA were significantly higher in DCM patients compared to controls. Except MDA concentration, above parameters were higher in patients in III-IV NYHA class or with lower LVEF. hsCRP correlated with of MnSOD () and CuZnSOD activity (). Both isoenzymes positively correlated with mPAP and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (MnSOD, resp., and and CuZnSOD ; ). UA positively correlated with MnSOD (), mPAP (), and PVRI (). The negative correlation between LVEF and UA () was detected. Conclusion. There are relationships among the severity of symptoms of heart failure, echocardiographic hemodynamic parameters, oxidative stress, and inflammatory activation. Increased MnSOD activity indicates the mitochondrial source of ROS in patients with advanced heart failure. Celina Wojciechowska, Ewa Romuk, Andrzej Tomasik, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Ewa Nowalany-Kozielska, Ewa Birkner, and Wojciech Jacheć Copyright © 2014 Celina Wojciechowska et al. All rights reserved. Based on Regular Expression Matching of Evaluation of the Task Performance in WSN: A Queue Theory Approach Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:16:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/654974/ Due to the limited resources of wireless sensor network, low efficiency of real-time communication scheduling, poor safety defects, and so forth, a queuing performance evaluation approach based on regular expression match is proposed, which is a method that consists of matching preprocessing phase, validation phase, and queuing model of performance evaluation phase. Firstly, the subset of related sequence is generated in preprocessing phase, guiding the validation phase distributed matching. Secondly, in the validation phase, the subset of features clustering, the compressed matching table is more convenient for distributed parallel matching. Finally, based on the queuing model, the sensor networks of task scheduling dynamic performance are evaluated. Experiments show that our approach ensures accurate matching and computational efficiency of more than 70%; it not only effectively detects data packets and access control, but also uses queuing method to determine the parameters of task scheduling in wireless sensor networks. The method for medium scale or large scale distributed wireless node has a good applicability. Jie Wang, Kai Cui, Kuanjiu Zhou, and Yanshuo Yu Copyright © 2014 Jie Wang et al. All rights reserved. Spherically Symmetric Solution in (1+4)-Dimensional Gravity Theories Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:06:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2014/830109/ A nondiagonal spherically symmetric tetrad field, involving four unknown functions of radial coordinate plus an angle , which is a generalization of the azimuthal angle , is applied to the field equations of (1+4)-dimensional gravity theory. A special vacuum solution with one constant of integration is derived. The physical meaning of this constant is shown to be related to the gravitational mass of the system and the associated metric represents Schwarzschild in (1+4)-dimension. The scalar torsion related to this solution vanishes. We put the derived solution in a matrix form and rewrite it as a product of three matrices: the first represents a rotation while the second represents an inertia and the third matrix is the diagonal square root of Schwarzschild spacetime in (1+4)-dimension. Gamal G. L. Nashed Copyright © 2014 Gamal G. L. Nashed. All rights reserved. An Air Jet Distortion Generation System Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:03:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrm/2014/961452/ An air jet distortion generation system is developed to simulate the distorted flow field ahead of gas turbine engines in ground test facility. The flow field of a system of four jets arranged circumferentially and issuing into a confined counterflow was studied experimentally and numerically. The total pressure distortion parameters were evaluated at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP) for several values of mass flow ratios. Since the total pressure loss distribution at the AIP is characteristically “V” shaped, the number of jets was increased to obtain total pressure distributions as required for gas turbine engine testing. With this understanding, a methodology has been developed to generate a target total pressure distortion pattern at the AIP. Turbulent flow computations are used to iteratively progress towards the target distribution. This methodology was demonstrated for a distortion flow pattern typical of use in gas turbine engine testing using twenty jets, which is a smaller number than reported in the literature. The procedure converges with a root-mean-square error of 3.836% and is able to reproduce the target pattern and other distortion parameters. M. Sivapragasam, S. Ramamurthy, M. D. Deshpande, and P. White Copyright © 2014 M. Sivapragasam et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:59:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/607091/ Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands. Waqas Malik, Javaria Ashraf, Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal, Asif Ali Khan, Abdul Qayyum, Muhammad Ali Abid, Etrat Noor, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, and Ghulam Hasan Abbasi Copyright © 2014 Waqas Malik et al. All rights reserved. Applications of Organic and Inorganic Amendments Induce Changes in the Mobility of Mercury and Macro- and Micronutrients of Soils Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:56:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/407049/ Both soil organic matter and sulfur (S) can reduce or even suppress mercury (Hg) mobility and bioavailability in soil. A batch incubation experiment was conducted with a Chernozem and a Luvisol artificially contaminated by 440 mg·kg−1 Hg showing wide differences in their physicochemical properties and available nutrients. The individual treatments were (i) digestate from the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste; (ii) fly ash from wood chip combustion; and (iii) ammonium sulfate, and every treatment was added with the same amount of S. The mobile Hg portion in Chernozem was highly reduced by adding digestate, even after 1 day of incubation, compared to control. Meanwhile, the outcome of these treatments was a decrease of mobile Hg forms as a function of incubation time whereas the contents of magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P) were stimulated by the addition of digestate in both soils. The available calcium (Ca) contents were not affected by the digestate addition. The experiment proved digestate application as the efficient measure for fast reduction of mobile Hg at extremely contaminated soils. Moreover, the decrease of the mobile mercury portion was followed by improvement of the nutrient status of the soils. Mercedes García-Sánchez, Adéla Šípková, Jiřina Száková, Lukáš Kaplan, Pavla Ochecová, and Pavel Tlustoš Copyright © 2014 Mercedes García-Sánchez et al. All rights reserved. Elastin-Coated Biodegradable Photopolymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:45:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/624645/ One of the main open issues in modern vascular surgery is the nonbiodegradability of implants used for stent interventions, which can lead to small caliber-related thrombosis and neointimal hyperplasia. Some new, resorbable polymeric materials have been proposed to substitute traditional stainless-steel stents, but so far they were affected by poor mechanical properties and low biocompatibility. In this respect, a new material, polypropylene fumarate (PPF), may be considered as a promising candidate to implement the development of next generation stents, due to its complete biodegradability, and excellent mechanical properties and the ease to be precisely patterned. Besides all these benefits, PPF has not been tested yet for vascular prosthesis, mainly because it proved to be almost inert, while the ability to elicit a specific biological function would be of paramount importance in such critical surgery applications. Here, we propose a biomimetic functionalization process, aimed at obtaining specific bioactivation and thus improved cell-polymer interaction. Porous PPF-based scaffolds produced by deep-UV photocuring were coated by elastin and the functionalized scaffolds were extensively characterized, revealing a stable bound between the protein and the polymer surface. Both 3T3 and HUVEC cell lines were used for in vitro tests displaying an enhancement of cells adhesion and proliferation on the functionalized scaffolds. Rossella Barenghi, Szabolcs Beke, Ilaria Romano, Paola Gavazzo, Balázs Farkas, Massimo Vassalli, Fernando Brandi, and Silvia Scaglione Copyright © 2014 Rossella Barenghi et al. All rights reserved. A Least Square Method Based Model for Identifying Protein Complexes in Protein-Protein Interaction Network Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:45:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/720960/ Protein complex formed by a group of physical interacting proteins plays a crucial role in cell activities. Great effort has been made to computationally identify protein complexes from protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. However, the accuracy of the prediction is still far from being satisfactory, because the topological structures of protein complexes in the PPI network are too complicated. This paper proposes a novel optimization framework to detect complexes from PPI network, named PLSMC. The method is on the basis of the fact that if two proteins are in a common complex, they are likely to be interacting. PLSMC employs this relation to determine complexes by a penalized least squares method. PLSMC is applied to several public yeast PPI networks, and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. The results indicate that PLSMC outperforms other methods. In particular, complexes predicted by PLSMC can match known complexes with a higher accuracy than other methods. Furthermore, the predicted complexes have high functional homogeneity. Qiguo Dai, Maozu Guo, Yingjie Guo, Xiaoyan Liu, Yang Liu, and Zhixia Teng Copyright © 2014 Qiguo Dai et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method Based on Oblique Projection Technology for Mixed Sources Estimation Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:40:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/675271/ Reducing the computational complexity of the near-field sources and far-field sources localization algorithms has been considered as a serious problem in the field of array signal processing. A novel algorithm caring for mixed sources location estimation based on oblique projection is proposed in this paper. The sources are estimated at two different stages and the sensor noise power is estimated and eliminated from the covariance which improve the accuracy of the estimation of mixed sources. Using the idea of compress, the range information of near-field sources is obtained by searching the partial area instead of the whole Fresnel area which can reduce the processing time. Compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed algorithm has the lower computation complexity and has the ability to solve the two closed-spaced sources with high resolution and accuracy. The duplication of range estimation is also avoided. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Weijian Si, Xiaolin Li, Yilin Jiang, and Liangtian Wan Copyright © 2014 Weijian Si et al. All rights reserved. Allelic Variation of Wheat Flour Allergens in a Collection of Wheat Genotypes Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:11:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/629379/ Wheat is the most widely grown crop in the world and provides 20% of the daily protein and food calories for 4.5 billion people. Together with rice, it is the most important food crop in the developing world. In the last decades, various symptoms have been recorded across the population due to the consumption of wheat products, also summarized as “wheat allergy.” Wheat allergy is usually reported as a food allergy but can also be a contact allergy as a result of exposure to wheat. Several important wheat allergens have been characterized in the last years through biochemical, immunological, and molecular biological techniques. In the present work, the identification of allelic variation of genes involved in wheat allergy was reported. A collection of wheat genotypes was screened in order to identify new alleles. A total of 14 new alleles were identified for profilin, triosephosphate-isomerase, dehydrin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase, α/β gliadin, GluB3-23, and Glutathione transferase allergen genes (located on chromosomes 1B, 3B, 6A, and homoelogous groups 5 and 7), potentially related to a minor allergenicity and useful in breeding programs. D. Nigro, S. L. Giove, S. Fortunato, O. Incerti, S. A. Zacheo, A. Blanco, and A. Gadaleta Copyright © 2014 D. Nigro et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Material Compressibility on Displacement Solution for Structural Steel Plate Applications Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:04:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/413590/ Displacement field calculations are necessary for many structural steel engineering problems such as cold expansion of holes, embedment of bolts and rivets, and installation and maintenance of external devices. To this end, rigorous closed form analytical displacement solution is obtained for structural steel open-hole plates with in-plane loading. The material of the model is considered to be elastic perfectly plastic obeying the von Mises yield criterion with its associated flow rule. On the basis of this solution, two simplified engineering formulae are proposed and carefully discussed for practical engineering purposes. Graphical representations of results show validity of each formula as compared with rigorous solution and other studies. Nelli Aleksandrova Copyright © 2014 Nelli Aleksandrova. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Salmonella Infection in Dogs in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:00:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmicro/2014/392548/ The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity of Salmonella from dogs in Maiduguri Metropolis were determined using standard bacteriological methods to assess the risk of possible transmission of Salmonella infection from dogs to humans. Of 119 samples, Salmonella was isolated from 52 (43.7%). Males had higher prevalence of 50.0% compared with 34.7% in females . Dogs older than 24 months had higher prevalence of 61.0% and the lowest was seen in dogs aged 13–24 months . The prevalence of 31.8%, 41.2%, and 58.8% was observed in dogs aged 3–6, 10–12, and 7–9 months, respectively. High prevalence of 49.5% was observed in Mongrels, while Terrier and Alsatian breeds had 30.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Salmonella isolates from Alsatian and Terrier breeds showed about 100% susceptibility to all the tested antimicrobials. Higher percentage of the Salmonella isolates from Mongrels also showed susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (89.7%), amoxicillin (87.6%), vancomycin (86.6%), and chloramphenicol (84.5%). However about 50% of these isolates showed resistance to ofloxacin. The carrier status of Salmonella is high among dogs especially Mongrels. Therefore good environmental hygiene, discouraging straying coupled with feeding of dogs with properly cooked and uncontaminated feeds was recommended to mitigate risk of human salmonellosis. Saleh Mohammed Jajere, Samson Amali Onyilokwu, Nuhu Bala Adamu, Naphtali Nayamanda Atsanda, Adamu Saleh Saidu, Shuaibu Gidado Adamu, and Fatima Bukar Mustapha Copyright © 2014 Saleh Mohammed Jajere et al. All rights reserved. Robotic System Development for Cooperative Orthopedic Drilling Assistance Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/437485/ This paper describes a robotic bone drilling and screwing system for applications in orthopedic surgery. The goal is to realize two robot manipulators performing cooperative bone drilling. The proposed cooperative bone drilling system can be divided into hardware and software development. The hardware development section consists of two robot manipulator arms, which perform drilling and gripping of the bone, and operates using two joysticks. The software section assists the surgeon in visual and navigation control of those robot manipulators. Controller used in this system can be included in the hardware and software sections. Disturbance observer based position control was used in the robot manipulator maneuver and reposition controller (cooperative control) was used in cooperative drilling operation to maintain the alignment of the drill bit during drilling. A mathematical model for the control system was designed and a real environment mimicking simulation for bone drilling was designed. The result of the simulation shows that the cooperative robot system managed to perform cooperative drilling when misalignment occurs during bone drilling. The bone gripping robot managed to restore the drill bit to its ideal alignment in every event of misalignment in the drilling axis. Therefore this cooperative system has potential application in experimental orthopedic surgery. Vijayabaskar Kasi, Saad Mekhilef, R. A. R. Ghazilla, and Norhafizan Ahmad Copyright © 2014 Vijayabaskar Kasi et al. All rights reserved. A Note on Best Approximation in 0-Complete Partial Metric Spaces Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:55:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/979170/ We study the existence and uniqueness of best proximity points in the setting of 0-complete partial metric spaces. We get our results by showing that the generalizations, which we have to consider, are obtained from the corresponding results in metric spaces. We introduce some new concepts and consider significant theorems to support this fact. Marta Demma, Mohamed Jleli, Bessem Samet, and Calogero Vetro Copyright © 2014 Marta Demma et al. All rights reserved. Selection Ideal Coal Suppliers of Thermal Power Plants Using the Matter-Element Extension Model with Integrated Empowerment Method for Sustainability Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:50:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/302748/ In order to reduce thermal power generation cost and improve its market competitiveness, considering fuel quality, cost, creditworthiness, and sustainable development capacity factors, this paper established the evaluation system for coal supplier selection of thermal power and put forward the coal supplier selection strategies for thermal power based on integrated empowering and ideal matter-element extension models. On the one hand, the integrated empowering model can overcome the limitations of subjective and objective methods to determine weights, better balance subjective, and objective information. On the other hand, since the evaluation results of the traditional element extension model may fall into the same class and only get part of the order results, in order to overcome this shortcoming, the idealistic matter-element extension model is constructed. It selects the ideal positive and negative matter-elements classical field and uses the closeness degree to replace traditional maximum degree of membership criterion and calculates the positive or negative distance between the matter-element to be evaluated and the ideal matter-element; then it can get the full order results of the evaluation schemes. Simulated and compared with the TOPSIS method, Romania selection method, and PROMETHEE method, numerical example results show that the method put forward by this paper is effective and reliable. Zhongfu Tan, Liwei Ju, Xiaobao Yu, Huijuan Zhang, and Chao Yu Copyright © 2014 Zhongfu Tan et al. All rights reserved. Imaging Findings of Gastric Diverticula Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:50:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/923098/ Introduction. Gastric diverticula (GD) are very rare. Computer tomographic findings in GD have been reported only as case reports previously. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GD on computed tomography (CT) and to analyze their radiological appearances. Materials and Methods. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 14,428 patients were examined by abdominal/thoracic CT at our institution. GD were diagnosed in 18 (0.12%) patients (13 women and 5 men, median age, 64 years). In 9 patients, additional endoscopy and in 7 patients upper gastrointestinal investigation with contrast medium were performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was available for 3 cases. Results. In all patients GD were diagnosed incidentally during CT examination. The diverticula were located at the posterior wall of the gastric fundus below the esophagogastric junction. On CT, GD presented as cystic lesions with a thin wall and an air fluid level, located behind the stomach between spleen, adrenal gland, and crus of the left diaphragm. Conclusion. The prevalence of GD encountered in our CT series is 0.12%. GD demonstrate typical CT appearances, namely, cystic lesions located in the left paravertebral region. The radiologist should be familiar with this finding to avoid possible misinterpretations. Dominik Schramm, Andreas Gunter Bach, Alexander Zipprich, and Alexey Surov Copyright © 2014 Dominik Schramm et al. All rights reserved. Overexpression of MMP13 Is Associated with Clinical Outcomes and Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:48:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/897523/ Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) plays a central role in the MMP activation cascade that enables degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membranes, and it is identified as a potential driver in oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study aims to determine the copy number, mRNA, and protein expression of MMP13 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and to associate these expressions with clinicopathological parameters. Copy number, mRNA, and protein expression analysis of MMP13 were determined using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry methods in OSCC samples. The correlations between MMP13 expressions and clinicopathological parameters were evaluated, and the significance of MMP13 as a prognostic factor was determined. Despite discrepancies between gene amplification and mRNA and protein overexpression rates, OSCC cases showed high amplification of MMP13 and overexpression of MMP13 at both mRNA and protein levels. High level of MMP13 protein expression showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis () and tumor staging (). Multivariate Cox regression model analysis revealed that high level of mRNA and protein expression of MMP13 were significantly associated with poor prognosis (). Taken together, these observations indicate that the MMP13 protein overexpression could be considered as a prognostic marker of OSCC. Vui King Vincent-Chong, Iman Salahshourifar, Lee Peng Karen-Ng, Ming Yhong Siow, Thomas George Kallarakkal, Anand Ramanathan, Yi-Hsin Yang, Goot Heah Khor, Zainal Ariff Abdul Rahman, Siti Mazlipah Ismail, Narayanan Prepageran, Wan Mahadzir Wan Mustafa, Mannil Thomas Abraham, Keng Kiong Tay, Sok Ching Cheong, and Rosnah Binti Zain Copyright © 2014 Vui King Vincent-Chong et al. All rights reserved. Biobleaching of Industrial Important Dyes with Peroxidase Partially Purified from Garlic Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:42:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/183163/ An acidic peroxidase was extracted from garlic (Allium sativum) and was partially purified threefold by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, and gel filtration chromatography using sephadex G-200. The specific activity of the enzyme increased from 4.89 U/mg after ammonium sulphate precipitation to 25.26 U/mg after gel filtration chromatography. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme were 50°C and 5.0, respectively. The Km and for H2O2 and o-dianisidine were 0.026 mM and 0.8 U/min, and 25 mM and 0.75 U/min, respectively. Peroxidase from garlic was effective in decolourizing Vat Yellow 2, Vat Orange 11, and Vat Black 27 better than Vat Green 9 dye. For all the parameters monitored, the decolourization was more effective at a pH range, temperature, H2O2 concentration, and enzyme concentration of 4.5–5.0, 50°C, 0.6 mM, and 0.20 U/mL, respectively. The observed properties of the enzyme together with its low cost of extraction (from local sources) show the potential of this enzyme for practical application in industrial wastewater treatment especially with hydrogen peroxide. These Vat dyes also exhibited potentials of acting as peroxidase inhibitors at alkaline pH range. Akudo Chigozirim Osuji, Sabinus Oscar O. Eze, Emmanuel Emeka Osayi, and Ferdinand Chiemeka Chilaka Copyright © 2014 Akudo Chigozirim Osuji et al. All rights reserved. Live-Load Testing Application Using a Wireless Sensor System and Finite-Element Model Analysis of an Integral Abutment Concrete Girder Bridge Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:29:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2014/859486/ As part of an investigation on the performance of integral abutment bridges, a single-span, integral abutment, prestressed concrete girder bridge near Perry, Utah was instrumented for live-load testing. The live-load test included driving trucks at 2.24 m/s (5 mph) along predetermined load paths and measuring the corresponding strain and deflection. The measured data was used to validate a finite-element model (FEM) of the bridge. The model showed that the integral abutments were behaving as 94% of a fixed-fixed support. Live-load distribution factors were obtained using this validated model and compared to those calculated in accordance to recommended procedures provided in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (2010). The results indicated that if the bridge was considered simply supported, the AASHTO LRFD Specification distribution factors were conservative (in comparison to the FEM results). These conservative distribution factors, along with the initial simply supported design assumption resulted in a very conservative bridge design. In addition, a parametric study was conducted by modifying various bridge properties of the validated bridge model, one at a time, in order to investigate the influence that individual changes in span length, deck thickness, edge distance, skew, and fixity had on live-load distribution. The results showed that the bridge properties with the largest influence on bridge live-load distribution were fixity, skew, and changes in edge distance. Robert W. Fausett, Paul J. Barr, and Marvin W. Halling Copyright © 2014 Robert W. Fausett et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Approach for Optimal Multimedia Data Distribution in Mobile Cloud Computing Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:21:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/am/2014/137296/ With the integration of mobile computing and cloud computing, more diverse services can be provided to the users, supporting the mobility feature of mobile computing along with the power of cloud computing. This new paradigm still faces challenges, especially in terms of performance. When it comes to multimedia data communication, thin clients (such as smart phones and tablets) suffer because of performance and power constraints. Previously done studies have trivially addressed this problem. Therefore, in our paper, we present a framework in which thick clients (laptop or desktop computers) are incorporated into mobile cloud paradigm with attention paid to user mobility. Its objective is to optimize the distribution of multimedia content between the cloud and the thin clients. Our work comes up with both numerical analysis and simulation to justify the validity and the effectiveness of the proposal approach. Pham Phuoc Hung, Mohammad Aazam, Tien-Dung Nguyen, and Eui-Nam Huh Copyright © 2014 Pham Phuoc Hung et al. All rights reserved. An Encoding Technique for Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Applied to Power Distribution System Reconfiguration Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:18:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/506769/ Network reconfiguration is an alternative to reduce power losses and optimize the operation of power distribution systems. In this paper, an encoding scheme for evolutionary algorithms is proposed in order to search efficiently for the Pareto-optimal solutions during the reconfiguration of power distribution systems considering multiobjective optimization. The encoding scheme is based on the edge window decoder (EWD) technique, which was embedded in the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) and the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). The effectiveness of the encoding scheme was proved by solving a test problem for which the true Pareto-optimal solutions are known in advance. In order to prove the practicability of the encoding scheme, a real distribution system was used to find the near Pareto-optimal solutions for different objective functions to optimize. J. L. Guardado, F. Rivas-Davalos, J. Torres, S. Maximov, and E. Melgoza Copyright © 2014 J. L. Guardado et al. All rights reserved. Dieulafoy Lesion in the Ascending Colon Presenting with Gastrointestinal Bleeding and Severe Anemia Complicated by a Coexisting Severe Resistant Chronic Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Thu, 23 Oct 2014 10:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crigm/2014/203678/ Background. GI (gastrointestinal) bleeding can be due to a variety of etiologies ranging from being common like bleeding peptic ulcer disease or esophageal varices. One of the rarely documented causes is the Dieulafoy lesion which is known as an abnormally large ectatic artery that penetrates the gut wall, occasionally eroding through the mucosa causing massive bleeding. In addition to that, we refer to the uncommon presentation of Dieulafoy lesion itself as it is well known to be found in the stomach, esophagus, duodenum, and jejunum but not the ascending colon as in our case. The patient had a coexisting ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura) that was resistant to different therapies. Case Report. We report a case of a 48-year-old Egyptian female known for chronic ITP resistant to treatment. The patient presented with bright red bleeding per rectum and severe life threatening anemia. Endoscopic study showed a Dieulafoy lesion. Endoscopic clipping was successful in controlling the bleeding. Conclusion. Dieulafoy lesion is a rare reason for GI bleeding and can present in common or unexpected places. Also extreme caution should be used in patients with bleeding tendency due to different reasons, like ITP in our case. Sherif Ali Eltawansy, Brag Thyagarajan, and Nadeem Baig Copyright © 2014 Sherif Ali Eltawansy et al. All rights reserved. Geographical and Seasonal Patterns of Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol in Environmental Water in Jiangsu Province of China Thu, 23 Oct 2014 10:00:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2014/743924/ This study was conducted to obtain the basic data of two common odorants—geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (GSM and 2-MIB)—in environmental water. More specifically, the headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) was applied to determine the levels of GSM and 2-MIB in water samples, and the samples were collected depending on water sources, conventional treatment processes, and seasons. The significant difference was shown for the 2-MIB levels of source water , the concentrations of GSM and 2-MIB decreased significantly as treatment process of tap water moved forward , and the significant differences for the levels of GSM and 2-MIB were observed among three sampling periods . The levels of GSM and 2-MIB in all water samples were lower than 10 ng L−1, the odor threshold concentration (OTC), and the conventional treatment process plays a significant role in removing odorants in tap water. Zhen Ding, Shifu Peng, Yuqin Jin, Zhoubin Xuan, Xiaodong Chen, and Lihong Yin Copyright © 2014 Zhen Ding et al. All rights reserved. Encoding Theory of Mind in Character Design for Pedagogical Interactive Narrative Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:52:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahci/2014/386928/ Computer aided interactive narrative allows people to participate actively in a dynamically unfolding story, by playing a character or by exerting directorial control. Because of its potential for providing interesting stories as well as allowing user interaction, interactive narrative has been recognized as a promising tool for providing both education and entertainment. This paper discusses the challenges in creating interactive narratives for pedagogical applications and how the challenges can be addressed by using agent-based technologies. We argue that a rich model of characters and in particular a Theory of Mind capacity are needed. The character architect in the Thespian framework for interactive narrative is presented as an example of how decision-theoretic agents can be used for encoding Theory of Mind and for creating pedagogical interactive narratives. Mei Si and Stacy C. Marsella Copyright © 2014 Mei Si and Stacy C. Marsella. All rights reserved. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:46:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/193464/ Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. Si-Yuan Qin, Ming-Yang Yin, Wei Cong, Dong-Hui Zhou, Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Quan Zhao, Xing-Quan Zhu, Ji-Zhang Zhou, and Ai-Dong Qian Copyright © 2014 Si-Yuan Qin et al. All rights reserved. Multiscale Coupling of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Neuron Electrodynamics: Modeling the Influence of the Transcranial Electric Field on Neuronal Depolarization Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:26:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/360179/ Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) continues to demonstrate success as a medical intervention for neurodegenerative diseases, psychological conditions, and traumatic brain injury recovery. One aspect of tDCS still not fully comprehended is the influence of the tDCS electric field on neural functionality. To address this issue, we present a mathematical, multiscale model that couples tDCS administration to neuron electrodynamics. We demonstrate the model’s validity and medical applicability with computational simulations using an idealized two-dimensional domain and then an MRI-derived, three-dimensional human head geometry possessing inhomogeneous and anisotropic tissue conductivities. We exemplify the capabilities of these simulations with real-world tDCS electrode configurations and treatment parameters and compare the model’s predictions to those attained from medical research studies. The model is implemented using efficient numerical strategies and solution techniques to allow the use of fine computational grids needed by the medical community. Edward T. Dougherty, James C. Turner, and Frank Vogel Copyright © 2014 Edward T. Dougherty et al. All rights reserved. Auditory Dysfunction in Patients with Cerebrovascular Disease Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:21:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/261824/ Auditory dysfunction is a common clinical symptom that can induce profound effects on the quality of life of those affected. Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the most prevalent neurological disorder today, but it has generally been considered a rare cause of auditory dysfunction. However, a substantial proportion of patients with stroke might have auditory dysfunction that has been underestimated due to difficulties with evaluation. The present study reviews relationships between auditory dysfunction and types of CVD including cerebral infarction, intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebrovascular malformation, moyamoya disease, and superficial siderosis. Recent advances in the etiology, anatomy, and strategies to diagnose and treat these conditions are described. The numbers of patients with CVD accompanied by auditory dysfunction will increase as the population ages. Cerebrovascular diseases often include the auditory system, resulting in various types of auditory dysfunctions, such as unilateral or bilateral deafness, cortical deafness, pure word deafness, auditory agnosia, and auditory hallucinations, some of which are subtle and can only be detected by precise psychoacoustic and electrophysiological testing. The contribution of CVD to auditory dysfunction needs to be understood because CVD can be fatal if overlooked. Sadaharu Tabuchi Copyright © 2014 Sadaharu Tabuchi. All rights reserved. An Efficient Hierarchy Algorithm for Community Detection in Complex Networks Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:16:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/874217/ Community structure is one of the most fundamental and important topology characteristics of complex networks. The research on community structure has wide applications and is very important for analyzing the topology structure, understanding the functions, finding the hidden properties, and forecasting the time-varying of the networks. This paper analyzes some related algorithms and proposes a new algorithm—CN agglomerative algorithm based on graph theory and the local connectedness of network to find communities in network. We show this algorithm is distributed and polynomial; meanwhile the simulations show it is accurate and fine-grained. Furthermore, we modify this algorithm to get one modified CN algorithm and apply it to dynamic complex networks, and the simulations also verify that the modified CN algorithm has high accuracy too. Lili Zhang, Qing Ye, Yehong Shao, Chenming Li, and Hongmin Gao Copyright © 2014 Lili Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Directed Deposition of Nickel Nanoparticles Using Self-Assembled Organic Template Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:13:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/861056/ Self-assembled organic monolayers are useful templates for nanofabrication. Ordered layer of long alkyl-chain molecules can direct the wet chemical deposition of metallic coatings on different substrates. Ordered structures of fatty acids and their motions on the phenyloctane/HOPG interface are observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Modification of self-assembled fatty acid patterns due to hydroxamic acid presence is also in the focus of the research. Fatty acid layer formation, the structure of the formed thin film on solid/liquid interface, and simultaneous nickel colloidal deposition have been investigated. András Paszternák, Meital Shviro, Lajos Nyikos, and David Zitoun Copyright © 2014 András Paszternák et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Classification of the Unique Features of Mass Housing Projects Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:12:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcen/2014/927652/ Mass housing projects (MHPs) are said to differ significantly from the “one-off” traditional building projects often encountered in the construction industry and thus require unique management skills and approach in MHPs delivery. This unique nature of MHPs contributes to managerial inefficiencies that result in delivery failures when management approaches are not adapted to the project characteristics. However, understanding and knowledge of the unique attributes of MHPs are critical towards improving the organisation, planning, managerial effectiveness, and delivery success of mass housing projects. To date, extensive studies establishing the unique features of mass housing projects are lacking. This study is set out to identify what constitutes the unique features of mass housing projects by comparing mass housing projects to traditional “one-off” building projects. A questionnaire survey was used to establish mass housing practitioners’ perception of the unique characteristics of MHPs. Data analysis involving mean scores and ANOVA revealed 10 unique features of MHP. A clear and systematic understanding of these unique features of MHPs is crucial for evolving effective project management practices and critical competencies towards successful delivery of current and future MHPs. Titus Ebenezer Kwofie, Frank Fugar, Emmanuel Adinyira, and Divine Kwaku Ahadzie Copyright © 2014 Titus Ebenezer Kwofie et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of Moderately Loaded Transonic Axial Compressor Performance Using Low Porosity Bend Skewed Casing Treatment Thu, 23 Oct 2014 09:08:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrm/2014/625876/ This paper presents experimental results of a single stage transonic axial flow compressor coupled with low porosity bend skewed casing treatment. The casing treatment has a plenum chamber above the bend slots. The depth of the plenum chamber is varied to understand its impact on the performance of compressor stage. The performance of the compressor stage is evaluated for casing treatment and plenum chamber configurations at two axial locations of 20% and 40%. Experimental results reveal that the stall margin of the compressor stage increases with increase in the plenum chamber volume. Hot-wire measurements show significant reduction in the turbulence intensity with increase in the plenum chamber volume compared to that with the solid casing at the stall condition. At higher operating speeds of 80% and at 20% axial coverage, the stall margin of the compressor increases by 20% with half and full plenum depth. The improvement in the peak stage efficiency observed is 4.6% with half plenum configuration and 3.34% with the full plenum configuration. The maximum improvement in the stall margin of 29.16% is obtained at 50% operating speed with full plenum configurations at 40% axial coverage. Dilipkumar Bhanudasji Alone, S. Satish Kumar, Shobhavathy M. Thimmaiah, Janaki Rami Reddy Mudipalli, A. M. Pradeep, Srinivasan Ramamurthy, and Venkat S. Iyengar Copyright © 2014 Dilipkumar Bhanudasji Alone et al. All rights reserved. Placental Evolution within the Supraordinal Clades of Eutheria with the Perspective of Alternative Animal Models for Human Placentation Thu, 23 Oct 2014 08:50:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ab/2014/639274/ Here a survey of placental evolution is conducted. Placentation is a key factor for the evolution of placental mammals that had evolved an astonishing diversity. As a temporary organ that does not allow easy access, it is still not well understood. The lack of data also is a restriction for better understanding of placental development, structure, and function in the human. Animal models are essential, because experimental access to the human placenta is naturally restricted. However, there is not a single ideal model that is entirely similar to humans. It is particularly important to establish other models than the mouse, which is characterised by a short gestation period and poorly developed neonates that may provide insights only for early human pregnancy. In conclusion, current evolutionary studies have contributed essentially to providing a pool of experimental models for recent and future approaches that may also meet the requirements of a long gestation period and advanced developmental status of the newborn in the human. Suitability and limitations of taxa as alternative animal models are discussed. However, further investigations especially in wildlife taxa should be conducted in order to learn more about the full evolutionary plasticity of the placenta system. Andrea Mess Copyright © 2014 Andrea Mess. All rights reserved. Analysis of Herbaceous Plant Succession and Dispersal Mechanisms in Deglaciated Terrain on Mt. Yulong, China Thu, 23 Oct 2014 08:32:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/154539/ Ecological succession itself could be a theoretical reference for ecosystem restoration and reconstruction. Glacier forelands are ideal places for investigating plant succession because there are representative ecological succession records at long temporal scales. Based on field observations and experimental data on the foreland of Baishui number 1 Glacier on Mt. Yulong, the succession and dispersal mechanisms of dominant plant species were examined by using numerical classification and ordination methods. Fifty samples were first classified into nine community types and then into three succession stages. The three succession stages occurred about 9–13, 13–102, and 110–400 years ago, respectively. The earliest succession stage contained the association of Arenaria delavayi + Meconopsis horridula. The middle stage contained the associations of Arenaria delavayi + Kobresia fragilis, Carex capilliformis + Polygonum macrophyllum, Carex kansuensis, and also Pedicularis rupicola. The last stage included the associations of Kobresia fragilis + Carex capilliformis, Kobresia fragilis, Kobresia fragilis + Ligusticum rechingerana, and Kobresia fragilis + Ligusticum sikiangense. The tendency of the succession was from bare land to sparse vegetation and then to alpine meadow. In addition, three modes of dispersal were observed, namely, anemochory, mammalichory, and myrmecochory. The dispersal modes of dominant species in plant succession process were evolved from anemochory to zoochory. Li Chang, Yuanqing He, Taibao Yang, Jiankuo Du, Hewen Niu, and Tao Pu Copyright © 2014 Li Chang et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Severe Carotid Stenosis in a Patient with Familial Hypercholesterolemia without Significant Coronary Artery Disease Thu, 23 Oct 2014 08:30:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2014/853921/ Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the blood. In its heterozygous form, it occurs in 1 in 500 individuals in the general population. It is an important contributor to the early onset of coronary artery disease (CAD), accounting for 5–10% of cases of cardiovascular events in people younger than 50 years. Atherogenesis triggered by hypercholesterolemia generally progresses faster in the coronary arteries, followed by the subsequent involvement of other arteries such as the carotids. Thus, symptoms of CAD commonly appear before the onset of significant carotid stenosis. Herein, we report the case of a patient with untreated FH who had severe carotid atherosclerosis at the age of 46 years but had no evidence of significant CAD. Marcos Aurélio Lima Barros, Hygor Ferreira-Fernandes, Ingrid Cristina Rêgo Barros, Adriel Rêgo Barbosa, and Giovanny Rebouças Pinto Copyright © 2014 Marcos Aurélio Lima Barros et al. All rights reserved. Correlation of CK5 and EGFR with Clinicopathological Profile of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Thu, 23 Oct 2014 08:23:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pri/2014/141864/ Purpose. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the loss of expression of ER, PR, and Her2neu expressions. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the EGFR, CK5, and Ki-67 among triple-negative breast cancer cases and to correlate the expression of the basal markers with the clinicopathological prognostic parameters. Materials and Methods. Thirty-six female patients with TNBC based on ER, PR, and the HER2neu negativities were studied by immunohistochemistry for EGFR, CK5, and Ki-67 expression. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software version 20. Results. The mean and median ages were 45.18 years and 46.70 years, respectively. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma NOS was the predominant histopathological type (29/36 [80.6%]). The commonest histological grade was grade 2 (17/36 [47.2%]). Tumour necrosis was seen in 16/36 (44.4%) patients. Infiltrative margins were shown in 69.44% (25/36) cases. Ki-67 was positive in 80.56% (29/36) cases, 61.11% (22/36) were CK5-positive, and 86.11% (31/36) were EGFR-positive. The only significant positive association observed was between the CK5 and histological grade (). Conclusion. CK5 shows a statistically significantly correlation with TNBC histological grade. The majority of the specimens show EGFR expression. Therefore TNBCs could potentially benefit from EGFR-targeted therapeutic strategies. Neelam Sood and Jitendra Singh Nigam Copyright © 2014 Neelam Sood and Jitendra Singh Nigam. All rights reserved. Prognostic Significance of MicroRNA-375 Downregulation in Solid Tumors: A Meta-Analysis Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:56:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2014/626185/ Objective. Recently, many studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNA) exhibit altered expression in various cancers and may play an important role as prognostic biomarker of cancers. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of miR-375 expression in solid tumors on patients’ overall survival (OS). Methods. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embace, and Cochrane Library (last search update was in May 2014) and were assessed by further quality evaluation. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for total and stratified analyses were calculated to investigate the association between miR-375 expression and cancer patients OS. Results. Our analysis results indicated that downregulation of miR-375 predicted poor OS (HR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.48–2.45, ). Subgroup analyses showed that lower expression of miR-375 was significantly related with poor OS in patients with esophageal carcinoma (HR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.69–2.96, ) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (HR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.31–2.24, ). Conclusions. The findings from this meta-analysis suggest that miR-375 expression is associated with OS of patients with malignant tumors and could be a useful clinical prognostic biomarker. Yingjie Shao, Yiting Geng, Wendong Gu, Jin Huang, Zhonghua Ning, and Honglei Pei Copyright © 2014 Yingjie Shao et al. All rights reserved. Improving Vehicle Ride and Handling Using LQG CNF Fusion Control Strategy for an Active Antiroll Bar System Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:48:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/698195/ This paper analyses a comparison of performance for an active antiroll bar (ARB) system using two types of control strategy. First of all, the LQG control strategy is investigated and then a novel LQG CNF fusion control method is developed to improve the performances on vehicle ride and handling for an active antiroll bar system. However, the ARB system has to balance the trade-off between ride and handling performance, where the CNF consists of a linear feedback law and a nonlinear feedback law. Typically, the linear feedback is designed to yield a quick response at the initial stage, while the nonlinear feedback law is used to smooth out overshoots in the system output when it approaches the target reference. The half car model is combined with a linear single track model with roll dynamics which are used for the analysis and simulation of ride and handling. The performances of the control strategies are compared and the simulation results show the LQG CNF fusion improves the performances in vehicle ride and handling. N. Zulkarnain, H. Zamzuri, Y. M. Sam, S. A. Mazlan, and S. M. H. F. Zainal Copyright © 2014 N. Zulkarnain et al. All rights reserved. Estrogen Signaling in Metabolic Inflammation Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/615917/ There is extensive evidence supporting the interference of inflammatory activation with metabolism. Obesity, mainly visceral obesity, is associated with a low-grade inflammatory state, triggered by metabolic surplus where specialized metabolic cells such as adipocytes activate cellular stress initiating and sustaining the inflammatory program. The increasing prevalence of obesity, resulting in increased cardiometabolic risk and precipitating illness such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver, cirrhosis, and certain types of cancer, constitutes a good example of this association. The metabolic actions of estrogens have been studied extensively and there is also accumulating evidence that estrogens influence immune processes. However, the connection between these two fields of estrogen actions has been underacknowledged since little attention has been drawn towards the possible action of estrogens on the modulation of metabolism through their anti-inflammatory properties. In the present paper, we summarize knowledge on the modification inflammatory processes by estrogens with impact on metabolism and highlight major research questions on the field. Understanding the regulation of metabolic inflammation by estrogens may provide the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies to the management of metabolic dysfunctions. Rosário Monteiro, Diana Teixeira, and Conceição Calhau Copyright © 2014 Rosário Monteiro et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements with Scheimpflug/Placido Photography-Based Topography System and IOLMaster Partial Coherence Interferometry in Patients with Cataracts Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:35:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/540760/ Purpose. To assess the consistency of anterior segment measurements obtained using a Sirius Scheimpflug/Placido photography-based topography system (CSO, Italy) and IOLMaster partial coherence interferometry (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) in eyes with cataracts. Methods. A total of 90 eyes of 90 patients were included in this prospective study. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), corneal astigmatism axis, and white to white (WTW) values were randomly measured three times with Sirius and IOLMaster. Concordance between them was assessed by calculating 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The ACD and K taken with the Sirius were statistically significantly higher than that taken with the IOLMaster; however, the Sirius significantly underestimated the WTW values compared with the IOLMaster. Good agreement was found for Km and ACD measurements, with 95% LoA of −0.20 to 0.54 mm and −0.16 to 0.34 mm, respectively. Poor agreement was observed for astigmatism axis and WTW measurements, as the 95% LoA was −23.96 to 23.36° and −1.15 to 0.37 mm, respectively. Conclusion. With the exception of astigmatism axis and WTW, anterior segment measurements taken by Sirius and IOLMaster devices showed good agreement and may be used interchangeably in patients with cataracts. Jinhai Huang, Na Liao, Giacomo Savini, Fangjun Bao, Ye Yu, Weicong Lu, Qingjie Hu, and Qinmei Wang Copyright © 2014 Jinhai Huang et al. All rights reserved. Some Propositions on Generalized Nevanlinna Functions of the Class Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:15:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2014/605492/ Some propositions on the generalized Nevanlinna functions are derived. We indicate mainly that (1) the negative inertia index of a Hermitian generalized Loewner matrix generated by a generalized Nevanlinna function in the class does not exceed . This leads to an equivalent definition of a generalized Nevanlinna function; (2) if a generalized Nevanlinna function in the class has a uniform asymptotic expansion at a real point or at infinity, then the negative inertia index of the Hankel matrix constructed with the partial coefficients of that asymptotic expansion does not exceed . Also, an explicit formula for the negative index of a real rational function is given by using relations among Loewner, Bézout, and Hankel matrices. These results will provide first tools for the solution of the indefinite truncated moment problems together with the multiple Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problems in the class based on the so-called Hankel vector approach. Yan-Ping Song, Hui-Feng Hao, Yong-Jian Hu, and Gong-Ning Chen Copyright © 2014 Yan-Ping Song et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Continuous Cropping Generations on Each Component Biomass of Poplar Seedlings during Different Growth Periods Thu, 23 Oct 2014 07:14:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/618421/ In order to investigate the change rules and response characteristics of growth status on each component of poplar seedling followed by continuous cropping generations and growth period, we clear the biomass distribution pattern of poplar seedling, adapt continuous cropping, and provide theoretical foundation and technical reference on cultivation management of poplar seedling, the first generation, second generation, and third generation continuous cropping poplar seedlings were taken as study objects, and the whole poplar seedling was harvested to measure and analyze the change of each component biomass on different growth period poplar leaves, newly emerging branches, trunks and root system, and so forth. The results showed that the whole biomass of poplar seedling decreased significantly with the leaf area and its ratio increased, and the growth was inhibited obviously. The biomass aboveground was more than that underground. The ratios of leaf biomass and newly emerging branches biomass of first continuous cropping poplar seedling were relatively high. With the continuous cropping generations and growth cycle increasing, poplar seedling had a growth strategy to improve the ratio of root-shoot and root-leaf to adapt the limited soil nutrient of continuous cropping. Jiangbao Xia, Shuyong Zhang, Tian Li, Xia Liu, Ronghua Zhang, and Guangcan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Jiangbao Xia et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Risk Factors for Retinopathy of Prematurity Development in Paired Twins: A Chinese Population Study Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:57:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/212183/ Purpose. To determine the differences in risk factors for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in paired twins. Methods. A retrospective medical record review was performed for all paired twins screened for ROP between 2007 and 2012. Screening was offered to very low birth weight (≤1500 grams) and preterm (≤32 weeks) neonates. Twins 1 and 2 were categorized based on the order of delivery. Maternal and neonatal covariates were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression analyses for both ROP and Type 1 ROP. Results. In 34 pairs of Chinese twins, the mean gestational age (GA) was 30.2 ± 2.0 weeks. In Twin 1, smaller GA (OR = 0.44, ), higher mean oxygen concentration (OR = 1.34, ), presence of thrombocytopenia (OR = 1429.60, ), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR = 18.67, ) were significant risk factors for ROP. For Twin 2, a smaller GA (OR = 0.45, ) was the only risk factor. There were no significant risk factors for ROP in Twin 1 or Twin 2 on multivariate analysis. Conclusion. In Chinese twin pairs, smaller GA was the only common risk factor for ROP while Twin 1 was more susceptible to the postnatal risks for ROP. Gordon S. K. Yau, Jacky W. Y. Lee, Victor T. Y. Tam, Stan Yip, Edith Cheng, Catherine C. L. Liu, Benjamin C. Y. Chu, and Can Y. F. Yuen Copyright © 2014 Gordon S. K. Yau et al. All rights reserved. On Types of Distance Fibonacci Numbers Generated by Number Decompositions Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:47:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/491591/ We introduce new types of distance Fibonacci numbers which are closely related with number decompositions. Using special decompositions of the number we give a sequence of identities for them. Moreover, we give matrix generators for distance Fibonacci numbers and their direct formulas. Anetta Szynal-Liana, Andrzej Włoch, and Iwona Włoch Copyright © 2014 Anetta Szynal-Liana et al. All rights reserved. Variability in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate by Area under the Curve Predicts Renal Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:41:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/802037/ Greater variability in renal function is associated with mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have demonstrated the predictive value of renal function variability in relation to renal outcomes. This study investigates the predictive ability of different methods of determining estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) variability for progression to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in CKD patients. This was a prospective observational study, which enrolled 1,862 CKD patients. The renal end point was defined as commencement of RRT. The variability in eGFR was measured by the area under the eGFR curve (AUC)%. A significant improvement in model prediction was based on the −2 log likelihood ratio statistic. During a median 28.7-month follow-up, there were 564 (30.3%) patients receiving RRT. In an adjusted Cox model, a smaller initial eGFR AUC%_12M (), a smaller peak eGFR AUC%_12M (), and a larger negative eGFR slope_12M () were associated with a higher risk of renal end point. Two calculated formulas: initial eGFR AUC%_12M and eGFR slope_12M were the best predictors. Our results demonstrate that the greater eGFR variability by AUC% is associated with the higher risk of progression to RRT. Szu-Chia Chen, Ming-Yen Lin, Teng-Hui Huang, Chi-Chih Hung, Yi-Wen Chiu, Jer-Ming Chang, Jer-Chia Tsai, Shang-Jyh Hwang, and Hung-Chun Chen Copyright © 2014 Szu-Chia Chen et al. All rights reserved. Independent Validation of the SEND-PD and Correlation with the MDS-UPDRS Part IA Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:32:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2014/260485/ Introduction. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease can be assessed by the MDS-UPDRS part IA. The Scale for Evaluation of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Parkinson’s disease (SEND-PD) has been recently developed to assess the severity of some neuropsychiatric symptoms. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of the SEND-PD with the corresponding items of the MDS-UPDRS part IA. Methods. Patients with Parkinson’s disease were evaluated using the MDS-UPDRS and the SEND-PD by independent raters. Partial SEND-PD and neuropsychiatric MDS-UPDRS part IA were constructed with equivalent items for comparison. Results. A total of 260 consecutive patients were included. Overall, 61.2% of the patients did not report any psychotic symptom and 83.5% did not report any ICD symptom. On the other hand, 78.5% of the patients did report at least one symptom related to apathy, depression, or anxiety. The partial SEND-PD score was (range from 0 to 16). The neuropsychiatric MDS-UPDRS part IA score was (range from 0 to 14). The correlation coefficient between corresponding items ranged from 0.67 to 0.98 and between both summary indexes was (all, ). Conclusion. A high association between equivalent items of the SEND-PD and the MDS-UPDRS was found. Mayela Rodríguez-Violante, Amin Cervantes-Arriaga, Salvador Velázquez-Osuna, Rodrigo Llorens-Arenas, Humberto Calderón-Fajardo, Dan Piña-Fuentes, and Pablo Martinez-Martin Copyright © 2014 Mayela Rodríguez-Violante et al. All rights reserved. Using Celecoxib for the Suppression of Preterm Labor Instead of Magnesium Sulfate Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:29:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2014/869698/ We aimed to use celecoxib to suppress preterm labor instead magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) to prevent preterm labor. Methods. It was a randomized clinical trial study, which was done on 600 pregnant women. All subjects were divided into two groups by simple random sampling. One group was given 4 grams of MgSO4 intravenously and second group was given 100 mg of celecoxib orally every 12 hours for at least 2 days. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 11 and performed using -test and chi-square test. Results. The finding of this study has shown that preterm labor may be prevented in 75.7% of subjects who had received celecoxib and there were no significant difference between two groups in frequency of history of preterm labor (), frequencies of nulliparity (), duration of drug use and arrest contraction (), delivery before 48 hours (), and mean gestational age in lack of response to treatment (). Conclusions. Result has shown that celecoxib was similar to MgSO4 as a medication to prevent preterm labor; it was recommended to be prescribe to prevent preterm labor, because it was cheaper than magnesium sulfate. Najmieh Saadati, Farideh Moramezi, Maria Cheraghi, and Laila Sokhray Copyright © 2014 Najmieh Saadati et al. All rights reserved. Modelling of Lime Kiln Using Subspace Method with New Order Selection Criterion Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:20:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/816831/ This paper is taking actual control demand of rotary kiln as background and builds a calcining belt state space model using PO-Moesp subspace method. A novel order-delay double parameters error criterion (ODC) is presented to reduce the modeling order. The proposed subspace order identification method takes into account the influence of order and delay on model error criterion simultaneously. For the introduction of the delay factors, the order is reduced dramatically in the system modeling. Also, in the data processing part sliding-window method is adopted for stripping delay factor from historical data. For this, the parameters can be changed flexibly. Some practical problems in industrial kiln process modeling are also solved. Finally, it is applied to an industrial kiln case. Li Zhang, Chengjin Zhang, Qingyang Xu, and Chaoyang Wang Copyright © 2014 Li Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Security Analysis in Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:18:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/303501/ In recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN) is employed in many application areas such as monitoring, tracking, and controlling. For many applications of WSN, security is an important requirement. However, security solutions in WSN differ from traditional networks due to resource limitation and computational constraints. This paper analyzes security solutions: TinySec, IEEE 802.15.4, SPINS, MiniSEC, LSec, LLSP, LISA, and LISP in WSN. The paper also presents characteristics, security requirements, attacks, encryption algorithms, and operation modes. This paper is considered to be useful for security designers in WSNs. Murat Dener Copyright © 2014 Murat Dener. All rights reserved. In Vitro Selection of a Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Element Specific for Bromacil Thu, 23 Oct 2014 06:15:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jna/2014/102968/ Bromacil is a widely used herbicide that is known to contaminate environmental systems. Due to the hazards it presents and inefficient detection methods, it is necessary to create a rapid and efficient sensing device. Towards this end, we have utilized a stringent in vitro selection method to identify single-stranded DNA molecular recognition elements (MRE) specific for bromacil. We have identified one MRE with high affinity ( nM) and specificity for bromacil compared to negative targets of selection and other pesticides. The selected ssDNA MRE will be useful as the sensing element in a field-deployable bromacil detection device. Ryan M. Williams, Amanda R. Kulick, Srilakshmi Yedlapalli, Louisa Battistella, Cyrus J. Hajiran, and Letha J. Sooter Copyright © 2014 Ryan M. Williams et al. All rights reserved. A Simple Technique to Facilitate Treatment of Urethral Strictures with Optical Internal Urethrotomy Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2014/137605/ Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization, urethroplasty, endoscopic internal urethrotomy, and dilation. Optical internal urethrotomy offers faster recovery, minimal scarring, and less risk of infection, although recurrence is possible. However, technical difficulties associated with poor visualization of the stenosis or of the urethral lumen may increase procedural time and substantially increase the failure rates of internal urethrotomy. In this report we describe a technique for urethral catheterization via a suprapubic, percutaneous approach through the urinary bladder in order to facilitate endoscopic internal urethrotomy. Konstantinos Stamatiou, Aggeliki Papadatou, Hippocrates Moschouris, Ioannis Kornezos, Anargiros Pavlis, and Georgios Christopoulos Copyright © 2014 Konstantinos Stamatiou et al. All rights reserved. Tracking the Ionospheric Response to the Solar Eclipse of November 03, 2013 Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijas/2014/127859/ The ionospheric dynamics is highly influenced by the solar radiation. During a solar eclipse, the moon occults the solar radiation from reaching the ionosphere, which may drastically affect the variability of the ionosphere. The variability of total electron content (TEC) observed by dual frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has made it possible to study effects of solar eclipse on the ionosphere. Total eclipse occurred on November 03, 2013, and the maximum amplitude was visible at Owiny in northern Uganda. Ionospheric behavior during this eclipse was analysed by using TEC data archived at Mbarara (MBAR), Malindi (MAL2), Eldoret (MOIU), and Kigali University (NURK) International GPS Satellite (IGS) stations. TEC variations of four consecutive days were used to study instantaneous changes of TEC during the eclipse event. The results generally show TEC decrease at the four stations. However, a maximum perturbation amplitude of ≥20 TECU was observed at MAL2 (18:00–20:00 UT) which is further south of the equator than the other stations. TEC enhancement and depletion were observed during the totality of the eclipse at MOIU, MBAR, NURK, and MAL2 (13:00–15:00 UT). This study found out that the ionospheric TEC over East Africa was modified by wave-like energy and momentum transport and obscuration of the solar disc due to the total solar eclipse. Emirant Bertillas Amabayo, Simon Katrini Anguma, and Edward Jurua Copyright © 2014 Emirant Bertillas Amabayo et al. All rights reserved. Safer Conception Needs for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso and Togo Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2014/296245/ Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW) may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1,349 reproductive-aged FSW were enrolled from January to July 2013. Overall, 267 FSW (19.8%) were currently trying to conceive. FSW trying to conceive were more likely to test positive for HIV at enrollment as compared to women not trying to become pregnant (24.5% versus 17.7%, ); however awareness of HIV status was similar across groups. Among FSW trying to conceive, 79.0% (211/267) had previously received HIV testing, yet only 33.8% (23/68) of HIV-infected FSW reported a previous HIV diagnosis. Overall 25.0% (17/68) of HIV-infected FSW trying to conceive were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion. FSW frequently desire children. However engagement in the HIV prevention and treatment cascade among FSW trying to conceive is poor potentiating periconception transmission risks to partners and infants. Programs to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis for FSW and safer conception counseling are needed as components of effective combination HIV prevention services. Sheree R. Schwartz, Erin Papworth, Odette Ky-Zerbo, Simplice Anato, Ashley Grosso, Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Sosthenes Ketende, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, and Stefan Baral Copyright © 2014 Sheree R. Schwartz et al. All rights reserved. Data Transformation for Confidence Interval Improvement: An Application to the Estimation of Stress-Strength Model Reliability Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ads/2014/485629/ In many statistical applications, it is often necessary to obtain an interval estimate for an unknown proportion or probability or, more generally, for a parameter whose natural space is the unit interval. The customary approximate two-sided confidence interval for such a parameter, based on some version of the central limit theorem, is known to be unsatisfactory when its true value is close to zero or one or when the sample size is small. A possible way to tackle this issue is the transformation of the data through a proper function that is able to make the approximation to the normal distribution less coarse. In this paper, we study the application of several of these transformations to the context of the estimation of the reliability parameter for stress-strength models, with a special focus on Poisson distribution. From this work, some practical hints emerge on which transformation may more efficiently improve standard confidence intervals in which scenarios. Alessandro Barbiero Copyright © 2014 Alessandro Barbiero. All rights reserved. Majocchi’s Granuloma after Topical Corticosteroids Therapy Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cridm/2014/507176/ Majocchi’s granuloma (MG) is an unusual but not rare dermatophyte infection of dermal and subcutaneous tissues. Dermatophytes usually result in the infections of hair, epidermis, and nail, and are rarely involved in deep cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. Now it is considered that MG includes two forms: one is a small perifollicular papular form and the other is a deep subcutaneous nodular form; the front one mainly occurs in healthy individuals and the latter one usually presents in immunocompromised hosts. The clinical manifestations of MG are many and varied, except the common presentations of erythema, papule and nodules, and Kaposi sarcoma-like and molluscum-like lesions have been reported in literatures (Kim et al. (2011), Bord et al. (2007), and Lillis et al. (2010)). This characteristic induces the difficulty of diagnosis, and thus it is so important and necessary to make direct microscopical and histological examinations. We describe a case of MG over the face in a patient who had been treated with topical corticosteroids over a long time. Fu-qiu Li, Sha Lv, and Jian-xin Xia Copyright © 2014 Fu-qiu Li et al. All rights reserved. Validation of Methods for the Optical Characterisation of the Wettability of Polymeric Films for Food Packaging Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jie/2014/623510/ A methodology is described for the theoretical-experimental evaluation of the measurement uncertainty of the polar and dispersive components of the surface free energy (SFE) in polypropylene films; these parameters are related to the film wettability of adhesives and inks. The proposed method is based on the measurement by means of a vision system of the contact angles of liquid drops deposited on the film itself, which allows for obtaining, through mathematical models drawn from the literature, the physical quantities of interest. The effect of the principal influence parameters has been experimentally evaluated, and testing has allowed the defining of the technical procedures readily transferable in the industry. The uncertainty assessment is interesting not only to correctly evaluate experimental data but also to characterise the reproducibility of the effects of techniques for improving the wettability of films, such as surface treatments. Giulio D’Emilia and Emanuela Natale Copyright © 2014 Giulio D’Emilia and Emanuela Natale. All rights reserved. Energy-Efficient Cluster Based Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Network Coding Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2014/351020/ In mobile ad hoc networks, all nodes are energy constrained. In such situations, it is important to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we consider the issues of energy efficient communication in MANETs using network coding. Network coding is an effective method to improve the performance of wireless networks. COPE protocol implements network coding concept to reduce number of transmissions by mixing the packets at intermediate nodes. We incorporate COPE into cluster based routing protocol to further reduce the energy consumption. The proposed energy-efficient coding-aware cluster based routing protocol (ECCRP) scheme applies network coding at cluster heads to reduce number of transmissions. We also modify the queue management procedure of COPE protocol to further improve coding opportunities. We also use an energy efficient scheme while selecting the cluster head. It helps to increase the life time of the network. We evaluate the performance of proposed energy efficient cluster based protocol using simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed ECCRP algorithm reduces energy consumption and increases life time of the network. Srinivas Kanakala, Venugopal Reddy Ananthula, and Prashanthi Vempaty Copyright © 2014 Srinivas Kanakala et al. All rights reserved. Exercise Training Preserves Ischemic Preconditioning in Aged Rat Hearts by Restoring the Myocardial Polyamine Pool Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/457429/ Background. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) strongly protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, IPC protection is ineffective in aged hearts. Exercise training reduces the incidence of age-related cardiovascular disease and upregulates the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)/polyamine pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise can reestablish IPC protection in aged hearts and whether IPC protection is linked to restoration of the cardiac polyamine pool. Methods. Rats aging 3 or 18 months perform treadmill exercises with or without gradient respectively for 6 weeks. Isolated hearts and isolated cardiomyocytes were exposed to an IR and IPC protocol. Results. IPC induced an increase in myocardial polyamines by regulating ODC and spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT) in young rat hearts, but IPC did not affect polyamine metabolism in aged hearts. Exercise training inhibited the loss of preconditioning protection and restored the polyamine pool by activating ODC and inhibiting SSAT in aged hearts. An ODC inhibitor, α-difluoromethylornithine, abolished the recovery of preconditioning protection mediated by exercise. Moreover, polyamines improved age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro. Conclusion. Exercise appears to restore preconditioning protection in aged rat hearts, possibly due to an increase in intracellular polyamines and an improvement in mitochondrial function in response to a preconditioning stimulus. Weiwei Wang, Hao Zhang, Guo Xue, Li Zhang, Weihua Zhang, Lina Wang, Fanghao Lu, Hongzhu Li, Shuzhi Bai, Yan Lin, Yu Lou, Changqing Xu, and Yajun Zhao Copyright © 2014 Weiwei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Population Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/391250/ Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common worldwide infection with known gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal complications. One of the gastrointestinal side effects posed for this organism is its role in diabetes and increased insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HP and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetics. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May to December 2013 on 211 diabetic patients referred to diabetes clinic of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom and 218 patients without diabetes. HP was evaluated using serology method and insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 55.8% and 44.2% in diabetics and nondiabetics . The study population was divided into two HP positive and negative groups. Among nondiabetics, insulin resistance degree was and in HP+ and HP− patients, respectively . Oppositely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in diabetic HP+ patients rather than seronegative ones versus , . In diabetic patients, in addition to higher prevalence of HP, it causes a higher degree of insulin resistance. Jamshid Vafaeimanesh, Mahmoud Parham, Mohammadreza Seyyedmajidi, and Mohammad Bagherzadeh Copyright © 2014 Jamshid Vafaeimanesh et al. All rights reserved. Validation of a Stability-Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Determination of L-Carnitine in Tablets Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/481059/ A rapid and stability-indicating RP-HPLC method was developed for determination of L-carnitine in tablets. The separation was based on a C18 analytical column using a mobile phase which consisted of 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH = 3): ethanol (99 : 1), including 0.56 mg/mL of sodium 1-heptanesulfonate. Column temperature was set at 50°C and quantitation was achieved by UV detection at 225 nm. In forced degradation studies, the drug was subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and heat. Among the different stress conditions, the exposure to acidic and basic conditions was found to be an important adverse stability factor. The method was validated for specificity, selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness. The applied procedure was found to be linear in L-carnitine concentration range of 84.74–3389.50 µg/mL . Precision was evaluated by replicate analysis in which relative standard deviation (RSD) values for areas were found below 2.0%. The recoveries obtained (100.83%–101.54%) ensured the accuracy of the developed method. The expanded uncertainty (3.14%) of the method was also estimated from method validation data. Accordingly, the proposed validated and rapid procedure was proved to be suitable for routine analyzing and stability studies of L-carnitine in tablets. Roghaieh Khoshkam and Minoo Afshar Copyright © 2014 Roghaieh Khoshkam and Minoo Afshar. All rights reserved. Non-Newtonian Effects of Second-Order Fluids on the Hydrodynamic Lubrication of Inclined Slider Bearings Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/787304/ Theoretical study of non-Newtonian effects of second-order fluids on the performance characteristics of inclined slider bearings is presented. An approximate method is used for the solution of the highly nonlinear momentum equations for the second-order fluids. The closed form expressions for the fluid film pressure, load carrying capacity, frictional force, coefficient of friction, and centre of pressure are obtained. The non-Newtonian second order fluid model increases the film pressure, load carrying capacity, and frictional force whereas the center of pressure slightly shifts towards exit region. Further, the frictional coefficient decreases with an increase in the bearing velocity as expected for an ideal fluid. Siddangouda Apparao, Trimbak Vaijanath Biradar, and Neminath Bhujappa Naduvinamani Copyright © 2014 Siddangouda Apparao et al. All rights reserved. High Salt Intake Increases Copeptin but Salt Sensitivity Is Associated with Fluid Induced Reduction of Copeptin in Women Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijhy/2014/641587/ This study investigated if copeptin is affected by high salt intake and whether any salt-induced changes in copeptin are related to the degree of salt sensitivity. The study was performed on 20 men and 19 women. In addition to meals containing 50 mmol NaCl daily, capsules containing 100 mmol NaCl and corresponding placebo capsules were administered during 4 weeks each, in random order. Measurements of 24 h blood pressure, body weight, 24 h urinary volume, and fasting plasma copeptin were performed at high and low salt consumption. Copeptin increased after a high compared to low dietary salt consumption in all subjects 3,59 ± 2,28 versus 3,12 ± 1,95 ( = 0,02). Copeptin correlated inversely with urinary volume, at both low ( = −0,42; = 0,001) and high ( = −0,60; < 0,001) salt consumption, as well as with the change in body weight ( = −0,53; < 0,001). Systolic salt sensitivity was inversely correlated with salt-induced changes of copeptin, only in females ( = −0,58; = 0,017). As suppression of copeptin on high versus low salt intake was associated with systolic salt sensitivity in women, our data suggest that high fluid intake and fluid retention may contribute to salt sensitivity. Irina Tasevska, Sofia Enhörning, Philippe Burri, and Olle Melander Copyright © 2014 Irina Tasevska et al. All rights reserved. The Semimartingale Approach to Almost Sure Stability Analysis of a Two-Stage Numerical Method for Stochastic Delay Differential Equation Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/621359/ Almost sure exponential stability of the split-step backward Euler (SSBE) method applied to an Itô-type stochastic differential equation with time-varying delay is discussed by the techniques based on Doob-Mayer decomposition and semimartingale convergence theorem. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical analysis. Qian Guo and Xueyin Tao Copyright © 2014 Qian Guo and Xueyin Tao. All rights reserved. Planar and Nonplanar Solitary Waves in a Four-Component Relativistic Degenerate Dense Plasma Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jas/2014/653065/ The nonlinear propagation of electrostatic perturbation modes in an unmagnetized, collisionless, relativistic, degenerate plasma (containing both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons, nonrelativistic degenerate ions, and arbitrarily charged static heavy ions) has been investigated theoretically. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation has been derived by employing the reductive perturbation method. Their solitary wave solution is obtained and numerically analyzed in case of both planar and nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry. It has been observed that the ion-acoustic (IA) and modified ion-acoustic (mIA) solitary waves have been significantly changed due to the effects of degenerate plasma pressure and number densities of the arbitrarily charged heavy ions. It has been also found that properties of planar K-dV solitons are quite different from those of nonplanar K-dV solitons. There are numerous variations in case of mIA solitary waves due to the polarity of heavy ions. The basic features and the underlying physics of IA and mIA solitary waves, which are relevant to some astrophysical compact objects, are briefly discussed. M. R. Hossen, L. Nahar, and A. A. Mamun Copyright © 2014 M. R. Hossen et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Atorvastatin on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Mitochondrial Morphofunctionality in Hyperfibrinogenemia-Induced Atherogenesis Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amed/2014/947258/ Relationship between hyperfibrinogenemia (HF), oxidative stress, and atherogenesis was established. Effect of atorvastatin (Ator) was assessed. Wistar male (6 months) rats were studied: Ctr, control, without HF induction; Ctr-Ator, without HF treated with atorvastatin; AI, atherogenesis induced, and AI-Ator, atherogenesis induced and treated with atorvastatin. Atherogenesis was induced by daily adrenaline injection (0.1 mL/day/rat) for 90 days; treatment started 15 days after induction. Fibrinogen (mg/dL) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured in plasma (mM) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (U/mL) in red cell lysate by spectrophotometry. Slices of aorta were analyzed by electron microscopy (EM). ANOVA and chi-square test were used; was established. There were no significant differences between Ctr and Ctr-Atorv in fibrinogen, NO, and SOD values. Comparing Ctr with AI an increase of fibrinogen is observed (), but it decreased after administration of atorvastatin in AI-Ator (). NO diminished in AI relative to Ctr and increased in AI-Ator (). SOD showed an increase in AI and AI-Ator compared to Ctr (). EM revealed expansion of intermembrane space and disorganization of crests in AI. In AI-Ator mitochondrial areas and diameters were similar to control. Atorvastatin normalizes HF, stabilizes NO, increases SOD, and produces a partial regression of mitochondrial lesions. María de la Paz Scribano, María del Carmen Baez, Becerra Florencia, Mariana Denise Tarán, Signorini Franco, Ariel G. Balceda, and Mónica Moya Copyright © 2014 María de la Paz Scribano et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Modelling of the Spread and Control of Onchocerciasis in Tropical Countries: Case Study in Nigeria Wed, 22 Oct 2014 14:13:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/631658/ Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness and Robles disease, is a parasitic disease caused by Onchocerca volvulus, a nematode (roundworm), and it is endemic in tropical countries like Nigeria. The objective of this paper is to discuss the mathematical formulation underpinning the spread and control of this disease on one hand. On the other hand, we make use of some new analytical methods to derive the solution of the resulting set of equations. The numerical results are presented to test the efficiency and the accuracy of both methods. The techniques used for solving these problems are friendly, very easy, and less time consuming. The numerical solutions in both cases display the biological behaviour of the real life situation. Ikechukwu Chiwueze Oguoma and Thomas Mbah Acho Copyright © 2014 Ikechukwu Chiwueze Oguoma and Thomas Mbah Acho. All rights reserved. A Modified Method of Insulin Producing Cells’ Generation from Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Wed, 22 Oct 2014 13:50:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2014/628591/ Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells’ transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors’ concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells. Paweł Czubak, Agnieszka Bojarska-Junak, Jacek Tabarkiewicz, and Lechosław Putowski Copyright © 2014 Paweł Czubak et al. All rights reserved. Theoretical Foundations of Efficiently Organizing Production Processes: Using the Example of Combining Organizational Forms of Component Manufacture and Internal Transport Wed, 22 Oct 2014 13:09:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jie/2014/513190/ This paper examines the problem of efficient production processes organization down to subprocesses levels. Subtasks of production within subprocesses necessitate a specific set of requirements for production organization. Through particular features and their respective characteristics, these requirements are further systemized and described as process types. The main manufacturing process “component manufacture” and its connected production support service “internal transport” have been chosen as examples to show relevant organizational principles and forms. From this baseline and together with a decision algorithm, selected organizational options and a combination thereof shall lead to theoretically optimized solutions which meet all predefined requirements. A multilevel organizational alignment model lays out interdependencies of combined process type-oriented organizational forms. Methods of comparative organizational profile analysis in support of reengineering approaches are systemized and further developed towards resulting organizational adaptations. Anne-Katrin Schroeder, Theodor Nebl, and Christian Mainzinger Copyright © 2014 Anne-Katrin Schroeder et al. All rights reserved. Mechanical Behavior of Interface between Composite Geomembrane and Permeable Cushion Material Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:54:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/184359/ An accurate description of composite geomembrane-cushion interface behavior is of great importance for stress-deformation analysis and stability assessment of geomembrane surface barrier of rock-fill dam. A series of direct shear tests were conducted to investigate the friction behaviors of interfaces between composite geomembrane and two different permeable cushion materials (crushed stones and polyurethane mixed crushed stones). The shear stress-displacement relationships of the two interfaces show different characteristics and were described by the nonlinear-elastic model and nonlinear-elastic perfectly plastic model, respectively. Then the two models were implemented into the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in Three Dimensions () procedure correctly. By verification of a numerical example, numerical calculation results showed a good agreement with the theoretical solutions and test results. Haimin Wu, Yiming Shu, Linjun Dai, and Zhaoming Teng Copyright © 2014 Haimin Wu et al. All rights reserved. Arthrodesis of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint Using a Chevron Osteotomy and Plate Fixation Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:39:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aos/2014/910257/ Introduction. Trapeziometacarpal (TM) osteoarthritis is common. Despite the availability of numerous surgical options, none has been definitively proven to be superior. This study aims to determine the union rate and key strength following arthrodesis using a chevron osteotomy and plate fixation. Methods. 32 consecutive cases of TM joint arthrodesis performed between 2001 and 2006 were retrospectively identified. A chevron osteotomy was used to resect joint surfaces and fixation obtained using an AO mini T-plate. The patients were followed up for a mean of 65 months. Outcomes included visual analogue pain score, patient satisfaction, pinch strength, radiographic union, radiographic signs of scaphotrapezial arthritis, and complications. Results. The 32 cases included 16 females and 8 males with an average age of 56 years. Overall there was a 90% patient satisfaction rate. Average key pinch strength was 8.4 kg and pain score was 2.5. The union rate was 94%, and the two patients with nonunion underwent successful revision surgery. Only one case of radiographic progression of scaphotrapezoid arthritis was identified during followup. Conclusion. TM joint arthrodesis using a chevron osteotomy and plate fixation has high patient satisfaction and low nonunion rates. The authors endorse this technique in the management of TM joint osteoarthritis. G. Shyamalan, R. W. Jordan, and A. Jarvis Copyright © 2014 G. Shyamalan et al. All rights reserved. Computer-Based Learning: The Use of SPSS Statistical Program for Improving Biostatistical Competence of Medical Students Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:30:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbe/2014/298140/ Background. We changed the biostatistics curriculum for our medical students and have created a course entitled “Multivariate analysis of statistical data, using the SPSS package.” Purposes. The aim of this course was to develop students’ skills in computerized data analysis, as well as enhancing their ability to read and interpret statistical data analysis in the literature. Methods. In the current study we have shown that a computer-based course for biostatistics and advanced data analysis is feasible and efficient, using course specific evaluation questionnaires. Results. Its efficacy is both subjective (our subjects felt better prepared to do their theses, as well as to read articles with advanced statistical data analysis) and objective (their knowledge of how and when to apply statistical procedures seemed to improve). Conclusions. We showed that a formal evaluative process for such a course is possible and that it enhances the learning experience both for the students and their teachers. In the current study we have shown that a computer-based course for biostatistics and advanced data analysis is feasible and efficient. Zvi H. Perry, Aricha-Tamir Barak, Lily Neumann, and Amalia Levy Copyright © 2014 Zvi H. Perry et al. All rights reserved. Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Extraction of Luteolin and Apigenin from Tree Peony Pod and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:24:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/506971/ An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed in simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod. The MAE procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and compared with other conventional extraction techniques of macerate extraction (ME) and heat reflux extraction (HRE). The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: employing 70% ethanol volume fraction as solvent, soaking time of 4 h, liquid-solid ratio of 10 (mL/g), microwave irradiation power of 265 W, microwave irradiation time of 9.6 min, and 3 extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, 151 μg/g luteolin and 104 μg/g apigenin were extracted from the tree peony pod. Compared with ME and HRE, MAE gave the highest extraction efficiency. The antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained by MAE, ME, and HRE were evaluated using a 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and a reducing power assay. Meanwhile, the structural changes of the unprocessed and processed tree peony pod samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Hongzheng Wang, Lei Yang, Yuangang Zu, and Xiuhua Zhao Copyright © 2014 Hongzheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Nonobese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:17:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aen/2014/830761/ The aim of the study was to investigate the association between lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in nonobese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and further to correlate whether their significant association is putatively associated with the pathogenesis of T2DM. A number of 102 nonobese T2DM subjects and 95 nondiabetic subjects as healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum samples were collected in cryovials for malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiol assays. Total thiol or sulfhydryl (–SH) groups in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and sera, as well as level of MDA, a marker for lipid peroxidation in serum, were measured spectrophotometrically. Serum MDA level was found significantly higher whereas serum and PBMC total thiol levels were diminished significantly among nonobese T2DM subjects compared to HC subjects. Moreover, serum MDA level is found to have a significant inverse correlation with serum total thiol and PBMC thiol levels among DM subjects, but no significant correlation was observed in HC individuals. A significant inverse correlation between serum MDA and serum total thiol levels among nonobese T2DM subjects suggests a close association of increased oxidative stress with decreased antioxidant status in nonobese T2DM. Vineet Kumar Khemka, Subhadip Choudhuri, Anirban Ganguly, Arindam Ghosh, Aritri Bir, and Anindita Banerjee Copyright © 2014 Vineet Kumar Khemka et al. All rights reserved. Non-albicans Candida Infection: An Emerging Threat Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:14:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ipid/2014/615958/ The very nature of infectious diseases has undergone profound changes in the past few decades. Fungi once considered as nonpathogenic or less virulent are now recognized as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and severely ill patients. Candida spp. are among the most common fungal pathogens. Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been recently observed. These non-albicans Candida species demonstrate reduced susceptibility to commonly used antifungal drugs. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of non-albicans Candida spp. among Candida isolates from various clinical specimens and analysed their virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profile. A total of 523 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens. Non-albicans Candida species were the predominant pathogens isolated. Non-albicans Candida species also demonstrated the production of virulence factors once attributed to Candida albicans. Non-albicans Candida demonstrated high resistance to azole group of antifungal agents. Therefore, it can be concluded that non-albicans Candida species have emerged as an important cause of infections. Their isolation from clinical specimen can no longer be ignored as a nonpathogenic isolate nor can it be dismissed as a contaminant. Sachin C. Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini, and Stephen Mathew Copyright © 2014 Sachin C. Deorukhkar et al. All rights reserved. First Description of KPC-2-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca Isolated from a Pediatric Patient with Nosocomial Pneumonia in Venezuela Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:06:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2014/434987/ During the last decade, carbapenem resistance has emerged among clinical isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This has been increasingly attributed to the production of β-lactamases capable of hydrolyzing carbapenems. Among these enzymes, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) are the most frequently and clinically significant class-A carbapenemases. In this report, we describe the first nosocomial KPC-2-producing K. oxytoca isolated from a pediatric patient with pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit at The Andes University Hospital, Mérida, Venezuela. This strain was resistant to several antibiotics including imipenem, ertapenem, and meropenem but remained susceptible to ciprofloxacin, colistin, and tigecycline. Conjugation assays demonstrated the transferability of all resistance determinants, except aminoglycosides. The isolate LMM-SA26 carried a ~21 kb conjugative plasmid that harbored the , , and genes. Although carbapenem resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is still unusual in Venezuela, KPCs have a great potential to spread due to their localization on mobile genetic elements. Therefore, rapid detection of KPC-carrying bacteria with phenotypic and confirmatory molecular tests is essential to establish therapeutic options and effective control measures. Indira Labrador and María Araque Copyright © 2014 Indira Labrador and María Araque. All rights reserved. Molecular, Phenotypic Aspects and Therapeutic Horizons of Rare Genetic Bone Disorders Wed, 22 Oct 2014 12:05:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/670842/ A rare disease afflicts less than 200,000 individuals, according to the National Organization for Rare Diseases (NORD) of the United States. Over 6,000 rare disorders affect approximately 1 in 10 Americans. Rare genetic bone disorders remain the major causes of disability in US patients. These rare bone disorders also represent a therapeutic challenge for clinicians, due to lack of understanding of underlying mechanisms. This systematic review explored current literature on therapeutic directions for the following rare genetic bone disorders: fibrous dysplasia, Gorham-Stout syndrome, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, melorheostosis, multiple hereditary exostosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, craniometaphyseal dysplasia, achondroplasia, and hypophosphatasia. The disease mechanisms of Gorham-Stout disease, melorheostosis, and multiple hereditary exostosis are not fully elucidated. Inhibitors of the ACVR1/ALK2 pathway may serve as possible therapeutic intervention for FOP. The use of bisphosphonates and IL-6 inhibitors has been explored to be useful in the treatment of fibrous dysplasia, but more research is warranted. Cell therapy, bisphosphonate polytherapy, and human growth hormone may avert the pathology in osteogenesis imperfecta, but further studies are needed. There are still no current effective treatments for these bone disorders; however, significant promising advances in therapeutic modalities were developed that will limit patient suffering and treat their skeletal disabilities. Taha Faruqi, Naveen Dhawan, Jaya Bahl, Vineet Gupta, Shivani Vohra, Khin Tu, and Samir M. Abdelmagid Copyright © 2014 Taha Faruqi et al. All rights reserved. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: An Infrequent Complication of Scoliosis Surgery Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:33:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/263431/ Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare condition that causes a proximal small intestinal obstruction due to contraction of the angle between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. Scoliosis surgery is one of the 15 reasons for superior mesenteric artery syndrome, which can present with acute or chronic manifestations. Although conservative treatment is usually possible, surgical treatment is required in certain cases that cannot be treated using conservative methods. In this paper, we describe a patient who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome after scoliosis surgery and was treated with duodenojejunostomy due to failure and complications of conservative treatment. Metin Keskin, Turgut Akgül, Adem Bayraktar, Fatih Dikici, and Emre Balık Copyright © 2014 Metin Keskin et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Fuzzy Logic Controller Design for PV Inverters Utilizing Differential Search Optimization Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:31:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2014/469313/ This paper presents an adaptive fuzzy logic controller (FLC) design technique for photovoltaic (PV) inverters using differential search algorithm (DSA). This technique avoids the exhaustive traditional trial and error procedure in obtaining membership functions (MFs) used in conventional FLCs. This technique is implemented during the inverter design phase by generating adaptive MFs based on the evaluation results of the objective function formulated by the DSA. In this work, the mean square error (MSE) of the inverter output voltage is used as an objective function. The DSA optimizes the MFs such that the inverter provides the lowest MSE for output voltage and improves the performance of the PV inverter output in terms of amplitude and frequency. The design procedure and accuracy of the optimum FLC are illustrated and investigated using simulations conducted for a 3 kW three-phase inverter in a MATLAB/Simulink environment. Results show that the proposed controller can successfully obtain the desired output when different linear and nonlinear loads are connected to the system. Furthermore, the inverter has reasonably low steady state error and fast response to reference variation. Ammar Hussein Mutlag, Hussain Shareef, Azah Mohamed, M. A. Hannan, and Jamal Abd Ali Copyright © 2014 Ammar Hussein Mutlag et al. All rights reserved. Dissociative Disorders: Between Neurosis and Psychosis Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:28:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2014/425892/ Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms “neurosis” and “psychosis.” Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis. C. Devillé, C. Moeglin, and O. Sentissi Copyright © 2014 C. Devillé et al. All rights reserved. First Report of the Stapled Mesh Stoma Reinforcement Technique in a Urologic Context Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:27:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2014/294304/ Parastomal hernia is a common complication of ileal conduit formation. Mesh repair of parastomal hernia has lower rate of recurrence than nonmesh techniques but can be time-consuming to perform. The stapled mesh stoma reinforcement technique (SMART) is a novel method of rapidly constructing a reinforced stapled stoma. We report the first case utilising this technique in a urologic context. The procedure was performed on a middle-aged female with recurrent parastomal hernia of her ileal conduit. There were no perioperative complications. The resited stoma remained healthy and functioned normally. Longer term data is clearly desirable though this technique deserves consideration in the treatment of urologic parastomal hernias. This case demonstrates that SMART is an easy and convenient procedure for parastomal hernia repair. Dwayne Tun Soong Chang, Isaac Andrew Thyer, John Oliver Larkin, Marina Helen Wallace, and Dickon Hayne Copyright © 2014 Dwayne Tun Soong Chang et al. All rights reserved. Sampled-Data Consensus for High-Order Multiagent Systems under Fixed and Randomly Switching Topology Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:26:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2014/598965/ This paper studies the sampled-data based consensus of multiagent system with general linear time-invariant dynamics. It focuses on looking for a maximum allowable sampling period bound such that as long as the sampling period is less than this bound, there always exist linear consensus protocols solving the consensus problem. Both fixed and randomly switching topologies are considered. For systems under fixed topology, a necessary and sufficient sampling period bound is obtained for single-input multiagent systems, and a sufficient allowable bound is proposed for multi-input systems by solving the optimal control problem of certain system with uncertainty. For systems under randomly switching topologies, tree-type and complete broadcasting network with Bernoulli packet losses are discussed, and explicit allowable sampling period bounds are, respectively, given based on the unstable eigenvalues of agent’s system matrix and packet loss probability. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. Niu Jie and Li Zhong Copyright © 2014 Niu Jie and Li Zhong. All rights reserved. Er:YAG Laser for Brackets Bonding: A SEM Study after Debonding Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:23:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/935946/ Background. The introduction of Er:YAG laser in dentistry for ablation of hard tissues advocated an alternative method of enamel etching for orthodontics purpose. Materials and Methods. 55 extracted human third molars were inserted in acrylic resin blocks and divided into five groups of 11 teeth. Group 1 was treated with 37% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds. Group 2 was treated with laser irradiation (Er:YAG Fidelius III, Fotona, Slovenia) at 80 mJ and 4 Hz. Group 3 underwent laser treatment (80 mJ, 4 Hz), followed by 37% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds. The teeth in Group 4 were treated with laser at 40 mJ and 10 Hz. The teeth in Group 5 were treated with laser (40 mJ, 10 Hz), followed by 37% orthophosphoric acid for 30 seconds. The adhesive remnant index was determined after debonding. Results. Kruskas-Wallis test showed that location parameters (median and mean) are significantly different between Groups 2 and 4 when compared with control group; on the contrary no significant difference was detected between Groups 3 and 5 with the controls. Conclusion. The use of Er:YAG laser alone, as in Groups 2 and 4, showed no significant advantages over phosphoric acid in the bonding procedure for orthodontics brackets. G. Ierardo, G. Di Carlo, F. Petrillo, V. Luzzi, I. Vozza, G. Migliau, R. Kornblit, J. P. Rocca, and A. Polimeni Copyright © 2014 G. Ierardo et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Frailty Indicators and Association with Socioeconomic Status in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a Swiss Region with Universal Health Insurance Coverage: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:18:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jar/2014/198603/ Frailty prevalence in older adults has been reported but is largely unknown in middle-aged adults. We determined the prevalence of frailty indicators among middle-aged and older adults from a general Swiss population characterized by universal health insurance coverage and assessed the determinants of frailty with a special focus on socioeconomic status. Participants aged 50 and more from the population-based 2006–2010 Bus Santé study were included ( = 2,930). Four frailty indicators (weakness, shrinking, exhaustion, and low activity) were measured according to standard definitions. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations. Overall, 63.5%, 28.7%, and 7.8% participants presented no frailty indicators, one frailty indicator, and two or more frailty indicators, respectively. Among middle-aged participants (50–65 years), 75.1%, 22.2%, and 2.7% presented 0, 1, and 2 or more frailty indicators. The number of frailty indicators was positively associated with age, hypertension, and current smoking and negatively associated with male gender, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and serum total cholesterol level. Lower income level but not education was associated with higher number of frailty indicators. Frailty indicators are frequently encountered in both older and middle-aged adults from the Swiss general population. Despite universal health insurance coverage, household income is independently associated with frailty. Idris Guessous, Jean-Christophe Luthi, Christopher Barrett Bowling, Jean-Marc Theler, Fred Paccaud, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, and William McClellan Copyright © 2014 Idris Guessous et al. All rights reserved. Geochemistry, Paragenesis, and Wall-Rock Alteration of the Qatruyeh Iron Deposits, Southwest of Iran: Implications for a Hydrothermal-Metasomatic Genetic Model Wed, 22 Oct 2014 11:02:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jgr/2014/590540/ The Qatruyeh iron deposits, located on the eastern border of the NW-SE trending Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, southwest of Iran, are hosted by a late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic sequence dominated by metamorphosed carbonate rocks. The magnetite ores occurred as layered to massive bodies, with lesser amounts of disseminated magnetite and hematite-bearing veins. Textural evidences, along with geochemical analyses of the high field strengths (HFSEs), large ion lithophiles (LILEs), and rare earth elements (REEs), indicate that the main mineralization stage occurred as low-grade layered magnetite ores due to high-temperature hydrothermal fluids accompanied by Na-Ca alteration. Most of the main ore-stage minerals precipitated from an aqueous-carbonic fluid (3.5–15 wt.% NaCl equiv.) at temperatures ranging between 300° and 410°C during fluid mixing process, CO2 effervescence, cooling, and increasing of pH. Low-temperature hydrothermal activity subsequently produced hematite ores associated with propylitic alteration. The metacarbonate host rocks are LILE-depleted and HFSE-enriched due to metasomatic alteration. Sina Asadi and Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh Copyright © 2014 Sina Asadi and Mohammad Ali Rajabzadeh. All rights reserved. Development of a Finite Element Head Model for the Study of Impact Head Injury Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:49:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/408278/ This study is aimed at developing a high quality, validated finite element (FE) human head model for traumatic brain injuries (TBI) prediction and prevention during vehicle collisions. The geometry of the FE model was based on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of a volunteer close to the anthropometry of a 50th percentile male. The material and structural properties were selected based on a synthesis of current knowledge of the constitutive models for each tissue. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was simulated explicitly as a hydrostatic fluid by using a surface-based fluid modeling method. The model was validated in the loading condition observed in frontal impact vehicle collision. These validations include the intracranial pressure (ICP), brain motion, impact force and intracranial acceleration response, maximum von Mises stress in the brain, and maximum principal stress in the skull. Overall results obtained in the validation indicated improved biofidelity relative to previous FE models, and the change in the maximum von Mises in the brain is mainly caused by the improvement of the CSF simulation. The model may be used for improving the current injury criteria of the brain and anthropometric test devices. Bin Yang, Kwong-Ming Tse, Ning Chen, Long-Bin Tan, Qing-Qian Zheng, Hui-Min Yang, Min Hu, Gang Pan, and Heow-Pueh Lee Copyright © 2014 Bin Yang et al. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:18:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/978580/ Background and Objectives. Severe sleep disturbance is a common problem among patients in cardiac care units (CCUs). There are questionnaires to measure sleep disturbances. Therefore, the present study seeks to design a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess sleep disturbance in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalized in CCUs. Materials and Methods. In the present methodological research, items of the questionnaire were extracted through a systematic review. The validity and reliability of the questionnaires was assessed by face validity, content validity, construct validity, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, and test-retest methods. Results. Factor analysis provided a questionnaire of 23 items on 5 dimensions of sleep disturbance in coronary patients: “sleep onset and continuity disorder,” “disorder in daytime functioning,” “sleep disturbance caused by environmental factors,” “sleep disturbance as a result of cardiac diseases,” and “respiratory disorders during sleep.” Furthermore, test-retest analysis showed a reliability correlation coefficient of and Cronbach’s reliability (). Conclusion. Sleep disturbance questionnaire for patients with ACS hospitalized in coronary care unit (CCU) was identified in 5 dimensions and assessed for validity and reliability. To control and improve the sleep quality of CCU hospitalized patients, we need to identify and remove predisposing factors. Elham Sepahvand, Rostam Jalali, Behnam Khaledi Paveh, and Mansour Rezaei Copyright © 2014 Elham Sepahvand et al. All rights reserved. Occurrence of Autoimmune Diseases Related to the Vaccine against Yellow Fever Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:13:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ad/2014/473170/ Yellow fever is an infectious disease, endemic in South America and Africa. This is a potentially serious illness, with lethality between 5 and 40% of cases. The most effective preventive vaccine is constituted by the attenuated virus strain 17D, developed in 1937. It is considered safe and effective, conferring protection in more than 90% in 10 years. Adverse effects are known as mild reactions (allergies, transaminases transient elevation, fever, headache) and severe (visceral and neurotropic disease related to vaccine). However, little is known about its potential to induce autoimmune responses. This systematic review aims to identify the occurrence of autoinflammatory diseases related to 17D vaccine administration. Six studies were identified describing 13 possible cases. The diseases were Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, multiple points evanescent syndrome, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, autoimmune hepatitis, and Kawasaki disease. The data suggest that 17D vaccination may play a role in the mechanism of loss of self-tolerance. Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira, Licia Maria Henrique da Mota, Leopoldo Luiz dos Santos-Neto, Jozélio Freire De Carvalho, Iramaya Rodrigues Caldas, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, and Pedro Luis Tauil Copyright © 2014 Ana Cristina Vanderley Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Association of Interleukin-18 Gene Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Visceral Leishmaniasis in Endemic Area of Bihar, an Indian Population Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:11:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/852104/ Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a cytokine that mediates Th1 response by inducing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production in T cells and natural killer cells. Genetic polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene have been found to be associated with its expression in cancer, tuberculosis, HBV infection, and various other diseases. Lower plasma level of IL-18 in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients might be associated with polymorphisms in the regulating or coding region of the gene. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1946519 (−656 G/T) and rs187238 (−137 G/C) in the promoter region and rs549908 (+105 A/C) in the codon region, were genotyped in 204 parasitological confirmed VL patients and 267 controls with no past history of VL. For each locus, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction digestion was performed. IL-18 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected from VL patients and controls was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Distribution of G allele at position −656 and double haplotypes GGC/GGA were found to be significantly associated with controls while genotypes TT and single haplotypes TGA , with cases. The inheritance of G allele at the position −656 might be considered as a protective allele for VL. Dinesh Kumar, Puja Tiwary, Jaya Chakravarty, and Shyam Sundar Copyright © 2014 Dinesh Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Update on Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy for Retinoblastoma Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:02:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/869604/ The tools for managing retinoblastoma have been increasing in the past decade. While globe-salvage still relies heavily on intravenous chemotherapy, tumors in advanced stage that failed chemotherapy are now referred for intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) to avoid enucleation. However, IAC still has many obstacles to overcome. We present an update on the indications, complications, limitations, success, and technical aspects of IAC. Given its safety and high efficacy, it is expected that IAC will replace conventional strategies and will become a first-line option even for tumors that are amenable for other strategies. Mario Zanaty, Guilherme Barros, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Philip Manasseh, Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris, Carol L. Shields, David Hasan, Ketan Bulsara, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour Copyright © 2014 Mario Zanaty et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Profiling of the Plasmodium falciparum Population Using Antigenic Molecular Markers Wed, 22 Oct 2014 09:46:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/140867/ About 50% of malaria infections in India are attributed to Plasmodium falciparum but relatively little is known about the genetic structure of the parasite populations. The molecular genotyping of the parasite populations by merozoite surface protein (msp1 and msp2) and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes identifies the existing parasite population in the regions which help in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the parasite’s drive for survival. This study reveals the genetic profile of the parasite population in selected regions across the country with varying degree of endemicity among them. We also report the prevalence of Pfcrt mutations in this parasite population to evaluate the pattern of drug resistance development in them. Purva Gupta, Ruchi Singh, Haris Khan, Adil Raza, Veena Yadavendu, R. M. Bhatt, and Vineeta Singh Copyright © 2014 Purva Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Control of Variable Speed Variable Pitch Wind Turbine at Above and Below Rated Wind Speed Wed, 22 Oct 2014 09:13:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwe/2014/709128/ The paper presents a nonlinear approach to wind turbine (WT) using two-mass model. The main aim of the controller in the WT is to maximize the energy output at varying wind speed. In this work, a combination of linear and nonlinear controllers is adapted to variable speed variable pitch wind turbines (VSVPWT) system. The major operating regions of the WT are below (region 2) and above rated (region 3) wind speed. In these regions, generator torque control (region 2) and pitch control (region 3) are used. The controllers in WT are tested for below and above rated wind speed for step and vertical wind speed profile. The performances of the controllers are analyzed with nonlinear FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) WT dynamic simulation. In this paper, two nonlinear controllers, that is, sliding mode control (SMC) and integral sliding mode control (ISMC), have been applied for region 2, whereas for pitch control in region 3 conventional PI control is used. In ISMC, the sliding manifold makes use of an integral action to show effective qualities of control in terms of the control level reduction and sliding mode switching control minimization. Saravanakumar Rajendran and Debashisha Jena Copyright © 2014 Saravanakumar Rajendran and Debashisha Jena. All rights reserved. Reduced Oxidative Stress Contributes to the Lipid Lowering Effects of Isoquercitrin in Free Fatty Acids Induced Hepatocytes Wed, 22 Oct 2014 09:10:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/313602/ Oxidative stress interferes with hepatic lipid metabolism at various levels ranging from benign lipid storage to so-called second hit of inflammation activation. Isoquercitrin (IQ) is widely present flavonoid but its effects on hepatic lipid metabolism remain unknown. We used free fatty acids (FFA) induced lipid overload and oxidative stress model in two types of liver cells and measured cell viability, intracellular lipids, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) within hepatocytes. In addition, Intracellular triglycerides (TG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were examined. A novel in vitro model was used to evaluate correlation between lipid lowering and antioxidative activities. Furthermore, 34 major cytokines and corresponding ROS levels were analyzed in FFA/LPS induced coculture model between hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. At molecular level AMPK pathway was elucidated. We showed that IQ attenuated FFA induced lipid overload and ROS within hepatocytes. Further, IQ reversed FFA induced increase in intracellular TG SOD and MDA. It was shown that antioxidative activity of IQ correlates with its lipid lowering potentials. IQ reversed major proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in FFA/LPS induced coculture model. Finally, AMPK pathway was found responsible for metabolic benefits at molecular level. IQ strikingly manifests antioxidative and related lipid lowering activities in hepatocytes. Waseem Hassan, Gao Rongyin, Abdelkader Daoud, Lin Ding, Lulu Wang, Jun Liu, and Jing Shang Copyright © 2014 Waseem Hassan et al. All rights reserved. Selection of Microstrip Patch Antenna Substrate for WLAN Application Using Multiple Attribute Decision Making Approach Wed, 22 Oct 2014 09:10:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmst/2014/703181/ This paper presents a material selection approach for selecting microstrip patch antenna substrate for WLAN applications using multiple attribute decision making (MADM) approach. In this paper, different microwave dielectric materials for substrate and their properties like relative permittivity, quality factor, and temperature coefficient of the resonant frequency are taken into consideration and MADM approach is applied to select the best material for microstrip patch antenna. It is observed that Pb0.6Ca0.4ZrO3 is the best material for the antenna substrate in MPA for WLAN applications. It was observed that the proposed result is in accordance with the experimental finding thus justifying the validity of the proposed study. Navneet Gupta and Rituraj Raman Copyright © 2014 Navneet Gupta and Rituraj Raman. All rights reserved. Ivacaftor Therapy in CF Patients: Single Center Experience Wed, 22 Oct 2014 08:58:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amed/2014/947923/ Ivacaftor is the first novel cystic fibrosis pharmaceutical that acts at the molecular level to potentiate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function and was first approved for clinical use in 2012. We are sharing our single center experience of five patients: four from pediatric age group and one adult patient. All patients had both subjective and objective improvements in their health. Despite established lung disease, our patients had significant improvement in both their FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and FE and BMI (body mass index). Larger studies demonstrated only 6.7% improvement in mean FEV1 after starting Ivacaftor therapy but their patient population had normal lung function to begin with. In contrast our case series demonstrates that, in patients with established lung disease and diminished lung function, Ivacaftor can be expected to result in much higher recovery in lung function. Mean FEV1 improved by 35% in our case series. Ivacaftor is extremely expensive, costing $300,000 per patient per year requiring lifelong therapy, hence requiring prior authorizations from most third-party payers in the USA. The knowledge shared from our experience will be useful for other clinicians to petition healthcare policymakers on behalf of their patients. Pritish Mondal, Amber Loyson, Jorge Lascano, and Satyanarayan Hegde Copyright © 2014 Pritish Mondal et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator Wed, 22 Oct 2014 08:54:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/184909/ Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented. Wei Li, Baoyu Cao, Zhencai Zhu, and Guoan Chen Copyright © 2014 Wei Li et al. All rights reserved. Posttonsillectomy Bacteremia and Comparison of Tonsillar Surface and Deep Culture Wed, 22 Oct 2014 08:31:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apm/2014/161878/ Objective. This study aimed to identify the microorganisms of surface and depth of tonsils and whether these microorganisms bring the menace of bacteremia during tonsillectomy in the children under surgery. Materials and Methods. The culture specimens were taken from surface and depth of tonsil from the patients suffering from chronic tonsillitis at the time of operation. Also, 10 mL venous blood samples were taken 5 minutes before and after the operation for microbiological study. Results. According to the results, 112 (76.1%) and 117 (79.6%) cultures from surface and depth of tonsils represented multiple microorganisms, respectively. Besides, staphylococci coagulase positive was the most common organism in both surface and depth of tonsils. None of the preoperation blood cultures were positive, while 3 postoperation blood cultures (2.1%) were positive. Staphylococci coagulase negative and alpha hemolytic streptococcus were detected in 2 cases (1.4%) and 1 case (0.7%), respectively. Conclusion. In the present study, the two cultured sites were almost similar regarding the types of isolated microorganisms. Our results suggested that bacteremia might occur after tonsillectomy. Therefore, to avoid the possible dramatic outcomes after tonsillectomy, pre- and postoperation attendances are essential. Mahmood Shishegar and Mohammad Javad Ashraf Copyright © 2014 Mahmood Shishegar and Mohammad Javad Ashraf. All rights reserved. Mortality and Pathology Associated with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Outbreaks in Commercial Poultry Production Systems in Nigeria Wed, 22 Oct 2014 07:58:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/415418/ Commercial layer-type, pullet, cockerel, and broiler chicken flocks infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in Nigeria between 2006 and 2008 were investigated for morbidity, mortality, and pathology. Of the one hundred and fifty-three (153) farms confirmed with HPAI infection, one hundred and twenty-seven (127) were layer-type farms, nine (9) were pullet and broiler farms each, and eight (8) were cockerel rearing farms. This study revealed the morbidity and mortality of a total of 939,620 commercial layer chickens, 16,421 pullets, 3,109 cockerels, and 6,433 broilers. Mortality rates were 11.11% in commercial layers, 26.84% in pullets, 45.51% in cockerels, and 73.92% in broilers in a total of eighteen (18) states and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. A total of 316 carcasses were examined of which 248 were commercial layer, 25 were pullet, 14 were cockerel, and 29 were broiler. Main clinical and pathologic findings were observed in the nervous, circulatory, respiratory, integumentary, musculoskeletal, hemopoietic, gastrointestinal, and reproductive systems and, occasionally, lesions were generally nonspecific and multisystemic. Lesions occurred more frequently, severely, and in most of the carcasses examined, irrespective of chicken type. Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi and Victor Olusegun Taiwo Copyright © 2014 Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi and Victor Olusegun Taiwo. All rights reserved. A Constrained Algorithm Based NMFα for Image Representation Wed, 22 Oct 2014 07:57:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2014/179129/ Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful tool in learning a basic representation of image data. However, its performance and applicability in real scenarios are limited because of the lack of image information. In this paper, we propose a constrained matrix decomposition algorithm for image representation which contains parameters associated with the characteristics of image data sets. Particularly, we impose label information as additional hard constraints to the α-divergence-NMF unsupervised learning algorithm. The resulted algorithm is derived by using Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) conditions as well as the projected gradient and its monotonic local convergence is proved by using auxiliary functions. In addition, we provide a method to select the parameters to our semisupervised matrix decomposition algorithm in the experiment. Compared with the state-of-the-art approaches, our method with the parameters has the best classification accuracy on three image data sets. Chenxue Yang, Tao Li, Mao Ye, Zijian Liu, and Jiao Bao Copyright © 2014 Chenxue Yang et al. All rights reserved. Genotyping of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Children Wed, 22 Oct 2014 07:54:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2014/314316/ Community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen increasingly reported to cause skin and soft tissue infections for children. The emergence of highly virulencet CA-MRSA strains in the immunodeficiency of young children seemed to be the basic explanation of the increased incidence of CA-MRSA infections among this population. The subjects of this study were 8 patients hospitalized in the Pediatric Department at the University Hospital of Monastir. The patients were young children (aged from 12 days to 18 months) who were suffering from MRSA skin infections; two of them had the infections within 72 h of their admission. The isolates were classified as community isolates as they all carried the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) IV and pvl genes. Epidemiological techniques, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), were applied to investigate CA-MRSA strains. Analysis of molecular data revealed that MRSA strains were related according to PFGE patterns and they belonged to a single clone ST80. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed that all strains were resistant to kanamycin and 2 strains were resistant to erythromycin. Mouna Ben Nejma, Abderrahmen Merghni, and Maha Mastouri Copyright © 2014 Mouna Ben Nejma et al. All rights reserved. A Two-DOF Fast Tool Servo for Optical Freeform Surfaces Diamond Turning Wed, 22 Oct 2014 07:38:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/527975/ Fast tool servo (FTS) technology is considered as the most popular technology to fabricate freeform optical lenses and micro- and nano-structured surfaces. Aiming at the disadvantages of existing single DOF FTS systems, this paper described a two-DOF FTS. Cross shape flexure hinges are designed as the guide mechanism, and two voice coil motors (VCMs) are selected to drive the tool motion. The FTS offline performance is tested, and the following error is about less than 0.1 μm; the motion resolution is 0.05 μm. A sinusoidal surface is machined to verify the cutting performance of the novel FTS, and the surface roughness is Ra 27 nm. The test results show that the two-DOF FTS system works well on the fabrication of optical freeform surfaces. Qiang Liu, Xiaoqin Zhou, Pengzi Xu, and Xu Zhang Copyright © 2014 Qiang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Robust and Energy-Efficient Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Network Wed, 22 Oct 2014 07:22:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/960242/ Robustness and energy efficiency are critical for sensor information system, in which an abundance of wireless sensor nodes collects useful data from the deployed field. The chain-based protocols (like PEGASIS (Lindsey and Raghavendra, 2002)) are elegant solutions where sensor node has high energy efficiency. Unfortunately, if one node in the chain is failed due to some reasons such as energy exhaust, then the information cannot be forwarded to the sink. To improve system robustness and balance the energy consumption, this paper proposes a robust and energy-efficient data gathering (REEDG) approach, which is an improvement over the chain-based and grid-based network structures, in sensor information collecting system. In REEDG, data gathering is executed by a data transmitting chain which is composed by a series of virtual grids. Each grid communicates only with its neighbor grid and takes turns transmitting the information to the base station. Furthermore, an adaptive scheduling scheme is proposed to trade off energy consumption on each node and data forwarding delay. Experimental results show that, when compared with state-of-the-art approaches, REEDG achieves network lifetime extension of at least 13% as measured in terms of 20% dead nodes and improves the data transmission ratio at lowest 24% as 20% nodes fail. Juan Feng, Baowang Lian, and Hongwei Zhao Copyright © 2014 Juan Feng et al. All rights reserved. An Effective Hybrid Cuckoo Search Algorithm with Improved Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm for 0-1 Knapsack Problems Wed, 22 Oct 2014 07:15:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2014/857254/ An effective hybrid cuckoo search algorithm (CS) with improved shuffled frog-leaping algorithm (ISFLA) is put forward for solving 0-1 knapsack problem. First of all, with the framework of SFLA, an improved frog-leap operator is designed with the effect of the global optimal information on the frog leaping and information exchange between frog individuals combined with genetic mutation with a small probability. Subsequently, in order to improve the convergence speed and enhance the exploitation ability, a novel CS model is proposed with considering the specific advantages of Lévy flights and frog-leap operator. Furthermore, the greedy transform method is used to repair the infeasible solution and optimize the feasible solution. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out on six different types of 0-1 knapsack instances, and the comparative results have shown the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and its ability to achieve good quality solutions, which outperforms the binary cuckoo search, the binary differential evolution, and the genetic algorithm. Yanhong Feng, Gai-Ge Wang, Qingjiang Feng, and Xiang-Jun Zhao Copyright © 2014 Yanhong Feng et al. All rights reserved. Protection of Tong-Sai-Mai Decoction against Apoptosis Induced by H2O2 in PC12 Cells: Mechanisms via Bcl-2-Mitochondria-ROS-INOS Pathway Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:54:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/371419/ Tong-Sai-Mai decoction (TSM) is a Chinese materia medica polyherbal formulation that has been applied in treating brain ischemia for hundreds of years. Because it could repress the oxidative stress in in vivo studies, now we focus on the in vitro studies to investigate the mechanism by targeting the oxidative stress dependent signaling. The relation between the neurogenesis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production remains largely unexamined. PC12 cells are excitable cell types widely used as in vitro model for neuronal cells. Most marker genes that are related to neurotoxicity, apoptosis, and cell cycles are expressed at high levels in these cells. The aim of the present study is to explore the cytoprotection of TSM against hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying PC12 cells. Our findings revealed that TSM cotreatment with H2O2 restores the expression of bcl-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS), and mitochondria membrane potential. Meanwhile, it reduces intracellular [Ca2+] concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and the expression of caspase-3 and bax. The results of the present study suggested that the cytoprotective effects of the TSM might be mediated, at least in part, by the bcl-2-mitochondria-ROS-INOS pathway. Due to its nontoxic characteristics, TSM could be further developed to treat the neurodegenerative diseases which are closely associated with the oxidative stress. Maxwell Kim Kit Lee, Yin Lu, Liu-qing Di, and Hui-qin Xu Copyright © 2014 Maxwell Kim Kit Lee et al. All rights reserved. Multiplicity of Solutions to a Potential Operator Equation and Its Applications Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:52:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/947139/ We consider the multiplicity of solutions for operator equation involving homogeneous potential operators. With the help of Nehari manifold and fibering maps, we prove that such equation has at least two nontrivial solutions. Furthermore, we apply this result to prove the existence of two nonnegative solutions for three types of quasilinear elliptic systems involving (p, q)-Laplacian operator and concave-convex nonlinearities. Jincheng Huang Copyright © 2014 Jincheng Huang. All rights reserved. Can Preterm Labour Be Predicted in Low Risk Pregnancies? Role of Clinical, Sonographic, and Biochemical Markers Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:26:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2014/623269/ Background and Objectives. This is a prospective nested cohort study conducted over a period of 3 years. 2644 women were recruited, out of which final analysis was done for 1884 women. Methods. Cervicovaginal and blood samples were collected for all recruited women. Out of these, 137 women who delivered before 35 weeks were treated as cases and equal number of matched controls were chosen. Analysis of samples for serum G-CSF, AFP, ferritin, and cervicovaginal interleukin-6 and IGFBP-1 was done. Results. Poor orodental hygiene, which can be a social marker, was significantly more common in women who delivered preterm (). Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum ferritin were found to be significantly associated with preterm deliveries. The 90th percentile value of these parameters was considered as cut-off as there is no specific cut-off. Conclusions. Our study did not prove usefulness of any predictive marker. Serum ferritin and alkaline phosphatase were found to have correlation but their values are affected in many conditions and need to be elucidated with caution. Larger studies are needed for predicting preterm labour in asymptomatic women. Reva Tripathi, Shakun Tyagi, Nilanchali Singh, Yedla Manikya Mala, Chanchal Singh, Preena Bhalla, and Siddhartha Ramji Copyright © 2014 Reva Tripathi et al. All rights reserved. Relative Toxicity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against Mosquito Vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:17:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/insects/2014/985463/ The larvicidal activity of different solvent leaf extracts (hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, and methanol) of Eucalyptus globulus and Centella asiatica against two geographically different strains of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi was investigated. The extracts were tested against the late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, and larval mortality was observed after 24 hours of treatment. LC50 and LC90 were calculated. The LC50 values of hexane extract of Eucalyptus globulus against the late third instar larvae of the BSN and JPN strains of Aedes aegypti and the DLC and KNG strains of Anopheles stephensi were 225.2, 167.7, 118.8, and 192.8 ppm, while those of the hexane extract of Centella asiatica were 246.5, 268.7, 50.6, and 243.5 ppm, respectively. The LC50 values of diethyl ether extract of Centella asiatica were 339.6, 134.5, 241, and 14.7 ppm. The hexane extracts of both plants and the diethyl ether extract of C. asiatica presented the highest potential for the control of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The present findings also reveal the necessity of assaying multiple strains of a species to fully comprehend the larvicidal efficacy of a compound. Savitha Sekhar Nair, Vinaya Shetty, and Nadikere Jaya Shetty Copyright © 2014 Savitha Sekhar Nair et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Flavone C-Glycosides in the Leaves of Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau by HPTLC and HPLC-UV/DAD Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:15:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/724267/ Clinacanthus nutans (family Acanthaceae) has been used for the treatment of inflammation and herpes viral infection. Currently, there has not been any report on the qualitative and quantitative determination of the chemical markers in the leaves of C. nutans. The C-glycosidic flavones such as shaftoside, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin have been found to be major flavonoids in the leaves of this plant. Therefore, we had developed a two-step method using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the rapid identification and quantification of the flavones C-glycosides in C. nutans leaves. The TLC separation of the chemical markers was achieved on silica gel 60 plate using ethyl acetate : formic acid : acetic acid : water (100 : 11 : 11 : 27 v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. HPLC method was optimized and validated for the quantification of shaftoside, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin and was shown to be linear in concentration range tested (0.4–200 μg/mL, r2 ≥ 0.996), precise (RSD ≤ 4.54%), and accurate (95–105%). The concentration of shaftoside, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin in C. nutans leave samples was 2.55–17.43, 0.00–0.86, 0.00–2.01, and 0.00–0.91 mmol/g, respectively. June Lee Chelyn, Maizatul Hasyima Omar, Nor Syaidatul Akmal Mohd Yousof, Ramesh Ranggasamy, Mohd Isa Wasiman, and Zakiah Ismail Copyright © 2014 June Lee Chelyn et al. All rights reserved. Metastatic Carcinoma Occurring in a Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: The First Reported Case Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2014/781318/ Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are regarded as benign. However, in rare cases they may contain incipient primary carcinomas. To our knowledge, breast carcinoma metastatic to a gastric hyperplastic polyp has not yet been reported. We describe the case of a 69-year-old woman to whom a gastric polyp was endoscopically excised. The patient had previously undergone a right mastectomy for mixed, invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma 5 years earlier. Histological sections from the gastric lesion showed typical features of hyperplastic polyp with foci of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma including signet ring cells infiltrating the lamina propria. The histologic findings were consistent with a primary gastric cancer. However, the carcinoma cells were immunopositive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and GATA3 and negative for CDX2, Hep Par 1, and MUC5AC. E-cadherin showed membranous reactivity in some of the carcinoma cells while in others it was negative. Accordingly, metastatic mixed, lobular and ductal breast carcinoma was diagnosed. We conclude that metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer can be rarely encountered in hyperplastic gastric polyps. Gabriel M. Groisman, Roman Depsames, Baruch Ovadia, and Alona Meir Copyright © 2014 Gabriel M. Groisman et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/657123/ Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation ( = 0.0614 and = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. Melekber Sulusoglu and Aysun Cavusoglu Copyright © 2014 Melekber Sulusoglu and Aysun Cavusoglu. All rights reserved. Random Forest Based Coarse Locating and KPCA Feature Extraction for Indoor Positioning System Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/850926/ With the fast developing of mobile terminals, positioning techniques based on fingerprinting method draw attention from many researchers even world famous companies. To conquer some shortcomings of the existing fingerprinting systems and further improve the system performance, on the one hand, in the paper, we propose a coarse positioning method based on random forest, which is able to customize several subregions, and classify test point to the region with an outstanding accuracy compared with some typical clustering algorithms. On the other hand, through the mathematical analysis in engineering, the proposed kernel principal component analysis algorithm is applied for radio map processing, which may provide better robustness and adaptability compared with linear feature extraction methods and manifold learning technique. We build both theoretical model and real environment for verifying the feasibility and reliability. The experimental results show that the proposed indoor positioning system could achieve 99% coarse locating accuracy and enhance 15% fine positioning accuracy on average in a strong noisy environment compared with some typical fingerprinting based methods. Yun Mo, Zhongzhao Zhang, Yang Lu, Weixiao Meng, and Gul Agha Copyright © 2014 Yun Mo et al. All rights reserved. A Neonate with CLOVES Syndrome Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2014/845074/ Congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, and epidermal nevi (CLOVE) syndrome is a recently delineated disorder that comprises vascular malformations (typically truncal), dysregulated adipose tissue, scoliosis, enlarged bony structures (typically of the legs) without progression, or distorting bony overgrowth. The name CLOVE was subsequently extended to CLOVES to emphasize the association with scoliosis/skeletal and spinal anomalies and seizures/central nervous system malformations. We herein report a very rare case of CLOVES syndrome with the findings of lipomatous overgrowth in the cheek (facial asymmetry), vascular malformation (hemangiomas), epidermal nevi (large port wine stains), and skeletal abnormalities (widened first interdigital space, dystrophia in the nail of the first digit of the right foot, and bilateral hypertrophy of the first digits of the feet). Dilek Sarici, Mustafa Ali Akin, Selim Kurtoglu, Filiz Tubas, and Serdar Umit Sarici Copyright © 2014 Dilek Sarici et al. All rights reserved. Vehicle Velocity and Roll Angle Estimation with Road and Friction Adaptation for Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicle Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/801628/ Vehicle velocity and roll angle are important information for active safety control systems of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle. In order to obtain robustness estimation of vehicle velocity and roll angle, a novel method is proposed based on vehicle dynamics and the measurement information provided by the sensors equipped in modern cars. The method is robust with respect to different road and friction conditions. Firstly, the dynamic characteristics of four-wheel independent drive electric vehicle are analyzed, and a four-degree-of-freedom nonlinear dynamic model of vehicle and a tire longitudinal dynamic equation are established. The relationship between the longitudinal and lateral friction forces is derived based on Dugoff tire model. The unknown input reconstruction technique of sliding mode observer is used to achieve longitudinal tire friction force estimation. A simple observer is designed for the estimation of the roll angle of the vehicle. And then using the relationship, the estimated longitudinal friction forces and roll angle, a sliding mode observer for vehicle velocity estimation is provided, which does not need to know the tire-road friction coefficient and road angles. Finally, the proposed method is evaluated experimentally under a variety of maneuvers and road conditions. Linhui Zhao and Zhiyuan Liu Copyright © 2014 Linhui Zhao and Zhiyuan Liu. All rights reserved. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Extract Ameliorates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity Associated Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in Rodent Model Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/983952/ The present investigation was designed to investigate the protective effect of (Beta vulgaris L.) beat root ethanolic extract (BVEE) on gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Serum specific kidney function parameters (urea, uric acid, total protein, creatinine, and histopathology of kidney tissue) were evaluated to access gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. The oxidative/nitrosative stress (Lipid peroxidation, MDA, NP-SH, Catalase, and nitric oxide levels) was assessed. The inflammatory response (TNF-α, IL-6, MPO, NF-κB (p65), and NF-κB (p65) DNA binding) and apoptotic marker (Caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were also evaluated. BVEE (250 and 500 mg/kg) treatment along with gentamicin restored/increased the renal endogenous antioxidant status. Gentamicin-induced increased renal inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), nuclear protein expression of NF-κB (p65), NF-κB-DNA binding activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and nitric oxide level were significantly down regulated upon BVEE treatment. In addition, BVEE treatment significantly reduced the amount of cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, protein expression and increased the Bcl-2 protein expression. BVEE treatment also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced inflammatory infiltration in renal tubules. These findings suggest that BVEE treatment attenuates renal dysfunction and structural damage through the reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the kidney. Ali A. El Gamal, Mansour S. AlSaid, Mohammad Raish, Mohammed Al-Sohaibani, Shaza M. Al-Massarani, Ajaz Ahmad, Mohamed Hefnawy, Mohammed Al-Yahya, Omer A. Basoudan, and Syed Rafatullah Copyright © 2014 Ali A. El Gamal et al. All rights reserved. Fractional Contributions of Defect-Originated Photoluminescence from CuInS2/ZnS Coreshells for Hybrid White LEDs Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/979875/ The wide optical tunability and broad spectral distribution of CuInS2/ZnS (CIS/ZnS) coreshells are key elements for developing the hybrid white light emitting diodes where the nanoparticles are stacked on the blue LEDs. Two and coreshells are utilized for the hybrid white LED development. The time-resolved spectroscopy of and reveals the correlation between the fast, intermediate, and slow decay components and the interface-trapped state and shallow- and deep-trapped states, although the fractional amplitudes of photoluminescence (PL) decay components are widely distributed throughout the entire spectra. The temperature-resolved spectroscopy explains that the PL from deep-trapped donor-acceptor (DA) state has relatively large thermal quenching, due to the relative Coulomb interaction of DA pairs, compared to the thermal quenching of PL from interface defect state and shallow-trapped DA state. A good spectral coupling between the blue diode excitation and the PL from CIS/ZnS leads to the realization of hybrid white LEDs. Quinton Rice, Sangram Raut, Rahul Chib, Zygmunt Gryczynski, Ignacy Gryczynski, Wenjin Zhang, Xinhua Zhong, Mahmoud Abdel-Fattah, Bagher Tabibi, and Jaetae Seo Copyright © 2014 Quinton Rice et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/581029/ Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading) showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Arezoo Jahanbin, Mostafa Abtahi, Farzin Heravi, Mohsen Hoseini, and Hooman Shafaee Copyright © 2014 Arezoo Jahanbin et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Reconstruction with the Remnant Ligament Improves Joint Position Sense as well as Functional Ankle Instability: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/523902/ Introduction. Chronic functional instability—characterized by repeated ankle inversion sprains and a subjective sensation of instability—is one of the most common residual disabilities after an inversion sprain. However, whether surgical reconstruction improves sensorimotor control has not been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to assess functional improvement of chronic ankle instability after surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament. Materials and Methods. We performed 10 cases in the intervention group and 20 healthy individuals as the control group. Before and after surgical reconstruction, we evaluated joint position sense and functional ankle instability by means of a questionnaire. Results and Discussion. There was a statistically significant difference between the control and intervention groups before surgical reconstruction. Three months after surgery in the intervention group, the joint position sense was significantly different from those found preoperatively. Before surgery, the mean score of functional ankle instability in the intervention group was almost twice as low. Three months after surgery, however, the score significantly increased. The results showed that surgical reconstruction using the remnant ligament was effective not only for improving mechanical retensioning but also for ameliorating joint position sense and functional ankle instability. Kamizato Iwao, Deie Masataka, and Fukuhara Kohei Copyright © 2014 Kamizato Iwao et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Infections following Cranioplasty: A Retrospective Review of a Large Single Center Study Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/356042/ Introduction. The variables that predispose to postcranioplasty infections are poorly described in the literature. We formulated a multivariate model that predicts the risk of infection in patients undergoing cranioplasty. Method. Retrospective review of all patients who underwent cranioplasty following craniectomy from January, 2000, to December, 2011. Tested predictors were age, sex, diabetic status, hypertensive status, reason for craniectomy, urgency status of craniectomy, location of cranioplasty, reoperation for hematoma, hydrocephalus postcranioplasty, and material type. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Results. Three hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. Infection rate was 26.43% (92/348). Of these cases with infection, 56.52% (52/92) were superficial (supragaleal), 43.48% (40/92) were deep (subgaleal), and 31.52% (29/92) were present in both the supragaleal and subgaleal spaces. The predominant pathogen was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (30.43%) followed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (22.83%) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (15.22%). Approximately 15.22% of all cultures were polymicrobial. Multivariate analysis revealed convex craniectomy, hemorrhagic stroke, and hydrocephalus to be associated with an increased risk of infection (; , ; , ; , resp.). Conclusion. Many of the risk factors for infection after cranioplasty are modifiable. Recognition and prevention of the risk factors would help decrease the infection’s rate. Mario Zanaty, Nohra Chalouhi, Robert M. Starke, Rohan Chitale, Shannon Hann, Cory D. Bovenzi, Mark P. Saigh, Eric W. Schwartz, Emily S. I. Kunkel, Alexandra S. Efthimiadis-Budike, Pascal Jabbour, Richard Dalyai, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Stavropoula I. Tjoumakaris Copyright © 2014 Mario Zanaty et al. All rights reserved. Eculizumab Therapy Leads to Rapid Resolution of Thrombocytopenia in Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Wed, 22 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2014/295323/ Eculizumab is highly effective in controlling complement activation in patients with the atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). However, the course of responses to the treatment is not well understood. We reviewed the responses to eculizumab therapy for aHUS. The results show that, in patients with aHUS, eculizumab therapy, when not accompanied with concurrent plasma exchange therapy, led to steady increase in the platelet count and improvement in extra-renal complications within 3 days. By day 7, the platelet count was normal in 15 of 17 cases. The resolution of hemolytic anemia and improvement in renal function were less predictable and were not apparent for weeks to months in two patients. The swift response in the platelet counts was only observed in one of five cases who received concurrent plasma exchange therapy and was not observed in a case of TMA due to gemcitabine/carboplatin. In summary, eculizumab leads to rapid increase in the platelet counts and resolution of extrarenal symptoms in patients with aHUS. Concurrent plasma exchange greatly impedes the response of aHUS to eculizumab therapy. Eculizumab is ineffective for gemcitabine/carboplatin associated TMA. Han-Mou Tsai and Elizabeth Kuo Copyright © 2014 Han-Mou Tsai and Elizabeth Kuo. All rights reserved. An Option of Conservative Management of a Duodenal Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Tue, 21 Oct 2014 14:00:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/398545/ Duodenal injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is rare complications with catastrophic sequelae. Most injuries are attributed to thermal burns with electrocautery following adhesiolysis and have a delayed presentation requiring surgical intervention. We present a case of a 47-year-old gentleman operated on for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a bilious drain postoperatively; for which an ERC was done showing choledocholithiasis with cystic duct stump blow-out and a drain in the duodenum suggestive of an iatrogenic duodenal injury. He was managed conservatively like a duodenal fistula and recovered without undergoing any intervention. MA Modi, SS Deolekar, and AK Gvalani Copyright © 2014 MA Modi et al. All rights reserved. Supply Chain Integration in the Manufacturing Firms in Developing Country: An Ethiopian Case Study Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:57:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jie/2014/251982/ With the advancement of information and communication technologies, supply chain integration has been considered a strategic tool for firms to improve their competitiveness. The supply chain integration within processes and between organizations has enhanced value creation. However, the fragmented nature of the business in developing country demonstrates a noticeable difficulty in terms of competitiveness and efficiency. Lack of a relevant literature on practical experience in supply chain integration in developing countries is one of the challenges. The purpose of this research is to identify the level of interorganizational and intraorganizational supply chain integration practices. It also analyzes the challenges faced in the manufacturing firms in developing countries. The methodology followed a thorough review of literature and semistructured interviews amongst the Ethiopian manufacturing industries. The preliminary findings of the study highlight that prevailing approach to supply chain integration is limited to ad hoc functional based boundaries within the firm. The SC integration enablers are also restricted to the traditional way of communications such as telephone, fax, and letters. Firms need to focus on those issues that require attention in pursuance of greater SC integration. Fasika Bete Georgise, Klaus-Dieter Thoben, and Marcus Seifert Copyright © 2014 Fasika Bete Georgise et al. All rights reserved. Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:55:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2014/603531/ Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. Keijiro Kanno, Seiji Ohtori, Sumihisa Orita, Kazuyo Yamauchi, Yawara Eguchi, Yasuchika Aoki, Junichi Nakamura, Masayuki Miyagi, Miyako Suzuki, Gou Kubota, Kazuhide Inage, Takeshi Sainoh, Jun Sato, Yasuhiro Shiga, Koki Abe, Kazuki Fujimoto, Hiroto Kanamoto, Tomoaki Toyone, Gen Inoue, Eiji Hanaoka, and Kazuhisa Takahashi Copyright © 2014 Keijiro Kanno et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Structural Architecture of HCV NS3 Genotype 1 versus Pakistani Genotype 3a Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:49:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/749254/ This study described the structural characterization of Pakistani HCV NS3 GT3a in parallel with genotypes 1a and 1b NS3. We investigated the role of amino acids and their interaction patterns in different HCV genotypes by crystallographic modeling. Different softwares were used to study the interaction pattern, for example, CLCBIO sequence viewer, MODELLER, NMRCLUST, ERRAT score, and MODELLER. Sixty models were produced and clustered into groups and the best model of PK-NCVI/Pk3a NS3 was selected and studied further to check the variability with other HCV NS3 genotypes. This study will help in future to understand the structural architecture of HCV genome variability and to further define the conserved targets for antiviral agents. Kaneez Fatima, Esam Azhar, Shilu Mathew, Ghazi Damanhouri, and Ishtiaq Qadri Copyright © 2014 Kaneez Fatima et al. All rights reserved. Variational Level Set Method for Two-Stage Image Segmentation Based on Morphological Gradients Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:48:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/145343/ We use variational level set method and transition region extraction techniques to achieve image segmentation task. The proposed scheme is done by two steps. We first develop a novel algorithm to extract transition region based on the morphological gradient. After this, we integrate the transition region into a variational level set framework and develop a novel geometric active contour model, which include an external energy based on transition region and fractional order edge indicator function. The external energy is used to drive the zero level set toward the desired image features, such as object boundaries. Due to this external energy, the proposed model allows for more flexible initialization. The fractional order edge indicator function is incorporated into the length regularization term to diminish the influence of noise. Moreover, internal energy is added into the proposed model to penalize the deviation of the level set function from a signed distance function. The results evolution of the level set function is the gradient flow that minimizes the overall energy functional. The proposed model has been applied to both synthetic and real images with promising results. Zemin Ren Copyright © 2014 Zemin Ren. All rights reserved. An Efficient Approach for Solving Mesh Optimization Problems Using Newton’s Method Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:45:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/273732/ We present an efficient approach for solving various mesh optimization problems. Our approach is based on Newton’s method, which uses both first-order (gradient) and second-order (Hessian) derivatives of the nonlinear objective function. The volume and surface mesh optimization algorithms are developed such that mesh validity and surface constraints are satisfied. We also propose several Hessian modification methods when the Hessian matrix is not positive definite. We demonstrate our approach by comparing our method with nonlinear conjugate gradient and steepest descent methods in terms of both efficiency and mesh quality. Jibum Kim Copyright © 2014 Jibum Kim. All rights reserved. Effects of Quinizarin and Five Synthesized Derivatives on Fifth Larval Instar Midgut Ecdysone 20-Monooxygenase Activity of the Tobacco Hornworm Manduca sexta Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:36:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijz/2014/261512/ The plant allelochemical, quinizarin (1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone), and five anthraquinones that were synthesized from quinizarin, namely, 1,4-anthraquinone; 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone; 9-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone; and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone, were assessed as to their effects on the essential, P450-dependent ecdysone 20-monooxygenase system of the insect model Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm). This steroid hydroxylase converts the arthropod molting hormone, ecdysone, to the physiologically required 20-hydroxyecdysone form. M. sexta fifth larval instar midgut homogenates were incubated with increasing concentrations (10−8 to 10−3 M) of each of the six anthraquinones followed by ecdysone 20-monooxygenase assessments using a radioenzymological assay. Four of the five anthraquinones exhibited ’s of about to  M. The most effective inhibitors were 2-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone and 1,4-anthraquinone followed by 9-hydroxy-1,4 anthraquinone and 9-methoxy-1,4-anthraquinone. At lower concentrations the latter anthraquinone stimulated E20M activity. Quinizarin was less inhibitory and 2-hydroxy-1,4-anthraquinone was essentially without effect. Significantly, these studies make evident for the first time that anthraquinones can affect insect E20M activity, and thus insect endocrine regulation and development, and that a relationship between anthraquinone structure and effectiveness is apparent. These studies represent the first demonstrations of anthraquinones affecting any steroid hydroxylase system. Christopher A. Drummond, Maria Teresa Molina, Sandra Taliansky, Carl R. Breidenbach, and Carmen F. Fioravanti Copyright © 2014 Christopher A. Drummond et al. All rights reserved. Mediators of Mast Cells in Bullous Pemphigoid and Dermatitis Herpetiformis Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:09:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/936545/ Bullous pemphigoid (BP) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) are skin diseases associated with inflammation. However, few findings exist concerning the role of mast cells in autoimmune blistering disease. Skin biopsies were taken from 27 BP and 14 DH patients, as well as 20 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the localization and mast cell expression of TNFα and MMP9 in skin lesions and perilesional skin. The serum concentrations of TNFα, MMP9, chymase, tryptase, PAF, and IL-4 were measured by immunoassay. TNFα and MMP9 expression in the epidermis and in inflammatory influxed cells in the dermis was detected in skin biopsies from patients. Although these mediators were found to be expressed in the perilesional skin of all patients, the level was much lower than that in lesional skin. Increased serum PAF levels were observed in BP patients. Mast cells may play an essential role in activating inflammation, which ultimately contributes to the tissue damage observed in BP and DH. Our findings suggest that differences in the pattern of cytokine expression directly contribute to variations in cellular infiltration in DH and BP. Agnieszka Zebrowska, Malgorzata Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Marian Danilewicz, Olga Stasikowska-Kanicka, Lilianna Kulczycka-Siennicka, Anna Wozniacka, and Elzbieta Waszczykowska Copyright © 2014 Agnieszka Zebrowska et al. All rights reserved. Grooming Behavior in American Cockroach is Affected by Novelty and Odor Tue, 21 Oct 2014 13:02:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/329514/ The main features of grooming behavior are amazingly similar among arthropods and land vertebrates and serve the same needs. A particular pattern of cleaning movements in cockroaches shows cephalo-caudal progression. Grooming sequences become longer after adaptation to the new setting. Novelty related changes in grooming are recognized as a form of displacement behavior. Statistical analysis of behavior revealed that antennal grooming in American cockroach, Periplaneta americana L., was significantly enhanced in the presence of odor. Marianna I. Zhukovskaya Copyright © 2014 Marianna I. Zhukovskaya. All rights reserved. Association between Functional Severity and Amputation Type with Rehabilitation Outcomes in Patients with Lower Limb Amputation Tue, 21 Oct 2014 12:52:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/rerp/2014/961798/ The purpose of this study was to determine independent influences of functional level and lower limb amputation type on inpatient rehabilitation outcomes. We conducted a secondary data analysis for patients with lower limb amputation who received inpatient medical rehabilitation (N = 26,501). The study outcomes included length of stay, discharge functional status, and community discharge. Predictors included the 3-level case mix group variable and a 4-category amputation variable. Age of the sample was 64.5 years (13.4) and 64% were male. More than 75% of patients had a dysvascular-related amputation. Patients with bilateral transfemoral amputations and higher functional severity experienced longest lengths of stay (average 13.7 days) and lowest functional rating at discharge (average 79.4). Likelihood of community discharge was significantly lower for those in more functionally severe patients but did not differ between amputation categories. Functional levels and amputation type are associated with rehabilitation outcomes in inpatient rehabilitation settings. Patients with transfemoral amputations and those in case mix group 1003 (admission motor score less than 36.25) generally experience poorer outcomes than those in other case mix groups. These relationships may be associated with other demographic and/or health factors, which should be explored in future research. Amol M. Karmarkar, James E. Graham, Timothy A. Reistetter, Amit Kumar, Jacqueline M. Mix, Paulette Niewczyk, Carl V. Granger, and Kenneth J. Ottenbacher Copyright © 2014 Amol M. Karmarkar et al. All rights reserved. The Mechanisms of Medial Pedicle Wall Violation: Insertion Method Is as Important as Correct Cannulation of the Pedicle Tue, 21 Oct 2014 12:16:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aorth/2014/283783/ A cadaver study aims to determine the mechanisms of medial pedicle wall violation after a correct cannulation of the pedicle. The study presents finding out the effect of insertion angle and insertion force on medial wall violation. We used 100 lumbar pedicles of cadavers. Special wooden blocks were produced to simulate a fixed angle fault after a correct pedicle cannulation. Pedicles were divided into 4 groups: 10-degree free drive (group 10), 15-degree free drive (group 15), 10-degree push drive (group 10P), and 15-degree push drive (group 15P). After insertion of pedicle screws, laminectomies were done and the pedicles were evaluated from the inside. Pedicle complications were more in group 10P than group 10 (). Medial wall fracture () and canal penetration were more in group 15P than group 15 (). Groups 10P and 15P were similar regarding medial wall fractures but canal penetration was significantly higher in group 15P (). Medial wall breaches can happen after correct cannulation of pedicles. Change in insertion angle is one factor but the most important factor is the use of a pushing force while inserting a screw. The pedicle seems to be extremely tolerant to insertion angulation mistakes up to 10 degrees and tends to lead the screw into the correct path spontaneously. Cengiz Isik, Kamil Cagri Kose, Mustafa Erkan Inanmaz, Suleyman Murat Tagil, and Hakan Sarman Copyright © 2014 Cengiz Isik et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA-21 Promotes Cell Growth and Migration by Targeting Programmed Cell Death 4 Gene in Kazakh’s Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tue, 21 Oct 2014 12:02:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2014/232837/ Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the sixth most common cause of cancer death. There are two main types of EC—squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC). Although some advances in the exploration of its possible etiological mechanism were made recently including behaviors and environmental risk factors as well as gene alterations, the molecular mechanism underlying ESCC carcinogenesis and progression remains poorly understood. It has been reported that miR-21 was upregulated in most malignant cancers, the proposed mechanism of which was through suppressing expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). In present study, it is firstly reported that miR-21 was upregulated in Kazakh’s ESCC and that miR-21 played a negative role in regulating PDCD4 using in situ hybridization (ISH) and luciferase reporter approach. Morever, in model of ESCC xenografted nude mice, miR-21 maybe used as an effective target in the treatment. The present results demonstrated that miR-21 may be a potential therapeutic target in management of ESCC. Tao Liu, Qing Liu, Shutao Zheng, Xiangpeng Gao, Mang Lu, Chenchen Yang, Fang Dai, Ilyar Sheyhidin, and Xiaomei Lu Copyright © 2014 Tao Liu et al. All rights reserved. Palaeoenvironment and Its Control on the Formation of Miocene Marine Source Rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin, Northern South China Sea Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:57:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/240415/ The main factors of the developmental environment of marine source rocks in continental margin basins have their specificality. This realization, in return, has led to the recognition that the developmental environment and pattern of marine source rocks, especially for the source rocks in continental margin basins, are still controversial or poorly understood. Through the analysis of the trace elements and maceral data, the developmental environment of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin is reconstructed, and the developmental patterns of the Miocene marine source rocks are established. This paper attempts to reveal the hydrocarbon potential of the Miocene marine source rocks in different environment and speculate the quality of source rocks in bathyal region of the continental slope without exploratory well. Our results highlight the palaeoenvironment and its control on the formation of Miocene marine source rocks in the Qiongdongnan Basin of the northern South China Sea and speculate the hydrocarbon potential of the source rocks in the bathyal region. This study provides a window for better understanding the main factors influencing the marine source rocks in the continental margin basins, including productivity, preservation conditions, and the input of terrestrial organic matter. Wenhao Li, Zhihuan Zhang, Weiming Wang, Shuangfang Lu, Youchuan Li, and Ning Fu Copyright © 2014 Wenhao Li et al. All rights reserved. Pricing of Two Kinds of Power Options under Fractional Brownian Motion, Stochastic Rate, and Jump-Diffusion Models Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:47:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/259297/ Option pricing is always one of the critical issues in financial mathematics and economics. Brownian motion is the basic hypothesis of option pricing model, which questions the fractional property of stock price. In this paper, under the assumption that the exchange rate follows the extended Vasicek model, we obtain the closed form of the pricing formulas for two kinds of power options under fractional Brownian Motion (FBM) jump-diffusion models. Kaili Xiang, Yindong Zhang, and Xiaotong Mao Copyright © 2014 Kaili Xiang et al. All rights reserved. The Elusive Role of the Left Temporal Pole (BA38) in Language: A Preliminary Meta-Analytic Connectivity Study Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:41:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbs/2014/946039/ It has been suggested that the left temporal pole (Brodmann area 38 (BA38)) participates in diverse language functions, including semantic processing, speech comprehension, and naming. Utilizing the activation likelihood estimation (ALE), a meta-analytic connectivity study was conducted to further our understanding on the role of BA38 in language. Departing from the BrainMap functional database, 11 papers corresponding to 12 paradigms including 201 participants were selected. Initially, was employed as the significance level, resulting in the presence of four different activation clusters. However, when the significance level was lowered to , sixteen activation clusters appeared, including classical language areas such as Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. It was concluded that (1) this meta-analytic connectivity study suggests the presence of two major connection circuits involving BA38; one is related to language, while the other may be involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, (2) BA38 also contributes to various brain networks supporting linguistic processes related not only to language comprehension but also to language production. Alfredo Ardila, Byron Bernal, and Monica Rosselli Copyright © 2014 Alfredo Ardila et al. All rights reserved. The Infection Hypothesis Revisited: Oral Infection and Cardiovascular Disease Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:24:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/eri/2014/735378/ Background. The pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Increasing evidence supports oral infections, and in particular the common periodontal disease, to be associated with CVD development. Periodontal infection is present in populations worldwide and in the moderate to mild form in about 35% of populations according to the World Health Organization. Objective. This review of the literature aims to present cross evidence from medical research disciplines that explore how oral infections can contribute to increase the risk for CVDs and how treatment of oral infections can reduce the risk for CVDs. Design. Review article. Results. Long-term exposure to active nontreated infections of the oral cavity presents an opportunity for bacteria, bacterial products, and viruses to enter the circulation. Toxic bacterial products enter the circulation, affecting atherosclerosis, causing platelet adhesiveness that results in clot formation, and establishing cardiac vegetation. Pathological observations have identified oral bacteria in heart valves, aortic aneurysms, and arterial walls. Clinical intervention studies on periodontal disease reduce the risk level of serological predictors for CVDs. Conclusions. This paper presents evidence across medical research disciplines for oral infections to be considered as one of the risk factors for CVDs. Lise Lund Håheim Copyright © 2014 Lise Lund Håheim. All rights reserved. The Role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in Maintenance of Ex Vivo Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Hematopoietic Stem Cells Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:20:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/258192/ Hematopoietic stem cells- (HSCs-) based therapy requires ex vivo expansion of HSCs prior to therapeutic use. However, ex vivo culture was reported to promote excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), exposing HSCs to oxidative damage. Efforts to overcome this limitation include the use of antioxidants. In this study, the role of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Roselle) in maintenance of cultured murine bone marrow-derived HSCs was investigated. Aqueous extract of Roselle was added at varying concentrations (0–1000 ng/mL) for 24 hours to the freshly isolated murine bone marrow cells (BMCs) cultures. Effects of Roselle on cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione (GSH) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and DNA damage were investigated. Roselle enhanced the survival of BMCs at 500 and 1000 ng/mL, increased survival of Sca-1+ cells (HSCs) at 500 ng/mL, and maintained HSCs phenotype as shown from nonremarkable changes of surface marker antigen (Sca-1) expression in all experimental groups. Roselle increased the GSH level and SOD activity but the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was unaffected. Moreover, Roselle showed significant cellular genoprotective potency against H2O2-induced DNA damage. Conclusively, Roselle shows novel property as potential supplement and genoprotectant against oxidative damage to cultured HSCs. Zariyantey Abdul Hamid, Winnie Hii Lin Lin, Basma Jibril Abdalla, Ong Bee Yuen, Elda Surhaida Latif, Jamaludin Mohamed, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Chow Paik Wah, Muhd Khairul Akmal Wak Harto, and Siti Balkis Budin Copyright © 2014 Zariyantey Abdul Hamid et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Vowel Articulation with Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation in Dysarthric Speakers with Parkinson’s Disease Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:17:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2014/487035/ Purpose. To investigate changes in vowel articulation with the electrical deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in dysarthric speakers with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods. Eight Quebec-French speakers diagnosed with idiopathic PD who had undergone STN DBS were evaluated ON-stimulation and OFF-stimulation (1 hour after DBS was turned off). Vowel articulation was compared ON-simulation versus OFF-stimulation using acoustic vowel space and formant centralization ratio, calculated with the first () and second formant () of the vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/. The impact of the preceding consonant context on articulation, which represents a measure of coarticulation, was also analyzed as a function of the stimulation state. Results. Maximum vowel articulation increased during ON-stimulation. Analyses also indicate that vowel articulation was modulated by the consonant context but this relationship did not change with STN DBS. Conclusions. Results suggest that STN DBS may improve articulation in dysarthric speakers with PD, in terms of range of movement. Optimization of the electrical parameters for each patient is important and may lead to improvement in speech fine motor control. However, the impact on overall speech intelligibility may still be small. Clinical considerations are discussed and new research avenues are suggested. Vincent Martel Sauvageau, Joël Macoir, Mélanie Langlois, Michel Prud’Homme, Léo Cantin, and Johanna-Pascale Roy Copyright © 2014 Vincent Martel Sauvageau et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Current Control for Reluctance Actuator with Hysteresis Compensation Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:01:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2014/150345/ The next-generation fine stage of the wafer scanner needs a suitable actuator to meet the requirements of high speed, high acceleration, and high precision. The voice coil actuator is no longer the best choice because of its large size and the heat dissipation is difficult to solve. The reluctance actuator can provide a big force based on a unique property of small volume and low current, making it a very suitable candidate. But the strong nonlinearity such as the hysteresis between the current and force limits the reluctance actuator applications in nanometer positioning. This paper proposes a nonlinear current control configuration with hysteresis compensation using the adaptive multilayer neural network. Simulation results show that the hysteresis compensator is effective in overcoming the hysteresis and is promising in precision control applications. Yu-Ping Liu, Kang-Zhi Liu, and Xiaofeng Yang Copyright © 2014 Yu-Ping Liu et al. All rights reserved. Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid: Extracapsular Dissection Compared with Superficial Parotidectomy—A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:41:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/564053/ The purpose of this study was to investigate the complication rates and effectiveness of extracapsular dissection compared with superficial parotidectomy for pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland from 2002 to 2012. The authors carried out a retrospective cohort study of 198 patients with pleomorphic adenomas of the parotid gland. Extracapsular dissection (ED) or superficial parotidectomy (SP) was performed. The recurrence rate and complications of the two surgical techniques were measured with a univariate analysis of each variable using the appropriate statistical analysis (chi-squared test or t-test). A total of 198 patients were enrolled between January 2003 and December 2012. The study included 97 females (48.99%) and 101 males (51.01%) whose mean age was 50.97 years (range 14–75). The type of surgery performed was ED in 153 patients (77.27%, 80 males and 73 females) and SP in 45 patients (22.73%, 21 males and 24 females). The mean follow-up time was 61.02 +/− 4.9 months for the patients treated with ED and 66.4 +/− 4.5 months for the patients treated with SP. Transient facial nerve injury and facial paralysis were significantly more frequent after SP than after ED ( and , resp.). No significant differences in capsular rupture, recurrence, and salivary fistula were observed after SP or ED: 2.2% versus 3.9%, 2.2% versus 3.3%, and 2.2% versus 0.65%, respectively. Extracapsular dissection may be considered the treatment of choice for pleomorphic adenomas located in the superficial portion of the parotid gland because this technique showed similar effectiveness and fewer side effects than superficial parotidectomy. Maria Giulia Cristofaro, Eugenia Allegra, Amerigo Giudice, Walter Colangeli, Davide Caruso, Ida Barca, and Mario Giudice Copyright © 2014 Maria Giulia Cristofaro et al. All rights reserved. Hemoglobin Variant (Hemoglobin Aalborg) Mimicking Interstitial Pulmonary Disease Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:16:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pm/2014/701839/ Hemoglobin Aalborg is a moderately unstable hemoglobin variant with no affiliation to serious hematological abnormality or major clinical symptoms under normal circumstances. Our index person was a healthy woman of 58, not previously diagnosed with hemoglobinopathy Aalborg, who developed acute respiratory failure after a routine cholecystectomy. Initially she was suspected of idiopathic interstitial lung disease, yet a series of tests uncovered various abnormal physiological parameters and set the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy Aalborg. This led us to examine a group of the index person’s relatives known with hemoglobinopathy Aalborg in order to study whether the same physiological abnormalities would be reencountered. They were all subjected to spirometry and body plethysmography, six-minute walking test, pulse oximetry, and arterial blood gas samples before and after the walking test. The entire study population presented the same physiological anomalies: reduction in diffusion capacity, and abnormalities in and p50 values; the latter could not be presented by the arterial blood gas analyzer; furthermore there was concordance between pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas samples regarding saturation. These data suggest that, based upon the above mentioned anomalies in physiological parameters, the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy Aalborg should be considered. Vasiliki Panou, Peter-Diedrich Mathias Jensen, Jan Freddy Pedersen, Lars Pilegaard Thomsen, and Ulla Møller Weinreich Copyright © 2014 Vasiliki Panou et al. All rights reserved. Preoperative Diagnosis of Usual Leiomyoma, Atypical Leiomyoma, and Leiomyosarcoma Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:07:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2014/498682/ Uterine smooth muscle tumors (SMTs) are common pelvic tumors in women, and most of them are diagnosed as usual leiomyoma (UL). Exclusion of malignant disease is important in the management of SMTs. However, differentiation of SMTs remains difficult. In this study, we aimed to improve the preoperative diagnosis of SMTs. We examined 21 ULs, 7 atypical leiomyomas (ALs), and 6 leiomyosarcomas (LMSs), all of which were diagnosed by uterine tumor biopsy. Immunohistochemical findings (low-molecular-mass polypeptide 2 (LMP2) and Ki-67) and clinical features (serum lactate dehydrogenase level and menopause) were evaluated. Statistically significant differences in the expression of LMP2 and Ki-67 were observed between UL and AL and between UL and LMS. The combined LMP2 and Ki-67 score was significantly different between UL and AL, between UL and LMS, and between AL and LMS. The combined immunohistochemistry and clinical findings score (total score) was also significantly different between pathological types. The findings of this study suggest that the accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis of SMTs may be improved by using a combination of immunohistochemical and clinical findings. M. Matsuda, T. Ichimura, M. Kasai, M. Murakami, N. Kawamura, T. Hayashi, and T. Sumi Copyright © 2014 M. Matsuda et al. All rights reserved. Suaveolic Acid: A Potent Phytotoxic Substance of Hyptis suaveolens Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:06:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/425942/ Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) is an exotic invasive plant in many countries. Earlier studies reported that the aqueous, methanol, and aqueous methanol extract of H. suaveolens and its residues have phytotoxic properties. However, to date, the phytotoxic substances of this plant have not been reported. Therefore, the objectives of this study were isolation and identification of phytotoxic substances of H. suaveolens. Aqueous methanol extract of this plant was purified by several chromatographic runs through bioassay guided fractionation using garden cress (Lepidium sativum) as a test plant. Final purification of a phytotoxic substance was achieved by reverse phase HPLC and characterized as 14α-hydroxy-13β-abiet-8-en-18-oic acid (suaveolic acid) by high-resolution ESI-MS, 1H-,13C-NMR, CD, and specific rotation. Suaveolic acid inhibited the shoot growth of garden cress, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) at concentrations greater than 30 µM. Root growth of all but lettuce was also inhibited at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The inhibitory activities were concentration dependent. Concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of suaveolic acid for those test plant species were ranged from 76 to 1155 µM. Therefore, suaveolic acid is phytotoxic and may be responsible for the phytotoxicity of H. suaveolens plant extracts. A. K. M. Mominul Islam, Osamu Ohno, Kiyotake Suenaga, and Hisashi Kato-Noguchi Copyright © 2014 A. K. M. Mominul Islam et al. All rights reserved. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:02:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/627673/ Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. María M. Adeva-Andany, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo, Elvira Castro-Quintela, and Alberto Domínguez-Montero Copyright © 2014 María M. Adeva-Andany et al. All rights reserved. Architecture and Application-Aware Management of Complexity of Mapping Multiplication to FPGA DSP Blocks in High Level Synthesis Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:01:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrc/2014/564924/ Multiplication is a common operation in many applications and there exist various types of multiplication operations. Current high level synthesis (HLS) flows generally treat all multiplication operations equally and indistinguishable from each other leading to inefficient mapping to resources. This paper proposes algorithms for automatically identifying the different types of multiplication operations and investigates the ensemble of these different types of multiplication operations. This distinguishes it from previous works where mapping strategies for an individual type of multiplication operation have been investigated and the type of multiplication operation is assumed to be known a priori. A new cost model, independent of device and synthesis tools, for establishing priority among different types of multiplication operations for mapping to on-chip DSP blocks is also proposed. This cost model is used by a proposed analysis and priority ordering based mapping strategy targeted at making efficient use of hard DSP blocks on FPGAs while maximizing the operating frequency of designs. Results show that the proposed methodology could result in designs which were at least 2× faster in performance than those generated by commercial HLS tool: Vivado-HLS. Sharad Sinha and Thambipillai Srikanthan Copyright © 2014 Sharad Sinha and Thambipillai Srikanthan. All rights reserved. On Partial Charge Transfer Processes in Multiparticle Systems on Graphs Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:00:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joper/2014/373754/ We assess the probability of resonances between sufficiently distant states of an -particle disordered quantum system in a combinatorial graph . In the -particle configuration space, there are arbitrarily distant pairs of configurations giving rise to pairs of local (random) Hamiltonians which are strongly coupled, so that the eigenvalue concentration (EVC) bounds are difficult to obtain. We extend to any number of particles the efficient EVC bounds, obtained earlier for the 2-particle systems. Victor Chulaevsky Copyright © 2014 Victor Chulaevsky. All rights reserved. Magnolin Protects against Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Rats via Antioxidation and Antiapoptosis Tue, 21 Oct 2014 10:00:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/203458/ Background. Magnolin is the major active ingredient of the herb Magnolia fargesii which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We hypothesize that Magnolin could protect against CIN through antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties. Methods. To test whether Magnolin could attenuate CIN, oxidative stress and apoptosis, in vivo and in vitro, we utilized a rat model of ioversol-induced CIN and a cell model of oxidative stress in which HK2 cells were treated with H2O2. Rats were assigned to 4 groups ( per group): control group, ioversol group (ioversol-induced CIN), vehicle group (CIN rats pretreated with vehicle), and Magnolin group (CIN rats pretreated with 1 mg/kg Magnolin). Results. The results showed that magnolin ameliorated the renal tubular necrosis, apoptosis, and the deterioration of renal function (). Furthermore, Magnolin reduced the renal oxidative stress, suppressed caspase-3 activity, and increased Bcl-2 expression in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion. Magnolin might protect CIN in rats through antioxidation and antiapoptosis. Feng Wang, Guangyuan Zhang, Yang Zhou, Dingkun Gui, Junhui Li, Tao Xing, and Niansong Wang Copyright © 2014 Feng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Model ILC for Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:55:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/984742/ Multiple model iterative learning control (MMILC) method is proposed to deal with the continuous-time nonlinear system with uncertain and iteration-varying parameters. In this kind of control strategy, multiple models are established to cover the uncertainty of system; a switching mechanism is used to decide the most appropriate model for system in current iteration. For system operating iteratively in a fixed time interval with uncertain or jumping parameters, this kind of MMILC can improve the transient response and control property greatly. Asymptotical convergence is demonstrated theoretically, and the control effectiveness is illustrated by numerical simulation. Xiaoli Li, Kang Wang, and Yang Li Copyright © 2014 Xiaoli Li et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Biosorptive Removal of Dye from Aqueous System by Cone Shell of Calabrian Pine Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:50:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/138986/ The biosorption performance of raw cone shell of Calabrian pine for C.I. Basic Red 46 as a model azo dye from aqueous system was optimized using Taguchi experimental design methodology. L9 (33) orthogonal array was used to optimize the dye biosorption by the pine cone shell. The selected factors and their levels were biosorbent particle size, dye concentration, and contact time. The predicted dye biosorption capacity for the pine cone shell from Taguchi design was obtained as 71.770 mg g−1 under optimized biosorption conditions. This experimental design provided reasonable predictive performance of dye biosorption by the biosorbent (: 0.9961). Langmuir model fitted better to the biosorption equilibrium data than Freundlich model. This displayed the monolayer coverage of dye molecules on the biosorbent surface. Dubinin-Radushkevich model and the standard Gibbs free energy change proposed physical biosorption for predominant mechanism. The logistic function presented the best fit to the data of biosorption kinetics. The kinetic parameters reflecting biosorption performance were also evaluated. The optimization study revealed that the pine cone shell can be an effective and economically feasible biosorbent for the removal of dye. Fatih Deniz Copyright © 2014 Fatih Deniz. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Stability Analysis of a Homogeneous Slope Reinforced with Micropiles Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:46:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/864017/ Micropiles are widely used to reinforce slopes due to their successful performance and fast construction. In this study, a simple nonlinear method is proposed to analyze the stability of a homogeneous slope reinforced with micropiles. This method is based on shear strength reduction technique, in which the soil behavior is described using the nonassociated Mohr-Coulomb criterion and micropiles are modeled as 3D pile elements. A series of slope stability analyses is performed to investigate the coupled mechanism of micropile system, and the optimum of pile position, depth of embedment, and length of truncation are analyzed. Results show that the position of micropile system plays an important role not only in the calculation of the safety factor, but also in locating the failure surface, which demonstrates the dominating coupled effect exists between micropiles and slope. The critical embedment depth of the micropile is about 2 times the length of micropile above the critical slip surface, and the micropiles flexure rather than rotation becomes increasingly prevalent as the depth of micropiles embedment increases. Truncation of micropiles may improve the capacity of the micropile system, and the largest truncation length of micropile is about 1/4 depth of critical slip surface in this study. Shu-Wei Sun, Wei Wang, and Fu Zhao Copyright © 2014 Shu-Wei Sun et al. All rights reserved. Classification Identification of Acoustic Emission Signals from Underground Metal Mine Rock by ICIMF Classifier Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:46:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/524304/ To overcome the drawback that fuzzy classifier was sensitive to noises and outliers, Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm was developed, in which bilateral Gaussian membership function parameters were set as constraint conditions and the indexes of fuzzy classification effectiveness and number of correct samples of fuzzy classification as the subgoal of fitness function. Moreover, Iris database was used for simulation experiment, classification, and recognition of acoustic emission signals and interference signals from stope wall rock of underground metal mines. The results showed that Mamdani fuzzy classifier based on improved chaos immune algorithm could effectively improve the prediction accuracy of classification of data sets with noises and outliers and the classification accuracy of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines was 90.00%. It was obvious that the improved chaos immune Mamdani fuzzy (ICIMF) classifier was useful for accurate diagnosis of acoustic emission signal and interference signal from stope wall rock of underground metal mines. Hongyan Zuo, Zhouquan Luo, and Chao Wu Copyright © 2014 Hongyan Zuo et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of W-Doped and W-La-Codoped TiO2 Nanomaterials under Simulated Sunlight Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:43:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/943796/ W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 nanomaterials were successfully synthesized via the sol-gel method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of W and La results in significant red shift of absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The weight ratios of La and W in the composites play important roles in the absorption edge for TiO2-based nanomaterials. The photocatalytic activities of both W-doped TiO2 and W-La-codoped TiO2 photocatalysts for decolorization of methyl orange solution were evaluated under simulated sunlight irradiation. The results showed that both W-doped and W-La-codoped can effectively improve the photocatalytic behaviors of TiO2 nanomaterials ascribed to the improved photoinduced charge carriers separation, enhanced light absorption, and large surface area. Furthermore, W-La-codoped TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than W-doped TiO2. Considering their high photocatalytic activity, the doped TiO2 nanomaterials could be applied in wastewater treatment and environmental purification. Chenghe Hua, Xiaoli Dong, Xiuying Wang, Mang Xue, Xiufang Zhang, and Hongchao Ma Copyright © 2014 Chenghe Hua et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Diabetic Foot on Selected Psychological or Social Characteristics Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:41:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2014/981721/ Ugur Cakir, Ertugrul Kargi, Hakan Sarman, and Cengiz Isik Copyright © 2014 Ugur Cakir et al. All rights reserved. Robust Initialization of Active Shape Models for Lung Segmentation in CT Scans: A Feature-Based Atlas Approach Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:36:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbi/2014/479154/ Model-based segmentation methods have the advantage of incorporating a priori shape information into the segmentation process but suffer from the drawback that the model must be initialized sufficiently close to the target. We propose a novel approach for initializing an active shape model (ASM) and apply it to 3D lung segmentation in CT scans. Our method constructs an atlas consisting of a set of representative lung features and an average lung shape. The ASM pose parameters are found by transforming the average lung shape based on an affine transform computed from matching features between the new image and representative lung features. Our evaluation on a diverse set of 190 images showed an average dice coefficient of 0.746 ± 0.068 for initialization and 0.974 ± 0.017 for subsequent segmentation, based on an independent reference standard. The mean absolute surface distance error was 0.948 ± 1.537 mm. The initialization as well as segmentation results showed a statistically significant improvement compared to four other approaches. The proposed initialization method can be generalized to other applications employing ASM-based segmentation. Gurman Gill, Matthew Toews, and Reinhard R. Beichel Copyright © 2014 Gurman Gill et al. All rights reserved. Security Threat Assessment of an Internet Security System Using Attack Tree and Vague Sets Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:33:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/506714/ Security threat assessment of the Internet security system has become a greater concern in recent years because of the progress and diversification of information technology. Traditionally, the failure probabilities of bottom events of an Internet security system are treated as exact values when the failure probability of the entire system is estimated. However, security threat assessment when the malfunction data of the system’s elementary event are incomplete—the traditional approach for calculating reliability—is no longer applicable. Moreover, it does not consider the failure probability of the bottom events suffered in the attack, which may bias conclusions. In order to effectively solve the problem above, this paper proposes a novel technique, integrating attack tree and vague sets for security threat assessment. For verification of the proposed approach, a numerical example of an Internet security system security threat assessment is adopted in this paper. The result of the proposed method is compared with the listing approaches of security threat assessment methods. Kuei-Hu Chang Copyright © 2014 Kuei-Hu Chang. All rights reserved. Seasonality of Water Chemistry, Carbonate Production, and Biometric Features of Two Species of Chara in a Shallow Clear Water Lake Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:33:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/167631/ The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal variability of biometric features and the carbonate production of two charophytes: Chara polyacantha A. Braun and Chara rudis A. Braun against the background of the physical-chemical properties of water. The investigation was carried out in a small, mid-forest Lake Jasne (western Poland). It is a polymictic, mesotrophic, hardwater ecosystem dominated by charophyte vegetation. Each month, 10 individuals of each species were characterized in terms of morphometric features, fresh and dry weight, and the percentage of calcium carbonate. Additionally, physical-chemical parameters of the water were studied. The results of physical-chemical analyses indicated similar habitat conditions for both species. Despite smaller dry weight C. polyacantha was characterized by greater morphological variability and higher rates of growth and percentage share of calcium carbonate in dry mass than C. rudis. The percentage of calcium carbonates in dry mass did not differ significantly between the species and exceeded 60%, reaching the maximum (76% in C. polyacantha) in July and August. For both species, distinct correlations between the structure of biomass and morphological features were found. The obtained results show the great importance of charophyte vegetation in carbon cycling and functioning of lake ecosystems. Andrzej Pukacz, Mariusz Pełechaty, Marcin Frankowski, Artur Kowalski, and Kinga Zwijacz-Koszałka Copyright © 2014 Andrzej Pukacz et al. All rights reserved. Accurate Object Recognition with Assembling Appearance and Motion Information Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:25:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/195941/ How to effectively detect object and accurately give out its visible parts is a major challenge for object detection. In this paper we propose an explicit occlusion model through integrating appearance and motion information. The model combines together two parts: part-level object detection with single frame and object occlusion estimation with continuous frames. It breaks through the performance bottleneck caused by lack of information and effectively improves object detection rate under severe occlusion. Through reevaluating the semantic parts, the detecting performance of partial object detectors is largely enhanced. The explicit model enables the partial detectors to have the capability of occlusion estimation. By discarding the geometric representation in rigid single-angle perspective and applying effective pattern of objective shape, our proposed approaches greatly improve the performance and robustness of similarity measurement. For validating the performance of proposed methods, we designed a comparative experiment on challenging pedestrian frame sequences database. The experimental results on challenging pedestrian frame sequence demonstrate that, compared to the traditional algorithms, the methods proposed in this paper have significantly improved the detection rate for severe occlusion. Furthermore, it also can achieve better localization of semantic parts and estimation of occluding. Yongxin Chang, Huapeng Yu, Zhiyong Xu, Jing Zhang, and Chunming Gao Copyright © 2014 Yongxin Chang et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Factors Influencing Telephone Call Response Rate in an Epidemiological Study Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:18:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/179375/ Descriptive epidemiology research involves collecting data from large numbers of subjects. Obtaining these data requires approaches designed to achieve maximum participation or response rates among respondents possessing the desired information. We analyze participation and response rates in a population-based epidemiological study though a telephone survey and identify factors implicated in consenting to participate. Rates found exceeded those reported in the literature and they were higher for afternoon calls than for morning calls. Women and subjects older than 40 years were the most likely to answer the telephone. The study identified geographical differences, with higher RRs in districts in southern Spain that are not considered urbanized. This information may be helpful for designing more efficient community epidemiology projects. Jorge Matías-Guiu, Pedro Jesús Serrano-Castro, José Ángel Mauri-Llerda, Francisco José Hernández-Ramos, Juan Carlos Sánchez-Alvarez, and Marisa Sanz Copyright © 2014 Jorge Matías-Guiu et al. All rights reserved. Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:18:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/527234/ Aspects of asexual reproduction in holothurians are discussed. Holothurians are significant as fishery and aquaculture items and have high commercial value. The last review on holothurian asexual reproduction was published 18 years ago and included only 8 species. An analysis of the available literature shows that asexual reproduction has now been confirmed in 16 holothurian species. Five additional species are also most likely capable of fission. The recent discovery of new fissiparous holothurian species indicates that this reproduction mode is more widespread in Holothuroidea than previously believed. New data about the history of the discovery of asexual reproduction in holothurians, features of fission, and regeneration of anterior and posterior fragments are described here. Asexual reproduction is obviously controlled by the integrated systems of the organism, primarily the nervous system. Special molecular mechanisms appear to determine the location where fission occurs along the anterior-posterior axis of the body. Alteration of the connective tissue strength of the body wall may play an important role during fission of holothurians. The basic mechanism of fission is the interaction of matrix metalloproteinases, their inhibitors, and enzymes forming cross-link complexes between fibrils of collagen. The population dynamics of fissiparous holothurians are discussed. Igor Yu. Dolmatov Copyright © 2014 Igor Yu. Dolmatov. All rights reserved. Aligned Magnetic Field, Radiation, and Rotation Effects on Unsteady Hydromagnetic Free Convection Flow Past an Impulsively Moving Vertical Plate in a Porous Medium Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:06:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijem/2014/565162/ We analyse the effects of aligned magnetic field, radiation, and rotation on unsteady hydromagnetic free convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate in a porous medium in presence of heat source. An exact solution of the governing equations in dimensionless form is obtained by Laplace transform technique in ramped temperature case. To compare the results obtained in this case with that of isothermal plate, the exact solution of the governing equations is also obtained for isothermal plate and results are discussed graphically in both ramped temperature and isothermal cases. Sandeep Naramgari, Sugunamma Vangala, and Mohankrishna Penem Copyright © 2014 Sandeep Naramgari et al. All rights reserved. A Greedy Multistage Convex Relaxation Algorithm Applied to Structured Group Sparse Reconstruction Problems Based on Iterative Support Detection Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:02:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/358742/ We propose a new effective algorithm for recovering a group sparse signal from very limited observations or measured data. As we know that a better reconstruction quality can be achieved when encoding more structural information besides sparsity, the commonly employed -regularization incorporating the prior grouping information has a better performance than the plain -regularized models as expected. In this paper we make a further use of the prior grouping information as well as possibly other prior information by considering a weighted model. Specifically, we propose a multistage convex relaxation procedure to alternatively estimate weights and solve the resulted weighted problem. The procedure of estimating weights makes better use of the prior grouping information and is implemented based on the iterative support detection (Wang and Yin, 2010). Comprehensive numerical experiments show that our approach brings significant recovery enhancements compared with the plain model, solved via the alternating direction method (ADM) (Deng et al., 2013), either in noiseless or in noisy environments. Liangtian He and Yilun Wang Copyright © 2014 Liangtian He and Yilun Wang. All rights reserved. Retracted: Primary Small Cell Undifferentiated (Neuroendocrine) Carcinoma of the Maxillary Sinus Tue, 21 Oct 2014 08:59:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/609802/ Case Reports in Dentistry Copyright © 2014 Case Reports in Dentistry. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Tumor Hemodynamics and Hepatocarcinogenesis: Radio-Pathological Correlations and Outcomes of Carcinogenic Hepatocyte Nodules” Tue, 21 Oct 2014 08:58:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/649262/ Kazuhiko Ueda, Osamu Matsui, Azusa Kitao, Satoshi Kobayashi, Jun Nakayama, Shinich Miyagawa, and Masumi Kadoya Copyright © 2014 Kazuhiko Ueda et al. All rights reserved. Study of Hematological Parameters in Children Suffering from Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Chattagram Maa-o-Shishu General Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh Tue, 21 Oct 2014 08:45:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2014/503981/ A total of 150 (30.61%) anemic patients out of 490 patients diagnosed to have iron deficiency anemia (IDA) have been selected for the first time in Bangladesh. For detailed study, blood samples from 150 anemic patients along with 25 controls were analyzed. Analysis of variance showed significant value between mean platelet volume (MPV) in females (8.08 μm3) and males (7.59 μm3) () in iron deficiency anemia patients. Besides, the value of white blood cells (WBC) in males (10946.08/cmm) was significantly higher than in females (9470.833/cmm) (). The significant correlation was observed among hemoglobin levels with hematocrits, hemoglobin with RBC, RBC with hematocrits, and MCV with MCH as well as MCH with MCHC. However, the negative correlation was observed between the hematological variables neutrophils and lymphocytes (). The common complaints we have found in the survey were weight loss 73.33%, attention problem 68%, dyspepsia 65%, decrease of appetite 72%, weakness 68%, diarrhea 65%, and headache 55% among IDA patients. ANOVA showed significant statistical difference in all the hematological and biochemical parameters. Analysis of variance test between anemias with only one of three biochemical parameters decreased and control showed that this group does not have iron deficiency. Abu Syed Mohammed Mujib, Abu Sayeed Mohammad Mahmud, Milton Halder, and Chowdhury Mohammad Monirul Hasan Copyright © 2014 Abu Syed Mohammed Mujib et al. All rights reserved. A Model to Determine Mesh Characteristics in a Gear Pair with Tooth Profile Error Tue, 21 Oct 2014 08:44:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/751476/ A method to determine the gear mesh stiffness, loaded transmission error, and tooth contact stress is presented with tooth profile error. The single tooth stiffness is calculated by the potential energy method. Contact stress is studied by the classic Hertzian elastic contact theory. Then two cases are presented for validation of the gear mesh stiffness model. It is demonstrated that the gear mesh stiffness model is effective for the gear pair with or without lead crown relief and tip and root relief. Finally, the effects of tooth lead crown relief and applied torque on the gear mesh stiffness are analyzed. The results show that mesh stiffness decreases and loaded transmission error and the maximum tooth contact stress grow with increasing the tooth lead crown relief. And mesh stiffness, loaded transmission error, and the maximum contact stress increase in a certain range as the applied torque increases for the tooth with lead crown relief. Qibin Wang, Peng Hu, Yimin Zhang, Yi Wang, Xu Pang, and Cao Tong Copyright © 2014 Qibin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Antidiabetic Activity of Pterospermum acerifolium Flowers and Glucose Uptake Potential of Bioactive Fraction in L6 Muscle Cell Lines with Its HPLC Fingerprint Tue, 21 Oct 2014 08:43:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/459376/ The present study was designed to estimate the detailed antidiabetic activity of Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd flowers. In vitro alpha amylase inhibition study was carried out on 50% ethanol extract of flowers (PAFEE) and its various fractions. The active ethyl acetate fraction (PAFEF) was subfractionated into three subfractions (PAFE1, PAFE2, and PAFE3) and subjected to acute toxicity studies followed by antidiabetic screening in vivo by streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes. Diabetic animals treated with PAFE2 (30 mg/kg) reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose, significantly () compared to that of diabetic control animals. Histological studies on drug treated groups did not show remarkable positive changes in β-cells. PAFE2 showed % glucose uptake over control and, in the presence of PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, declined to %. HPLC analysis of PAFE2 reveals the presence of quercetin and apigenin as major constituents and both are inhibiting the glycogen phosphorylase enzyme in molecular modelling studies. The study evidenced strongly that the probable glucose lowering mechanism of action of active subfraction PAFE2 is by increasing the glucose uptake in peripheral tissues and by inhibition of gluconeogenesis. Rathinavelusamy Paramaguru, Papiya Mitra Mazumder, Dinakar Sasmal, and Venkatesan Jayaprakash Copyright © 2014 Rathinavelusamy Paramaguru et al. All rights reserved. Targets and Candidate Agents for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment with Computational Bioinformatics Approach Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:55:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2014/763936/ We sought to explore the molecular mechanism of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and identify potential drug targets and candidate agents for T2D treatment. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were assessed between human pancreatic islets with T2D and normal islets. The dysfunctional pathways, the potential transcription factor, and microRNA targets were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. Moreover, a group of bioactive small molecules were identified based on the connectivity map database. The pathways of Eicosanoid Synthesis, TGF-beta signaling pathway, Prostaglandin Synthesis and Regulation, and Integrated Pancreatic Cancer Pathway were found to be significantly dysregulated in the progression of T2D. The genes of ZADH2 (zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase domain containing 2), BTBD3 (BTB (POZ) domain containing 3), Cul3-based ligases,  LTBP1 (latent-transforming growth factor beta binding protein 1), PDGFRA (alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor), and FST (follistatin) were determined to be significant nodes regulated by potential transcription factors and microRNAs. Besides, two small molecules (sanguinarine and DL-thiorphan) were identified to be capable of reverse T2D. In the present study, a systematic understanding for the mechanism underlying T2D development was provided with biological informatics methods. The significant nodes and bioactive small molecules may be drug targets and candidate agents for T2D treatment. Qiong Wang, Zhigang Zhao, Jing Shang, and Wei Xia Copyright © 2014 Qiong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on MDA and TNF-α Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:55:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/820387/ Objective. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the DM are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of aerobic exercise on malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the DM. Methods. We randomised 64 participants, who do not exercise regularly, without any diabetic chronic complications in parallel to 12 weeks of aerobic exercise (three times per week, ) and no exercise (control; ). Plasma levels of soluble TNF-α and MDA levels were measured before-after physical training programme and control group. Results. Sixty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were analysed. When comparing the two groups of patients with age, gender, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, lipid profile, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and class of treatment for diabetes were not different between groups. While soluble TNF-α remained essentially unaffected by physical training, plasma concentrations of MDA markedly decreased ; physical training also decreased body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure . Conclusion. Exercise training favorably affected body weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure. A three-weekly, 12-week, aerobic-training programme, without a concomitant weight loss diet, was associated with significant decrease in MDA levels in type 2 diabetic individuals. Mihriban Arslan, Suleyman Hilmi Ipekci, Levent Kebapcilar, Nesrin Dogan Dede, Sevil Kurban, Ekrem Erbay, and Mustafa Sait Gonen Copyright © 2014 Mihriban Arslan et al. All rights reserved. On Isometric Extension in the Space Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:54:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2014/678407/ We study the problem of isometric extension on a sphere of the space . We give an affirmative answer to Tingley’s problem in the space . Xiaohong Fu Copyright © 2014 Xiaohong Fu. All rights reserved. The Influence of Aggregate Size and Binder Material on the Properties of Pervious Concrete Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:50:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/963971/ Specimens were prepared by altering parameters such as aggregate sizes, binder materials, and the amounts of binder used and were subsequently tested by using permeability, porosity, mechanical strength, and soundness tests. The results indicated that the water permeability coefficient and connected porosity decreased as the amount of binder used increased and increased with increasing aggregate size. In the mechanical strength test, the compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths increased as the amount of binder used increased and decreased with the increase of aggregate size. Highly viscous binder enhanced compressive strength, water permeability, and the resistance to sulfate attacks. In the mechanics and sulfate soundness tests, the mix proportion of alkali-activated slag paste used in this study exhibited a superior performance than the Portland cement pervious concrete (the control) did, but the difference in water permeability between the two types of concrete was insignificant. The mix proportions of cement paste containing 20% and 30% silica fume exhibited less mechanical strength than the control did. Moreover, compared with the control, the cement paste containing silica fume demonstrated poor resistance to sulfate attacks, and the difference in the water permeability between such specimen and the control was not noticeable. Tun Chi Fu, Weichung Yeih, Jiang Jhy Chang, and Ran Huang Copyright © 2014 Tun Chi Fu et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Topical Application of Royal Jelly on Chemoradiotherapy-Induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer: A Preliminary Study Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:48:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2014/974967/ Purpose. One of the common side effects experienced by head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy is mucositis. Severe mucositis may be controllable by limiting cancer therapy, but it has resulted in decreasing the completion rate of chemoradiotherapy. The efficacy of royal jelly (RJ) as prophylaxis against chemoradiotherapy-induced mucositis was evaluated through clinical scoring of oral and pharyngeal mucositis. Methods. In this randomized, single-blind (physician-blind), clinical trial, 13 patients with head and neck cancer requiring chemoradiation were randomly assigned to two groups. Seven patients assigned to the study group received RJ, and 6 patients were assigned to the control group. RJ group patients took RJ three times per day during treatment. The patients in both groups were evaluated twice a week for the development of mucositis using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results. A significant reduction in mucositis was seen among RJ-treated patients compared with controls (). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that prophylactic use of RJ was effective in reducing mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. However, further studies are needed because of the small sample size and the absence of double blinding. Kohichi Yamauchi, Yasunao Kogashiwa, Yorihisa Moro, and Naoyuki Kohno Copyright © 2014 Kohichi Yamauchi et al. All rights reserved. Investigating the Existence of Chaos in Inflation Data in relation to Chaotic Foreign Exchange Rate Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:48:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecri/2014/783505/ Foreign exchange (ForEx) rates are amongst the most important economic indices in the international monetary markets. ForEx rate represents the value of one currency in another and it fluctuates over time. It is related to indicators like inflation, interest rate, gross domestic product, and so forth. In a series of works, we investigated and confirmed the chaotic property of ForEx rates by finding positive largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE). As inflation influences ForEx, in this work we would like to address the specific question, Is inflation data also chaotic? We collected data for time period of 2000 to 2013 and tested for nonlinearity in data by surrogate method. Calculating LLE, we find existence of chaos in inflation data for some countries. Pritha Das and Atin Das Copyright © 2014 Pritha Das and Atin Das. All rights reserved. Atypical Reversible Leucoencephalopathy Syndrome after Bevacizumab/Folfox Regimen for Metastatic Colon Cancer Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:42:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2014/391256/ We are reporting a case of multifocal reversible leucoencephalopathy syndrome induced by chemotherapy based on Folfox-Bevacizumab regimen. A 44-year-old female, with no history of hypertension, received a chemotherapy based on Folfox-Bevacizumab for her metastatic colon cancer (5 FU: 325 mg/m2 d1 by intravenous infusion, Oxaliplatin 80 mg/m2 d1, and Bevacizumab: 7.5 mg/Kg d1). During the fourth cure, she presented delirium, seizures, and visual disturbances. The computed tomography (CT) of the brain showed hypodense lesions of the white matter of frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes, which were bilateral and symmetrical. The clinical table was reversible under symptomatic treatment. Narimane Salmi, Ibrahim Elghissassi, Khadija Bellahammou, Asmaa Lakhdissi, Hind Mrabti, and Hassan Errihani Copyright © 2014 Narimane Salmi et al. All rights reserved. Ethnoveterinary Study of Medicinal Plants in a Tribal Society of Sulaiman Range Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:31:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/127526/ The aims of the present study were (i) to document ethnoveterinary plants and their formulation techniques in an unexplored region of Pakistan and (ii) to select candidate medicinal plants with high consensus factor and fidelity value for further in vitro investigation. A total of 60 informants were interviewed using semistructured questionnaire. A total of 41 plants belonging to 30 families were used to treat livestock ailments in study area. Mostly leaves (47%) were used in recipes formulation mostly in the form of decoction. Gastrointestinal infections were found more common and majority of the plants were used against cow (31) and buffaloes (24) ailments. Recovery time of majority of the recipes was three to four days. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results have shown a high degree of consensus for gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive (0.95 each) ailments. Fidelity level (FL) results showed that Asparagus gracilis ranked first with FL value 93% followed by Rumex hastatus ranked second (91%) and Tinospora cordifolia ranked third (90%). Aged farmers and nomads had more traditional knowledge as compared to younger ones. Plants with high Fic and FL values could be further investigated in vitro for the search of some novel bioactive compounds and young generation should be educated regarding ethnoveterinary practices. Akash Tariq, Sakina Mussarat, Muhammad Adnan, Naser M. AbdElsalam, Riaz Ullah, and Abdul Latif Khan Copyright © 2014 Akash Tariq et al. All rights reserved. Cetacean Presence in the Trincomalee Bay and Adjacent Waters, Sri Lanka Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:30:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2014/819263/ In Sri Lanka thirty species of cetaceans have been recorded to date. The canyon at Trincomalee bay is a multiple submarine canyon complex and anecdotal reports suggest that the Trincomalee bay and its adjacent waters are utilised by a number of cetacean species. Though Cetaceans are known to be abundant in the waters off Trincomalee there is a dearth of research and data pertaining to the abundance and species frequenting the Trincomalee bay and its adjacent waters. As such the current study was initiated, to get a consensus of the abundance and occurrences of species in Trincomalee Bay and its adjacent waters. Field surveys were carried out for 19 months and the research platform was a 35-foot commercial fishing vessel. 177 cetacean encounters were recorded on 67 of the 75 field days. Remarkably a total of 11 species of cetaceans which composed of two species of Baleen Whales and nine species of Toothed Whales were recorded. Delphinidae was the most common family recorded, followed by Balaenopteridae, Ziphiidae, Physeteridae, and Kogiidae. Spinner Dolphins were the most abundant cetacean owing to the large pods observed and the regularity of the sightings. They were the only species seen feeding/traveling with birds and fish (tuna). Sperm Whales, Blue Whales, and Bryde’s Whales were also relatively common. Two records of interspecific association between cetaceans were recorded. The increase in the human population in the study area has resulted in the overexploitation of marine resources which has dire repercussions on the marine mammal communities found in these waters. Ranil P. Nanayakkara, Jayampathi Herath, and Ruvinda K. de Mel Copyright © 2014 Ranil P. Nanayakkara et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Techniques for the Detection of Flea Faeces in Canine and Feline Coat Brushings Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:29:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/292085/ Flea infestation is diagnosed after the detection of either adult parasites or flea faeces in the fur. The latter is generally tested with the wet blotting paper technique (WBPT). However, microscopical examination (MT) of the coat brushing material is sometimes suggested as an alternative. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of the two techniques. In dogs, the entire body was hand-brushed and cats were combed. One half of the collected material was mounted in liquid paraffin on a glass slide and examined microscopically at low magnification. The second half was placed on a blotting paper and sterile water was added. After drying, reddish aureoles were counted. 255 animals (158 dogs and 97 cats) were included. 119 (47%) and 94 (37%) samples were revealed to be positive with WBPT and MT, respectively. 13 cases (5%) were positive with MT only and 38 cases (15%) were positive with WBPT only. 81 cases (32%) were positive and 123 (48%) were negative with both techniques. More positive cases were detected by WBPT than MT . Amongst the 51 samples which were found positive with a sole technique, infestation was considered low in 43 cases and WBPT detected significantly more positive samples (31) than MT (12), . Marie-Christine Cadiergues, Caroline Cabaret-Mandin, and Chloé Solatges Copyright © 2014 Marie-Christine Cadiergues et al. All rights reserved. Distortion of Quasiregular Mappings and Equivalent Norms on Lipschitz-Type Spaces Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:28:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/895074/ We prove a quasiconformal analogue of Koebe’s theorem related to the average Jacobian and use a normal family argument here to prove a quasiregular analogue of this result in certain domains in -dimensional space. As an application, we establish that Lipschitz-type properties are inherited by a quasiregular function from its modulo. We also prove some results of Hardy-Littlewood type for Lipschitz-type spaces in several dimensions, give the characterization of Lipschitz-type spaces for quasiregular mappings by the average Jacobian, and give a short review of the subject. Miodrag Mateljević Copyright © 2014 Miodrag Mateljević. All rights reserved. Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant, Antistress, and Nootropic Activities of Aqueous and Methanolic Seed Extracts of Ladies Finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Mice Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:16:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/519848/ Abelmoschus esculentus L. (ladies finger, okra) is a well-known tropical vegetable, widely planted from Africa to Asia and from South Europe to America. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vivo protective effect of the aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus against scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment using passive avoidance task and acute restraining stress-induced behavioural and biochemical changes using elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results demonstrated that the pretreatment of mice with aqueous and methanolic seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus (200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven days significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in the passive avoidance test. In addition, these extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose, corticosterone, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels elevated by acute restraint stress and also significantly increased the time spent in open arm in EPM and decreased the immobility time in FST. It has also been revealed that these extracts showed a significant antioxidant activity and no signs of toxicity or death up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg, p.o. These results suggest that the seed extracts of Abelmoschus esculentus L. possess antioxidant, antistress, and nootropic activities which promisingly support the medicinal values of ladies finger as a vegetable. Sathish Kumar Doreddula, Srinivasa Reddy Bonam, Durga Prasad Gaddam, Brahma Srinivasa Rao Desu, Nadendla Ramarao, and Vijayapandi Pandy Copyright © 2014 Sathish Kumar Doreddula et al. All rights reserved. Pore Geometry Optimization of Titanium (Ti6Al4V) Alloy, for Its Application in the Fabrication of Customized Hip Implants Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:03:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2014/313975/ The present study investigates the mechanical response of representative volume elements of porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy, to arrive at a desired range of pore geometries that would optimize the reduction in stiffness necessary for biocompatibility with the stress concentration arising around the pore periphery, under physiological loading conditions with respect to orthopedic hip implants. A comparative study of the two is performed with the aid of a newly defined optimizing parameter called pore efficiency that takes into consideration both the stiffness quantity and the stress localization around pores. To perform a detailed analysis of the response of the porous structure over the entire spectrum of loading conditions that a hip implant is subjected to in vivo, the mechanical responses of 3D finite element models of cubic and rectangular parallelepiped geometries, with porosities varying over a range of 10% to 60%, are simulated under representative compressive, flexural as well as combined loading conditions. The results that are obtained are used to suggest a range of pore diameters that lower the effective stiffness and modulus of the implant to around 60% of the stiffness and modulus of dense solid implants while keeping the stress levels within permissible limits. Sandipan Roy, Debojyoti Panda, Niloy Khutia, and Amit Roy Chowdhury Copyright © 2014 Sandipan Roy et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Evaluation of Strain B37 of Bacillus subtilis Antagonistic to Sapstain Fungi on Poplar Wood Tue, 21 Oct 2014 06:52:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/149342/ Devaluation of poplar products by sapstain accounts for huge and unpredictable losses each year in China. We had isolated four poplar sapstain fungi, Ceratocystis adiposa Hz91, Lasiodiplodia theobromae YM0737, L. theobromae Fx46, and Fusarium sp. YM05, from five poplar varieties and 13 antagonistic bacteria from nine diverse varieties. After being experimented with agar plates, wood chips, and enzyme activities, strain B37 was identified as the best poplar sapstain biocontrol bacterium. The strain B37 was identified as Bacillus subtilis using sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, physiological biochemical, and morphological characteristics. XiaoHua Zhang, GuiHua Zhao, DeWei Li, ShunPeng Li, and Qing Hong Copyright © 2014 XiaoHua Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Green Clustering Implementation Based on DPS-MOPSO Tue, 21 Oct 2014 06:40:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/721718/ A green clustering implementation is proposed to be as the first method in the framework of an energy-efficient strategy for centralized enterprise high-density WLANs. Traditionally, to maintain the network coverage, all of the APs within the WLAN have to be powered on. Nevertheless, the new algorithm can power off a large proportion of APs while the coverage is maintained as the always-on counterpart. The proposed algorithm is composed of two parallel and concurrent procedures, which are the faster procedure based on -means and the more accurate procedure based on Dynamic Population Size Multiple Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (DPS-MOPSO). To implement green clustering efficiently and accurately, dynamic population size and mutational operators are introduced as complements for the classical MOPSO. In addition to the function of AP selection, the new green clustering algorithm has another new function as the reference and guidance for AP deployment. This paper also presents simulations in scenarios modeled with ray-tracing method and FDTD technique, and the results show that about 67% up to 90% of energy consumption can be saved while the original network coverage is maintained during periods when few users are online or when the traffic load is low. Yang Lu, Xuezhi Tan, Yun Mo, and Lin Ma Copyright © 2014 Yang Lu et al. All rights reserved. SOPROLIFE System: An Accurate Diagnostic Enhancer Tue, 21 Oct 2014 06:39:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/924741/ Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate a light-emitting diode fluorescence tool, the SOPROLIFE light-induced fluorescence evaluator, and compare it to the international caries detection and assessment system-II (ICDAS-II) in the detection of occlusal caries. Methods. A total of 219 permanent posterior teeth in 21 subjects, with age ranging from 15 to 65 years, were examined. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was computed to assess the reliability between the two diagnostic methods. Results. The results showed a high reliability between the two methods (ICC = 0.92; IC = 0.901–0.940; ). The SOPROLIFE blue fluorescence mode had a high sensitivity (87%) and a high specificity (99%) when compared to ICDAS-II. Conclusion. Compared to the most used visual method in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions, the finding from this study suggests that SOPROLIFE can be used as a reproducible and reliable assessment tool. At a cut-off point, categorizing noncarious lesions and visual change in enamel, SOPROLIFE shows a high sensitivity and specificity. We can conclude that financially ICDAS is better than SOPROLIFE. However SOPROLIFE is easier for clinicians since it is a simple evaluation of images. Finally in terms of efficiency SOPROLIFE is not superior to ICDAS but tends to be equivalent with the same advantages. Mona Zeitouny, Mireille Feghali, Assaad Nasr, Philippe Abou-Samra, Nadine Saleh, Denis Bourgeois, and Pierre Farge Copyright © 2014 Mona Zeitouny et al. All rights reserved. Ratio of the Dead to Wounded (D/W) Indicators and Associated Factors in Major Earthquakes of America from 1960 to 2011 Tue, 21 Oct 2014 06:28:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jearth/2014/720930/ The paper presented deals with the casualties, mortality, and morbidity occurred during the major earthquakes of America during a period of 51 years. The work provides statistical evidence that the deaths/wounded (D/W) ratio used for many agencies in the planning of the preparation and response activities to earthquakes does not fit the relation 1 : 3. In addition, a model is presented in order to evaluate the possible association between different analysis variables such as the subregion of the American continent affected, population density, HDI, and the time and magnitude of the earthquake and the effects of these on the death toll, the number of the wounded, and the D/W indexes. Although the model generated it is not robust enough for decision making, it could be useful and improvable in order to apply it in the planning and management of these kinds of natural disasters. For these reasons, we think that it would be interesting to do further progress in this line of research by making a more comprehensive study of the variables associated with mortality and morbidity, using a more representative sample of earthquakes that sure will confirm the results presented in this work. A. Ayuso-Alvárez, K. Alva Chavez, M. V. Martínez de Aragón, C. R. Ugarte, J. Donado, M. S. Rossi, and Dante R. Culqui Copyright © 2014 A. Ayuso-Alvárez et al. All rights reserved. Complex Dynamical Behavior of a Two-Stage Colpitts Oscillator with Magnetically Coupled Inductors Tue, 21 Oct 2014 06:27:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcha/2014/945658/ A five-dimensional (5D) controlled two-stage Colpitts oscillator is introduced and analyzed. This new electronic oscillator is constructed by considering the well-known two-stage Colpitts oscillator with two further elements (coupled inductors and variable resistor). In contrast to current approaches based on piecewise linear (PWL) model, we propose a smooth mathematical model (with exponential nonlinearity) to investigate the dynamics of the oscillator. Several issues, such as the basic dynamical behaviour, bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, and frequency spectra of the oscillator, are investigated theoretically and numerically by varying a single control resistor. It is found that the oscillator moves from the state of fixed point motion to chaos via the usual paths of period-doubling and interior crisis routes as the single control resistor is monitored. Furthermore, an experimental study of controlled Colpitts oscillator is carried out. An appropriate electronic circuit is proposed for the investigations of the complex dynamics behaviour of the system. A very good qualitative agreement is obtained between the theoretical/numerical and experimental results. V. Kamdoum Tamba, H. B. Fotsin, J. Kengne, F. Kapche Tagne, and P. K. Talla Copyright © 2014 V. Kamdoum Tamba et al. All rights reserved. Giant Cell Arteritis in a 12-Year-Old Girl Presenting with Nephrotic Syndrome Tue, 21 Oct 2014 06:23:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/491937/ Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is rare in children. The kidneys are generally spared. We present a case of GCA in a 12-year-old girl with severe headache and tender scalp especially over the right temporal area. The right superficial temporal artery was cord like and nodular and the pulsations were barely felt. Several small tender nodular swellings were felt in the occipital area. She had been previously diagnosed as a case of nephrotic syndrome due to underlying membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. This report is aimed at drawing attention to this rare form of vasculitis in children aiming at decreasing its morbidities. Zeinab A. El-Sayed, Hanaa M. El-Awady, Zeinab E. Hassan, Tamer M. H. Adham, Hossam M. Mostafa, and Nadia G. Elhefnawy Copyright © 2014 Zeinab A. El-Sayed et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356/SiC Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Two Different Melting Routes Tue, 21 Oct 2014 05:58:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijme/2014/747865/ A356/SiC metal matrix composites with different weight percent of SiC particles were fabricated by two different techniques such as mechanical stir casting and electromagnetic stir casting. The results of macrostructure, microstructure, and XRD study revealed uniform distribution, grain refinement, and low porosity in electromagnetic stir casing samples. The mechanical results showed that the addition of SiC particles led to the improvement in tensile strength, hardness, toughness, and fatigue life. It indicates that type of fabrication process and percentage of reinforcement are the effective factors influencing the mechanical properties. It is observed that when percentage of reinforcement increases in electromagnetic stir casting, best mechanical properties are obtained. Shashi Prakash Dwivedi, Satpal Sharma, and Raghvendra Kumar Mishra Copyright © 2014 Shashi Prakash Dwivedi et al. All rights reserved. Brain AVMs: An Endovascular, Surgical, and Radiosurgical Update Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/834931/ Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are complex vascular lesions. Despite multiple studies, several classifications, and a great interest of the scientific community, case selection in AVM patients remains challenging. During the last few years, tremendous advancements widened therapeutic options and improved outcomes spreading indications for patients harboring lesions deemed inoperable in the past. Anatomical and biological case specific features, and natural history with a focus on presenting symptoms should be evaluated case by case and always kept in mind while planning a therapeutic management for a bAVMs. A multidisciplinary approach is strongly recommended when dealing with bAVMs and should involve physicians expertise in this kind of challenging lesions. The goal of this paper is to provide a focused review of the most recent acquisitions and therapeutic strategies regarding surgical, endovascular, and radiosurgical treatment. Simone Peschillo, Alessandro Caporlingua, Claudio Colonnese, and Giulio Guidetti Copyright © 2014 Simone Peschillo et al. All rights reserved. The Response of Durum Wheat to the Preceding Crop in a Mediterranean Environment Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/717562/ Crop sequence is an important management practice that may affect durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) production. Field research was conducted in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons in a rain-fed cold Mediterranean environment to examine the impact of the preceding crops alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on yield and N uptake of four durum wheat varieties. The response of grain yield of durum wheat to the preceding crop was high in 2007-2008 and was absent in the 2008-2009 season, because of the heavy rainfall that negatively impacted establishment, vegetative growth, and grain yield of durum wheat due to waterlogging. In the first season, durum wheat grain yield was highest following alfalfa, and was 33% lower following wheat. The yield increase of durum wheat following alfalfa was mainly due to an increased number of spikes per unit area and number of kernels per spike, while the yield decrease following wheat was mainly due to a reduction of spike number per unit area. Variety growth habit and performance did not affect the response to preceding crop and varieties ranked in the order Levante > Saragolla = Svevo > Normanno. Laura Ercoli, Alessandro Masoni, Silvia Pampana, Marco Mariotti, and Iduna Arduini Copyright © 2014 Laura Ercoli et al. All rights reserved. The Construction of Hilbert Spaces over the Non-Newtonian Field Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijanal/2014/746059/ Although there are many excellent ways to present the principle of the classical calculus, the novel presentations probably lead most naturally to the development of the non-Newtonian calculi. In this paper we introduce vector spaces over real and complex non-Newtonian field with respect to the -calculus which is a branch of non-Newtonian calculus. Also we give the definitions of real and complex inner product spaces and study Hilbert spaces which are special type of normed space and complete inner product spaces in the sense of -calculus. Furthermore, as an example of Hilbert spaces, first we introduce the non-Cartesian plane which is a nonlinear model for plane Euclidean geometry. Secondly, we give Euclidean, unitary, and sequence spaces via corresponding norms which are induced by an inner product. Finally, by using the -norm properties of complex structures, we examine Cauchy-Schwarz and triangle inequalities. Uğur Kadak and Hakan Efe Copyright © 2014 Uğur Kadak and Hakan Efe. All rights reserved. Identification of Parton Pairs in a Dijet Event and Investigation of Its Effects on Dijet Resonance Search Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2014/719216/ Being able to distinguish parton pair type in a dijet event could significantly improve the search for new particles that are predicted by the theories beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider. To explore whether parton pair types manifesting themselves as a dijet event could be distinguished on an event-by-event basis, I performed a simulation based study considering observable jet variables. I found that using a multivariate approach can filter out about 80% of the other parton pairs while keeping more than half of the quark-quark or gluon-gluon parton pairs in an inclusive QCD dijet distribution. The effects of event-by-event parton pair tagging for dijet resonance searches were also investigated and I found that improvement on signal significance after applying parton pair tagging can reach up to 4 times for gluon-gluon resonances. Sertac Ozturk Copyright © 2014 Sertac Ozturk. All rights reserved. Long QTc Syndrome Type 2 Presenting in a Postpartum Patient on Medroxyprogesterone Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2014/676080/ Introduction. Congenital long QT syndrome type 2 (LQTS2) is a rare inherited cardiac abnormality resulting in increased risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT). Case Description. A 21-year-old postpartum female presented with syncopal episode after phone alarm. She was noted to have PVT on telemetry monitoring in the emergency department. EKG revealed QTc of 530. The patient’s only medication was medroxyprogesterone. She ultimately received a dual chamber pacemaker with ICD. Discussion. LQTS2 is associated with alarm sounds as a precipitating factor. Postpartum hormonal shifts as well as medroxyprogesterone have significant effect on native QTc duration. John Kern, Margaret Duffy, Corinne Kern, and Victor Mazza Copyright © 2014 John Kern et al. All rights reserved. Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Performance Monitoring of Piles Fiber in a Geotechnical Centrifugal Model Test Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/659276/ In centrifugal tests, conventional sensors can hardly capture the performance of reinforcement in small-scale models. However, recent advances in fiber optic sensing technologies enable the accurate and reliable monitoring of strain and temperature in laboratory geotechnical tests. This paper outlines a centrifugal model test, performed using a 60 g ton geocentrifuge, to investigate the performance of pipe piles used to reinforce the loess foundation below a widened embankment. Prior to the test, quasidistributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors were attached to the surface of the pipe piles to measure the lateral friction resistance in real time. Via the centrifuge actuator, the driving of pipe piles was simulated. During testing, the variations of skin friction distribution along the pipe piles were measured automatically using an optical fiber interrogator. This paper represents the presentation and detailed analysis of monitoring results. Herein, we verify the reliability of the fiber optic sensors in monitoring the model piles without affecting the integrity of the centrifugal model. This paper, furthermore, shows that lateral friction resistance developed in stages with the pipe piles being pressed in and that this sometimes may become negative. Xiaolin Weng, Jianxun Chen, and Jun Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaolin Weng et al. All rights reserved. Robust Analysis and Parameters Identification of the Nonlinear Multistage Dynamical System in Batch Fermentation of Glycerol Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/925404/ This paper discusses a complex biological problem which is the fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae in batch culture. We set up an improved multistage model involving the concentration of intracellular substances. Furthermore, the existence, uniqueness, and continuity of solutions with respect to the parameters are discussed. On the condition that glycerol and 1,3-propanediol are assumed to pass the cell membrane by passive diffusion coupled with facilitated transport, we take the relative errors between experimental data and computational values of the extracellular substances concentrations and the biological robustness of the intracellular substances concentrations as the performance index. Then we establish a parameter identification model and construct the particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve it. Finally, the numerical result shows that the improved model could describe the glycerol fermentation in batch culture well. Xu Zhang, Xinying Wang, Enmin Feng, and Zhilong Xiu Copyright © 2014 Xu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in the Corpus Cavernosum in Rats Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/910564/ The vascular wall resident progenitor cells seem to serve as a local reservoir of cells for vascular repair. It was hypothesized that the corpus cavernosum may contain vascular wall endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In this study, we investigated the identification and localization of EPCs in the corpus cavernosum in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to isolate EPCs from corpora cavernosum. To verify the existence and localization of EPCs, EPC-specific markers (CD34, Flk-1, and VE-cadherin) were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and confocal microscopy. The EPC markers were mainly expressed in the cavernosal sinusoidal endothelial space. EPC-marker-positive cells made up about 3.31% of the corpus cavernosum of normal rat by FACS analysis. As shown by confocal microscopy, CD34+/Flk-1+ and CD34+/VE-cadherin+ positive cells existed in the corpus cavernosum. Our findings imply that regulation of corpus cavernosal EPCs may be a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Jun Sik Lee, In Sang Hwang, Hyun-Suk Lee, Mi Eun Kim, Young-Woo Seo, and Kwangsung Park Copyright © 2014 Jun Sik Lee et al. All rights reserved. Effect of CPP/ACP on Initial Bioadhesion to Enamel and Dentin In Situ Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/512682/ The present in situ study investigated the influence of a preparation containing CPP/ACP (caseinphosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate) (GC Tooth mousse) on initial bacterial colonization of enamel and dentin. Therefore, pellicle formation was performed in situ on bovine enamel and dentin specimens fixed to individual upper jaw splints worn by 8 subjects. After 1 min of pellicle formation GC Tooth mousse was used according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Rinses with chlorhexidine served as positive controls. Specimens carried without any rinse served as negative controls. After 8 h overnight exposure of the splints, bacterial colonization was quantified by fluorescence microscopy (DAPI and BacLight live/dead staining). Additionally, the colony forming units (CFU) were determined after desorption. Furthermore, the effects on Streptococcus mutans bacteria were tested in vitro (BacLight). There was no significant impact of CPP/ACP on initial bacterial colonization proved with DAPI and BacLight. Determination of CFU showed statistical significance for CPP/ACP to reduce bacterial adherence on enamel. The in vitro investigation indicated no antimicrobial effects for CPP/ACP on Streptococcus mutans suspension. Under the chosen conditions, CPP/ACP (GC Tooth mousse) had no significant impact on initial biofilm formation on dental hard tissues. The tested preparation cannot be recommended for biofilm management. Susann Grychtol, Sabine Basche, Matthias Hannig, and Christian Hannig Copyright © 2014 Susann Grychtol et al. All rights reserved. Small-Scale Effect on Longitudinal Wave Propagation in Laser-Excited Plates Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jns/2014/513010/ Longitudinal wave propagation in an elastic isotopic laser-excited solid plate with atomic defect (vacancies, interstitials) generation is studied by the nonlocal continuum model. The nonlocal differential constitutive equations of Eringen are used in the formulations. The coupled governing equations for the dynamic of elastic displacement and atomic defect concentration fields are obtained. The frequency equations for the symmetrical and antisymmetrical motions of the plate are found and discussed. Explicit expressions for different characteristics of waves like phase velocity and attenuation (amplification) coefficients are derived. It is shown that coupling between the displacement and defect concentration fields affects the wave dispersion characteristics in the nonlocal elasticity. The dispersion curves of the elastic-diffusion instability are investigated for different pump parameters and larger wave numbers. F. Kh. Mirzade Copyright © 2014 F. Kh. Mirzade. All rights reserved. Multiple Marginal Tissue Recession Treated with a Simplified Lateral Sliding Flap Technique Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/432960/ Marginal tissue recession is a common esthetic problem that is usually accompanied by dentin sensitivity, and patients frequently report a fear of dental loss. Lateral sliding flaps have been used for localized recession, but they are rarely used for multiple recessions. The aim of this paper was to report a case of coverage of multiple marginal tissue recessions by means of a lateral sliding flap associated with a connective tissue graft. This was a modification of Nelson’s technique, which was originally described as the combination of the double papilla technique, lateral sliding flap, and connective tissue graft. In the present case, double papilla was not performed, rendering the maneuver less complicated. After surgery on teeth #23 to #25, total root coverage, decreased dentin sensitivity, and increased keratinized tissue band and gingival thickness were achieved. In the present case, modified Nelson technique proved to be a more simple procedure for the treatment of multiple recessions in one session, resulting in adequate healing, predictable root coverage, and, more importantly, esthetic and functional success. Fernando Salimon Ribeiro, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo de Morais-Camillo, José Marcos Alves Fernandes, Juliana Rico Pires, Elizangela Partata Zuza, and Ana Emília Farias Pontes Copyright © 2014 Fernando Salimon Ribeiro et al. All rights reserved. Strength of Footing with Punching Shear Preventers Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/474728/ The punching shear failure often governs the strength of the footing-to-column connection. The punching shear failure is an undesirable failure mode, since it results in a brittle failure of the footing. In this study, a new method to increase the strength and ductility of the footing was proposed by inserting the punching shear preventers (PSPs) into the footing. The validation and effectiveness of PSP were verified through a series of experimental studies. The nonlinear finite element analysis was then performed to demonstrate the failure mechanism of the footing with PSPs in depth and to investigate the key parameters that affect the behavior of the footing with PSPs. Finally, the design recommendations for the footing with PSPs were suggested. Sang-Sup Lee, Jiho Moon, Keum-Sung Park, and Kyu-Woong Bae Copyright © 2014 Sang-Sup Lee et al. All rights reserved. Modification of Thionucleobases in Ionic Liquids Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/353797/ A simple method was established for the preparation of thio-substituted thionucleobases using room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [BMIM]+[CF3COO]− and 1-methoxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate [MeOEtMIM]+[CF3COO]− as solvents and catalysts without any other catalyst. These reactions proceeded efficiently in RTILs with excellent yield of products. RTILs can be recycled and reused effectively without further purification. Xiaomei Hu, Bixian Zhang, Shijia Dong, and Yunfei Gao Copyright © 2014 Xiaomei Hu et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Topography on East African October to December Climate: Sensitivity Experiments with RegCM4 Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/143917/ The influence of topography on east African climate is investigated using the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model, with focus on October to December season. Results show that the mean rainfall (temperature) significantly reduces (increases) over the region when topography elevation is reduced. Based on the model, when topography over the selected region (KTU) is reduced to 25%, the mean rainfall (temperature) over east Africa is reduced (increased) by about 19% (1.4°C). The maximum rainfall (temperature) reduction (increase) is however observed around the region over which topography is reduced. The reduction in topography elevation resulted in an anomalous moisture divergence at low level and descending motion over the region. KTU topography enhances the surface heat flux over KTU region and tends to enhance convection over both KTU and the east African region. The topography also helps in the generation of the high frequency mesoscale and subsynoptic disturbances over the region. These disturbances produce precipitation over the region and may also enhance precipitation systems over remote areas due to propagation of the disturbances. The magnitude of the zonal wind speed at 850 hpa increases with the decrease in topography elevation. Bob Alex Ogwang, Haishan Chen, Xing Li, and Chujie Gao Copyright © 2014 Bob Alex Ogwang et al. All rights reserved.