Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Lower Extremity Arterial Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients and the Analysis of the Intervention of Vitamin D Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:59:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/815949/ The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and to investigate the intervention effect of vitamin D. 145 subjects were assigned to a control group (Group NC), T2DM group (Group DM1), and T2DM complicated with LEAD group (Group DM2); then Group DM2 were randomly divided into Group DM3 who received oral hypoglycemic agents and Group DM4 who received oral hypoglycemic drugs and vitamin D3 therapy. Compared to Group NC, 25(OH)D was significantly lower in Group DM2 and marginally lower in Group DM1. In contrast to baseline and Group DM3, 25(OH)D rose while low density lipoprotein (LDL), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), and HbA1c significantly lowered in Group DM4. Statistical analysis revealed that 25(OH)D had a negative correlation with RBP4, duration, HbA1c, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). LDL, systolic blood pressure (SBP), FPG, and smoking were risk factors of LEAD while high density lipoprotein (HDL) and 25(OH)D were protective ones. Therefore, we deduced that low level of 25(OH)D is significantly associated with the occurrence of T2DM complicated with LEAD. Wan Zhou and Shan-Dong Ye Copyright © 2015 Wan Zhou and Shan-Dong Ye. All rights reserved. Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life in Recipients of Livers Donated after Cardiac Death Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:58:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/680316/ Donation after cardiac death (DCD) has expanded in the last decade in the US; however, DCD liver utilization has flattened in recent years due to poor outcomes. We examined clinical and quality of life (QOL) outcomes of DCD recipients by conducting a retrospective and cross-sectional review of patients from 2003 to 2010. We compared clinical outcomes of DCD recipients () to those of donation after brain death (DBD) liver recipients () during the same time period. DCD recipients had significantly lower rates of 5-year graft survival () and a trend toward lower rates of 5-year patient survival () when compared to the DBD cohort. In order to examine QOL outcomes in our cohorts, we administered the Short Form Liver Disease Quality of Life questionnaire to 30 DCD and 60 DBD recipients. The DCD recipients reported lower generic and liver-specific QOL. We further stratified the DCD cohort by the presence of ischemic cholangiopathy (IC). Patients with IC reported lower QOL when compared to DBD recipients and those DCD recipients without IC (). While the results are consistent with clinical experience, this is the first report of QOL in DCD recipients using standardized measures. These data can be used to guide future comparative effectiveness studies. Neehar D. Parikh, Anton I. Skaro, Daniela P. Ladner, Vadim Lyuksemburg, Joshua G. Cahan, Amna Daud, and Zeeshan Butt Copyright © 2015 Neehar D. Parikh et al. All rights reserved. Necrosis of the Ventral Penile Skin Flap: A Complication of Hypospadias Surgery in Children Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:33:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2015/452870/ Objectives. To review cases of hypospadias that were repaired with TIPU method and consequently resulted in the necrosis of ventral penile skin flaps. Methods. Eighty-three patients with hypospadias underwent TIPU procedure by two surgeons. Neourethra in all patients was covered with dartos flap prepared from the preputium or penile shaft. In cases where ventral skin could not be covered primarily, closure was ensured by using preputial Ombredanne or Byars’ flaps to repair ventral defects. Results. The median age of patients was 4 years. Twenty-five (30.12%) patients that underwent hypospadias repair had urethral opening at the coronal level, 33 (39.75%) at the distal penis, 10 (12.04%) at the midpenis, and 15 (18.07%) at the proximal penis. The ventral skin defect could not be primarily covered in 10 patients with penile shaft hypospadias. Consequently, Byars’ method was used in 8 of these patients to cover the defect and the Ombredanne method was used in the remaining 2. Ventral skin flap necrosis developed in 5 patients (4 Byars and 1 Ombredanne). It was medically treated in 4 patients. Urethral fistula developed in the other patient whose necrosis was deeper. The mean hospital stay was 7 days for patients without necrosis, and 14 for those with necrosis. Conclusion. We are of the opinion that dartos flaps used in the TIPU method in order to cover neourethra and decrease the incidence of fistula development lead to necrosis in the Ombredanne or Byars’ flaps by causing low blood supply to the preputium and thus extend hospital stay. Ünal Bakal, Musa Abeş, and Mehmet Sarac Copyright © 2015 Ünal Bakal et al. All rights reserved. Early Postural Changes in Individuals with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:14:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/369454/ Background and Objectives. Postural changes are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Many contributing factors have been evident either related to disease pathology or to adaptive changes. This study aimed at studying the postural changes in subjects with Parkinson’s disease and its relation to duration of illness and disease severity. Methods. Eighteen patients with PD and 18 healthy matched volunteers represented the sample of the study. The patients were at stage 1 or 1.5 according to the Modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging with duration of illness between 18 and 36 months. Three-dimensional analysis of the back surface was conducted to explore the postural changes in the sagittal and frontal planes in both the patients and the healthy subjects. Results. Kyphotic angle, lordotic angle, fleche cervicale, fleche lombaire, scoliotic angle, and associated vertebral rotation and pelvic obliquity were significantly increased in patients with PD compared to the healthy subjects (). There was no association between the measured postural changes and duration of illness as well as the severity of the IPD (). Conclusion. Postural changes start in the early stages of idiopathic PD and they have no relationship to the duration of illness and disease severity. Mohamed Elsayed Khallaf and Eman Elsayed Fayed Copyright © 2015 Mohamed Elsayed Khallaf and Eman Elsayed Fayed. All rights reserved. Reducing Subspaces of Some Multiplication Operators on the Bergman Space over Polydisk Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:10:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/209307/ We consider the reducing subspaces of on , where , , and for . We prove that each reducing subspace of is a direct sum of some minimal reducing subspaces. We also characterize the minimal reducing subspaces in the cases that and , respectively. Finally, we give a complete description of minimal reducing subspaces of on with . Yanyue Shi and Na Zhou Copyright © 2015 Yanyue Shi and Na Zhou. All rights reserved. Highly Sensitive Local Surface Plasmon Resonance in Anisotropic Au Nanoparticles Deposited on Nanofibers Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:09:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/829273/ This paper reports the facile and high-throughput fabrication method of anisotropic Au nanoparticles with a highly sensitive local surface plasmon resonance (LPR) using cylindrical nanofibers as substrates. The substrates consisting of nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The Au nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of electrospun nanofibers by vacuum evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a curved Au island structure on the surface of cylindrical nanofibers. Polarized UV-visible extinction spectroscopy showed anisotropy in their LPR arising from the high surface curvature of the nanofiber. The LPR of the Au nanoparticles on the thinnest nanofiber with a diameter of ~100 nm showed maximum refractive index (RI) sensitivity over 500 nm/RI unit (RIU). The close correlation between the fiber diameter dependence of the RI sensitivity and polarization dependence of the LPR suggests that anisotropic Au nanoparticles improve RI sensitivity. Masanari Saigusa, Kazuma Tsuboi, Yuichi Konosu, Minoru Ashizawa, Akihiko Tanioka, and Hidetoshi Matsumoto Copyright © 2015 Masanari Saigusa et al. All rights reserved. Wheeled Mobility Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:09:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/138176/ Alicia M. Koontz, Dan Ding, Yih-Kuen Jan, Sonja de Groot, and Andrew Hansen Copyright © 2015 Alicia M. Koontz et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Outcomes of Hepatic Resection versus Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Propensity Score-Matching Study Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/425926/ Hepatic resection (HR) and liver transplantation (LT) are surgical treatment options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is clinically impossible to perform a randomized, controlled study to determine the usefulness of these treatments. The present study compared survival rates and recurrence rates of HR versus living donor LT (LDLT) for HCC by using the propensity score method. Between January 1999 and August 2012, 936 patients (732 HR, 204 LDLT) underwent surgical therapy for HCC in our center. Using the propensity score matching, 80 well-balanced patients were defined. The 1- and 5-year overall survival rates were 90% and 53% in the HR group and 82% and 63% in the LT group, respectively. They were not significantly different between the two groups. The odds ratio estimated using the propensity score matching analysis was 0.842 (). The 1- and 5-year recurrence rates were significantly lower in the LT group (9% and 21%) than in the HR group (43% and 74%) (), and the odds ratio was 0.214 (). In conclusion, HR should be considered a valid alternative to LDLT taking into consideration the risk for the living donor based on the results of this propensity score-matching study. Toshimi Kaido, Satoshi Morita, Sachiko Tanaka, Kohei Ogawa, Akira Mori, Etsuro Hatano, and Shinji Uemoto Copyright © 2015 Toshimi Kaido et al. All rights reserved. Ewing’s Sarcoma of the Kidney Complicated by a Wunderlich Syndrome Wed, 01 Apr 2015 14:00:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/601038/ The Wunderlich syndrome found after the rupture of primitive renal Ewing’s sarcoma is not a situation that we find often in everyday practice. The clinical findings are not specific, which is why the differential diagnosis must be made with a multitude of benign and malignant renal masses until the correct diagnosis can be made by the pathologist. The CT and MRI images are not characteristic. One treatment option is the multidisciplinary approach; however, the prognosis remains poor for patients with metastatic disease. Mihai Razvan Manescu, Achraf Sahyoun, Nicolas Froment, Nicolae Crisan, and Vincent Girot Copyright © 2015 Mihai Razvan Manescu et al. All rights reserved. The Utility of Capsule Endoscopy in Patients under 50 Years of Age with Recurrent Iron Deficiency Anaemia: Is the Juice Worth the Squeeze? Wed, 01 Apr 2015 13:58:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/948574/ Background and Aims. The role of capsule endoscopy (CE) in the <50 years of age patients with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) remains unclear. We aim to assess its utility in this cohort. Methods. All patients referred for CE for recurrent IDA were included retrospectively. Patients were divided into Group 1 (<50 years) and Group 2 (≥50 years). Results. There were 971 patients with recurrent IDA and 28% belonged to Group 1. The mean age was 40 years in this group with a DY of 28% (). Significant diagnoses included erosions and ulcers (26%; ), small bowel (SB) angioectasia (AE) (10%; ), SB tumours (3%; ), Crohn’s disease (3%; ), SB bowel strictures (1%; ), and SB varices (1%; ). On logistic regression, the presence of diabetes () and the use of warfarin () was associated with increased DY. The DY in Group 2 was 38% which was significantly higher than in Group 1 (). While SB tumours were equally common in both groups, AE was commoner in Group 2 (). Conclusion. A significant proportion of patients <50 years are referred for CE. Although the DY is lower compared to those ≥50 years, significant pathology is found in this age group. CE is advisable in patients <50 years old with recurrent IDA and negative bidirectional endoscopies. Prabhjot Singh Sidhu, Mark E. McAlindon, Kaye Drew, and Reena Sidhu Copyright © 2015 Prabhjot Singh Sidhu et al. All rights reserved. Cognitive Reserve in Parkinson’s Disease: The Effects of Welsh-English Bilingualism on Executive Function Wed, 01 Apr 2015 13:58:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/943572/ Objective. Bilingualism has been shown to benefit executive function (EF) and delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aims at examining whether a bilingual advantage applies to EF in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Method. In a cross-sectional outpatient cohort of monolingual English () and bilingual Welsh/English () speakers with PD we evaluated the effects of bilingualism compared with monolingualism on performance on EF tasks. In bilinguals we also assessed the effects of the degree of daily usage of each language and the degree of bilingualism. Results. Monolinguals showed an advantage in performance of language tests. There were no differences in performance of EF tests in monolinguals and bilinguals. Those who used Welsh less in daily life had better performance on one test of English vocabulary. The degree of bilingualism correlated with one test of nonverbal reasoning and one of working memory but with no other tests of EF. Discussion. The reasons why the expected benefit in EF in Welsh-English bilinguals with PD was not found require further study. Future studies in PD should include other language pairs, analysis of the effects of the degree of bilingualism, and longitudinal analysis of cognitive decline or dementia together with structural or functional neuroimaging. John V. Hindle, Pamela A. Martin-Forbes, Alexandra J. M. Bastable, Kirstie L. Pye, Anthony Martyr, Christopher J. Whitaker, Fergus I. M. Craik, Ellen Bialystok, Enlli M. Thomas, Virginia C. Mueller Gathercole, and Linda Clare Copyright © 2015 John V. Hindle et al. All rights reserved. Vertical Graphene Nanosheets Coated with Gold Nanoparticle Arrays: Effect of Interparticle Spacing on Optical Response Wed, 01 Apr 2015 13:49:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/230987/ Vertical graphene nanosheets have advantages over their horizontal counterparts, primarily due to the larger surface area available in the vertical systems. Vertical sheets can accommodate more functional particles, and, due to the conduction and optical properties of thin graphene, these structures can find niche applications in the development of sensing and energy storage devices. This work is a combined experimental and theoretical study that reports on the synthesis and optical responses of vertical sheets decorated with gold nanoparticles. The findings help in interpreting optical responses of these hybrid graphene structures and are relevant to the development of future sensing platforms. Angus Mcleod, Shailesh Kumar, Kristy C. Vernon, and Kostya (Ken) Ostrikov Copyright © 2015 Angus Mcleod et al. All rights reserved. Scalable Production of Iron Oxide Nanowhiskers Wed, 01 Apr 2015 13:44:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/376579/ We reported the scalable production of iron oxide nanowhiskers from 250 mL laboratory scale to 10 L reactor reaction. During the scale-up process, the reaction time was found to be a critical parameter to adjust for the production of iron oxide nanowhiskers with similar quality to that of the laboratory scale. Based on transmission electron microscopy and magnetometry analysis, the size, size distribution, and magnetic properties of the large scale products were comparable to those produced on laboratory scale. Subsequently, these nanowhiskers were transferred from organic solvents to aqueous solution using a 38-liter stainless steel tank. These water soluble nanowhiskers were well dispersed in water and the surface chemistry was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thomas Macher, Jennifer Sherwood, Yaolin Xu, Min Lee, Grayson Dennis, Ying Qin, Daniel Daly, Richard P. Swatloski, and Yuping Bao Copyright © 2015 Thomas Macher et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Pathogenesis of MALT Lymphoma Wed, 01 Apr 2015 12:05:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/102656/ Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis. Katharina Troppan, Kerstin Wenzl, Peter Neumeister, and Alexander Deutsch Copyright © 2015 Katharina Troppan et al. All rights reserved. New-Onset Panic, Depression with Suicidal Thoughts, and Somatic Symptoms in a Patient with a History of Lyme Disease Wed, 01 Apr 2015 11:51:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2015/457947/ Lyme Disease, or Lyme Borreliosis, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and spread by ticks, is mainly known to cause arthritis and neurological disorders but can also cause psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety. We present a case of a 37-year-old man with no known psychiatric history who developed panic attacks, severe depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, and neuromuscular complaints including back spasms, joint pain, myalgias, and neuropathic pain. These symptoms began 2 years after being successfully treated for a positive Lyme test after receiving a tick bite. During inpatient psychiatric hospitalization his psychiatric and physical symptoms did not improve with antidepressant and anxiolytic treatments. The patient’s panic attacks resolved after he was discharged and then, months later, treated with long-term antibiotics for suspected “chronic Lyme Disease” (CLD) despite having negative Lyme titers. He however continued to have subsyndromal depressive symptoms and chronic physical symptoms such as fatigue, myalgias, and neuropathy. We discuss the controversy surrounding the diagnosis of CLD and concerns and considerations in the treatment of suspected CLD patients with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. Amir Garakani and Andrew G. Mitton Copyright © 2015 Amir Garakani and Andrew G. Mitton. All rights reserved. Progressive Muscle Relaxation Improves Anxiety and Depression of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients Wed, 01 Apr 2015 11:41:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/792895/ We explored the effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) on anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). One hundred and thirty Han Chinese patients with PAH were randomly assigned to a PMR group () and a control group (). In a 12-week study duration, the PMR group received hospital-based group and in-home PMR practice, while the control group received hospital-based mild group stretching and balance exercises. The control group and the PMR group were comparable at baseline. After 12 weeks of intervention, the PMR group showed significant improvement in anxiety, depression, overall QOL, and the mental component summary score of QOL () but not the physical component summary score of QOL or the 6-minute walking distance. In contrast, the control group showed no significant improvement in any of the variables. Moreover, the PMR group showed significant improvement in all QOL mental health domains () but not the physical health domains. In contrast, the control group showed no significant improvement in any QOL domain. In conclusion, this study suggests that PMR practice is effective in improving anxiety, depression, and the mental health components of QOL in patients with PAH. Yunping Li, Ranran Wang, Jingqun Tang, Chen Chen, Ling Tan, Zhongshi Wu, Fenglei Yu, and Xiang Wang Copyright © 2015 Yunping Li et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of United States and Canadian Glaucoma Medication Costs and Price Change from 2006 to 2013 Wed, 01 Apr 2015 11:31:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/547960/ Objective. Compare glaucoma medication costs between the United States (USA) and Canada. Methods. We modelled glaucoma brand name and generic medication annual costs in the USA and Canada based on October 2013 Costco prices and previously reported bottle overfill rates, drops per mL, and wastage adjustment. We also calculated real wholesale price changes from 2006 to 2013 based on the Average Wholesale Price (USA) and the Ontario Drug Benefit Price (Canada). Results. US brand name medication costs were on average 4x more than Canadian medication costs (range: 1.9x–6.9x), averaging a cost difference of $859 annually. US generic costs were on average the same as Canadian costs, though variation exists. US brand name wholesale prices increased from 2006 to 2013 more than Canadian prices (US range: 29%–349%; Canadian range: 9%–16%). US generic wholesale prices increased modestly (US range: −23%–58%), and Canadian wholesale prices decreased (Canadian range: −38%–0%). Conclusions. US brand name glaucoma medications are more expensive than Canadian medications, though generic costs are similar (with some variation). The real prices of brand name medications increased more in the USA than in Canada. Generic price changes were more modest, with real prices actually decreasing in Canada. Matthew B. Schlenker, Graham E. Trope, and Yvonne M. Buys Copyright © 2015 Matthew B. Schlenker et al. All rights reserved. Distributed Sensor Fusion for Wire Fault Location Using Sensor Clustering Strategy Wed, 01 Apr 2015 11:04:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/538643/ From reflectometry methods, this work aims at locating accurately electrical faults in complex wiring networks. Increasing demand for online diagnosis has imposed serious challenges on interference mitigation. In particular, diagnosis has to be carried out while the target system is operating. The interference becomes more even critical in the case of complex networks where distributed sensors inject their signals simultaneously. The objective of this paper is to develop a new embedded diagnosis strategy in complex wired networks that would resolve interference problems and eliminate ambiguities related to fault location. To do so, OMTDR (Orthogonal Multi-tone Time Domain Reflectometry) method is used. For better coverage of the network, communication between sensors is integrated using the transmitted part of the OMTDR signal. It enables data control and transmission for fusion to facilitate fault location. In order to overcome degradation of diagnosis reliability and communication quality, we propose a new sensor clustering strategy based on network topology in terms of distance and number of junctions. Based on CAN bus network, we prove that data fusion using sensor clustering strategy permits to improve the diagnosis performance. Wafa Ben Hassen, Fabrice Auzanneau, Luca Incarbone, François Pérès, and Ayeley P. Tchangani Copyright © 2015 Wafa Ben Hassen et al. All rights reserved. Rash with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Use in Bilateral Reduction Mammoplasty: A Case Series Wed, 01 Apr 2015 10:37:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/642595/ Background. Bilateral reduction mammoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure that can be complicated by unfavorable scar formation along incision sites. Surgical adhesives can be utilized as an alternative or as an adjunct to conventional suture closures to help achieve good wound tension and provide an adequate barrier with excellent cosmesis. The recently introduced DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System Skin Closure System combines the skin adhesive 2-octyl cyanoacrylate with a self-adhering polyester-based mesh. Proposed benefits of wound closure with DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, used with or without sutures, include its watertight seal, easy removal, microbial barrier, even distribution of tension, and reduction in wound closure time. Although allergic reactions to 2-octyl cyanoacrylate have been reported, few allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System have been noted in the literature. This case series describes three patients who experienced an allergic reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after undergoing elective bilateral reduction mammoplasties at our institution to further explore this topic. Methods. Retrospective chart review of bilateral reduction mammoplasty patients who received DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System dressing at our institution was performed. Results. Three patients were identified as having a rash in reaction to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System after bilateral reduction mammoplasty. All three patients required systemic steroid treatment to resolve the rash. One patient was identified as having a prior adhesive reaction. Conclusions. DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System has demonstrated its efficacy in optimizing scar healing and appearance. However, as we demonstrate these three allergic reactions to DERMABOND PRINEO Skin Closure System, caution must be utilized in its usage, namely, in patients with a prior adhesive allergy and in sites where moisture or friction may be apparent. R. W. Knackstedt, J. A. Dixon, P. J. O’Neill, and F. A. Herrera Copyright © 2015 R. W. Knackstedt et al. All rights reserved. How an Opportunistic Infection Can Mess with Your Brain and Take Your Breath Away: A Rare Case of Simultaneous Lung and Brain Abscess due to Streptococcus anginosus Wed, 01 Apr 2015 10:33:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2015/462459/ Streptococcus anginosus (S. anginosus) is considered a friendly bug and is a one of many different bacteria that constitute the normal flora of the oral cavity. Nevertheless, it has been infrequently associated with more invasive infections, like lung abscess. It is extremely rare to have multisystemic involvement with S. anginosus group. We present a unique case of pulmonary and brain abscess due to S. anginosus in an immunocompetent patient. Farah Al-Saffar, Daisy Torres-Miranda, Saif Ibrahim, and Adil Shujaat Copyright © 2015 Farah Al-Saffar et al. All rights reserved. Response Surface Optimization of a Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tetracycline Antibiotics in Manure Wed, 01 Apr 2015 10:27:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/290903/ A rapid and cleanup-free ultrasound-assisted extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline in manure. The analytes were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. The influence of several variables on the efficiency of the extraction procedure was investigated by single-factor experiments. The temperature, pH, and amount of extraction solution were selected for optimization experiment using response surface methodology. The calibration curves showed good linearity () for all analytes in the range of 0.1–20 μg/mL. The four antibiotics were successfully extracted from manure with recoveries ranging from 81.89 to 92.42% and good reproducibility (RSD, <4.06%) under optimal conditions, which include 50 mL of McIlvaine buffer extraction solution (pH 7.15) mixed with 1 g of manure sample, extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 10 min, and three extraction cycles. Method quantification limits of 1.75–2.32 mg/kg were obtained for the studied compounds. The proposed procedure demonstrated clear reductions in extraction time and elimination of cleanup steps. Finally, the applicability to tetracyclines antibiotics determination in real samples was evaluated through the successful determination of four target analytes in swine, cow manure, and mixture of animal manure with inorganic fertilizer. Lanqing Li, Mingxing Sun, Hui Zhou, Yun Zhou, Ping Chen, Hong Min, and Guoqing Shen Copyright © 2015 Lanqing Li et al. All rights reserved. Parallel N-Body Simulation Based on the PM and P3M Methods Using Multigrid Schemes in conjunction with Generic Approximate Sparse Inverses Wed, 01 Apr 2015 10:21:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/450980/ During the last decades, Multigrid methods have been extensively used for solving large sparse linear systems. Considering their efficiency and the convergence behavior, Multigrid methods are used in many scientific fields as solvers or preconditioners. Herewith, we propose two hybrid parallel algorithms for N-Body simulations using the Particle Mesh method and the Particle Particle Particle Mesh method, respectively, based on the V-Cycle Multigrid method in conjunction with Generic Approximate Sparse Inverses. The N-Body problem resides in a three-dimensional torus space, and the bodies are subject only to gravitational forces. In each time step of the above methods, a large sparse linear system is solved to compute the gravity potential at each nodal point in order to interpolate the solution to each body. Then the Velocity Verlet method is used to compute the new position and velocity from the acceleration of each respective body. Moreover, a parallel Multigrid algorithm, with a truncated approach in the levels computed in parallel, is proposed for solving large linear systems. Furthermore, parallel results are provided indicating the efficiency of the proposed Multigrid N-Body scheme. Theoretical estimates for the complexity of the proposed simulation schemes are provided. P. E. Kyziropoulos, C. K. Filelis-Papadopoulos, and G. A. Gravvanis Copyright © 2015 P. E. Kyziropoulos et al. All rights reserved. Kinematics of Rotation in Joints of the Lower Limbs and Pelvis during Gait: Early Results—SB ACLR Approach versus DB ACLR Approach Wed, 01 Apr 2015 09:46:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/707168/ It is difficult to find publications comparing rotation kinematics in large joints of the lower limbs and pelvis during gait in patients after single-bundle (SB) reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACLR) with double-bundle (DB) ACLR of the knee. The aim of this study was to compare rotation kinematics in ankle, knee, and hip joints and the pelvis during gait in the 14th week after SB and DB ACLR. The subjects were males after SB () and DB () ACLR and a control group (). The values of kinematic parameters were recorded during internal (IR) and external (ER) rotation in the joints during gait using the BTS SMART. The SB ACLR group obtained significantly higher values of ER in the involved knee comparing to DB ACLR and controls and excessive IR in the hip comparing to controls. In the DB ACLR group, excessive ER was noted in the involved leg's foot. Comparing with the DB ACLR and control groups, SB ACLR subjects had more substantial disorders of rotation kinematics in the lower limb joints. However, in both ACLR groups, 14 weeks of postoperative physiotherapy were not enough to fully restore rotation kinematics in joints of the lower limbs during gait. Andrzej Czamara, Iga Markowska, Aleksandra Królikowska, Andrzej Szopa, and Małgorzata Domagalska Szopa Copyright © 2015 Andrzej Czamara et al. All rights reserved. Reprogramming with Small Molecules instead of Exogenous Transcription Factors Wed, 01 Apr 2015 09:45:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/794632/ Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) could be employed in the creation of patient-specific stem cells, which could subsequently be used in various basic and clinical applications. However, current iPSC methodologies present significant hidden risks with respect to genetic mutations and abnormal expression which are a barrier in realizing the full potential of iPSCs. A chemical approach is thought to be a promising strategy for safety and efficiency of iPSC generation. Many small molecules have been identified that can be used in place of exogenous transcription factors and significantly improve iPSC reprogramming efficiency and quality. Recent studies have shown that the use of small molecules results in the generation of chemically induced pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. These studies might lead to new areas of stem cell research and medical applications, not only human iPSC by chemicals alone, but also safe generation of somatic stem cells for cell based clinical trials and other researches. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent advances in small molecule approaches for the generation of iPSCs. Tongxiang Lin and Shouhai Wu Copyright © 2015 Tongxiang Lin and Shouhai Wu. All rights reserved. n-Hexadecane Fuel for a Phosphoric Acid Direct Hydrocarbon Fuel Cell Wed, 01 Apr 2015 09:35:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfu/2015/748679/ The objective of this work was to examine fuel cells as a possible alternative to the diesel fuel engines currently used in railway locomotives, thereby decreasing air emissions from the railway transportation sector. We have investigated the performance of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) reactor, with n-hexadecane, C16H34 (a model compound for diesel fuel, cetane number = 100). This is the first extensive study reported in the literature in which n-hexadecane is used directly as the fuel. Measurements were made to obtain both polarization curves and time-on-stream results. Because deactivation was observed hydrogen polarization curves were measured before and after n-hexadecane experiments, to determine the extent of deactivation of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). By feeding water-only (no fuel) to the fuel cell anode the deactivated MEAs could be regenerated. One set of fuel cell operating conditions that produced a steady-state was identified. Identification of steady-state conditions is significant because it demonstrates that stable fuel cell operation is technically feasible when operating a PAFC with n-hexadecane fuel. Yuanchen Zhu, Travis Robinson, Amani Al-Othman, André Y. Tremblay, and Marten Ternan Copyright © 2015 Yuanchen Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Value of Pentraxin-3 Level in Patients with STEMI and Its Relationship with Heart Failure and Markers of Oxidative Stress Wed, 01 Apr 2015 09:32:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/159051/ Objective. Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) appears to have a cardioprotective effect through a positive influence against postreperfusion damage. This study assesses the prognostic value of PTX3 level and its relationship with clinical parameters and markers of oxidative stress and nitric oxide metabolism in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods. Plasma/serum levels of several biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress and nitrite/nitrate were assessed upon admission and 24 h after STEMI onset in patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Results. ROC analysis showed that plasma PTX3 at 24 h was a strong predictor of 30-day and 1-year mortality and independent predictor of combined end-point of left ventricle dysfunction or mortality in 1 year. The inflammatory response expressed by PTX3 had a significant relationship with age, heart failure, infarct size, impaired flow in the infarct-related artery, and renal function and positively correlated with neopterin, TNF-α, 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, and nitrite/nitrate. Conclusions. Plasma PTX3 at 24 h after STEMI onset is a strong predictor of 30-day and 1-year mortality. PTX3 as a single biomarker is comparable with currently used scoring systems (TIMI or GRACE) or B-type natriuretic peptide. PTX3 is also an independent predictor of combined end-point of left ventricle dysfunction or mortality in 1 year. Marie Tomandlova, Jiri Jarkovsky, Josef Tomandl, Lenka Kubkova, Petr Kala, Simona Littnerova, Jana Gottwaldova, Petr Kubena, Eva Ganovska, Martin Poloczek, Jindrich Spinar, Christian Mueller, Alexandre Mebazaa, Monika Pavkova Goldbergova, and Jiri Parenica Copyright © 2015 Marie Tomandlova et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of Some Nanometal Oxides Using Microwave Technique and Their Application to Cotton Fabrics Wed, 01 Apr 2015 09:28:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/586904/ The objective of this paper is the synthesis of some nanometal oxides via microwave irradiation technique and their application to augment multifunctional properties of cotton fabric. Cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were prepared via a thiol-modification of cotton fabric samples and then dipped into the metal salt solutions precursors and transferred to the microwave oven. The surface morphology and quantitative analysis of the obtained modified cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with high energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). The shape and distribution of nanometal oxide inside the fabric samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of cross-section fabric samples. The iron oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 15–20 nm, copper oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 25–30 nm, and cobalt oxide nanoparticles had a nanotube-like shape with a length of 100–150 nanometer and a diameter of ~58 nanometer, whereas the manganese oxide nanoparticles had a linear structure forming nanorods with a diameter of 50–55 nanometer and a length of 70–80 nanometers. Antibacterial activity was evaluated quantitatively against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, UV-protection activity was analyzed using UV-DRS spectroscopy, and flame retardation of prepared fabric samples was evaluated according to the limiting oxygen index (LOI). Results revealed that the prepared fabric sample containing nanometal oxide possesses improved antibacterial, LOI, and UV-absorbing efficiency. Moreover, the metal oxide nanoparticles did not leach out the fabrics by washing even after 30 laundering washing cycles. M. Gouda, A. Aljaafari, Y. Al-Fayz, and W. E. Boraie Copyright © 2015 M. Gouda et al. All rights reserved. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Enhances the Therapeutic Effects of Leptomycin B on Human Lung Cancer A549 Cells Wed, 01 Apr 2015 09:19:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/217304/ Our previous studies have shown Leptomycin B (LMB) is a promising antilung cancer drug. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has antitumor properties but a debatable clinical application. The objective of this study is to evaluate the combination therapeutic effect of LMB and EGCG and its molecular mechanisms in human lung cancer A549 cells. Increased cytotoxicity was observed in LMB+EGCG-treated cells compared to LMB-treated cells. Elevated ROS was maximized 2 h after treatment, and LMB+EGCG-treated cells had higher ROS levels compared to LMB. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) studies confirmed the oxidative role of LMB and/or EGCG treatment. In comparison to the control, CYP3A4, SOD, GPX1, and p21 mRNA expression levels were increased 7.1-, 2.0-, 4.6-, and 13.1-fold in LMB-treated cells, respectively, while survivin was decreased 42.6-fold. Additionally, these increases of CYP3A4, SOD, and GPX1 were significantly reduced, while p21 was significantly increased in LMB+EGCG-treated cells compared to LMB-treated cells. The qRT-PCR results for p21 and survivin were further confirmed by Western blot. Our study first shows that LMB produces ROS and is possibly metabolized by CYP3A4, GPX1, and SOD in A549 cells, and combination treatment of LMB and EGCG augments LMB-induced cytotoxicity through enhanced ROS production and the modulation of drug metabolism and p21/survivin pathways. Meghan M. Cromie and Weimin Gao Copyright © 2015 Meghan M. Cromie and Weimin Gao. All rights reserved. A Left-Sided Prevalence of Lentigo Maligna: A UK Based Observational Study and Review of the Evidence Wed, 01 Apr 2015 08:56:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2015/310270/ Skin cancer has been shown to present asymmetrically, prevalent on the left side of the body, more so in subtypes of cutaneous melanoma such as lentigo maligna. Biases have been linked to cumulative UV light exposure and automobile driving patterns. Though left-right ratios have previously correlated with the side men or women tend to position themselves or countries drive on, more recent trends indicate a consistent left-sided bias. To clarify reasons for changing trends, a review of the evidence base and LM’s laterality in a UK cohort (99 cases 2000–2011) was conducted for the first time. The strong correlation of left-sided excess, found in both genders (ratios 1.381–1.5,    0.841), is congruent with more recent findings. Though evidence indicates that driving position is no longer a risk factor for LM, due most likely to improved car window UV protection, it remains the most commonly attributed cause. Understanding phenomena such as UV lights “scatter effect” or that cumulative exposure may not be a significant risk factor helps rationalize older conclusions that would otherwise appear contradictory. The reasons for left-sided excess remain unclear but may be due to factors requiring further research such as the body’s anatomical/embryological asymmetry. Mark Gorman, Andrew Hart, and Bipin Mathew Copyright © 2015 Mark Gorman et al. All rights reserved. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Prevention and Therapy Wed, 01 Apr 2015 08:54:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/639372/ Peng Cao, Senthamil R. Selvan, Esra Küpeli Akkol, Ning Wang, Hongjun Yang, and Xiaolan Cheng Copyright © 2015 Peng Cao et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Ontology for Semantic Information Retrieval Model Using Keyword Matching Indexing System Wed, 01 Apr 2015 08:36:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/414910/ Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology. K. R. Uthayan and G. S. Anandha Mala Copyright © 2015 K. R. Uthayan and G. S. Anandha Mala. All rights reserved. Extrinsic Subclavian Vein Compression after Osteosynthesis of a Midshaft Clavicular Fracture in an Athlete Wed, 01 Apr 2015 08:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/981293/ Clavicle fractures are common injuries. Traditionally, nonsurgical management has been favored; however, recent evidence has emerged indicating that operative fixation produces lower nonunion rates, better functional outcomes, improved cosmesis, and greater patient satisfaction. Although clavicle fixation has been considered a safe procedure, several complications related to plate fixation have been reported. We report a case of a 21-year-old basketball player that had a vascular complication associated with internal fixation of a clavicle fracture. An external compression of the subclavian vein was attributed to a long screw of a precontoured clavicular plate. Although vascular complications associated with clavicle fixation are rare, they may be limb and even life threating. It is advisable that surgeons take measures to avoid them especially when placing the medial screws. Luciano A. Rossi, Nicolas S. Piuzzi, Santiago L. Bongiovanni, Ignacio Tanoira, Gaston Maignon, and Maximiliano Ranalletta Copyright © 2015 Luciano A. Rossi et al. All rights reserved. Antiresistin RNA Oligonucleotide Ameliorates Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice through Attenuating Proinflammatory Cytokines Wed, 01 Apr 2015 08:10:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/414860/ The aim of this study was to determine whether inhibition of resistin by a synthetic antiresistin RNA (oligonucleotide) oligo ameliorates metabolic and histological abnormalities in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. The antiresistin RNA oligo and a scrambled control oligo (25 mg/kg of body weight) were i.p. injected to HFD mice. Serum metabolic parameters and hepatic enzymes were measured after 4-week treatment. The treatment significantly reduced epididymal fat and attenuated the elevated serum resistin, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin with an improved glucose tolerance test. Antiresistin RNA oligo also normalized serum AST and ALT levels with improved pathohistology of NAFLD. Immunoblotting and qRT-PCR revealed that decreased protein and mRNA expression of resistin in fat and liver tissues of the treated mice were associated with reduction of adipose TNF-α and IL-6 expression and secretion into circulation. mRNA and protein expression of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) were also significantly decreased in the treated mice. Our results suggest that resistin may exacerbate NAFLD in metabolic syndrome through upregulating inflammatory cytokines and hepatic PEPCK and SREBP-1c. Antiresistin RNA oligo ameliorated metabolic abnormalities and histopathology of NAFLD through attenuating proinflammatory cytokines. Yi Tan, Xing Liang Jin, Weiguo Lao, Jane Kim, Linda Xiao, and Xianqin Qu Copyright © 2015 Yi Tan et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Antimycotic Activities of Two Native Lavandula Species from Portugal Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:56:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/570521/ The antioxidant and antimycotic activities of the essential oils and extracts of two native Portuguese Lavandula species, L. stoechas subsp. luisieri and L. pedunculata, were evaluated by in vitro assays. The total phenolics and flavonoids content were also determined. The antioxidant potential was assessed through DPPH radical scavenging, inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP), and DNA protection assays. All samples displayed a high DPPH scavenging activity, some of them showing concentration dependence. The majority of the samples were also able to inhibit lipid peroxidation. A strong correlation was observed between the results of DPPH and ILP assays and the flavonoids content of the samples. In the DNA protection assay, all the extracts were able to preserve DNA integrity. The antimycotic activity was performed against twelve fungi belonging to Basidiomycota and Ascomycota Divisions. L. stoechas subsp. luisieri exhibited the broadest activity spectra. L. pedunculata extracts were active against five fungi. Cryptococcus neoformans was the most sensitive, being inhibited by all the extracts. Our results led to the conclusion that L. stoechas subsp. luisieri and L. pedunculata can be useful as new sources of natural antioxidants and antimycotic agents, providing a possible valorization of the existing biodiversity and resources of Portuguese flora. Rafael Baptista, Ana Margarida Madureira, Rita Jorge, Rita Adão, Aida Duarte, Noélia Duarte, Maria Manuel Lopes, and Generosa Teixeira Copyright © 2015 Rafael Baptista et al. All rights reserved. Inflammatory Mediators in Vascular Disease: Identifying Promising Targets for Intracranial Aneurysm Research Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:53:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/896283/ Inflammatory processes are implicated in many diseases of the vasculature and have been shown to play a key role in the formation of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). Although the specific mechanisms underlying these processes have been thoroughly investigated in related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, there remains a paucity of information regarding the immunopathology of IA. Cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes and their effector molecules have been suggested to be players in IA, but their specific interactions and the role of other components of the inflammatory response have yet to be determined. Drawing parallels between the pathogenesis of IA and other vascular disorders could provide a roadmap for developing a mechanistic understanding of the immunopathology of IA and uncovering useful targets for therapeutic intervention. Future research should address the presence and function of leukocyte subsets, mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment and activation, and the role of damage-associated molecular patterns in IA. David M. Sawyer, Peter S. Amenta, Ricky Medel, and Aaron S. Dumont Copyright © 2015 David M. Sawyer et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Aluminum Tripolyphosphate on the Protective Behavior of an Acrylic Water-Based Paint Applied to Rusty Steels Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:45:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/618971/ The protective performance, in conditions of total immersion, of an acrylic water-based paint applied to rusty steel, has been studied using electrochemical techniques. There was no rust, blister, crack, or flake that occurred on coating after 500 h immersion. The data obtained have enabled the protective mechanism to be proposed. The specific pigments utilized in the formulation of the paint studied can release phosphates to form a protective layer on metal substrate, which can impede the access of aggressive species to substrate surface. The coatings performed electrochemical activity in the beginning of immersion; then the layer formed and resistance of coating increased. Dongdong Song, Jin Gao, Lin Shen, Hongxia Wan, and Xiaogang Li Copyright © 2015 Dongdong Song et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations in Mathematics and Physics Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:43:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/593126/ Bo-Qing Dong, Caidi Zhao, Xiaohong Qin, Linghai Zhang, and Liangpan Li Copyright © 2015 Bo-Qing Dong et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Challenges in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Case Reports and Review of the Literature Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:31:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/878763/ Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading mortality cause worldwide. It typically develops secondarily to liver cirrhosis, due to hepatitis B or C infection, alcohol abuse, metabolic disease, and so forth. According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines, which constitute diagnostic standards, the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) should be based on contrast-enhanced imaging. Lesion hyperenhancement should be observed throughout the arterial phase, followed by the washout during the venous phase. The diagnosis can also be based on the histopathological evaluation of liver biopsy specimen. Although the standards are clear, we often see patients with advanced HCC in clinical practice, who cannot be offered any effective treatment. Patients with chronic liver disease, presenting with inconclusive and changeable test results, constitute a separate problem. In such cases the diagnostic process is typically long-term and delayed. In this paper we present three case reports where the diagnosis could not be made promptly and the patients died as a result of a delayed diagnostic process. Monika Pazgan-Simon, Sylwia Serafinska, Justyna Janocha-Litwin, Krzysztof Simon, and Jolanta Zuwala-Jagiello Copyright © 2015 Monika Pazgan-Simon et al. All rights reserved. Radial Quantitative Ultrasound and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: Intermethod Agreement for Bone Status Assessment in Children Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:30:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/232876/ Aim. To validate a radial quantitative ultrasound (QUS) system with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a criterion technique in bone status assessment among children. Methods. Bone health was evaluated using a radial QUS system (Sunlight Omnisense 8000P) to measure the speed of sound (SOS) at one-third distal radius of the nondominant hand and DXA (Hologic QDR) was used to assess whole body bone mineral density (BMD). Results. Some 29.9% of the children were grossly misclassified according to quartiles of BMD and radial SOS. Poor agreement was observed between Z-scores of radial SOS and whole-body BMD (mean difference = 0.6 ± 0.9; 95% limits of agreement = −1.4 to 2.6). With a cut-off value of −1.0, radial SOS yielded satisfactory sensitivity (80%) and specificity (93%) for the detection of children with low BMD. Conclusion. The observed poor agreement in the present study suggests that radial QUS and DXA are not comparable and hence are not interchangeable in evaluating bone status of the children. Kar Hau Chong, Bee Koon Poh, Nor Aini Jamil, Nor Azmi Kamaruddin, and Paul Deurenberg Copyright © 2015 Kar Hau Chong et al. All rights reserved. Glaucomatous Visual Field Defect Severity and the Prevalence of Motor Vehicle Collisions in Japanese: A Hospital/Clinic-Based Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:27:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/497067/ Purpose. This study examined the association between the severity of visual field defects and the prevalence of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. This is a cross-sectional study. Japanese patients who have had driver’s licence between 40 and 85 years of age were screened for eligibility. Participants answered a questionnaire about MVCs experienced during the previous 5 years. Subjects with POAG were classified as having mild, moderate, or severe visual field defect. We evaluated associations between the severity of POAG and the prevalence of MVCs by logistic regression models. Results. The prevalence of MVCs was significantly associated with the severity of POAG categorized by worse eye MD (control: 30/187 = 16.0%; mild POAG: 17/92 = 18.5%; moderate POAG: 14/60 = 23.3%; severe POAG: 14/47 = 29.8%; , Cochran-Armitage trend test). Compared to the control group, the adjusted OR for MVC prevalence in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe POAG in the worse eye was 1.07 (95% CI: 0.55 to 2.10), 1.44 (95% CI: 0.68 to 3.08), and 2.28 (95% CI: 1.07 to 4.88). Conclusions. There is a significant association between the severity of glaucoma in the worse eye MD and the prevalence of MVCs. Takeshi Ono, Kenya Yuki, Ryo Asaoka, Keisuke Kouyama, Takayuki Abe, Sachiko Tanabe, Kazumi Fukagawa, Miki Uchino, Masaru Shimoyama, Yoko Ozawa, Naoki Ozeki, Daisuke Shiba, and Kazuo Tsubota Copyright © 2015 Takeshi Ono et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Combinatorial Optimization Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:17:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/628265/ Dehua Xu, Dar-Li Yang, Ming Liu, Feng Chu, and Imed Kacem Copyright © 2015 Dehua Xu et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress in Myopia Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:11:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/750637/ Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem. Bosch-Morell Francisco, Mérida Salvador, and Navea Amparo Copyright © 2015 Bosch-Morell Francisco et al. All rights reserved. Solving Reaction-Diffusion and Advection Problems with Richardson Extrapolation Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:07:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/350362/ Richardson extrapolation is a simple but powerful computational tool to enhance the accuracy of time integration methods. In the past years a few theoretical and partly practical works have been presented on this method. Detailed numerical applications of this method, however, are rarely found in the literature. Therefore, it is worth investigating whether this promising technique lives up to the expectations also in practice. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of the Richardson method in one-dimensional numerical (reaction-diffusion) problems. Tamás Mona, István Lagzi, and Ágnes Havasi Copyright © 2015 Tamás Mona et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice Wed, 01 Apr 2015 07:06:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/467471/ Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion) would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications. Hilda Vargas-Robles, Amelia Rios, Monica Arellano-Mendoza, Bruno A. Escalante, and Michael Schnoor Copyright © 2015 Hilda Vargas-Robles et al. All rights reserved. Statistical Analysis of Radio Propagation Channel in Ruins Environment Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:59:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/173936/ The cellphone based localization system for search and rescue in complex high density ruins has attracted a great interest in recent years, where the radio channel characteristics are critical for design and development of such a system. This paper presents a spatial smoothing estimation via rotational invariance technique (SS-ESPRIT) for radio channel characterization of high density ruins. The radio propagations at three typical mobile communication bands (0.9, 1.8, and 2 GHz) are investigated in two different scenarios. Channel parameters, such as arrival time, delays, and complex amplitudes, are statistically analyzed. Furthermore, a channel simulator is built based on these statistics. By comparison analysis of average excess delay and delay spread, the validation results show a good agreement between the measurements and channel modeling results. Jiao He, Er-Ping Li, Sai-Qiong Zhou, and Kun Liao Copyright © 2015 Jiao He et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Infection with Soil Transmitted Helminths, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia duodenalis in Children Enrolled in Preschools in Kafue District, Zambia Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:58:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/eri/2015/906520/ Intestinal parasitic infections are common among children worldwide. This study was aimed at determining risk factors for infection with soil transmitted helminths, Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia duodenalis, among children in preschools. The study was in two parts: a cross-sectional study in which data were collected from 403 children from 10 preschools and a longitudinal study in which 100 children from four preschools from the previous 10 were selected. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 12.0%, while that of hookworm was 8.3%. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis was 28.0% and 29.0%, respectively. Low education level of parent/guardian was a significant risk factor for A. lumbricoides (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.02–5.41; ), while roofing types other than corrugated iron sheets were found to be protective for G. duodenalis infection in both bivariate and multivariate analyses (multivariate: OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45–0.99; ). Low socioeconomic level was found to be protective for Cryptosporidium spp. infection in multivariate analysis (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.35–0.99; ). In the longitudinal study, none of the factors were associated with either infection. These findings may have implications for other preschools in other districts in Zambia. Joyce Siwila and Annette Olsen Copyright © 2015 Joyce Siwila and Annette Olsen. All rights reserved. Acceleration of Wound Healing by -gal Nanoparticles Interacting with the Natural Anti-Gal Antibody Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:55:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/589648/ Application of α-gal nanoparticles to wounds and burns induces accelerated healing by harnessing the natural anti-Gal antibody which constitutes ~1% of human immunoglobulins. α-gal nanoparticles present multiple α-gal epitopes (Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R), the carbohydrate ligand of anti-Gal. Studied α-gal nanoparticles were comprised of glycolipids with α-gal epitopes, phospholipids, and cholesterol. Binding of anti-Gal to α-gal nanoparticles in wounds activates the complement cascade, resulting in formation of chemotactic complement cleavage peptides that induce rapid recruitment of many macrophages. The Fc/Fcγ receptors interaction between anti-Gal coating α-gal nanoparticles and the recruited macrophages activates macrophages to produce cytokines/growth factors that promote wound healing and recruit stem cells. Studies of wound healing by α-gal nanoparticles were feasible in α1,3galactosyltransferase knockout mice and pigs. In contrast to other nonprimate mammals, these mice and pigs lack the α-gal epitope, and thus they are not immunotolerant to it and produce anti-Gal. Treatment of skin wounds and burns with α-gal nanoparticles resulted in 40–60% decrease in healing time in comparison with control wounds treated with saline. This accelerated healing is associated with increased recruitment of macrophages and extensive angiogenesis in wounds, faster regrowth of epidermis, and regeneration of the dermis. The accelerated healing further decreases and may completely eliminate fibrosis and scar formation in wounds. Since healing of internal injuries is mediated by mechanisms similar to those in external wound healing, it is suggested that α-gal nanoparticles treatment may also improve regeneration and restoration of biological function following internal injuries such as surgical incisions, myocardial ischemia following infarction, and nerve injuries. Uri Galili Copyright © 2015 Uri Galili. All rights reserved. Impact of Addition of FGDB as a Soil Amendment on Physical and Chemical Properties of an Alkali Soil and Crop Yield of Maize in Northern China Coastal Plain Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:46:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/540604/ To evaluate the effect of Flue gas desulfurization byproduct( FGDB )as a soil amendment on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays) and to determine the impact of FGDB additions on soil fertility characteristics in alkaline clayey soils, a 2-year field experiment was conducted in Huanghua, in Northern China Coastal Plain. The experiment included five treatments in which the soil was amended with FGDB at 15 cm depth at the rates of 0 t·hm−2, 4.50 t·hm−2, 9.00 t·hm−2, 13.5 t·hm−2, and 18.00 t·hm−2, respectively, before maize was planted. The values of soil pH, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), and bulk density (BD) of the soil decreased; however, values of electrical conductivity (EC), water holding capacity (WHC), and plant nutrients increased with FGDB application in the soil. Crop plants grow more readily in FGDB amended soils because of improved soil properties. The best ameliorative effect was obtained at the rate of 13.5 t·hm−2. The germination percentage, plant height, and crop yield successively increased in both years. The results indicated FGDB was an effective soil amendment for improving the physicochemical properties and nutrient balance, and enhancing crop germination, growth, and yield, particularly when applied at a suitable application rate. H.-L. Yu, W. Gu, J. Tao, J.-Y. Huang, and H.-S. Lin Copyright © 2015 H.-L. Yu et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Sclerosis in Older Adults: The Clinical Profile and Impact of Interferon Beta Treatment Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:45:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/451912/ Background. We examined (1) patient characteristics and disease-modifying drug (DMD) exposure in late-onset (LOMS, ≥50 years at symptom onset) versus adult-onset (AOMS, 18–<50 years) MS and (2) the association between interferon-beta (IFNβ) and disability progression in older relapsing-onset MS adults (≥50 years). Methods. This retrospective study (1980–2004, British Columbia, Canada) included 358 LOMS and 5627 AOMS patients. IFNβ-treated relapsing-onset MS patients aged ≥50 (regardless of onset age, 90) were compared with 171 contemporary and 106 historical controls. Times to EDSS 6 from onset and from IFNβ eligibility were examined using survival analyses. Results. LOMS patients (6%) were more likely to be male, with motor onset and a primary-progressive course, and exhibit faster progression and were less likely to take DMDs. Nonetheless, 57% were relapsing-onset, of which 31% were prescribed DMDs, most commonly IFNβ. Among older relapsing-onset MS adults, no significant association between IFNβ exposure and disability progression was found when either the contemporary (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.18–1.22) or historical controls (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.20–1.42) were considered. Conclusion. LOMS differed clinically from AOMS. One-third of older relapsing-onset MS patients were prescribed a DMD. IFNβ exposure was not significantly associated with reduced disability in older MS patients. Afsaneh Shirani, Yinshan Zhao, John Petkau, Paul Gustafson, Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, Charity Evans, Elaine Kingwell, Mia L. van der Kop, Joel Oger, and Helen Tremlett Copyright © 2015 Afsaneh Shirani et al. All rights reserved. L-Lactic Acid Production by Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 10863 Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:45:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/501029/ Lactic acid has been shown to have the most promising application in biomaterials as poly(lactic acid). L. rhamnosus ATCC 10863 that produces L-lactic acid was used to perform the fermentation and molasses was used as substrate. A solution containing 27.6 g/L of sucrose (main composition of molasses) and 3.0 g/L of yeast extract was prepared, considering the final volume of 3,571 mL (14.0% (v/v) inoculum). Batch and fed batch fermentations were performed with temperature of 43.4°C and pH of 5.0. At the fed batch, three molasses feed were applied at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Samples were taken every two hours and the amounts of lactic acid, sucrose, glucose, and fructose were determined by HPLC. The sucrose was barely consumed at both processes; otherwise the glucose and fructose were almost entirely consumed. 16.5 g/L of lactic acid was produced at batch and 22.0 g/L at fed batch. Considering that lactic acid was produced due to the low concentration of the well consumed sugars, the final amount was considerable. The cell growth was checked and no substrate inhibition was observed. A sucrose molasses hydrolysis is suggested to better avail the molasses fermentation with this strain, surely increasing the L-lactic acid. Ana Lívia Chemeli Senedese, Rubens Maciel Filho, and Maria Regina Wolf Maciel Copyright © 2015 Ana Lívia Chemeli Senedese et al. All rights reserved. Bragg Fibers for Absorption-Based Sensing Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:33:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cpis/2015/954539/ Photonic band gap Bragg fibers can be employed for delivery of high powers in medicine, lighting and heating systems, electricity production, and the development of optical sensors of physical and chemical variables. In this paper, results of testing Bragg fibers with hollow cores for pH detection based on absorbance measurements on solutions filled in the cores. Bragg fibers with claddings of three pairs of high- and low-index layers and hollow cores of 70 µm in diameter were fabricated. Photonic band gap bands of the fibers were estimated theoretically. Aqueous solutions of methyl orange (MO) and hydrochloric acid and bromothymol blue (BTB) in Sörensen buffers were filled into the cores and spectra of MO and BTB were measured for different pH. Calibration curves typical for optical pH sensors were derived from the measured spectra with a reproducibility of about 10%. Vlastimil Matějec, Ivan Kasik, Ondrej Podrazky, and Ivo Barton Copyright © 2015 Vlastimil Matějec et al. All rights reserved. 18F-FDG PET-CT in the Management of Patients Receiving Definitive Radiotherapy for Malignancies of the Head and Neck Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:30:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joo/2015/725482/ The study investigated the utility and timing of 18F-FDG PET-CT to evaluate for residual/recurrent or metastatic HNC in patients treated with definitive intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without chemotherapy, planned with 18F-FDG PET-CT. The incidence and timing of locoregional recurrence, distant metastatic disease, new primary malignancies, and death were evaluated in 261 patients retrospectively. Findings were classified based on pathology or clinical follow-up and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FDG PET-CT were determined overall as well as at the time of each 18F-FDG PET-CT. The overall accuracy for 18F-FDG PET in the detection of residual/recurrent malignancy or metastatic disease was 96.4%. Of those in whom cancer recurred locally, 57% were identified based on physical examination and other imaging findings and 43% were identified initially on 18F-FDG PET-CT surveillance imaging when no disease was evident clinically. 18F-FDG PET-CT has a high diagnostic capability of detecting residual/recurrent malignancy or malignant metastatic disease in patients with HNC following IMRT ± concurrent chemotherapy, supporting 18F- FDG PET-CT’s use to evaluate patients for recurrent malignancy in the post-IMRT period, even without clinical evidence of disease. Benjamin L. Franc, Christi DeLemos, and Christopher Jones Copyright © 2015 Benjamin L. Franc et al. All rights reserved. Multiplicity of Periodic Solutions for Third-Order Nonlinear Differential Equations Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:27:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/735758/ We study the existence of periodic solutions for third-order nonlinear differential equations. The method of proof relies on Schauder’s fixed point theorem applied in a novel way, where the original equation is transformed into second-order integrodifferential equation through a linear integral operator. Finally, examples are presented to illustrate applications of the main results. Xuxin Yang, Weibing Wang, and Dingyang Lv Copyright © 2015 Xuxin Yang et al. All rights reserved. Incidental Finding of a Homozygous p.M348K Asymptomatic Italian Patient Confirms the Many Faces of Cystic Fibrosis Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:03:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crig/2015/289627/ Cystic fibrosis (CF; OMIM number 219700) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene, which results in abnormal viscous mucoid secretions in multiple organs and whose main clinical features are pancreatic insufficiency, chronic endobronchial infection, and male infertility. We report the case of a 47-year-old apparently normal male resulting in homozygosity for the mutation p.M348K from nonconsanguineous parents. The proband was screened using a standard panel of 70 different tested on NanoChip 400 platform. The massive parallel pyrosequencing on 454 JS machine allowed the second level analysis. The patient was firstly screened with two different platforms available in our laboratory, obtaining an ambiguous signal for the p.R347P mutation. For this reason we decided to clarify the discordant result of CFTR status by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) using 454 Junior instrument. The patient is resulted no carrier of the p.R347P mutation, but NGS highlighted a homozygous substitution from T>A at position 1043 in the coding region, causing an amino acid substitution from methionine to lysine (p.M348K). Casual finding of p.M348K homozygote mutation in an individual, without any feature of classical or nonclassical CF form, allowed us to confirm that p.M348K is a benign rare polymorphism. Rossana Molinario, Sara Palumbo, Paola Concolino, Sandro Rocchetti, Roberta Rizza, Giovanni Luca Scaglione, Angelo Minucci, and Ettore Capoluongo Copyright © 2015 Rossana Molinario et al. All rights reserved. Decentralized Control for the Interconnected Time-Delay Singular/Nonlinear Subsystems with Closed-Loop Decoupling Property Wed, 01 Apr 2015 06:01:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/150921/ This paper presents the decentralized trackers using the observer-based suboptimal method for the interconnected time-delay singular/nonlinear subsystems with closed-loop decoupling property. The observer-based suboptimal method is used to guarantee the high-performance trajectory tracker for two different subsystems. Then, due to the high gain that resulted from the decentralized tracker, the closed-loop system will have the decoupling property. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control structure. Nien-Tsu Hu, Ter-Feng Wu, Sendren Sheng-Dong Xu, and Pu-Sheng Tsai Copyright © 2015 Nien-Tsu Hu et al. All rights reserved. Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Clock Skew in IEEE 1588 with Fractional Gaussian Noise Wed, 01 Apr 2015 05:58:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/174289/ To support system-wide synchronization accuracy and precision in the sub-microsecond range without using GPS technique, the precise time protocol (PTP) standard IEEE-1588 v2 is chosen. Recently, a new clock skew estimation technique was proposed for the slave based on a dual slave clock method that assumes that the packet delay variation (PDV) in the Ethernet network is a constant delay. However, papers dealing with the Ethernet network have shown that this PDV is a long range dependency (LRD) process which may be modeled as a fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) with Hurst exponent () in the range of . In this paper, we propose a new clock skew estimator based on the maximum likelihood (ML) technique and derive an approximated expression for the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) both valid for the case where the PDV is modeled as fGn (). Simulation results indicate that our new clock skew method outperforms the dual slave clock approach and that the simulated mean square error (MSE) obtained by our new proposed clock skew estimator approaches asymptotically the developed CRLB. Chagai Levy and Monika Pinchas Copyright © 2015 Chagai Levy and Monika Pinchas. All rights reserved. Relationship-Oriented Software Defined AS-Level Fast Rerouting for Multiple Link Failures Tue, 31 Mar 2015 17:21:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/838340/ Large-scale deployments of mission-critical services have led to stringent demands on Internet routing, but frequently occurring network failures can dramatically degrade the network performance. However, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) can not react quickly to recover from them. Although extensive research has been conducted to deal with the problem, the multiple failure scenarios have never been properly addressed due to the limit of distributed control plane. In this paper, we propose a local fast reroute approach to effectively recover from multiple link failures in one administrative domain. The principle of Software Defined Networking (SDN) is used to achieve the software defined AS-level fast rerouting. Considering AS relationships, efficient algorithms are proposed to automatically and dynamically find protection paths for multiple link failures; then OpenFlow forwarding rules are installed on routers to provide data forwarding continuity. Our approach is able to ensure applicability to ASes with flexibility and adaptability to multiple link failures, contributing toward improving the network performance. Through experimental results, we show that our proposal provides effective failure recovery and does not introduce significant control overhead to the network. Chunxiu Li, Xin Li, Ke Li, Jiafu Huang, Zhansheng Feng, Shanzhi Chen, Hong Zhang, and Yulong Shi Copyright © 2015 Chunxiu Li et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Impact of Prophylactic Antibiotic Treatment for Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Insertion in Patients with Malignant Colorectal Obstruction Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:46:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/416142/ Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics (PA) for reducing the infectious complications and the potential risk factors responsible for the infectious complications after stent insertion for malignant colorectal obstruction. Methods. We performed a retrospective review of 224 patients who underwent self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion for malignant colorectal obstruction from May 2004 to December 2012. Results. There were 145 patients in the PA group and 79 in non-PA group. The CRP level in PA group was significantly higher than that in non-PA. Abdominal tenderness and mechanical ileus were significantly more frequent in PA group than those in non-PA. The frequency of post-SEMS insertion fever, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and bacteremia was not significantly different between PA and non-PA groups. In multivariate analysis, the CRP level was risk factor related to post-SEMS insertion SIRS. However, in propensity score matching analysis, there was no independent risk factor related to post-SEMS insertion fever, SIRS, and bacteremia. Conclusion. The use of PA in patients with malignant colorectal obstruction may be not effective to prevent the development of infectious complications after SEMS insertion. Jong-Sun Kim, Wan-Sik Lee, Cho-Yun Chung, Hyung-Chul Park, Dae-Seong Myung, Chan-Young Oak, Mi-Young Kim, Mi-Ok Jang, Seung-Ji Kang, Hee-Chang Jang, Sung-Bum Cho, Hyun-Soo Kim, and Young-Eun Joo Copyright © 2015 Jong-Sun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Conservative Management of Large Rectosigmoid Perforation under Peritoneal Reflection: Case Report and Review of the Literature Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:46:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/364576/ Colonoscopy is accepted as the best method in diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of colorectal diseases. As the amount of the usage of diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy rises, iatrogenic complications are more likely to be seen. The most important complications are perforations and bleeding. Whereas perforation is a complication that is seen rarely, because of the high ratio of morbidity and mortality, it should be analyzed more carefully. There is not a common view on the optimal treatment of colonoscopic perforation. Most cases require urgent surgery, and in some cases the iatrogenic perforation of colon can be managed by conservative methods. In this report, we present a rectosigmoid perforation under peritoneal reflection and conservative management of this case. G. G. Akgul, E. Yenidogan, Z. Ozsoy, I. Okan, H. A. Kayaoglu, S. Tali, and M. Sahin Copyright © 2015 G. G. Akgul et al. All rights reserved. Combustion Characteristics of Butane Porous Burner for Thermoelectric Power Generation Tue, 31 Mar 2015 16:43:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jc/2015/121487/ The present study explores the utilization of a porous burner for thermoelectric power generation. The porous burner was tested with butane gas using two sets of configurations: single layer porcelain and a stacked-up double layer alumina and porcelain. Six PbSnTe thermoelectric (TE) modules with a total area of 54 cm2 were attached to the wall of the burner. Fins were also added to the cold side of the TE modules. Fuel-air equivalence ratio was varied between the blowoff and flashback limit and the corresponding temperature, current-voltage, and emissions were recorded. The stacked-up double layer negatively affected the combustion efficiency at an equivalence ratio of 0.20 to 0.42, but single layer porcelain shows diminishing trend in the equivalence ratio of 0.60 to 0.90. The surface temperature of a stacked-up porous media is considerably higher than the single layer. Carbon monoxide emission is independent for both porous media configurations, but moderate reduction was recorded for single layer porcelain at lean fuel-air equivalence ratio. Nitrogen oxides is insensitive in the lean fuel-air equivalence ratio for both configurations, even though slight reduction was observed in the rich region for single layer porcelain. Power output was found to be highly dependent on the temperature gradient. K. F. Mustafa, S. Abdullah, M. Z. Abdullah, and K. Sopian Copyright © 2015 K. F. Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. Application of Phase Congruency for Discriminating Some Lung Diseases Using Chest Radiograph Tue, 31 Mar 2015 15:42:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/424970/ A novel procedure using phase congruency is proposed for discriminating some lung disease using chest radiograph. Phase congruency provides information about transitions between adjacent pixels. Abrupt changes of phase congruency values between pixels may suggest a possible boundary or another feature that may be used for discrimination. This property of phase congruency may have potential for deciding between disease present and disease absent where the regions of infection on the images have no obvious shape, size, or configuration. Five texture measures calculated from phase congruency and Gabor were shown to be normally distributed. This gave good indicators of discrimination errors in the form of the probability of Type I Error (δ) and the probability of Type II Error (β). However, since 1 −  δ is the true positive fraction (TPF) and β is the false positive fraction (FPF), an ROC analysis was used to decide on the choice of texture measures. Given that features are normally distributed, for the discrimination between disease present and disease absent, energy, contrast, and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results compared to those using Gabor. Similarly, for the more difficult problem of discriminating lobar pneumonia and lung cancer, entropy and homogeneity from phase congruency gave better results relative to Gabor. Omar Mohd Rijal, Hossein Ebrahimian, Norliza Mohd Noor, Amran Hussin, Ashari Yunus, and Aziah Ahmad Mahayiddin Copyright © 2015 Omar Mohd Rijal et al. All rights reserved. Free DNA in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Fluids Correlates with Airflow Obstruction Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:32:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/408935/ Chronic obstructive lung disease determines morbidity and mortality of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). CF airways are characterized by a nonresolving neutrophilic inflammation. After pathogen contact or prolonged activation, neutrophils release DNA fibres decorated with antimicrobial proteins, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs have been described to act in a beneficial way for innate host defense by bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal actions. On the other hand, excessive NET formation has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disease conditions. We quantified free DNA structures characteristic of NETs in airway fluids of CF patients and a mouse model with CF-like lung disease. Free DNA levels correlated with airflow obstruction, fungal colonization, and CXC chemokine levels in CF patients and CF-like mice. When viewed in combination, our results demonstrate that neutrophilic inflammation in CF airways is associated with abundant free DNA characteristic for NETosis, and suggest that free DNA may be implicated in lung function decline in patients with CF. Veronica Marcos, Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Ali Önder Yildirim, Alexander Bohla, Andreas Hector, Ljubomir Vitkov, Wolf Dietrich Krautgartner, Walter Stoiber, Matthias Griese, Oliver Eickelberg, Marcus A. Mall, and Dominik Hartl Copyright © 2015 Veronica Marcos et al. All rights reserved. GC-FID and NMR Spectroscopic Studies on Gamma Irradiated Walnut Lipids Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:30:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/532762/ Walnuts have an excellent fatty acid profile, beneficial for coronary heart diseases. A diet rich in walnuts has shown to decrease the total and LDL cholesterol levels as well as lipoprotein levels. In this study, the effects of different doses of γ-irradiation and different packaging conditions on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of walnuts (Juglans regia L.) were investigated merging data from different spectroscopic techniques. Walnuts moisture, ash, fat, and protein content as well as fatty acid profile were evaluated immediately after irradiation. GC-FID results showed that SFA increased and MUFA and PUFA decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Moreover, MUFA/SFA and PUFA/SFA ratios decreased compared to control samples. Furthermore, NMR spectroscopy was implemented to examine possible discrimination patterns based on irradiation dose and packaging. This approach revealed the role of PUFA decrease with the parallel increase of irradiation dose while indicating the protective role of vacuum and MAP compared to air packaging. In conclusion, at irradiation doses of up to 5 kGy, the walnuts retained the nutritional benefits of its fatty acids, in particular MUFA and PUFA. Concerning the different types of packaging, greater stability in the nuts was observed using MAP packaging. Vassilia J. Sinanoglou, Irini F. Strati, Katerina Kokkotou, Dimitra Lantzouraki, Constantinos Makris, and Panagiotis Zoumpoulakis Copyright © 2015 Vassilia J. Sinanoglou et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Olfactory Ensheathing Glial Cells Cultured on Polyurethane/Polylactide Electrospun Nonwovens Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:24:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2015/908328/ The aim of this research was to evaluate novel biomaterials for neural regeneration. The investigated materials were composed of polyurethane (PU) and polylactide (PLDL) blended at three different w/w ratios, that is, 5/5, 6/4, and 8/2 of PU/PLDL. Ultrathin fibrous scaffolds were prepared using electrospinning. The scaffolds were investigated for their applicability for nerve regeneration by culturing rat olfactory ensheathing glial cells. Cells were cultured on the materials for seven days, during which cellular morphology, phenotype, and metabolic activity were analysed. SEM analysis of the fabricated fibrous scaffolds showed fibers of a diameter mainly lower than 600 μm with unimportant volume of protrusions situated along the fibers, with nonsignificant differences between all analysed materials. Cells cultured on the materials showed differences in their morphology and metabolic activity, depending on the blend composition. The most proper morphology, with numerous p75+ and GFAP+ cells present, was observed in the sample 6/4, whereas the highest metabolic activity was measured in the sample 5/5. However, none of the investigated samples showed cytotoxicity or negatively influenced cellular morphology. Therefore, the novel electrospun fibrous materials may be considered for regenerative medicine applications, and especially when contacting with highly sensitive nervous cells. Jakub Grzesiak, Ryszard Fryczkowski, Anna Lis, Dariusz Szarek, Jadwiga Laska, and Krzysztof Marycz Copyright © 2015 Jakub Grzesiak et al. All rights reserved. Singularities of Null Hypersurfaces of Pseudonull Curves Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:21:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/502789/ The main goal of this paper is to study the singularities of null hypersurfaces of pseudonull curves. To do this we construct a null frame and a Lorentz distance-squared function of the pseudonull curve. The relations are shown between singularities of the null hypersurfaces and those, of the Lorentz distance-squared function. And we reveal the geometric meanings of the singularities of such hypersurfaces. In addition, we also introduce some properties of the nullcone Gaussian surface of the pseudonull curve. Xiupeng Cui and Donghe Pei Copyright © 2015 Xiupeng Cui and Donghe Pei. All rights reserved. Inequality in the Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Odisha, India Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:20:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2015/531485/ Odisha, one of the socioeconomically disadvantaged states of India, registers high maternal deaths. The state features wide regional and sociodemographic diversity with the Koraput-Balangir-Kalahandi (KBK) districts, dominated by disadvantaged tribal population. This study aims to assess the level and pattern of maternal healthcare services utilization among different subgroups of women in Odisha with a special focus on the regional, economic, and educational inequality using the latest District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-III, 2007-08). Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to understand the pattern of utilization of maternal healthcare services among women by different background characteristics. Concentration curve and decomposition analysis were used to understand the inequalities in utilization of maternal healthcare services and contribution of different socioeconomic factors. Results reveal wide regional variation in the utilization of maternal healthcare services. The utilization of maternal healthcare services is more concentrated among affluent households. Economic inequality in safe delivery is high. Decomposition analysis shows education as the leading contributor in explaining maternal healthcare services utilization. Enhancing literacy among women and improving of health infrastructure and its quality in rural and disadvantaged regions may be prioritized to improve the maternal health in Odisha. Ranjan Kumar Prusty, Jitendra Gouda, and Manas Ranjan Pradhan Copyright © 2015 Ranjan Kumar Prusty et al. All rights reserved. Differential Expression of Motilin Receptor in Various Parts of Gastrointestinal Tract in Dogs Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:11:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/970940/ Objectives. The presence of motilin receptor in the GI tract of different animal species has been verified. However, the quantitation of motilin receptor expression in different regions of the GI tract remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of motilin receptor in the GI tract and semiquantitatively compare the expression difference in different GI regions in dogs. Methods. Antrum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, proximal colon, middle colon, and distal colon were obtained from various parts of the GI tract of six sacrificed dogs. The distribution of motilin receptor was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of motilin receptor mRNA in different regions were measured by RT-PCR. Results. Motilin receptor was expressed throughout the GI tract in dogs. Multiple comparisons of the mean motilin receptor mRNA expression among various regions were significant . Motilin receptor mRNA was extensively expressed in duodenum, followed by ileum, jejunum, proximal colon, antrum, middle colon, and distal colon. Immunohistochemistry revealed that motilin receptor immunoreactivity was observed only in the enteric nervous system. Conclusion. Motilin receptor is expressed differentially along the GI tract in dogs. The significantly high expression of motilin receptor mRNA is found in the duodenum. Yu He, Hui Wang, DongYan Yang, ChengYan Wang, LanLan Yang, and Chunxiang Jin Copyright © 2015 Yu He et al. All rights reserved. A Drift-Free Left Invariant Control System on the Lie Group Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:10:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/652819/ A controllable drift-free system on the Lie group is considered. The dynamics and geometrical properties of the corresponding reduced Hamilton’s equations on are studied, where is the minus Lie-Poisson structure on the dual space of the Lie algebra of . The numerical integration of this system is also discussed. Camelia Pop Copyright © 2015 Camelia Pop. All rights reserved. On Solving Pentadiagonal Linear Systems via Transformations Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:09:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/232456/ Many authors have studied numerical algorithms for solving the linear systems of pentadiagonal type. The well-known fast pentadiagonal system solver algorithm is an example of such algorithms. The current paper describes new numerical and symbolic algorithms for solving pentadiagonal linear systems via transformations. The proposed algorithms generalize the algorithms presented in El-Mikkawy and Atlan, 2014. Our symbolic algorithms remove the cases where the numerical algorithms fail. The computational cost of our algorithms is better than those algorithms in literature. Some examples are given in order to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. All experiments are carried out on a computer with the aid of programs written in MATLAB. S. S. Askar and A. A. Karawia Copyright © 2015 S. S. Askar and A. A. Karawia. All rights reserved. Parental Reports of Stigma Associated with Child’s Disorder of Sex Development Tue, 31 Mar 2015 14:02:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/980121/ Disorders of sex development (DSD) are congenital conditions in which chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomic sex development is atypical. DSD-associated stigma is purported to threaten positive psychosocial adaptation. Parental perceptions of DSD-related stigma were assessed in 154 parents of 107 children (newborn–17 years) questionnaire comprising two scales, child-focused and parent-focused, and three subscales, perceived stigmatization, future worries, and feelings about the child’s condition. Medical chart excerpts identified diagnoses and clinical management details. Stigma scale scores were generally low. Parents of children with DSD reported less stigma than parents of children with epilepsy; however, a notable proportion rated individual items in the moderate to high range. Stigma was unrelated to child’s age or the number of DSD-related surgeries. Child-focused stigma scores exceeded parent-focused stigma and mothers reported more stigma than fathers, with a moderate level of agreement. Within 46,XY DSD, reported stigma was higher for children reared as girls. In conclusion, in this first quantitative study of ongoing experiences, DSD-related stigma in childhood and adolescence, while limited in the aggregate, is reported at moderate to high levels in specific areas. Because stigma threatens positive psychosocial adaptation, systematic screening for these concerns should be considered and, when reported, targeted for psychoeducational counseling. Aimee M. Rolston, Melissa Gardner, Eric Vilain, and David E. Sandberg Copyright © 2015 Aimee M. Rolston et al. All rights reserved. Endoscopic Retrieval Technique of Proximally Migrated Pancreatic Stents: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Centre Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:54:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/485980/ Background. There were scarce trials concerning the treatments and outcomes of proximal pancreatic stent migration. Herein, we did a retrospective study to discuss this problem from an endoscopist’s point of view. Patients and Methods. From January 2009 to June 2014, patients with proximally migrated pancreatic duct stents were identified. Their clinical information was viewed. Retrieval techniques, success rates, and adverse events were analyzed. Results. A total of 36 procedures were performed in 34 patients; the median age of the patients was 53 years, with 17 males and 17 females. Eight patients’ pancreatic duct stents could still be seen in the major or minor papilla and were pulled out with a snare forceps or a grasping forceps; in the remaining 28 procedures, the management was somewhat thorny; the retrieval called for several devices. Final success was achieved in 31 patients. No adverse event was observed in the process of ERCP procedures, 5 patients developed post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), 1 patient got infection, and 1 patient had haemorrhage. Conclusions. Endoscopic retrieval of migrated pancreatic stent is safe and less invasive; nonetheless, attention should be paid so as to reduce the incidence and degree of related adverse events, especially PEP. Yi Lu, Zheng Jin, Jia-chuan Wu, Li-ke Bie, and Biao Gong Copyright © 2015 Yi Lu et al. All rights reserved. Acute Corneal Hydrops Mimicking Infectious Keratitis as Initial Presentation of Keratoconus in a 10-Year-Old Child Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:53:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2015/308348/ Purpose. To report a case of acute hydrops in a 10-year-old child with advanced keratoconus. Case Presentation. A ten-year-old boy diagnosed as having right eye (RE) infectious keratitis, not responding to antimicrobial therapy, was referred to our hospital. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was established one month prior to his presentation following an episode of acute corneal whitening, pain, and drop in visual acuity. Topical fortified antibiotics followed by topical antiviral therapy were used with no improvement. Slit lamp examination showed significant corneal protrusion with edema surrounding a rupture in Descemet’s membrane in the RE. The diagnosis of acute corneal hydrops from advanced keratoconus was highly suspected and confirmed with corneal topography. Conclusion. Although a relatively rare disease at the age of 10 years, keratoconus can be rapidly progressive in the pediatric group. Keratoconus should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive vision loss in this age group. Elise A. Slim, Elias F. Jarade, Bilal M. Charanek, Joelle S. Antoun, Adib I. Hemade, Sahar H. Awada, Henry W. Fakhoury, and Carole G. Cherfan Copyright © 2015 Elise A. Slim et al. All rights reserved. Formation Mechanism of Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Stones: A Component Analysis of Urinary Nanocrystallites Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:49:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/498932/ The components of urinary nanocrystallites in patients with magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) stones were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), fast Fourier transformation (FFT), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The main components of the stones were MAP hexahydrate (MAP·6H2O), magnesium hydrogen phosphate trihydrate (MgHPO4·3H2O), and a small amount of calcium phosphate (CaP), while the main components of urinary nanocrystallites were MgHPO4·3H2O, CaP, and MAP monohydrate (MAP·H2O). MAP·H2O induced the formation of MAP stones as seed crystals. MgHPO4·3H2O was accompanied by the appearance of MAP·6H2O. The formation mechanism of MAP stones and influencing factors were discussed on the basis of the components of urine nanocrystallites. A model diagram of MAP stone formation was also put forward based on the results. Formation of MAP stones was closely related to the presence of high amounts of MAP crystallites in urine. Urinary crystallite condition and changes in urine components could indicate the activity of stone diseases. Xin-Yuan Sun, Jian-Ming Ouyang, Feng-Xin Wang, and Yu-Shan Xie Copyright © 2015 Xin-Yuan Sun et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Inert and Pozzolanic Materials on Flow and Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:42:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2015/239717/ This research investigates the fresh behaviour and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) containing high volume of limestone, metakaolin, silica fume, zeolite, and viscosity modifying admixture. Two fine aggregates with different fineness modulus were also utilized to evaluate the effect of sand’s gradation on the mechanical and flow properties of SCC containing inert and pozzolanic powder. Slump flow, V-funnel for fresh concrete and 5-minute-old concrete, J-ring, Orimet with and without J-ring, and L-box and U-box tests were performed on all 14 fresh concrete mixtures to examine the fresh properties of self-compacting concrete. Compressive strength of hardened specimens was measured at 7 and 35 days and tensile strength was also determined at the age of 28 days. The results show that sand grading significantly affects the fresh properties of SCC. It is also concluded that high volume of active powders including metakaolin, zeolite, and silica fume could not improve both the flow and mechanical properties of SCC at the same time. Limestone can be effectively used as filler in SCC in high volume content. A new set of limits for the L-box and U-box tests for SCC containing silica fume is also recommended as the existing criteria are not satisfactory. Mehrdad Mahoutian and Mohammad Shekarchi Copyright © 2015 Mehrdad Mahoutian and Mohammad Shekarchi. All rights reserved. Hippocampal-Prefrontal Circuit and Disrupted Functional Connectivity in Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Disorders Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:42:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/810548/ In rodents, the hippocampus has been studied extensively as part of a brain system responsible for learning and memory, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in numerous cognitive functions including working memory, flexibility, decision making, and rewarding learning. The neuronal projections from the hippocampus, either directly or indirectly, to the PFC, referred to as the hippocampal-prefrontal cortex (Hip-PFC) circuit, play a critical role in cognitive and emotional regulation and memory consolidation. Although in certain psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, structural connectivity viewed by imaging techniques has been consistently found to be associated with clinical phenotype and disease severity, the focus has moved towards the investigation of connectivity correlates of molecular pathology and coupling of oscillation. Moreover, functional and structural connectivity measures have been emerging as potential intermediate biomarkers for neuronal disorders. In this review, we summarize progress on the anatomic, molecular, and electrophysiological characters of the Hip-PFC circuit in cognition and emotion processes with an emphasis on oscillation and functional connectivity, revealing a disrupted Hip-PFC connectivity and electrical activity in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders as a promising candidate of neural marker for neuronal disorders. Ming Li, Cheng Long, and Li Yang Copyright © 2015 Ming Li et al. All rights reserved. Performance of Three Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions with a Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:41:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/216932/ Purpose. To evaluate the clinical performance of a silicone hydrogel (Si-Hy) soft contact lens (CL) in combination with three different multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDSs). Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-masked, crossover, and comparative study in which 31 habitual soft CL wearers were randomly assigned to one of the three MPDSs (Synergi, COMPLETE RevitaLens, and OPTI-FREE PureMoist) for 1 month with a 1-week wash-out period between each exposure. All subjects were successfully refitted with a Si-Hy CL (Biofinity). Subjects were then scheduled for follow-up visits after 1 month of lens wear, being evaluated at 2 and 8 hours after lens insertion. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) were used to gauge comfort rating. Results. The tarsal conjunctiva showed a significantly different degree of lid redness between the MPDSs at the 2-hour visit (, Kruskal-Wallis test), being lower for COMPLETE RevitaLens compared to the other two MPDSs (Mann-Whitney test). Furthermore, a significantly different degree of lid roughness at the 8-hour visit was seen (, Kruskal-Wallis test), being higher for Synergi (Mann-Whitney test). The subjective comfort was similar with the three MPDSs. Conclusion. Tarsal conjunctival response should be also considered in the context of the clinical performance of MPDs at the ocular surface. Nery García-Porta, Laura Rico-del-Viejo, Helena Ferreira-Neves, Sofia C. Peixoto-de-Matos, Antonio Queirós, and José M. González-Méijome Copyright © 2015 Nery García-Porta et al. All rights reserved. Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins and Antibodies against Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins as Potential Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:33:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/146819/ Introduction. The aim of the study was evaluation of the diagnostic utility of serum oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), antibodies against oxLDLs (o-LAB), and CEA as risk markers of colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods. The serum levels of study factors were measured in 73 patients with CRC and in 35 healthy controls who were gender- and BMI-matched to the study group. Concentrations of oxLDL, o-LAB, and CEA were detected in ELISA tests. Serum lipids, lipoproteins, and glucose levels were also coestimated. Results. Age and o-LAB were significant factors of CRC presence, but results of logistic regression analysis showed that both were weak predictors of CRC risk. Concentration of o-LAB was significantly higher in colon cancer than in rectal cancer, especially when the cancer was located in the right section of colon. Serum CEA levels were significantly elevated in the advanced stage of disease, primary tumor progression, angiolymphatic invasion, and presence of distant metastasis. Conclusions. Obtained results have demonstrated that oxLDL and o-LAB were not satisfactory risk markers of CRC. Although significant relation between o-LAB level and CRC is observed, it may be rather the result of individual differences in the host immune responses against cancer. Dorota Diakowska, Krzysztof Grabowski, Mirosław Nienartowicz, Paweł Zarębski, Kamila Fudalej, and Krystyna Markocka-Mączka Copyright © 2015 Dorota Diakowska et al. All rights reserved. Foreign Body Granulomas Induced by Intramuscular Leuprorelin Acetate Injection for Prostate Cancer: Clinical Mimics of Soft Tissue Sarcoma Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:33:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/947040/ We describe two cases of florid, foreign body granulomatous reaction occurring in the upper arms of males in their eighth decade, who were undergoing treatment with depot injection of leuprorelin acetate for prostatic carcinoma. These patients presented with rapidly enlarging extremity soft tissue masses and were referred to a tertiary sarcoma center with clinical suspicion of a primary soft tissue neoplasm. The occurrence of injection site granulomas secondary to leuprorelin acetate administration is rarely known outside the urological and dermatological communities, and their recognition is important due to the spectrum of clinical differential diagnoses and potential for diagnostic confusion with metastatic prostatic cancer and primary sarcoma and in order to avoid unnecessary stress and clinical intervention for patients. Khin Thway, Dirk C. Strauss, Myles J. Smith, and Cyril Fisher Copyright © 2015 Khin Thway et al. All rights reserved. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography as a Diagnostic Method for Determination of Gingival Thickness and Distance between Gingival Margin and Bone Crest Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:29:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/142108/ The objective of the present study was to assess cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a diagnostic method for determination of gingival thickness (GT) and distance between gingival margin and vestibular (GMBC-V) and interproximal bone crests (GMBC-I). GT and GMBC-V were measured in 348 teeth and GMBC-I was measured in 377 tooth regions of 29 patients with gummy smile. GT was assessed using transgingival probing (TP), ultrasound (US), and CBCT, whereas GMBC-V and GMBC-I were assessed by transsurgical clinical evaluation (TCE) and CBCT. Statistical analyses used independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and simple linear regression. Difference was observed for GT: between TP, CBCT, and US considering all teeth; between TP and CBCT and between TP and US in incisors and canines; between TP and US in premolars and first molars. TP presented the highest means for GT. Positive correlation and linear regression were observed between TP and CBCT, TP and US, and CBCT and US. Difference was observed for GMBC-V and GMBC-I using TCE and CBCT, considering all teeth. Correlation and linear regression results were significant for GMBC-V and GMBC-I in incisors, canines, and premolars. CBCT is an effective diagnostic method to visualize and measure GT, GMBC-V, and GMBC-I. Germana Jayme Borges, Luis Fernando Naldi Ruiz, Ana Helena Gonçalves de Alencar, Olavo César Lyra Porto, and Carlos Estrela Copyright © 2015 Germana Jayme Borges et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of mTOR by Rapamycin Results in Auditory Hair Cell Damage and Decreased Spiral Ganglion Neuron Outgrowth and Neurite Formation In Vitro Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:24:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/925890/ Rapamycin is an antifungal agent with immunosuppressive properties. Rapamycin inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by blocking the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). mTOR is an atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, which controls cell growth, cell proliferation, and cell metabolism. However, less is known about the mTOR pathway in the inner ear. First, we evaluated whether or not the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2, resp.) are present in the mammalian cochlea. Next, tissue explants of 5-day-old rats were treated with increasing concentrations of rapamycin to explore the effects of rapamycin on auditory hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Auditory hair cell survival, spiral ganglion neuron number, length of neurites, and neuronal survival were analyzed in vitro. Our data indicates that both mTOR complexes are expressed in the mammalian cochlea. We observed that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin results in a dose dependent damage of auditory hair cells. Moreover, spiral ganglion neurite number and length of neurites were significantly decreased in all concentrations used compared to control in a dose dependent manner. Our data indicate that the mTOR may play a role in the survival of hair cells and modulates spiral ganglion neuronal outgrowth and neurite formation. Katharina Leitmeyer, Andrea Glutz, Vesna Radojevic, Cristian Setz, Nathan Huerzeler, Helen Bumann, Daniel Bodmer, and Yves Brand Copyright © 2015 Katharina Leitmeyer et al. All rights reserved. A Derivative-Free Mesh Optimization Algorithm for Mesh Quality Improvement and Untangling Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:21:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/264741/ We propose a derivative-free mesh optimization algorithm, which focuses on improving the worst element quality on the mesh. The mesh optimization problem is formulated as a min-max problem and solved by using a downhill simplex (amoeba) method, which computes only a function value without needing a derivative of Hessian of the objective function. Numerical results show that the proposed mesh optimization algorithm outperforms the existing mesh optimization algorithm in terms of improving the worst element quality and eliminating inverted elements on the mesh. Jibum Kim, Myeonggyu Shin, and Woochul Kang Copyright © 2015 Jibum Kim et al. All rights reserved. On the Stochastic Stability and Boundedness of Solutions for Stochastic Delay Differential Equation of the Second Order Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:20:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cjm/2015/358936/ We present two qualitative results concerning the solutions of the following equation: ; the first result covers the stochastic asymptotic stability of the zero solution for the above equation in case , while the second one discusses the uniform stochastic boundedness of all solutions in case . Sufficient conditions for the stability and boundedness of solutions for the considered equation are obtained by constructing a Lyapunov functional. Two examples are also discussed to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results. A. M. A. Abou-El-Ela, A. I. Sadek, A. M. Mahmoud, and R. O. A. Taie Copyright © 2015 A. M. A. Abou-El-Ela et al. All rights reserved. Oral Tori in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:15:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/897674/ Background. This study investigated the epidemiology of torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM) in hemodialysis patients and analyzed the influences of hyperparathyroidism on the formation of oral tori. Method. During 2013, 119 hemodialysis patients were recruited for dental examinations for this study. Results. The prevalence of oral tori in our sample group was high at 33.6% (40 of 119). The most common location of tori was TP (70.0%), followed by TM (20.0%), and then both TP and TM (10.0%). Of the 40 tori cases, most (67.5%) were <2 cm in size; moreover, the majority (52.5%) were flat in shape. In symmetry, most (70.0%) occurred in the midline, followed by bilateral sides (20.0%). Notably, the levels of intact parathyroid hormone did not differ in patients with or without tori (). Furthermore, patients with tori did not differ from patients without tori in inflammatory variables such as log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein () or nutritional variables such as albumin (). Finally, there were no differences between patients with and without tori in adequacy of dialysis (). Conclusions. Neither hyperparathyroidism nor inflammation malnutrition syndrome was found to contribute to the formation of oral tori in chronic hemodialysis patients. Further studies are warranted. Pei-Jung Chao, Huang-Yu Yang, Wen-Hung Huang, Cheng-Hao Weng, I-Kuan Wang, Aileen I. Tsai, and Tzung-Hai Yen Copyright © 2015 Pei-Jung Chao et al. All rights reserved. Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Is Activated in the Endothelium of Retinal Microvessels in Diabetic Mice Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:07:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/428473/ The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unclear but hyperglycemia is an established risk factor. Endothelial dysfunction and changes in Ca2+ signaling have been shown to precede the onset of DR. We recently demonstrated that high extracellular glucose activates the Ca2+/calcineurin-dependent transcription factor NFAT in cerebral arteries and aorta, promoting the expression of inflammatory markers. Here we show, using confocal immunofluorescence, that NFAT is expressed in the endothelium of retinal microvessels and is readily activated by high glucose. This was inhibited by the NFAT blocker A-285222 as well as by the ectonucleotidase apyrase, suggesting a mechanism involving the release of extracellular nucleotides. Acute hyperglycemia induced by an IP-GTT (intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test) resulted in increased NFATc3 nuclear accumulation and NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity in retinal vessels of NFAT-luciferase reporter mice. In both Akita (Ins2+/−) and streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice, NFAT transcriptional activity was elevated in retinal vessels. In vivo inhibition of NFAT with A-285222 decreased the expression of OPN and ICAM-1 mRNA in retinal vessels, prevented a diabetes driven downregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10 in retina, and abrogated the increased vascular permeability observed in diabetic mice. Results identify NFAT signaling as a putative target for treatment of microvascular complications in diabetes. Anna V. Zetterqvist, Fabiana Blanco, Jenny Öhman, Olga Kotova, Lisa M. Berglund, Sergio de Frutos Garcia, Raed Al-Naemi, Maria Wigren, Paul G. McGuire, Laura V. Gonzalez Bosc, and Maria F. Gomez Copyright © 2015 Anna V. Zetterqvist et al. All rights reserved. An Automatic Wi-Fi-Based Approach for Extraction of User Places and Their Context Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:06:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/154958/ With the analysis of various sensor data from the mobile devices, it is possible to extract user situations, so-called user context. This is needed for the development of modern, user-friendly services. Therefore, we developed a simple, nonintrusive, and automatic method based on the Wi-Fi fingerprints and GPS. The method finds user stay points, aggregates them into meaningful stay regions, and assigns them four general user contexts: home, work, transit, and free time. We evaluated its performance on the real traces of six different users who annotated their contexts over eight days. The method determined the stay mode of the users with accuracy, precision, and recall of above 96%. In combination with the novel approach for aggregation, all regions relevant to the users were determined. Among the tested aggregation schemes, the fingerprint similarity approach worked the best. The context of the determined stay regions was on average accurately inferred in 98% of the time. For the contexts home, work, and free time, the precision and recall exceeded 86%. The results indicate that the method is robust and can be deployed in various fields where context awareness is desired. Luka Vidmar, Mitja Štular, Andrej Kos, and Matevž Pogačnik Copyright © 2015 Luka Vidmar et al. All rights reserved. Traumatic Brain Injury and NADPH Oxidase: A Deep Relationship Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:41:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/370312/ Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents one of the major causes of mortality and disability in the world. TBI is characterized by primary damage resulting from the mechanical forces applied to the head as a direct result of the trauma and by the subsequent secondary injury due to a complex cascade of biochemical events that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the genesis of the delayed harmful effects contributing to permanent damage. NADPH oxidases (Nox), ubiquitary membrane multisubunit enzymes whose unique function is the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), have been shown to be a major source of ROS in the brain and to be involved in several neurological diseases. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Nox is upregulated after TBI, suggesting Nox critical role in the onset and development of this pathology. In this review, we summarize the current evidence about the role of Nox enzymes in the pathophysiology of TBI. Cristina Angeloni, Cecilia Prata, Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega, Roberto Piperno, and Silvana Hrelia Copyright © 2015 Cristina Angeloni et al. All rights reserved. Condition-Based Maintenance Strategy for Production Systems Generating Environmental Damage Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:34:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/494162/ We consider production systems which generate damage to environment as they get older and degrade. The system is submitted to inspections to assess the generated environmental damage. The inspections can be periodic or nonperiodic. In case an inspection reveals that the environmental degradation level has exceeded the critical level , the system is considered in an advanced deterioration state and will have generated significant environmental damage. A corrective maintenance action is then performed to renew the system and clean the environment and a penalty has to be paid. In order to prevent such an undesirable situation, a lower threshold level is considered to trigger a preventive maintenance action to bring back the system to a state as good as new at a lower cost and without paying the penalty. Two inspection policies are considered (periodic and nonperiodic). For each one of them, a mathematical model and a numerical procedure are developed to determine simultaneously the preventive maintenance (PM) threshold and the inspection sequence which minimize the average long-run cost per time unit. Numerical calculations are performed to illustrate the proposed maintenance policies and highlight their main characteristics with respect to relevant input parameters. L. Tlili, M. Radhoui, and A. Chelbi Copyright © 2015 L. Tlili et al. All rights reserved. Lightlike Hypersurfaces of Indefinite Generalized Sasakian Space Forms Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:29:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/259146/ We study lightlike hypersurfaces of an indefinite generalized Sasakian space form , with indefinite trans-Sasakian structure of type , subject to the condition that the structure vector field of is tangent to . First we study the general theory for lightlike hypersurfaces of indefinite trans-Sasakian manifold of type . Next we prove several characterization theorems for lightlike hypersurfaces of an indefinite generalized Sasakian space form. Dae Ho Jin Copyright © 2015 Dae Ho Jin. All rights reserved. Chaotic Secure Communication Systems with an Adaptive State Observer Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:29:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2015/471913/ This paper develops a new digital communication scheme based on using a unified chaotic system and an adaptive state observer. The proposed communication system basically consists of five important elements: signal modulation, chaotic encryption, adaptive state observer, chaotic decryption, and signal demodulation. A sequence of digital signals will be delivered from the transmitter to the receiver through a public channel. It is rather reasonable that if the number of signals delivered on the public channel is fewer, then the security of such communication system is more guaranteed. Therefore, in order to achieve this purpose, a state observer will be designed and its function is to estimate full system states only by using the system output signals. In this way, the signals delivered on the public channel can be reduced mostly. According to these estimated state signals, the original digital sequences are then retrieved completely. Finally, experiment results are provided to verify the applicability of the proposed communication system. Wei-Der Chang, Shun-Peng Shih, and Chih-Yung Chen Copyright © 2015 Wei-Der Chang et al. All rights reserved. Emerging Roles of Focal Adhesion Kinase in Cancer Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:19:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/690690/ Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that enables activation by growth factor receptors or integrins in various types of human cancers. The kinase-dependent and kinase-independent scaffolding functions of FAK modulate the authentic signaling and fundamental functions not only in cancer cells but also in tumor microenvironment to facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. The overexpression and activation of FAK are usually investigated in primary or metastatic cancers and correlated with the poor clinical outcome, highlighting FAK as a potential prognostic marker and anticancer target. Small molecule inhibitors targeting FAK kinase activity or FAK-scaffolding functions impair cancer development in preclinical or clinical trials. In this review, we give an overview for FAK signaling in cancer cells as well as tumor microenvironment that provides new strategies for the invention of cancer development and malignancy. Yu-Ling Tai, Lih-Chyang Chen, and Tang-Long Shen Copyright © 2015 Yu-Ling Tai et al. All rights reserved. The Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception towards Epilepsy amongst Medical Students in Uyo, Southern Nigeria Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:18:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amed/2015/876135/ Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy. Bertha C. Ekeh and Udeme E. Ekrikpo Copyright © 2015 Bertha C. Ekeh and Udeme E. Ekrikpo. All rights reserved. Relationship between Cognitive Performance and Motor Dysfunction in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:01:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/365959/ The aim of this pilot cross-sectional study was to extensively investigate the relationships between cognitive performance and motor dysfunction involving balance and gait ability in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Twenty subjects with Parkinson’s disease underwent a cognitive (outcomes: Frontal Assessment Battery-Italian version, Montreal overall Cognitive Assessment, Trail Making Test, Semantic Verbal Fluency Test, and Memory with Interference Test) and motor (outcomes: Berg Balance Scale, 10-Meter Walking Test, 6-Minute Walking Test, Timed Up and Go Test performed also under dual task condition, and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale) assessment. Our correlation analyses showed that balance skills are significantly correlated with executive functions, cognitive impairment, and ability to switch attention between two tasks. Furthermore, functional mobility showed a significant correlation with cognitive impairment, verbal fluency, and ability to switch attention between two tasks. In addition, the functional mobility evaluated under the dual task condition showed a significant correlation with cognitive impairment and ability to switch attention between two tasks. These findings might help early identification of cognitive deficits or motor dysfunctions in patients with Parkinson’s disease who may benefit from rehabilitative strategies. Future prospective larger-scale studies are needed to strengthen our results. Valentina Varalta, Alessandro Picelli, Cristina Fonte, Stefania Amato, Camilla Melotti, Vanja Zatezalo, Leopold Saltuari, and Nicola Smania Copyright © 2015 Valentina Varalta et al. All rights reserved. The Motor Recovery Related with Brain Lesion in Patients with Intracranial Hemorrhage Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:00:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2015/258161/ Although studies have demonstrated that several specific brain lesions are related to the severity of functional outcomes, the effects of specific brain lesions are not yet clear. This study investigated the effects of hemorrhagic stroke lesions on motor recovery. Eleven subjects with hemorrhagic stroke were assessed. Using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and functional ambulation category, clinical motor and sensory impairments were tested four times in total: initially within 2 weeks and 1, 3, and 6 months after the onset of stroke. Brain lesions and size were evaluated using MRIcron, SPM8, and Talairach Daemon software. Trunk control, motor function in the lower limbs, and sensory function improved significantly within 3 months, after which the change was no longer significant. Upper limb function and gait were unchanged within 1 month but improved significantly 3 months after onset and continued to improve for 6 months. Involvement of the anterior putamen, internal capsule, thalamus, periventricular white matter, and premotor cortex was related to poor upper limb recovery in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. These results should be useful for planning rehabilitation strategies and understanding the prognosis of hemorrhagic stroke. Kyung Bo Lee, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Young Dong Kim, Byong Yong Hwang, and Seong Hoon Lim Copyright © 2015 Kyung Bo Lee et al. All rights reserved. Temporal Changes of Microarchitectural and Mechanical Parameters of Cancellous Bone in the Osteoporotic Rabbit Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:57:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/263434/ This study was aimed at elucidating the temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit model induced by ovariectomy (OVX) combined with glucocorticoid (GC) administration. Osteoporotic (OP) group received bilateral OVX combined with injections of GC, while sham group only received sham operation. Cancellous bone quality in vertebrae and femoral condyles in each group was assessed by DXA, μCT, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests at pre-OVX and 4, 6, and 8 weeks after injection. With regard to femoral condyles, nanoindentation test could detect significant decline in tissue modulus and hardness at 4 weeks. However, BMD and microarchitecture of femoral condylar cancellous bone changed significantly at 6 weeks. In vertebrae, BMD, microarchitecture, nanoindentation, and biomechanical tests changed significantly at 4 weeks. Our data demonstrated that temporal changes of microarchitectural and mechanical parameters of cancellous bone in the osteoporotic rabbit were significant. The temporal changes of cancellous bone in different anatomical sites might be different. The nanoindentation method could detect the changes of bone quality at an earlier stage at both femoral condyle and vertebra in the osteoporotic rabbit model than other methods (μCT, BMD). Xin-Xin Wen, Chao Xu, Fa-Qi Wang, Ya-Fei Feng, Xiong Zhao, Ya-Bo Yan, and Wei Lei Copyright © 2015 Xin-Xin Wen et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Symptomatic Lower Pole Stones of a Kidney with Partial Nephrectomy Using Micropercutaneous Nephrolithotomy Technique Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:56:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/456714/ We present the treatment of lower pole stones of a 62-year-old male patient with a history of open partial nephrectomy due to renal angiomyolipoma and renal stones. He was successfully treated with micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy technique under spinal anesthesia in spite of fibrotic and scar tissue due to previous open surgery. The patient was stone-free and was discharged after a 24-hour hospitalization period. There is not any published report of micropercutaneous nephrolithotomy in a partial nephrectomized kidney before. In this report, we suggest that microperc technique may be considered for challenging conditions in case of failed retrograde intrarenal surgery. Tuna Karatag, Ibrahim Buldu, Mehmet Kaynar, Hakan Taskapu, Erdem Tekinarslan, and Mustafa Okan Istanbulluoglu Copyright © 2015 Tuna Karatag et al. All rights reserved. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:54:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2015/508482/ Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs) are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB), postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97). After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78). Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB. Erin Burnett, Tammy L. Loucks, and Michael Lindsay Copyright © 2015 Erin Burnett et al. All rights reserved. Source-Aware Redundant Packet Forwarding Scheme for Emergency Information Delivery in Chain-Typed Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:51:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/405374/ For emergency information delivery of chain-typed multihop wireless sensor networks in closed long tunnel (CWSN-C), the scheme of sending the same packet multiple times is a good choice. In this paper, taking the application of rigid sliding guide obliquity monitoring in deep shaft as background, the source-aware redundant packet forwarding scheme for emergency information delivery in CWSN-C (SRPFEC) is proposed firstly. Secondly, more of comprehensive factors including application QoS and energy efficiency are considered for determining the number of redundant packets. Then, a method of solving for the number of redundant packets is proposed. Finally, Monte Carlo method and network simulation are employed to study the performances of proposed SRPFEC. The results show that (1) non-ACK scheme is highly suitable for the condition of large network size and hazardous wireless communication environment; (2) the non-source-aware solution is easy to use and is suitable for the occasion where the node could be replaced on demand expediently; (3) the source-aware solution has the better performance in energy efficiency and is suitable for the occasion where the network lifetime needs to be determined before deployment, and the node could not be replaced easily. Gongbo Zhou, Zhencai Zhu, Peng Zhang, and Wei Li Copyright © 2015 Gongbo Zhou et al. All rights reserved. An Analytical Approach to Evaluating Nonmonotonic Functions of Fuzzy Numbers Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:42:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/afs/2015/898651/ This paper presents a novel analytical approach to evaluating continuous, nonmonotonic functions of independent fuzzy numbers. The approach is based on a parametric -cut representation of fuzzy numbers and allows for the inclusion of parameter uncertainties into mathematical models. Arthur Seibel and Josef Schlattmann Copyright © 2015 Arthur Seibel and Josef Schlattmann. All rights reserved. Functional Roles of Calreticulin in Cancer Biology Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:36:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/526524/ Calreticulin is a highly conserved endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein which participates in various cellular processes. It was first identified as a Ca2+-binding protein in 1974. Accumulated evidences indicate that calreticulin has great impacts for the development of different cancers and the effect of calreticulin on tumor formation and progression may depend on cell types and clinical stages. Cell surface calreticulin is considered as an “eat-me” signal and promotes phagocytic uptake of cancer cells by immune system. Moreover, several reports reveal that manipulation of calreticulin levels profoundly affects cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis as well as differentiation. In addition to immunogenicity and tumorigenesis, interactions between calreticulin and integrins have been described during cell adhesion, which is an essential process for cancer metastasis. Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptors which connect extracellular matrix and intracellular cytoskeleton and trigger inside-out or outside-in signaling transduction. More and more evidences reveal that proteins binding to integrins might affect integrin-cytoskeleton interaction and therefore influence ability of cell adhesion. Here, we reviewed the biological roles of calreticulin and summarized the potential mechanisms of calreticulin in regulating mRNA stability and therefore contributed to cancer metastasis. Yi-Chien Lu, Wen-Chin Weng, and Hsinyu Lee Copyright © 2015 Yi-Chien Lu et al. All rights reserved. International Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease and Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Available Data Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:34:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2015/184321/ The international burden of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is unknown, but it may be estimable through the available chronic kidney disease and SHPT literature. Structured reviews of biomedical literature and online data systems were performed for selected countries to ascertain recent estimates of the incidence, prevalence, and survival of individuals with CKD and SHPT. International societies of nephrology were contacted to seek additional information regarding available data. Estimates were abstracted from 35 sources reporting estimates of CKD in 25 countries. Population prevalence estimates of CKD stages 3–5 in adults ranged from approximately 1 to 9% (China, Mexico, resp.). Estimates of the population prevalence of maintenance dialysis therapy ranged from 79 per million population (pmp; China) to 2385 pmp (Japan); incidence rates ranged from 91 pmp (United Kingdom) to 349 pmp (United States). Prevalence of SHPT among stage 5D populations was highly variable and dependent upon the disease definition used. Among the few nations reporting, approximately 30–50% of stage 5D patients had serum parathyroid hormone levels >300 pg/mL. Reported incidence and prevalence estimates across the individual nations were variable, likely reflecting differing population demographics, risk factors, etiologies, and availability of treatment through all stages of CKD. Elizabeth Hedgeman, Loren Lipworth, Kimberly Lowe, Rajiv Saran, Thy Do, and Jon Fryzek Copyright © 2015 Elizabeth Hedgeman et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Evaluation of Static Frictional Resistance Using Various Methods of Ligation at Different Time Intervals: An In Vitro Study Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:34:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2015/407361/ Aim. To compare and evaluate the static frictional resistance offered by the four different types of ligation methods in both dry and wet conditions and at different durations when immersed in artificial saliva. Material and Methods. Alastik Easy to Tie modules, Super Slick Mini Stix elastomeric modules, Power “O” modules, and 0.009″ Stainless Steel ligatures were used to compare the static friction using maxillary canine and premolar Preadjusted Edgewise brackets with 0.022″ × 0.028″ slot and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel wires. Results. The mean frictional resistance for Alastik modules was the lowest and that of Stainless Steel ligatures was found to be highest among the four groups compared and the difference among the four groups was statistically significant (). The mean static frictional resistance in all groups under dry conditions was lower than that under wet conditions. No statistical significant differences were found when the groups were compared at different time periods of immersion in artificial saliva. Conclusion. This study concludes that the Alastik modules showed the lowest mean static frictional forces compared to any other ligation method, though no significant difference was found for different time periods of immersion in the artificial saliva. Amanpreet Singh Natt, Amandeep Kaur Sekhon, Sudhir Munjal, Rohit Duggal, Anup Holla, Prahlad Gupta, Piyush Gandhi, and Sahil Sarin Copyright © 2015 Amanpreet Singh Natt et al. All rights reserved. Robust Optimisation Approach for Vehicle Routing Problems with Uncertainty Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:32:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/901583/ We formulated a solution procedure for vehicle routing problems with uncertainty (VRPU for short) with regard to future demand and transportation cost. Unlike E-SDROA (expectation semideviation robust optimisation approach) for solving the proposed problem, the formulation focuses on robust optimisation considering situations possibly related to bidding and capital budgets. Besides, numerical experiments showed significant increments in the robustness of the solutions without much loss in solution quality. The differences and similarities of the robust optimisation model and existing robust optimisation approaches were also compared. Liang Sun and Bing Wang Copyright © 2015 Liang Sun and Bing Wang. All rights reserved. Ginsenoside Rh1 Improves the Effect of Dexamethasone on Autoantibodies Production and Lymphoproliferation in MRL/lpr Mice Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:30:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/727650/ Ginsenoside Rh1 is able to upregulate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) level, suggesting Rh1 may improve glucocorticoid efficacy in hormone-dependent diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Rh1 could enhance the effect of dexamethasone (Dex) in the treatment of MRL/lpr mice. MRL/lpr mice were treated with vehicle, Dex, Rh1, or Dex + Rh1 for 4 weeks. Dex significantly reduced the proteinuria and anti-dsDNA and anti-ANA autoantibodies. The levels of proteinuria and anti-dsDNA and anti-ANA autoantibodies were further decreased in Dex + Rh1 group. Dex, Rh1, or Dex + Rh1 did not alter the proportion of CD4+ splenic lymphocytes, whereas the proportion of CD8+ splenic lymphocytes was significantly increased in Dex and Dex + Rh1 groups. Dex + Rh1 significantly decreased the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ splenic lymphocytes compared with control. Con A-induced CD4+ splenic lymphocytes proliferation was increased in Dex-treated mice and was inhibited in Dex + Rh1-treated mice. Th1 cytokine IFN-γ mRNA was suppressed and Th2 cytokine IL-4 mRNA was increased by Dex. The effect of Dex on IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA was enhanced by Rh1. In conclusion, our data suggest that Rh1 may enhance the effect of Dex in the treatment of MRL/lpr mice through regulating CD4+ T cells activation and Th1/Th2 balance. Yinglu Feng, Chunbin Wang, Silu Cheng, Xiaorong Wang, Xianze Meng, Lujia Li, Juan Du, Qun Liu, Yuyu Guo, Yongbin Meng, Binbin Cheng, and Changquan Ling Copyright © 2015 Yinglu Feng et al. All rights reserved. Targeted Knockdown of RNA-Binding Protein TIAR for Promoting Self-Renewal and Attenuating Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:08:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/657325/ RNA-binding protein TIAR has been suggested to mediate the translational silencing of ARE-containing mRNAs. To analyze the functions of TIAR, we established RNAi and genetic rescue assays. We evaluated the expression of neuroectoderm markers Pax6 and nestin, mesoderm markers brachyury and Flk1, and hypoblast and definitive endoderm markers Sox17 and Gata6 during EB differentiation and found that knockdown TIAR expression restrained the differentiation of E14 cells. We assessed gene expression levels of Flk-1 and VE-cadherin and observed attenuated differentiation of E14 cells into endothelial cells upon downregulation of TIAR gene expression. As such, we hypothesized an essential role of TIAR related to EB differentiation. As TIAR inhibits the translation of c-myc, we proposed that downregulation of TIAR results in restrained differentiation of E14 cells, due in part to the function of c-myc. We found that TIAR inhibited c-myc expression at the translational level in E14 cells; accordingly, a reduction of TIAR expression promoted self-renewal of pluripotent cells and attenuated differentiation. Additionally, we established that TIAR inhibited TIA-1 expression at the translational level in E14 cells. Taken together, we have contributed to the understanding of the regulatory relationships between TIAR and both c-myc and TIA-1. Zhe Geng, Ping Li, Li Tan, and Houyan Song Copyright © 2015 Zhe Geng et al. All rights reserved. A Deadline-Aware and Distance-Aware Packet Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:59:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/803123/ We propose a wireless differentiated queuing service (WDQS) algorithm to meet the diverse delay requirements in wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs). WDQS adopts novel latest departure time (LDT) scheduling criteria to differentiate forwarding emergency by considering the packets’ lifetime, the known delay it has already experienced, and the remaining delay it will experience. We also propose an effective approach to estimate the unknown delay for the remaining journey without any message overhead by exploiting the query mechanism of the sink. We further discuss analytically the packet’s lifetime setting to meet the end-to-end (e2e) delivery requirement. The simulation results verify our analytical discussion and show performance improvements in terms of e2e delay and packet drop rate. Lin Tang, Quansheng Guan, Shengming Jiang, and Bingyi Guo Copyright © 2015 Lin Tang et al. All rights reserved. Classification of Parkinsonian Syndromes from FDG-PET Brain Data Using Decision Trees with SSM/PCA Features Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:49:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/136921/ Medical imaging techniques like fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have been used to aid in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative brain diseases. In this study, the objective is to classify FDG-PET brain scans of subjects with Parkinsonian syndromes (Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy) compared to healthy controls. The scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA) method was applied to FDG-PET brain image data to obtain covariance patterns and corresponding subject scores. The latter were used as features for supervised classification by the C4.5 decision tree method. Leave-one-out cross validation was applied to determine classifier performance. We carried out a comparison with other types of classifiers. The big advantage of decision tree classification is that the results are easy to understand by humans. A visual representation of decision trees strongly supports the interpretation process, which is very important in the context of medical diagnosis. Further improvements are suggested based on enlarging the number of the training data, enhancing the decision tree method by bagging, and adding additional features based on (f)MRI data. D. Mudali, L. K. Teune, R. J. Renken, K. L. Leenders, and J. B. T. M. Roerdink Copyright © 2015 D. Mudali et al. All rights reserved. Neurotrauma and Inflammation: CNS and PNS Responses Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:42:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/251204/ Traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS) or the peripheral nervous system (PNS) triggers a cascade of events which culminate in a robust inflammatory reaction. The role played by inflammation in the course of degeneration and regeneration is not completely elucidated. While, in peripheral nerves, the inflammatory response is assumed to be essential for normal progression of Wallerian degeneration and regeneration, CNS trauma inflammation is often associated with poor recovery. In this review, we discuss key mechanisms that trigger the inflammatory reaction after nervous system trauma, emphasizing how inflammations in both CNS and PNS differ from each other, in terms of magnitude, cell types involved, and effector molecules. Knowledge of the precise mechanisms that elicit and maintain inflammation after CNS and PNS tissue trauma and their effect on axon degeneration and regeneration is crucial for the identification of possible pharmacological drugs that can positively affect the tissue regenerative capacity. Bruno Siqueira Mietto, Klauss Mostacada, and Ana Maria Blanco Martinez Copyright © 2015 Bruno Siqueira Mietto et al. All rights reserved. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:34:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/535686/ We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks) and short-term (3 weeks) effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW), OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water), OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW), or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase) and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation) along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident. Magdalena Cristóbal-García, Fernando E. García-Arroyo, Edilia Tapia, Horacio Osorio, Abraham S. Arellano-Buendía, Magdalena Madero, Bernardo Rodríguez-Iturbe, José Pedraza-Chaverrí, Francisco Correa, Cecilia Zazueta, Richard J. Johnson, and Laura-Gabriela Sánchez Lozada Copyright © 2015 Magdalena Cristóbal-García et al. All rights reserved. Natural Enrichment of Trace Elements in Surface Horizons of Calcareous Soils (La Mancha, Spain) Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:25:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/606837/ The study of five soil profiles developed on carbonatic sediments of Tertiary Miocene origin has been carried out. The topography of the area was basically flat and the traditional uses of the soils are the cultivation of dry cereals and grapevine. The geochemical characterization of the aforementioned profiles involves a study of the contents of major and trace elements among other pedologic aspects (texture, pH, organic matter, etc.). The results of this study also indicate a superficial enrichment of trace elements due to the leaching of Ca and moderate biological and anthropic activity. We can consider strontium, Sr, as the trace element that characterizes these limy soils (435 mg/kg average content in total soil and 708 mg/kg in the original rock). These contents are similar to the average value in Castilla-La Mancha of 380 mg/kg and are higher than the average in world soils of about 200 mg/kg. High levels of dangerous or pollutant elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, or Ni) were not detected. The majority of trace element anomalies are related to calcareous material and the leaching of calcium carbonate (Ca), while the influence of the anthropogenic factor is secondary. Soil quality does not indicate toxicity although surficial enrichment suggests a weak threat from consuming crops. Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra, Jose A. Amorós Ortíz-Villajos, Caridad Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Francisco J. García Navarro, Rolando Ruedas Luna, and Raimundo Jiménez Ballesta Copyright © 2015 Sandra Bravo Martín-Consuegra et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Preventing Spontaneous Combustion of Residual Coal in a Coal Mine Goaf Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:10:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jgr/2015/712349/ The effectiveness of grouting scheme has been simulated to prevent the coal spontaneous combustion at a goaf in Haizi Colliery, China. The colliery has been operated for long period over 27 years and has a complex ventilation network including airflow leakages which could possibly lead to the spontaneous combustion of coal at goafs. Firstly, the mine ventilation simulator MIVENA was used to analyze the mine ventilation network airflows to control airflows in and out of working faces and goafs. As the second approach, numerical simulations were carried by the simulator FLUENT in order to predict spontaneous combustion of residual coal with leakage flow in the #3205 goaf. It was cleared that the goaf can be divided into three zones based on oxygen concentration in the goaf area. Finally, the numerical simulation results show that the slurry grouting method is able to be an effective and economical method by reducing porosity in the goaf area to prevent spontaneous combustion of residual coal. Yongjun Wang, Xiaoming Zhang, Yuichi Sugai, and Kyuro Sasaki Copyright © 2015 Yongjun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Type 1 Receptor Expression in T Cells from House Dust Mite-Allergic Individuals following Stimulation with Der p Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:08:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/384780/ In order to determine the potential for allergen to modulate T cell expression of the CysLT1 receptor and responsiveness to leukotrienes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from house dust mite-allergic or nonallergic individuals were incubated with D. pteronyssinus allergen (Der p). Baseline CysLT1 expression was similar in both groups of donors, but Der p significantly enhanced CysLT1 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of only allergic individuals and induced enhanced responsiveness of CD4+ T cells to LTD4 in terms of calcium mobilisation. This effect was prevented by the CysLT1 antagonist MK571. Der p also induced IL-4 and IL-10 production, and neutralizing antibody to IL-4 prevented both the enhanced CysLT1 expression and the enhanced responsiveness of T cells to LTD4 induced by Der p. In allergic individuals, Der p also induced T cell proliferation and a Th2-biased phenotype. Our data suggest that, in allergen-sensitized individuals, exposure to allergen can enhance T cell expression of CysLT1 receptors through a mechanism involving IL-4 production. This, in turn, would induce CD4+ T cell responsiveness to cysteinyl-leukotrienes and Th2 cell activation. Maryse Thivierge, Sylvie Turcotte, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, and Jana Stankova Copyright © 2015 Maryse Thivierge et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Effect of Pumpkin Seed Oil on Hair Growth in Men with Androgenetic Alopecia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial” Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:04:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/271474/ Hitesh Verma Copyright © 2015 Hitesh Verma. All rights reserved. Effect of Aging Treatment on the Damping Capacity and Mechanical Properties of Mg-6Al-1Zn Alloy Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:03:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/170458/ The damping capacity and mechanical properties of Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy after heat treatment were investigated. The damping characteristics of un-heat-treated, solution treated, and aged Mg-6Al-1Zn specimens were determined by measuring the damping ratio and the logarithmic decrement of free vibrations of a bending beam clamped at one side. The microstructural evaluations confirmed that the β-Mg17Al12 phase was reprecipitated after aging and increased with an increase in aging time. The peak level of damping ratio and logarithmic decrement was obtained after 34 hr of aging time, over which the damping capacity declined according to increasing amount of strong pining points. Abdel-Wahab El-Morsy and Ahmed I. Z. Farahat Copyright © 2015 Abdel-Wahab El-Morsy and Ahmed I. Z. Farahat. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Potential of Aged Garlic Extract and Its Constituent, S-Allyl Cysteine, in Rats Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:59:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/328545/ Aged garlic extract (AGE) is one of the unique preparations standardized with 100% bioavailable active ingredients found in the bloodstream. The current research was aimed at exploring the role of AGE and its chief active constituent, s-allyl cysteine (SAC) as antioxidant and hypolipidemic agent in rats. At the end of treatment of AGE and SAC, separated serum and freshly prepared liver tissue homogenate were analyzed for biochemical enzymes and biomarkers to evaluate and compare potencies of investigational agents. Both AGE and SAC significantly declined elevated levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALP, AST, ALT, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione in serum and inclined superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and total sulfhydryl values in liver tissue with reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. The protective effects were superior with AGE compared with SAC indicating potential implication of other active constituents apart from SAC in AGE for combating hyperlipidemic stress. Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq Copyright © 2015 Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq. All rights reserved. Short Term Outcome of Anterior Lamellar Reposition in Treating Trachomatous Trichiasis Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:58:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/568363/ Purpose. To evaluate the outcome of anterior lamellar reposition (ALR) in treating trachomatous trichiasis. Methods. Patients with trachomatous trichiasis or entropion with short tarsus were treated by ALR between February 2009 and November 2013. This included splitting of the lid margin behind the aberrant lash line to separate the lid lamellae. The anterior lamella was recessed and fixated using 4/0 silk sutures. The extra lashes and their routes were excised. Sutures were removed by the 3rd week and patients completed 6 months of follow-up. Recurrence of ≤5 lashes was treated by electrolysis. Results. The study included 752 eyelids (445 patients; 58.4% females, 41.6% males), mean age 53.2 ± 6.9 y. 179 (25.1%) lids had entropion while 287 (64.5%) patients had corneal affection. By the third week, 2.66% lid had trichiasis while 30.8% had no rubbing lashes. By the 6th month, 14.9% of lids showed recurrence while 66.1% were completely cured (CI = 0.63–0.69) and 19% had partial success (CI = 0.16–0.21). Abnormal lid appearance persisted in 2.66% and 12.9% required another surgery. Conclusion. ALR is a good option for treating trachomatous trichiasis especially without cicatricial entropion. Excision of dysplastic lashes is thought to augment the surgical outcome. Rania A. Ahmed and Sameh H. Abdelbaky Copyright © 2015 Rania A. Ahmed and Sameh H. Abdelbaky. All rights reserved. Adipokines as Drug Targets in Diabetes and Underlying Disturbances Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:57:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/681612/ Diabetes and obesity are worldwide health problems. White fat dynamically participates in hormonal and inflammatory regulation. White adipose tissue is recognized as a multifactorial organ that secretes several adipose-derived factors that have been collectively termed “adipokines.” Adipokines are pleiotropic molecules that gather factors such as leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, apelin, vaspin, hepcidin, RBP4, and inflammatory cytokines, including TNF and IL-1β, among others. Multiple roles in metabolic and inflammatory responses have been assigned to these molecules. Several adipokines contribute to the self-styled “low-grade inflammatory state” of obese and insulin-resistant subjects, inducing the accumulation of metabolic anomalies within these individuals, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Thus, adipokines are an interesting drug target to treat autoimmune diseases, obesity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the roles of adipokines in different immune and nonimmune cells, which will contribute to diabetes as well as to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance development. We describe how adipokines regulate inflammation in these diseases and their therapeutic implications. We also survey current attempts to exploit adipokines for clinical applications, which hold potential as novel approaches to drug development in several immune-mediated diseases. Vinícius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels O.S. Câmara, and Pedro M. Moraes-Vieira Copyright © 2015 Vinícius Andrade-Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Development of Bioactive Patch for Maintenance of Implanted Cells at the Myocardial Infarcted Site Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:44:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/804017/ Ischemia produced as a result of myocardial infarction might cause moderate or severe tissue death. Studies under development propose grafting stem cells into the affected area and we hypothesize that this mechanism could be enhanced by the application of a “bioactive implant.” The implant herein proposed consists of a thin porous elastomeric membrane, filled with self-assembling nanofibers and human subcutaneous adipose tissue derived progenitor cells. We describe the development and characterization of two elastomeric membranes: poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) and poly(caprolactone 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl ester) (PCLMA). Both are a good material support to deliver cells within a soft self-assembling peptide and are elastic enough to withstand the stresses arising from the heartbeat. Both developed composites (PEA and PCLMA, combined with self-assembling peptide) equally facilitate the propagation of electrical pulses and maintain their genetic profile of the seeded cells. Preliminary studies with small animal models suggest that, at short times, the bioimplant shows good adhesion with the myocardium. After three days cells loaded in the patch remain alive at the implanted site. We propose that the bioactive patch (elastomeric membranes with self-assembling peptide and cells) could increase the efficacy of future cardiac cell therapy by improving cell immobilization and survival at the affected site. C. Castells-Sala, A. Vallés-Lluch, C. Soler-Botija, M. Arnal-Pastor, C. Martínez-Ramos, T. Fernandez-Muiños, N. Marí-Buyé, A. Llucià-Valldeperas, B. Sanchez, J. C. Chachques, A. Bayes-Genis, M. Monleón Pradas, and C. E. Semino Copyright © 2015 C. Castells-Sala et al. All rights reserved. Neuronal BDNF Signaling Is Necessary for the Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Synaptic Stripping of Axotomized Motoneurons Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:43:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/392591/ The withdrawal of synaptic inputs from the somata and proximal dendrites of spinal motoneurons following peripheral nerve injury could contribute to poor functional recovery. Decreased availability of neurotrophins to afferent terminals on axotomized motoneurons has been implicated as one cause of the withdrawal. No reduction in contacts made by synaptic inputs immunoreactive to the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 is noted on axotomized motoneurons if modest treadmill exercise, which stimulates the production of neurotrophins by spinal motoneurons, is applied after nerve injury. In conditional, neuron-specific brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) knockout mice, a reduction in synaptic contacts onto motoneurons was noted in intact animals which was similar in magnitude to that observed after nerve transection in wild-type controls. No further reduction in coverage was found if nerves were cut in knockout mice. Two weeks of moderate daily treadmill exercise following nerve injury in these BDNF knockout mice did not affect synaptic inputs onto motoneurons. Treadmill exercise has a profound effect on synaptic inputs to motoneurons after peripheral nerve injury which requires BDNF production by those postsynaptic cells. Joey Krakowiak, Caiyue Liu, Chandana Papudesu, P. Jillian Ward, Jennifer C. Wilhelm, and Arthur W. English Copyright © 2015 Joey Krakowiak et al. All rights reserved. A Unified Definition of Mutual Information with Applications in Machine Learning Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:41:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/201874/ There are various definitions of mutual information. Essentially, these definitions can be divided into two classes: (1) definitions with random variables and (2) definitions with ensembles. However, there are some mathematical flaws in these definitions. For instance, Class 1 definitions either neglect the probability spaces or assume the two random variables have the same probability space. Class 2 definitions redefine marginal probabilities from the joint probabilities. In fact, the marginal probabilities are given from the ensembles and should not be redefined from the joint probabilities. Both Class 1 and Class 2 definitions assume a joint distribution exists. Yet, they all ignore an important fact that the joint or the joint probability measure is not unique. In this paper, we first present a new unified definition of mutual information to cover all the various definitions and to fix their mathematical flaws. Our idea is to define the joint distribution of two random variables by taking the marginal probabilities into consideration. Next, we establish some properties of the newly defined mutual information. We then propose a method to calculate mutual information in machine learning. Finally, we apply our newly defined mutual information to credit scoring. Guoping Zeng Copyright © 2015 Guoping Zeng. All rights reserved. Multilevel Comprehensive Evaluation and Decision Making of Ergonomics Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:40:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/689203/ Due to the improvement of living standards, higher level of ergonomic performance is required for the products. As a result, the ergonomic evaluation has become one of the key points in the decisions making of modern products, especially the complex products. Aiming at improving the situation that the methods for ergonomic evaluation and decision making are one-sided and discrete, this paper proposed several methods for measuring multiply factors and data format of products and built a comprehensive evaluation and decision making system. In this system, the data supplied by soft hardware and specialists were calculated separately to gain the preliminary scores, and the preliminary scores were processed to get the final results for the decision making using the AHP-GRA analytic hierarchy process-gray relational analysis method proposed in this paper. Wen-jun Wang, Sui-huai Yu, Shu-xia Wang, Junxuan Chen, and Li Deng Copyright © 2015 Wen-jun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Integrative Analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 Target Sites in the Human HBB Gene Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:39:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/514709/ Recently, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has emerged as a powerful customizable artificial nuclease to facilitate precise genetic correction for tissue regeneration and isogenic disease modeling. However, previous studies reported substantial off-target activities of CRISPR system in human cells, and the enormous putative off-target sites are labor-intensive to be validated experimentally, thus motivating bioinformatics methods for rational design of CRISPR system and prediction of its potential off-target effects. Here, we describe an integrative analytical process to identify specific CRISPR target sites in the human β-globin gene (HBB) and predict their off-target effects. Our method includes off-target analysis in both coding and noncoding regions, which was neglected by previous studies. It was found that the CRISPR target sites in the introns have fewer off-target sites in the coding regions than those in the exons. Remarkably, target sites containing certain transcriptional factor motif have enriched binding sites of relevant transcriptional factor in their off-target sets. We also found that the intron sites have fewer SNPs, which leads to less variation of CRISPR efficiency in different individuals during clinical applications. Our studies provide a standard analytical procedure to select specific CRISPR targets for genetic correction. Yumei Luo, Detu Zhu, Zhizhuo Zhang, Yaoyong Chen, and Xiaofang Sun Copyright © 2015 Yumei Luo et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Cellulose from Luffa cylindrica Fiber as Binder in Acetaminophen Tablets Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:38:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aec/2015/243785/ Cellulose is an important pharmaceutical excipient. This study aimed to produce cellulose from the fiber of Luffa cylindrica as an effective binder in the formulation of acetaminophen tablets. This study was divided into three phases, namely, (I) preparation of cellulose from Luffa cylindrica, (II) determination of the powder properties of the LC-cellulose, and (III) production and evaluation of acetaminophen of the tablets produced using LC-cellulose as binder. The percentage yield of LC-cellulose was 61%. The values of the powder properties of LC-cellulose produced show fair and passable flow properties and are within the specifications of a powdered pharmaceutical excipient. The mean tablet hardness and disintegration time of the LC-cellulose tablets have a significant difference in the mean tablet hardness and disintegration time of the tablets without binder; thus the cellulose produced improved the suitability of acetaminophen in the dry compression process. However, the tablet properties of the tablets produced using LC-cellulose as binder do not conform to the specifications of the US pharmacopeia; thus the study of additional methods and excipients is recommended. John Carlo O. Macuja, Laurence N. Ruedas, and Rebecca C. Nueva España Copyright © 2015 John Carlo O. Macuja et al. All rights reserved. Global Well-Posedness and Stability for a Viscoelastic Plate Equation with a Time Delay Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:20:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/585021/ A plate equation with a memory term and a time delay term in the internal feedback is investigated. Under suitable assumptions, we establish the global well-posedness of the initial and boundary value problem by using the Faedo-Galerkin approximations and some energy estimates. Moreover, by using energy perturbation method, we prove a general decay result of the energy provided that the weight of the delay is less than the weight of the damping. Baowei Feng Copyright © 2015 Baowei Feng. All rights reserved. Parallel Seed-Based Approach to Multiple Protein Structure Similarities Detection Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:19:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sp/2015/279715/ Finding similarities between protein structures is a crucial task in molecular biology. Most of the existing tools require proteins to be aligned in order-preserving way and only find single alignments even when multiple similar regions exist. We propose a new seed-based approach that discovers multiple pairs of similar regions. Its computational complexity is polynomial and it comes with a quality guarantee—the returned alignments have both root mean squared deviations (coordinate-based as well as internal-distances based) lower than a given threshold, if such exist. We do not require the alignments to be order preserving (i.e., we consider nonsequential alignments), which makes our algorithm suitable for detecting similar domains when comparing multidomain proteins as well as to detect structural repetitions within a single protein. Because the search space for nonsequential alignments is much larger than for sequential ones, the computational burden is addressed by extensive use of parallel computing techniques: a coarse-grain level parallelism making use of available CPU cores for computation and a fine-grain level parallelism exploiting bit-level concurrency as well as vector instructions. Guillaume Chapuis, Mathilde Le Boudic-Jamin, Rumen Andonov, Hristo Djidjev, and Dominique Lavenier Copyright © 2015 Guillaume Chapuis et al. All rights reserved. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shells Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:18:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/106590/ This study presents the fabrication of high-quality activated carbon (AC) from discarded coconut shells. The effects of experimental parameters such as activation temperature and activation time on the basic characteristics of AC, including charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area, total pore volume, and iodine adsorption, are investigated. The results indicate that as the activation temperature and activation time increase, the charcoal yield of the AC decreases. In contrast, iodine adsorption, ash content, pH value, and total pore volume increase with activation temperature. The AC sample activated at 1000°C for 120 min had the highest BET specific surface area and total pore volume and thus the best CO2 adsorption performance. This sample was compared with 30-mesh commercial AC. The results reveal that coconut-based AC has better instantaneous adsorption capabilities. Pei-Hsing Huang, Hao-Hsiang Cheng, and Sheau-Horng Lin Copyright © 2015 Pei-Hsing Huang et al. All rights reserved. Gender-Specific Association of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Arab Population Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:08:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/512603/ Background. The impact of gender difference on the association between metabolic stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. We have investigated, for the first time, the gender effect on the oxidative and inflammatory stress responses and assessed their correlation with classical cardiometabolites in Arab population. Methods. A total of 378 adult Arab participants (193 females) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, ROS, TBARs, and PON1 were measured and correlated with anthropometric and cardiometabolite parameters of the study population. Results. Compared to females, males had significantly higher FBG, HbA1c, TG, and blood pressure but lower BMI, TC, and HDL (P < 0.05). After adjustment for BMI and WC, females had higher levels of ROS, TBARS, and CRP (P < 0.001) whereas males had increased levels of IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-α (P < 0.05). Moreover, after adjustment for age, BMI, and gender, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and ROS were associated with central obesity but not general obesity. Conclusion. Inflammation and oxidative stress contribution to CVD risk in Arab population linked to gender and this risk is better reflected by central obesity. Arab females might be at risk of CVD complications due to increased oxidative stress. Abdelkrim Khadir, Ali Tiss, Sina Kavalakatt, Kazem Behbehani, Mohammed Dehbi, and Naser Elkum Copyright © 2015 Abdelkrim Khadir et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine in Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells and Restoration of Motor Function in Neonatal Rats with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:07:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/764251/ Objective. Since oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are the target cells of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), the present study was aimed at investigating the protective effects of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a well-known antioxidant and precursor of glutathione, in OPCs as well as in neonatal rats. Methods. In in vitro study, protective effects of NAC on KCN cytotoxicity in F3.Olig2 OPCs were investigated via MTT assay and apoptotic signal analysis. In in vivo study, NAC was administered to rats with HIE induced by hypoxia-ischemia surgery at postnatal day 7, and their motor functions and white matter demyelination were analyzed. Results. NAC decreased KCN cytotoxicity in F3.Olig2 cells and especially suppressed apoptosis by regulating Bcl2 and p-ERK. Administration of NAC recovered motor functions such as the using ratio of forelimb contralateral to the injured brain, locomotor activity, and rotarod performance of neonatal HIE animals. It was also confirmed that NAC attenuated demyelination in the corpus callosum, a white matter region vulnerable to HIE. Conclusion. The results indicate that NAC exerts neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo by preserving OPCs, via regulation of antiapoptotic signaling, and that F3.Olig2 human OPCs could be a good tool for screening of candidates for demyelinating diseases. Dongsun Park, Kyungha Shin, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Youngjin Choi, Ja-Young Jang, Jihyun Kim, Heon-Sang Jeong, Wooryoung Lee, Yoon-Bok Lee, Seung Up Kim, Seong Soo Joo, and Yun-Bae Kim Copyright © 2015 Dongsun Park et al. All rights reserved. Endovascular Treatment of Posttraumatic Pseudoaneurysm of the Common Carotid Artery Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:57:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2015/427040/ Carotid artery injuries with pseudoaneurysm are uncommon but associated with central neurologic dysfunction. We present a case of posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the right common carotid artery treated by implantation of a covered stent. A 44-year-old woman with multiple injuries after fall from height presents a small dissection flap of the right common carotid artery (RCCA) on the initial computed tomography angiography (CTA). Fifteen days later a 10 mm pseudoaneurysm is observed on control CTA. We decided endovascular treatment. Through right femoral access with a long introducer sheath placed in the innominate artery, we implanted a covered stent Advanta V12  mm in the RCCA. The patient was discharged from the hospital with antiplatelet therapy without any neurological dysfunction and complete exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm. Use of covered stents has emerged as a safe and effective alternative to surgical repair of carotid injuries. Diego Rojas, Stefan Stefanov, Luis Riera del Moral, Jesús Álvarez, and Luis Riera de Cubas Copyright © 2015 Diego Rojas et al. All rights reserved. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and -Synuclein Synaptic Pathology in Parkinson’s Disease: Who’s on First? Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:52:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/108029/ Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder. Its characteristic neuropathological features encompass the loss of dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal system and the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. These are intraneuronal and intraneuritic proteinaceous insoluble aggregates whose main constituent is the synaptic protein α-synuclein. Compelling lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction and α-synuclein synaptic deposition may play a primary role in the onset of this disorder. However, it is not yet clear which of these events may come first in the sequel of processes leading to neurodegeneration. Here, we reviewed data supporting either that α-synuclein synaptic deposition precedes and indirectly triggers mitochondrial damage or that mitochondrial deficits lead to neuronal dysfunction and α-synuclein synaptic accumulation. The present overview shows that it is still difficult to establish the exact temporal sequence and contribution of these events to PD. Michela Zaltieri, Francesca Longhena, Marina Pizzi, Cristina Missale, PierFranco Spano, and Arianna Bellucci Copyright © 2015 Michela Zaltieri et al. All rights reserved. Progesterone Exerts a Neuromodulatory Effect on Turning Behavior of Hemiparkinsonian Male Rats: Expression of 3α-Hydroxysteroid Oxidoreductase and Allopregnanolone as Suggestive of Receptors Involvement Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:39:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/431690/ There is a growing amount of evidence for a neuroprotective role of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite, allopregnanolone, in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. By using a model of hemiparkinsonism in male rats, injection of the neurotoxic 6-OHDA in left striatum, we studied progesterone’s effects on rotational behavior induced by amphetamine or apomorphine. Also, in order to find potential explanatory mechanisms, we studied expression and activity of nigrostriatal 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase, the enzyme that catalyzes progesterone to its active metabolite allopregnanolone. Coherently, we tested allopregnanolone for a possible neuromodulatory effect on rotational behavior. Also, since allopregnanolone is known as a modulator, we finally examined the action of antagonist bicuculline. We found that progesterone, in addition to an apparent neuroprotective effect, also increased ipsilateral expression and activity of 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase. It was interesting to note that ipsilateral administration of allopregnanolone reversed a clear sign of motor neurodegeneration, that is, contralateral rotational behavior. A possible involvement modulated by allopregnanolone was shown by the blocking effect of bicuculline. Our results suggest that early administration of progesterone possibly activates genomic mechanisms that promote neuroprotection subchronically. This, in turn, could be partially mediated by fast, nongenomic, actions of allopregnanolone acting as an acute modulator of GABAergic transmission. Roberto Yunes, Sebastián Casas, Eliana Gaglio, and Ricardo Cabrera Copyright © 2015 Roberto Yunes et al. All rights reserved. Decision Rules Acquisition for Inconsistent Disjunctive Set-Valued Ordered Decision Information Systems Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:36:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/936340/ Set-valued information system is an important formal framework for the development of decision support systems. We focus on the decision rules acquisition for the inconsistent disjunctive set-valued ordered decision information system in this paper. In order to derive optimal decision rules for an inconsistent disjunctive set-valued ordered decision information system, we define the concept of reduct of an object. By constructing the dominance discernibility function for an object, we compute reducts of the object via utilizing Boolean reasoning techniques, and then the corresponding optimal decision rules are induced. Finally, we discuss the certain reduct of the inconsistent disjunctive set-valued ordered decision information system, which can be used to simplify all certain decision rules as much as possible. Hongkai Wang, Yanyong Guan, Jilin Huang, and Jianting Shen Copyright © 2015 Hongkai Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Fatal Gastrointestinal Anthrax in North Eastern Iran Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:33:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2015/875829/ Background. Bacillus species are aerobic or facultative anaerobic, gram-positive, or gram-variable spore-forming rods. They are ubiquitous in the environmental sources. Bacillus anthracis may usually cause three forms of anthrax: inhalation, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous. The gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax develops after eating contaminated meat. In this paper we report septic intestinal anthrax. Case Presentation. We report an isolation of Bacillus anthracis from blood culture of patient with intestinal anthrax. Bacillus anthracis was isolated from a blood culture of a 34-year-old man who had a history of severe abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever, sweating, and lethargy within 4 to 5 days after eating the meat of domestic goat. He had evidence of severe infection and septic shock and did not respond to treatments and subsequently expired 9 hours after hospitalization. Conclusion. Gastrointestinal anthrax is characterized by rapid onset, fever, and septicemia. Rapid diagnosis and prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy can help in survival. Most of previous cases of septicemic anthrax were related to injection drug users but, in our case, septicemia occurred after gastrointestinal anthrax. Seyed Ahmad Hashemi, Amir Azimian, Sara Nojumi, Tahereh Garivani, Saghar Safamanesh, and Majid Ghafouri Copyright © 2015 Seyed Ahmad Hashemi et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Analysis of a High-Static-Low-Dynamic-Stiffness Vibration Isolator with Time-Delayed Feedback Control Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/712851/ This paper proposes the time-delayed cubic velocity feedback control strategy to improve the isolation performance of High-Static-Low-Dynamic-Stiffness (HSLDS) vibration isolator. Firstly, the primary resonance of the controlled HSLDS vibration isolator is obtained by using multiple scales method. The equivalent damping ratio and equivalent resonance frequency are defined to study the effects of feedback gain and time delay on the primary resonance. The jump phenomenon analysis of the controlled system without and with time delay is investigated by using Sylvester resultant method and optimization method, respectively. The stability analysis of the controlled system is also considered. Then, the 1/3 subharmonic resonance of the controlled system is studied by using multiple scales method. The effects of feedback gain and time delay on the 1/3 subharmonic resonance are also presented. Finally, force transmissibility is proposed to evaluate the performance of the controlled system and compared with an equivalent linear passive vibration isolator. The results show that the vibration amplitude of the controlled system around the resonance frequency region decreases and the isolation frequency band is larger compared to the equivalent one. A better isolation performance in the high frequency band can be achieved compared to the passive HSLDS vibration isolator. Yong Wang, Shunming Li, Chun Cheng, and Xingxing Jiang Copyright © 2015 Yong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative/Antioxidative Status in Obese and Sport Trained Children: A Comparative Study Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:16:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/315747/ The aim of the study was to compare oxidative/antioxidative status in obese and sport trained children and to correlate obtained redox markers with anthropometrical measurements, body composition parameters, and adipokines levels. 78 (44 males) obese (SG) and 80 (40 males) normal weight sport trained (CG) children matched for age and Tanner stage were recruited for the study. Body composition parameters and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Oxidative/antioxidative status was evaluated in plasma by total oxidative status (PerOX), oxidized-LDL cholesterol (oxLDL), total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOx), and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx). Leptin and adiponectin levels and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L) were also investigated. OxLDL was higher in SG versus CG (P < 0.05), but ImAnOx and GPx were reduced in SG versus CG (P < 0.01). Redox markers correlated significantly with BMI Z-score, WHR, WHtR, body composition parameters, leptin (in boys only), and A/L ratio (in boys only) in SG and in a whole studied population. PerOX significantly correlated with BMR in the CG. Antioxidative/oxidative status in obese children is significantly impaired and related adipose tissue excess and its hormonal activity. Oxidative status assessed by PerOx is also high in sport trained children but antioxidative defense is significantly more efficient with no overproduction of oxidized LDL. Pawel Matusik, Zofia Prokopowicz, Berenika Norek, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Jerzy Chudek, and Ewa Malecka-Tendera Copyright © 2015 Pawel Matusik et al. All rights reserved. Analyzing Multimode Wireless Sensor Networks Using the Network Calculus Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:06:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2015/851608/ The network calculus is a powerful tool to analyze the performance of wireless sensor networks. But the original network calculus can only model the single-mode wireless sensor network. In this paper, we combine the original network calculus with the multimode model to analyze the maximum delay bound of the flow of interest in the multimode wireless sensor network. There are two combined methods A-MM and N-MM. The method A-MM models the whole network as a multimode component, and the method N-MM models each node as a multimode component. We prove that the maximum delay bound computed by the method A-MM is tighter than or equal to that computed by the method N-MM. Experiments show that our proposed methods can significantly decrease the analytical delay bound comparing with the separate flow analysis method. For the large-scale wireless sensor network with 32 thousands of sensor nodes, our proposed methods can decrease about 70% of the analytical delay bound. Xi Jin, Nan Guan, Jintao Wang, and Peng Zeng Copyright © 2015 Xi Jin et al. All rights reserved. Approximation of a Class of Incompressible Third Grade Fluids Equations Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:05:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/627584/ This paper discusses the approximation of weak solutions for a class of incompressible third grade fluids equations. We first introduce a family of perturbed slightly compressible third grade fluids equations (depending on a positive parameter ) which approximate the incompressible equations as . Then we prove the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions for the slightly compressible equations and establish that the solutions of the slightly compressible equations converge to the solutions of the incompressible equations. Zeqi Zhu, Hongxia Li, Jianjun Fu, and Qian Sheng Copyright © 2015 Zeqi Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Sulodexide on Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Injury in Normoalbuminuric Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:04:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/172038/ Glycosaminoglycans or sulodexide has shown benefits in early experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN) models, but its efficacy in patients with early stage of DN is unknown. Methods. Twenty patients were randomly assigned to the placebo group and another 20 patients were randomly assigned to receive sulodexide 100 mg/day for 14 weeks. Primary outcome was a change of urinary TGF-beta1, albuminuria, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). All patients had stable metabolic profiles for at least 90 days before randomization. Results. Urinary TGF-beta1 increased significantly in the placebo group but did not change significantly in the sulodexide group. Additionally, the mean change of urine TGF-beta1 in the placebo group was significantly higher than that in the sulodexide group ( versus  pg/mg Cr, ). Mean changes of urinary albumin were  μg/mg Cr () in the placebo group and  μg/mg Cr () in the sulodexide group. No consistent patterns of side effects were observed. Conclusion. In this 14-week trial, benefits of sulodexide in preventing the increase of urinary TGF-beta1 were observed in patients with normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetes. The study suggests that sulodexide treatment may provide additional renoprotection in early stage DN. This trial is registered with TCTR20140806001. Bancha Satirapoj, Wisit Kaewput, Ouppatham Supasyndh, and Prajej Ruangkanchanasetr Copyright © 2015 Bancha Satirapoj et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Closure Characteristics of a MEMS Omnidirectional Inertial Switch under Shock Loads Tue, 31 Mar 2015 07:56:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/604047/ A preliminary theoretical method for calculating contact time of a dual mass-spring system applied to shock acceleration was proposed based on the MEMS omnidirectional inertial switch. The influence of relevant parameters on the contact time was analyzed, and the theoretical results were in agreement with the simulation predictions. The theoretical method could provide the design of MEMS inertial switch for prolonged contact time. The system stiffness of the mass-spring system in all directions was obtained by using the FE method. Dynamic contact simulation results of contact time in typical directions under the applied shock acceleration indicate that the switch has a contact time within the range of 33 μs to 95 μs and has an enhanced contact effect with the dual mass-spring system in the MEMS inertial switch. The fabricated switches were tested by a shock test device. The results show that the switch can be reliably closed in all directions under the applied shock acceleration and has a long contact time, which is basically in accordance with the theoretical results. Yun Cao, Zhanwen Xi, Jiong Wang, and Weirong Nie Copyright © 2015 Yun Cao et al. All rights reserved. A Model of Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Power Equipment Based on CBR Tue, 31 Mar 2015 07:55:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/203083/ Nowadays the demand of power supply reliability has been strongly increased as the development within power industry grows rapidly. Nevertheless such large demand requires substantial power grid to sustain. Therefore power equipment’s running and testing data which contains vast information underpins online monitoring and fault diagnosis to finally achieve state maintenance. In this paper, an intelligent fault diagnosis model for power equipment based on case-based reasoning (IFDCBR) will be proposed. The model intends to discover the potential rules of equipment fault by data mining. The intelligent model constructs a condition case base of equipment by analyzing the following four categories of data: online recording data, history data, basic test data, and environmental data. SVM regression analysis was also applied in mining the case base so as to further establish the equipment condition fingerprint. The running data of equipment can be diagnosed by such condition fingerprint to detect whether there is a fault or not. Finally, this paper verifies the intelligent model and three-ratio method based on a set of practical data. The resulting research demonstrates that this intelligent model is more effective and accurate in fault diagnosis. Gang Ma, Linru Jiang, Guchao Xu, and Jianyong Zheng Copyright © 2015 Gang Ma et al. All rights reserved. Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics Tue, 31 Mar 2015 07:21:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/297158/ Tsair-Fwu Lee, Jack Yang, Cheng-Shie Wuu, An Liu, Fu-Min Fang, and Shyh-An Yeh Copyright © 2015 Tsair-Fwu Lee et al. All rights reserved. Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Display Impaired Function in Inhibiting Th17 Cells Tue, 31 Mar 2015 07:04:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/284215/ Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess multipotent and immunomodulatory properties and are suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of immune-related diseases. This study explored the function of bone marrow MSCs from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, focusing on immunomodulatory effects. RA MSCs showed decreased proliferative activity and aberrant migration capacity. No significant differences were observed in cytokine profiles between RA and control MSCs. The effects of RA MSCs on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and distribution of specific CD4+ T cell subtypes (Th17, Treg, and Tfh cells) were investigated. RA MSCs appeared to be indistinguishable from controls in suppressing PBMC proliferation, decreasing the proportion of Tfh cells, and inducing the polarization of Treg cells. However, the capacity to inhibit Th17 cell polarization was impaired in RA MSCs, which was related to the low expression of CCL2 in RA MSCs after coculture with CD4+ T cells. These findings indicated that RA MSCs display defects in several important biological activities, especially the capacity to inhibit Th17 cell polarization. These functionally impaired MSCs may contribute to the development of RA disease. Yue Sun, Wei Deng, Linyu Geng, Lu Zhang, Rui Liu, Weiwei Chen, Genhong Yao, Huayong Zhang, Xuebing Feng, Xiang Gao, and Lingyun Sun Copyright © 2015 Yue Sun et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing Perfusion-Decellularization Methods of Porcine Livers for Clinical-Scale Whole-Organ Bioengineering Tue, 31 Mar 2015 06:37:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/785474/ Aim. To refine the decellularization protocol of whole porcine liver, which holds great promise for liver tissue engineering. Methods. Three decellularization methods for porcine livers (1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 1% Triton X-100 + 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 1% sodium deoxycholate + 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate) were studied. The obtained liver scaffolds were processed for histology, residual cellular content analysis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) components evaluation to investigate decellularization efficiency and ECM preservation. Rat primary hepatocytes were seeded into three kinds of scaffold to detect the biocompatibility. Results. The whole liver decellularization was successfully achieved following all three kinds of treatment. SDS combined with Triton had a high efficacy of cellular removal and caused minimal disruption of essential ECM components; it was also the most biocompatible procedure for primary hepatocytes. Conclusion. We have refined a novel, standardized, time-efficient, and reproducible protocol for the decellularization of whole liver which can be further adapted to liver tissue engineering. Qiong Wu, Ji Bao, Yong-jie Zhou, Yu-jia Wang, Zheng-gui Du, Yu-jun Shi, Li Li, and Hong Bu Copyright © 2015 Qiong Wu et al. All rights reserved. Does High Thoracic Epidural Analgesia with Levobupivacaine Preserve Myocardium? A Prospective Randomized Study Tue, 31 Mar 2015 06:17:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/658678/ Background. Our study aimed to compare HTEA and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in patients undergoing coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG), based on haemodynamic parameters and myocardial functions. Materials and Methods. The study included 34 patients that were scheduled for elective CABG, who were randomly divided into 2 groups. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with total intravenous anesthesia in both groups while intravenous PCA with morphine was administered in Group 1 and infusion of levobupivacaine was administered from the beginning of the anesthesia in Group 2 by thoracic epidural catheter. Blood samples were obtained presurgically, at 6 and 24 hours after surgery for troponin I, creatinine kinase-MB (CK-MB), total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde. Postoperative pain was evaluated every 4 hours until 24 hours via VAS. Results. There were significant differences in troponin I or CK-MB values between the groups at postsurgery 6 h and 24 h. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure in Group 1 were significantly higher than in Group 2 at all measurements. Cardiac index in Group 2 was significantly higher than in Group 1 at all measurements. Conclusion. Patients that underwent CABG and received HTEA had better myocardial function and perioperative haemodynamic parameters than those who did not receive HTEA. Serife Gokbulut Bektas, Sema Turan, Umit Karadeniz, Burcin Ozturk, Soner Yavas, Dilan Biricik, Gul Sevim Saydam, and Ozcan Erdemli Copyright © 2015 Serife Gokbulut Bektas et al. All rights reserved. Nonpharmacological Interventions for Pain Management in Paramedicine and the Emergency Setting: A Review of the Literature Tue, 31 Mar 2015 06:07:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/873039/ Paramedicine and the emergency medical services have been moving in the direction of advancing pharmaceutical intervention for the management of pain in both acute and chronic situations. This coincides with other areas of advanced life support and patient management strategies that have been well researched and continue to benefit from the increasing evidence. Even though paramedic practice is firmly focused on pharmacological interventions to alleviate pain, there is emerging evidence proposing a range of nonpharmacological options that can have an important role in pain management. This review highlights literature that suggests that paramedicine and emergency medical services should be considering the application of complementary and alternative therapies which can enhance current practice and reduce the use of pharmacological interventions. Sok Cheon Pak, Peter S. Micalos, Sonja J. Maria, and Bill Lord Copyright © 2015 Sok Cheon Pak et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Salicylic Acid and 5-Sulfosalicylic Acid on UV-Vis Spectroscopic Characteristics, Morphology, and Contact Angles of Spin Coated Polyaniline and Poly(4-aminodiphenylaniline) Thin Films Tue, 31 Mar 2015 05:57:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/609175/ Polyaniline and poly(4-aminodiphenyl)aniline have been prepared following two different synthetic protocols (a traditional method and a “green” method). Both the polymers have been spin coated with salicylic acid and 5-sulfosalicylic acid as the dopants, in order to obtain them in form of thin films. These materials have been characterized, thereof achieving important information on their water contact angles and surface morphology. A. Sironi, D. Marinotto, C. Riccardi, S. Zanini, E. Guerrini, C. Della Pina, and E. Falletta Copyright © 2015 A. Sironi et al. All rights reserved. Fast Two-Step Energy Detection for Spectrum Sensing Mon, 30 Mar 2015 14:16:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/591627/ Spectrum sensing is one of the key tasks in cognitive radio. This paper proposes a fast two-step energy detection (FED) algorithm for spectrum sensing via improving the sampling process of conventional energy detection (CED). The algorithm adaptively selects -point or 2-point sampling by comparing its observed energy with prefixed double thresholds, and thereby is superior in sampling time and detection speed. Moreover, under the constraint of constant false alarm, this paper optimizes the thresholds from maximizing detection probability point of view. Theoretical analyses and simulation results show that, compared with CED, the proposed FED can achieve significant gain in detection speed at the expense of slight accuracy loss. Specifically, within high signal-to-noise ratio regions, as much as 25% of samples can be reduced. Meiling Lai, Shengliang Peng, Xi Yang, and Lin Zhou Copyright © 2015 Meiling Lai et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Dynamics Study of Stability and Diffusion of Graphene-Based Drug Delivery Systems Mon, 30 Mar 2015 14:14:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/872079/ Graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial with unique biomedical properties, has attracted great attention due to its potential applications in graphene-based drug delivery systems (DDS). In this work graphene sheets with various sizes and graphene oxide functionalized with polyethylene glycol (GO-PEG) are utilized as nanocarriers to load anticancer drug molecules including CE6, DOX, MTX, and SN38. We carried out molecular dynamics calculations to explore the energetic stabilities and diffusion behaviors of the complex systems with focuses on the effects of the sizes and functionalization of graphene sheets as well as the number and types of drug molecules. Our study shows that the binding of graphene-drug complex is favorable when the drug molecules and finite graphene sheets become comparable in sizes. The boundaries of finite sized graphene sheets restrict the movement of drug molecules. The double-side loading often slows down the diffusion of drug molecules compared with the single-side loading. The drug molecules bind more strongly with GO-PEG than with pristine graphene sheets, demonstrating the advantages of functionalization in improving the stability and biocompatibility of graphene-based DDS. Xiunan Wang, Yi Liu, Jingcheng Xu, Shengjuan Li, Fada Zhang, Qian Ye, Xiao Zhai, and Xinluo Zhao Copyright © 2015 Xiunan Wang et al. All rights reserved. 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloylglucose within Galla Chinensis Inhibits Human LDH-A and Attenuates Cell Proliferation in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Mon, 30 Mar 2015 14:14:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/276946/ A characteristic feature of aggressive malignancy is the overexpression of lactic acid dehydrogenase- (LDH-) A, concomitant to pericellular accumulation of lactate. In a recent high-throughput screening, we identified Rhus chinensis (Mill.) gallnut (RCG) (also known as Galla Chinensis) extract as a potent (IC50 < 1 µg/mL) inhibitor of human LDH-A (hLDH-A). In this study, through bioactivity guided fractionation of the crude extract, the data demonstrate that penta-1,2,3,4,6-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) was a primary constituent responsible for hLDH-A inhibition, present at ~9.95 ± 0.34% dry weight. Theoretical molecular docking studies of hLDH-A indicate that PGG acts through competitive binding at the NADH cofactor site, effects confirmed by functional enzyme studies where the IC50 = 27.32 nM was reversed with increasing concentration of NADH. Moreover, we confirm protein expression of hLDH-A in MDA-231 human breast carcinoma cells and show that PGG was toxic (LC50 = 94.18 µM), parallel to attenuated lactic acid production (IC50 = 97.81 µM). In a 72-hour cell proliferation assay, PGG was found to be a potent cytostatic agent with ability to halt cell division (IC50 = 1.2 µM) relative to paclitaxel (IC50 < 100 nM). In summary, these findings demonstrate that PGG is a potent hLDH-A inhibitor with significant capacity to halt proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Shihab Deiab, Elizabeth Mazzio, Suresh Eyunni, Oshlii McTier, Nelly Mateeva, Faisel Elshami, and Karam F. A. Soliman Copyright © 2015 Shihab Deiab et al. All rights reserved. Cocaine Induced Pleural and Pericardial Effusion Syndrome Mon, 30 Mar 2015 14:01:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2015/321539/ A 42-year-old African American female with chronic cocaine use for 20 years, presented with two-day history of exertional shortness of breath and pleuritic chest pain. She was admitted three years back with acute kidney injury and skin rashes. At that time, skin biopsy was consistent with leukocytoclastic vasculitis and renal biopsy revealed proliferative glomerulonephritis. She responded to oral prednisone and mycophenolate with complete recovery of her kidney functions. Skin rash was waxing and waning over the last two years. On the second admission, patient was found to have large pleural effusion on computerized tomography scan and pericardial effusion on echocardiogram as shown in the figures. Pleural fluid analysis was exudative. Her serology was negative for ANA (antineutrophilic antibody) and anti-dsDNA (double stranded DNA). Complements levels were normal. She had positive low titers of ANCA levels. The patient was started on a course of prednisone for 6 months. Her pleural and pericardial effusion resolved completely on follow-up imaging with computerized tomography scan and echocardiogram. This case is unique since the pericardial and pleural effusions developed without any other etiology in the setting of cocaine; hence, we describe this clinical syndrome as cocaine induced pleural and pericardial effusions syndrome (CIPP). Shehabaldin Alqalyoobi, Omkar Vaidya, Al-Ma’Mon Abu Ghanimah, Ahmed Elkhanany, and Ashraf Gohar Copyright © 2015 Shehabaldin Alqalyoobi et al. All rights reserved. Rotationplasty with Vascular Reconstruction for Prosthetic Knee Joint Infection Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:59:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/241405/ Rotationplasty is used most often as a function-preserving salvage procedure after resection of sarcomas of the lower extremity; however, it is also used after infection of prosthetic knee joints. Conventional vascular management during rotationplasty is to preserve and coil major vessels, but recently, transection and reanastomosis of the major vessels has been widely performed. However, there has been little discussion regarding the optimal vascular management of rotationplasty after infection of prosthetic knee joints because rotationplasty is rarely performed for this indication. We reviewed four patients who had undergone resection of osteosarcomas of the femur, placement of a prosthetic knee joint, and rotationplasty with vascular reconstruction from 2010 to 2013. The mean interval between prosthetic joint replacement and rotationplasty was 10.4 years and the mean interval between the diagnosis of prosthesis infection and rotationplasty was 7.9 years. Rotationplasty was successful in all patients; however, in one patient, arterial thrombosis developed and necessitated urgent surgical removal and arterial reconstruction. All patients were able to walk independently with a prosthetic limb after rehabilitation. Although there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate method of vascular management during rotationplasty for revision of infected prosthetic joints, vascular transection and reanastomosis is a useful option. Masahide Fujiki, Shimpei Miyamoto, Fumihiko Nakatani, Akira Kawai, and Minoru Sakuraba Copyright © 2015 Masahide Fujiki et al. All rights reserved. In Silico Search of Energy Metabolism Inhibitors for Alternative Leishmaniasis Treatments Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:56:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/965725/ Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that affects mammals and is caused by approximately 20 distinct protozoa from the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease that exerts a large socioeconomic impact on poor and developing countries. The current treatment for leishmaniasis is complex, expensive, and poorly efficacious. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more selective, less expensive new drugs. The energy metabolism pathways of Leishmania include several interesting targets for specific inhibitors. In the present study, we sought to establish which energy metabolism enzymes in Leishmania could be targets for inhibitors that have already been approved for the treatment of other diseases. We were able to identify 94 genes and 93 Leishmania energy metabolism targets. Using each gene’s designation as a search criterion in the TriTrypDB database, we located the predicted peptide sequences, which in turn were used to interrogate the DrugBank, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), and PubChem databases. We identified 44 putative targets of which 11 are predicted to be amenable to inhibition by drugs which have already been approved for use in humans for 11 of these targets. We propose that these drugs should be experimentally tested and potentially used in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Lourival A. Silva, Marina C. Vinaud, Ana Maria Castro, Pedro Vítor L. Cravo, and José Clecildo B. Bezerra Copyright © 2015 Lourival A. Silva et al. All rights reserved. On Noncompact Fractional Order Differential Inclusions with Generalized Boundary Condition and Impulses in a Banach Space Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:52:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/651359/ We provide existence results for a fractional differential inclusion with nonlocal conditions and impulses in a reflexive Banach space. We apply a technique based on weak topology to avoid any kind of compactness assumption on the nonlinear term. As an example we consider a problem in population dynamic described by an integro-partial-differential inclusion. Irene Benedetti, Valeri Obukhovskii, and Valentina Taddei Copyright © 2015 Irene Benedetti et al. All rights reserved. Prospective Analysis of Risk for Hypothyroidism after Hemithyroidectomy Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:49:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/313971/ Objectives. To evaluate risk factors and to develop a simple scoring system to grade the risk of postoperative hypothyroidism (PH). Methods. In a controlled prospective study, 109 patients, who underwent hemithyroidectomy for a benign thyroid disease, were followed up for 12 months. The relation between clinical data and PH was analyzed for significance. A risk scoring system based on significant risk factors and clinical implications was developed. Results. The significant risk factors of PH were higher TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) level and lower ratio of the remaining thyroid weight to the patient’s weight (derived weight index). Based on the log of risk factor, preoperative TSH level greater than 1.4 mU/L was assigned 2 points; 1 point was for 0.8–1.4 mU/L. The derived weight index lower than 0.8 g/kg was assigned 1 point. A risk scoring system was calculated by summing the scores. The incidences of PH were 7.3%, 30.4%, and 69.2% according to the risk scores of 0-1, 2, and 3. Conclusion. Risk factors for PH are higher preoperative TSH level and lower derived weight index. Our developed risk scoring system is a valid and reliable tool to identify patients who are at risk for PH before surgery. Virgilijus Beisa, Darius Kazanavicius, Arminas Skrebunas, Gintaras Simutis, Justinas Ivaska, and Kestutis Strupas Copyright © 2015 Virgilijus Beisa et al. All rights reserved. A Compact MultiBand and Dual-Polarized Mobile Base-Station Antenna Using Optimal Array Structure Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:49:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/178245/ This paper introduces a multiband base-station antenna to provide multiple communications services. There is growing need for multiband base-station antennas for mobile communications to serve existing 2nd and 3rd generation systems and to provide emerging 4th generation communication service as well as WiFi. For example, cellular, PCS, and especially WCDMA service are currently widely used in Korea, and 4th generation service (WiBro and LTE), introduced in 2011, will have to operate in parallel with existing services. The proposed multiband base-station antenna can provide a single/dual/triple or more multiple services using dual-polarization (±45° linear polarizations) according to the requirements of the service provider. This antenna has a shared aperture, having several array antenna sets for multiple services (Band 1: cellular service in 0.824~0.894 GHz, Band 2: PCS, WCDMA, and WiFi in 1.920~2.170 GHz, Band 3: WiBro and WiMAX in 2.300~2.400 GHz, and Band 4: WiMAX in 5.150~5.850 GHz). This antenna can be helpful for reducing base-station operating expenses and to create a clean urban landscape by minimizing the number of base-station antennas, which are increasing rapidly. Young-Bae Jung and Soon-Young Eom Copyright © 2015 Young-Bae Jung and Soon-Young Eom. All rights reserved. Channel Impulse Response Estimation in IEEE 802.11p via Data Fusion and MMSE Estimator Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:34:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijvt/2015/670482/ Tracking the channel impulse response in systems based on the IEEE 802.11p standard, the most widely accepted standard for the physical layer in vehicular area networks (VANETs), is still an open research topic. In this paper we aim to improve previously proposed channel estimators by utilizing data aided algorithm that includes the channel decoding to enhance the quality of the estimated data. Moreover we propose a novel technique that exploits information provided by external sensors like GPS or speedometer, usually present in vehicles. The algorithm proposed so far has been analyzed in non-line-of-sight link conditions; in this paper we present an analysis of performances in the line-of-sight condition as well. Simulations show that both proposals give considerable improvements in terms of packet error rate and channel estimation error in the highway scenario which is surely the most stressing environment for the channel response tracker. Giulio Ministeri and Lorenzo Vangelista Copyright © 2015 Giulio Ministeri and Lorenzo Vangelista. All rights reserved. The HPLC Fingerprint and Isovanillin Content of Benincasa hispida Seeds Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:32:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/629302/ The Benincasa hispida seed is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, there is still a lack of medicinal quality control of B. hispida seeds. The seeds may contain isovanillin, but this finding remains to be confirmed and quantified. The current study aimed to confirm the existence of isovanillin and then preliminarily establish medicinal quality standards for B. hispida seeds. Fourteen batches of unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds were purchased from 7 different producers in China. Semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to isolate and purify the isovanillin from B. hispida seeds. Its chemical structure was elucidated by UV, 1H-NMR, IR spectroscopy, and GC-MS. The B. hispida seed fingerprint and isovanillin determination were performed on an HPLC instrument. Data obtained from the unilateral and bilateral specimens were analyzed with a similarity evaluation system. The HPLC fingerprint showed 19 characteristic peaks with high similarity between the unilateral and bilateral B. hispida seeds. The isovanillin content among the fourteen batches ranged from 13.46 to 46.80 μg/g. The results of this study may provide a preliminary reference for the quality control of B. hispida seeds. Jing Liu, Pinglin Li, Qi Wang, Bin Li, and Guoqiang Li Copyright © 2015 Jing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Altered Immunoregulation in Rheumatoid Arthritis: The Role of Regulatory T Cells and Proinflammatory Th17 Cells and Therapeutic Implications Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:29:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/751793/ In recent years several studies investigated the role of T lymphocyte subpopulations in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Pathogenic Th17 cells mediate pannus growth, osteoclastogenesis, and synovial neoangiogenesis; hence they are key players in the development of the disease. On the other hand, regulatory T (Treg) cells are a T cell subset whose peculiar function is to suppress autoreactive lymphocytes. The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells has been identified as a crucial event in the pathogenesis of RA. In addition, the effects of currently employed RA therapeutic strategies on these lymphocyte subpopulations have been extensively investigated. This review article aims to discuss current knowledge on Treg and Th17 cells in RA and possible implications of their therapeutic targeting in this disorder. Alessia Alunno, Mirko Manetti, Sara Caterbi, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Onelia Bistoni, Elena Bartoloni, Valentina Valentini, Riccardo Terenzi, and Roberto Gerli Copyright © 2015 Alessia Alunno et al. All rights reserved. Influence of the Saturation Ratio on Concrete Behavior under Triaxial Compressive Loading Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:29:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2015/976387/ When a concrete structure is subjected to an impact, the material is subjected to high triaxial compressive stresses. Furthermore, the water saturation ratio in massive concrete structures may reach nearly 100% at the core, whereas the material dries quickly on the skin. The impact response of a massive concrete wall may thus depend on the state of water saturation in the material. This paper presents some triaxial tests performed at a maximum confining pressure of 600 MPa on concrete representative of a nuclear power plant containment building. Experimental results show the concrete constitutive behavior and its dependence on the water saturation ratio. It is observed that as the degree of saturation increases, a decrease in the volumetric strains as well as in the shear strength is observed. The coupled PRM constitutive model does not accurately reproduce the response of concrete specimens observed during the test. The differences between experimental and numerical results can be explained by both the influence of the saturation state of concrete and the effect of deviatoric stresses, which are not accurately taken into account. The PRM model was modified in order to improve the numerical prediction of concrete behavior under high stresses at various saturation states. Xuan-Dung Vu, Matthieu Briffaut, Yann Malecot, Laurent Daudeville, and Bertrand Ciree Copyright © 2015 Xuan-Dung Vu et al. All rights reserved. The Mitochondrial Translocator Protein and Arrhythmogenesis in Ischemic Heart Disease Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:26:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/234104/ Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of multiple cardiovascular disorders, including ischemic heart disease. Although mitochondria are well recognized for their role in energy production and cell death, mechanisms by which they control excitation-contraction coupling, excitability, and arrhythmias are less clear. The translocator protein (TSPO) is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that is expressed in multiple organ systems. The abundant expression of TSPO in macrophages has been leveraged to image the immune response of the heart to inflammatory processes. More recently, the recognition of TSPO as a regulator of energy-dissipating mitochondrial pathways has extended its utility from a diagnostic marker of inflammation to a therapeutic target influencing diverse pathophysiological processes. Here, we provide an overview of the emerging role of TSPO in ischemic heart disease. We highlight the importance of TSPO in the regenerative process of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced ROS release through its effects on the inner membrane anion channel (IMAC) and the permeability transition pore (PTP). We discuss evidence implicating TSPO in arrhythmogenesis in the settings of acute ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction. Lukas J. Motloch, Jun Hu, and Fadi G. Akar Copyright © 2015 Lukas J. Motloch et al. All rights reserved. Cardiovascular Control during Exercise in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:24:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/654204/ Controlled studies of male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) of short duration (~3–5 years) show that DM reduces peak (L·min−1 and mL·kg−1·min−1) by an average of 12–15% and induces a greater slowing of the dynamic response of pulmonary during submaximal exercise. These effects occur in individuals less than 60 years of age but are reduced or absent in older males and are consistently associated with significant increases in the exercise pressor response despite normal resting blood pressure. This exaggerated pressor response, evidence of exertional hypertension in DM, is manifest during moderate submaximal exercise and coincides with a more constrained vasodilation in contracting muscles. Maximum vasodilation during contractions involving single muscle groups is reduced by DM, and the dynamic response of vasodilation during submaximal contractions is slowed. Such vascular constraint most likely contributes to exertional hypertension, impairs dynamic and peak responses, and reduces exercise tolerance. There is a need to establish the effect of DM on dynamic aspects of vascular control in skeletal muscle during whole-body exercise and to clarify contributions of altered cardiovascular control and increased arterial stiffness to exertional hypertension. Simon Green, Mikel Egaña, J. Chris Baldi, Regis Lamberts, and Judith G. Regensteiner Copyright © 2015 Simon Green et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Different Drying Methods on Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron from China Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:17:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/953164/ More and more saffron has been cultivated in China because of the increasing saffron demand, but no paper has studied the influence of drying methods on the quality of Chinese saffron. In this paper, three different dehydration treatments applied in actual production were evaluated: dehydration with electric oven, vacuum oven, and microwave. We determined that the highest quality of saffron will be obtained when fresh saffron is treated at higher temperatures (no more than 70°C) for a long time by electric oven drying and vacuum oven drying. In microwave drying, treatments at lower microwave power and longer time benefit the quality of saffron. In addition, the influence of the drying method on antioxidants in saffron is discussed. The correlation between individual saffron profiles and the antioxidant value was estimated by spectrum-effect relationships analysis. Yingpeng Tong, Xingyi Zhu, Yongqiu Yan, Ruoxi Liu, Feng Gong, Ling Zhang, Jiangning Hu, Ling Fang, Ruwei Wang, and Ping Wang Copyright © 2015 Yingpeng Tong et al. All rights reserved. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:05:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/739874/ The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF) of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom. Ji Hye Kim, Yunmi Lee, Gi-Ho Sung, Han Gung Kim, Deok Jeong, Jae Gwang Park, Kwang-Soo Baek, Nak Yoon Sung, Sungjae Yang, Deok Hyo Yoon, Sang Yeol Lee, Hyojeung Kang, Changsik Song, Jae Han Cho, Kang-Hyo Lee, Tae Woong Kim, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2015 Ji Hye Kim et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial Mon, 30 Mar 2015 13:00:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/651460/ Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women) were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69) and one year later (week 121). Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight 5%, , and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, , respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655. Tuula Pekkarinen, Jarmo Kaukua, and Pertti Mustajoki Copyright © 2015 Tuula Pekkarinen et al. All rights reserved. A New Double Stranded RNA Suppresses Bladder Cancer Development by Upregulating p21Waf1/CIP1 Expression Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:59:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/304753/ We have previously demonstrated that miR-1180-5p has potent ability to upregulate p21 expression by targeting promoter and inhibit bladder cancer. This prompted us to conjecture that a candidate dsRNA (dsP21-397) with perfect complementarity to the miR-1180-5p target site of p21 promoter may also trigger p21 expression. Transfection of dsP21-397 into T24 and EJ cells significantly activated p21 expression at 72 h and the activation presented in a time-course and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the p21-activated activities of dsP21-397 and miR-1180-5p are not significantly different. Overexpression of p21 downregulated Cyclin D1, CDK4/6, and Cyclin A2 expression, and thereby induced cell cycle arrest and inhibited proliferation. Moreover, dsP21-397 suppressed bladder cancer largely depended on manipulating p21. In conclusion, our study identifies a pair of miRNA-dsRNA mediating endogenous p21 overexpression. Chenghe Wang, Qiangqiang Ge, Zhong Chen, Jia Hu, Fan Li, Xiaodong Song, Hua Xu, and Zhangqun Ye Copyright © 2015 Chenghe Wang et al. All rights reserved. “Forget to Whom You Have Told This Proverb”: Directed Forgetting of Destination Memory in Alzheimer’s Disease Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:54:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2015/215971/ Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD participants and 30 healthy elderly subjects were asked to tell 10 different proverbs to 10 different celebrities (List 1). Afterwards, half of the participants were instructed to forget the destinations (i.e., the celebrities) whereas the other half were asked to keep them in mind. After telling 10 other proverbs to 10 other celebrities (List 2), participants were asked to read numbers aloud. Subsequently, all the participants were asked to remember the destinations of List 1 and List 2, regardless of the forget or remember instructions. The results show similar destination memory in AD participants who were asked to forget the destinations of List 1 and those who were asked to retain them. These findings are attributed to inhibitory deficits, by which AD participants have difficulties to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Mohamad El Haj, Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Philippe Allain, Luciano Fasotti, and Pascal Antoine Copyright © 2015 Mohamad El Haj et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:44:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/789508/ The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100 MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable. Jorge Francisco Cerna-Cortes, Nancy Leon-Montes, Ana Laura Cortes-Cueto, Laura P. Salas-Rangel, Addy Cecilia Helguera-Repetto, Daniel Lopez-Hernandez, Sandra Rivera-Gutierrez, Elizabeth Fernandez-Rendon, and Jorge Alberto Gonzalez-y-Merchand Copyright © 2015 Jorge Francisco Cerna-Cortes et al. All rights reserved. Recent Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Improving Efficiency: TiO2 Nanotube Arrays in Active Layer Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:41:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/247689/ Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been widely studied due to several advantages, such as low cost-to-performance ratio, low cost of fabrication, functionality at wide angles and low intensities of incident light, mechanical robustness, and low weight. This paper summarizes the recent progress in DSSC technology for improving efficiency, focusing on the active layer in the photoanode, with a part of the DSSC consisting of dyes and a TiO2 film layer. In particular, this review highlights a huge pool of studies that report improvements in the efficiency of DSSCs using TiO2 nanotubes, which exhibit better electron transport. Finally, this paper suggests opportunities for future research. Won-Yeop Rho, Hojin Jeon, Ho-Sub Kim, Woo-Jae Chung, Jung Sang Suh, and Bong-Hyun Jun Copyright © 2015 Won-Yeop Rho et al. All rights reserved. Renal Kallikrein Activation and Renoprotection after Dual Blockade of Renin-Angiotensin System in Diet-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:39:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/310645/ Purpose. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of dual blockage of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on renal kallikrein expression and inflammatory response in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. Rats were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 rats in each group: normal control; DN model induced by high fat and high sucrose diets; and DN treated with either benazepril 10 mg/kg/d, irbesartan 30 mg/kg/d, or both. After 8-week treatment, we examined changes in the kidney histopathology, function and immunohistochemical stain of kallikrein, macrophage marker CD68, and profibrotic markers transforming growth factor- (TGF-) and -smooth muscle action (SMA). Results. DN rats showed enlarged kidneys with glomerulosclerosis, interstitial chronic inflammation and fibrosis, and proteinuria. All the pathological damage and functional impairments were improved after the RAS blockades (all ). Compared with monotherapy, combined treatment further alleviated the kidney impairments in parallel to increased tubular immunoreactivity for kallikrein and decreased immunopositive cells for CD68, TGF-, and -SMA. Conclusion. The renoprotective effects of the dual RAS blockade in diabetic nephropathy may be attributed to improved tubular kallikrein expression and interstitial inflammatory response. Xia Zou, Xiao-xi Zhang, Xin-yu Liu, Rong Li, Min Wang, Wei-jie Wu, Yi Sui, and Hai-lu Zhao Copyright © 2015 Xia Zou et al. All rights reserved. Strategic Management Advanced Service for Sustainable Computing Environment Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:34:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/715967/ Sang-Soo Yeo, Qun Jin, Vincenzo Loia, and Hangbae Chang Copyright © 2015 Sang-Soo Yeo et al. All rights reserved. Improved Mainlobe Interference Suppression Based on Blocking Matrix Preprocess Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:29:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/964901/ For the problem of mainlobe direction shifting that is caused by the mainlobe interference suppression based on blocking matrix preprocess, an effective method is proposed which is based on the combination of diagonal loading and linear constraints. Therein, the reason for mainlobe direction shifting is analyzed and found to be that the covariance matrix mismatch exists in the realization of the adaptive beamforming. Therefore, the diagonal loading processing is used to overcome the mismatch and correct the mainlobe direction shifting, and the linear constraints are used to make sure of the beam pattern nulling in the interference directions; then the desired performance of adaptive beamforming is obtained. Simulation results attest the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method, and they also show that the proposed method is insensitive to the selection of diagonal loading level, which means the loading factor is easy to choose. Jie Yang and Congfeng Liu Copyright © 2015 Jie Yang and Congfeng Liu. All rights reserved. Image-Based Object Identification for Efficient Event-Driven Sensing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:21:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/850869/ Applications based on video and image in wireless sensor network are highly attractive due to their wealth of information. In this context, application for object recognition and tracking using image and video information is one the attractive approaches that can be applied for event detection and localization, security processes, following of the rare animal species and control of road traffic, and so forth. However, the implementation of such approach with WMSN requires a specific image processing scheme and efficient transmission protocol. In fact, because of the limited energy of the batteries embedded in motes, the power consumption is the major constraint facing network life time and reliability in WMSN. The efficiency and the validity of these multimedia applications over wireless sensor networks are then dependent on the capabilities of the designer to provide low-power scheme for data processing and energy-aware transmission protocols. This paper presents a contribution to the design of low complexity scheme based on object identification for efficient sensing of multimedia information in wireless multimedia sensor networks. It proposes a new solution and explores the associated performances of this scheme. The presented results in this paper attest the high efficiency to achieve low-power objects identification when implemented in wireless motes. Mohsin S. Alhilal, Adel Soudani, and Abdullah Al-Dhelaan Copyright © 2015 Mohsin S. Alhilal et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA-155 Hallmarks Promising Accuracy for the Diagnosis of Various Carcinomas: Results from a Meta-Analysis Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:18:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/327287/ Background. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) have diagnostic values in various cancers. This meta-analysis seeks to summarize the global diagnostic role of miR-155 in patients with a variety of carcinomas. Methods. Eligible studies were retrieved by searching the online databases, and the bivariate meta-analysis model was employed to generate the summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve. Results. A total of 17 studies dealing with various carcinomas were finally included. The results showed that single miR-155 testing allowed for the discrimination between cancer patients and healthy donors with a sensitivity of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73–0.88) and specificity of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.70–0.83), corresponding to an area under curve (AUC) of 0.85, while a panel comprising expressions of miR-155 yielded a sensitivity of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.68–0.82) and specificity of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77–0.86) in diagnosing cancers. The subgroup analysis displayed that serum miR-155 test harvested higher accuracy than plasma-based assay (the AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were, resp., 0.87 versus 0.73, 0.78 versus 0.74, and 0.77 versus 0.70). Conclusions. Our data suggest that single miR-155 profiling has a potential to be used as a screening test for various carcinomas, and parallel testing of miR-155 confers an improved specificity compared to single miR-155 analysis. Chuancheng Wu, Qiuyan Liu, and Baoying Liu Copyright © 2015 Chuancheng Wu et al. All rights reserved. False Positive Radioiodinated Metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) Uptake in Undifferentiated Adrenal Malignant Tumor Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:16:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/164280/ 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) scintigraphy is a widely used functional imaging tool with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. However, rare cases of false positive reactions have been reported. A 67-year-old male patient was admitted with epigastric pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a heterogeneous left adrenal mass 6 cm in diameter; following hormone testing, 123I-MIBG scintigraphy was performed to determine the presence of pheochromocytoma, which confirmed eccentric uptake by a large left adrenal gland mass. Chest CT and PET-CT confirmed metastatic lymphadenopathy; therefore, endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration was performed. Metastatic carcinoma of unknown origin was suspected from a lymph node biopsy, and surgical resection was performed for definitive diagnosis and correction of excess hormonal secretion. A final diagnosis of undifferentiated adrenal malignant tumor was rendered, instead of histologically malignant pheochromocytoma, despite the uptake of 123I-MIBG demonstrated by scintigraphy. Hee Soo Jung, Seok Jun Moon, Yun Mi Kim, Hye Rim Kang, Seok Mo Lee, Soo Jin Jung, Seok Jin Choi, Tae Kyoon Kim, Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park, and Soon Hee Lee Copyright © 2015 Hee Soo Jung et al. All rights reserved. Total En Bloc Spondylectomy for Locally Aggressive Vertebral Hemangioma Causing Neurological Deficits Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:15:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/724364/ Vertebral hemangiomas are common; however, aggressive vertebral hemangiomas with extraosseous extensions causing neurological deficits are rare. The treatment for this subtype of hemangioma remains controversial, since there are few reports on long-term clinical outcomes or tumor recurrence rates. We describe a case of aggressive vertebral hemangioma treated by total en bloc spondylectomy, with a literature review focusing on long-term recurrence. A 52-year-old male with a two-month history of numbness in the bilateral lower extremities was referred to our hospital. Imaging studies showed a tumor originating in the T9 vertebra and extending to the T8 and T10 vertebrae, with extraosseous extension causing spinal-cord compression. Ten months after onset, the patient presented with progressive paraparesis and hypalgesia. Total en bloc spondylectomy was performed, and pathology was consistent with cavernous hemangioma. Motor and sensory deficits improved significantly, and no signs of recurrence are seen at 2.5 years after operation. A review of literature revealed a recurrence rate of 12.7% (10/79 cases). The available evidence indicates satisfactory long-term outcomes for total tumor resection without adjuvant radiotherapy. Ryo Ogawa, Tomohiro Hikata, Shuji Mikami, Nobuyuki Fujita, Akio Iwanami, Kota Watanabe, Ken Ishii, Masaya Nakamura, Yoshiaki Toyama, and Morio Matsumoto Copyright © 2015 Ryo Ogawa et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Effects of Scheduled Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue in Women with Early Breast Cancer” Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:14:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/264695/ Isla Veal, Nicola Peat, and Gareth Jones Copyright © 2015 Isla Veal et al. All rights reserved. Widespread Recurrence 7 Years after Radical Abdominal Trachelectomy for Early Cervical Adenocarcinoma Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/517496/ Cervical cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide and the use of routine screening resulted in earlier stage and younger age at diagnosis. Fertility preservation via radical trachelectomy comes up as an option in such patients. Recent literature reviews confirm the safety of this operation with excellent oncologic outcomes in appropriately chosen patients. However, recurrent disease is likely and a strict follow-up is recommended to detect recurrences at an early stage following radical trachelectomy. In this report, a case who underwent radical trachelectomy and developed widespread recurrences 7 years after initial surgery possibly due to the lack of oncologic follow-up is discussed. M. Coskun Salman, Nejat Ozgul, and Kunter Yuce Copyright © 2015 M. Coskun Salman et al. All rights reserved. Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1 in 18 Children: Genotyping and Outcome Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:07:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2015/634175/ Background. Primary hyperoxaluria belongs to a group of rare metabolic disorders with autosomal recessive inheritance. It results from genetic mutations of the AGXT gene, which is more common due to higher consanguinity rates in the developing countries. Clinical features at presentation are heterogeneous even in children from the same family; this study was conducted to determine the clinical characteristics, type of AGXT mutation, and outcome in children diagnosed with PH1 at a tertiary referral center in Oman. Method. Retrospective review of children diagnosed with PH1 at a tertiary hospital in Oman from 2000 to 2013. Result. Total of 18 children were identified. Females composed 61% of the children with median presentation age of 7 months. Severe renal failure was initial presentation in 39% and 22% presented with nephrocalcinosis and/or renal calculi. Family screening diagnosed 39% of patients. Fifty percent of the children underwent hemodialysis. 28% of children underwent organ transplantation. The most common mutation found in Omani children was c.33-34insC mutation in the AGXT gene. Conclusion. Due to consanguinity, PH1 is a common cause of ESRD in Omani children. Genetic testing is recommended to help in family counseling and helps in decreasing the incidence and disease burden; it also could be utilized for premarital screening. Mohamed S. Al Riyami, Badria Al Ghaithi, Nadia Al Hashmi, and Naifain Al Kalbani Copyright © 2015 Mohamed S. Al Riyami et al. All rights reserved. Hepatic Overexpression of GRP94 in a Rabbit Model of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:06:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/269831/ Objective. To use a rabbit model of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) to study changes of the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) marker glucose regulatory protein 94 (GRP94) and determine its role in the pathogenesis of PNALD. Methods. A rabbit PNALD model total parenteral nutrition (TPN) group was established. A corresponding control group received breast-feeding for one week. Serum biochemical parameters were measured and liver histological examinations were performed. The level of GRP94 mRNA and protein were measured. Results. The results showed that the serum TBIL, DBIL, and γ-GT levels in the TPN group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while levels of serum ALB in TPN group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The immunohistochemistry results showed that the protein expression level of GRP94 in the liver of TPN group was significantly increased compared with the control group. The RT-PCR results showed that the level of GRP94 mRNA in the liver of the TPN group was significantly higher compared with the control group. Conclusions. The mRNA and protein levels of GRP94 in the TPN group were both significantly increased, indicating that ERS may be directly related to the occurrence and development of PNALD. Xueping Zhu, Xiaomin Zhang, Lingling Yu, Yumin Xu, Xing Feng, and Jian Wang Copyright © 2015 Xueping Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Stress Responses and NRF2 in Human Leukaemia Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:03:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/454659/ Oxidative stress as a result of elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been observed in almost all cancers, including leukaemia, where they contribute to disease development and progression. However, cancer cells also express increased levels of antioxidant proteins which detoxify ROS. This includes glutathione, the major antioxidant in human cells, which has recently been identified to have dysregulated metabolism in human leukaemia. This suggests that critical balance of intracellular ROS levels is required for cancer cell function, growth, and survival. Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) transcription factor plays a dual role in cancer. Primarily, NRF2 is a transcription factor functioning to protect nonmalignant cells from malignant transformation and oxidative stress through transcriptional activation of detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. However, once malignant transformation has occurred within a cell, NRF2 functions to protect the tumour from oxidative stress and chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, inhibition of the NRF2 oxidative stress pathway in leukaemia cells renders them more sensitive to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Our improved understanding of NRF2 biology in human leukaemia may permit mechanisms by which we could potentially improve future cancer therapies. This review highlights the mechanisms by which leukaemic cells exploit the NRF2/ROS response to promote their growth and survival. Amina Abdul-Aziz, David J. MacEwan, Kristian M. Bowles, and Stuart A. Rushworth Copyright © 2015 Amina Abdul-Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Late Onset Ipilimumab-Induced Pericarditis and Pericardial Effusion: A Rare but Life Threatening Complication Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:02:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/794842/ Metastatic cutaneous melanoma has poor prognosis with 2-year survival rate of 10–20%. Melanoma cells express various antigens including gp100, melanoma antigen recognized by T cells 1 (MART-1), and tyrosinase, which can induce immune-mediated anticancer response via T cell activation. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an immune check point molecule that negatively regulates T cell activation and proliferation. Accordingly, recent phase III clinical trials demonstrated significant survival benefit with ipilimumab, a human monoclonal antibody (IgG1) that blocks the interaction of CTLA-4 with its ligands. Since the efficacy of ipilimumab depends on T cell activation, it is associated with substantial risk of immune mediated adverse reactions such as colitis, hepatitis, thyroiditis, and hypophysitis. We report the first case of late onset pericarditis and cardiac tamponade associated with ipilimumab treatment in patient with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. Seongseok Yun, Nicole D. Vincelette, Iyad Mansour, Dana Hariri, and Sara Motamed Copyright © 2015 Seongseok Yun et al. All rights reserved. Severe Transient Hyperglycemia in a Prediabetic Patient during Mild Acute Pancreatitis Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:01:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/968593/ A 30-year-old obese male patient had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus due to acute hyperglycemia and ketonuria. He also presented with severe hypertriglyceridemia and high levels of serum lipase. He was initially misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes and treated with insulin for one month. At two months from first presentation, pancreatic antibodies were negative, and the C-peptide level was normal. A1c level was 5.9% without insulin treatment. The association between diabetes mellitus and acute pancreatitis is well established. We reported a case of severe transient hyperglycemia during mild acute pancreatitis in a metabolically ill patient. Aura Diana Reghina, Silvia Craciun, and Simona Fica Copyright © 2015 Aura Diana Reghina et al. All rights reserved. Collaborative Deformation Design Using Control Integrated Analysis Methods for Hypersonic Waverider Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:00:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijae/2015/510414/ Hypersonic waveriders have a large flight envelope, leading to the difficulty in keeping overall flight stability for a fixed geometry. Accordingly, hypersonic waveriders can be considered to design as a morphing vehicle such that the flight range is expanded for waveriding stability. To this end, this paper investigates the collaborative deformation design using control integrated analysis methods for the hypersonic waverider. Firstly, a parametric model is applied to combine the shape deformation with the geometrical properties. Secondly, the morphing process with regard to the change in a single geometric parameter and the static and dynamic characteristics affected by this deformation are analyzed. Afterwards, the collaborative relations are discussed for the changes in the lower forebody angle and elevon area. Furthermore, a flight control law is designed to guarantee flight stability while implementing the collaborative deformation, and the morphing results are evaluated based on the control-oriented idea. Finally, a simulation example is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods for the hypersonic waverider. Yanbin Liu and Yuping Lu Copyright © 2015 Yanbin Liu and Yuping Lu. All rights reserved. Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Alterations of Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Treated with Amlodipine/Benazepril or Valsartan/Hydrochlorothiazide Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:58:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/780743/ Background. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with sympathetic activation. However, the effects of BDNF on diabetic nephropathy are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) and changes in serum BDNF levels in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with antihypertensive medications. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, type 2 diabetic subjects with hypertension were assigned to either the benazepril/amlodipine or valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment groups for a 16-week period. The post hoc analyses were based on increased or decreased serum BDNF levels. Results. Of the 153 enrolled subjects, the changes in eGFR were significantly and inversely correlated with those in BDNF in the 76 subjects treated with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (, ) but not in the 77 subjects treated with benazepril/amlodipine (, ). The 45 subjects with increased BDNF following valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment exhibited a significantly reduced eGFR ( mL/min/1.73 m2; ). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increased serum BDNF represents an independent factor for reduced eGFR (95% confidence interval between −0.887 and −0.076, ). Conclusions. Increased serum BDNF is associated with reduced eGFR in type 2 diabetic subjects treated with valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide but not with amlodipine/benazepril. I-Te Lee, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Yi-Jen Hung, Jung-Fu Chen, Chih-Yuan Wang, and Wen-Jane Lee Copyright © 2015 I-Te Lee et al. All rights reserved. ACOustic: A Nature-Inspired Exploration Indicator for Ant Colony Optimization Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:53:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/392345/ A statistical machine learning indicator, ACOustic, is proposed to evaluate the exploration behavior in the iterations of ant colony optimization algorithms. This idea is inspired by the behavior of some parasites in their mimicry to the queens’ acoustics of their ant hosts. The parasites’ reaction results from their ability to indicate the state of penetration. The proposed indicator solves the problem of robustness that results from the difference of magnitudes in the distance’s matrix, especially when combinatorial optimization problems with rugged fitness landscape are applied. The performance of the proposed indicator is evaluated against the existing indicators in six variants of ant colony optimization algorithms. Instances for travelling salesman problem and quadratic assignment problem are used in the experimental evaluation. The analytical results showed that the proposed indicator is more informative and more robust. Rafid Sagban, Ku Ruhana Ku-Mahamud, and Muhamad Shahbani Abu Bakar Copyright © 2015 Rafid Sagban et al. All rights reserved. On Unique Continuation for Navier-Stokes Equations Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:51:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/597946/ We study the unique continuation properties of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. We take advantage of rotation transformation of the Navier-Stokes equations to prove the “logarithmic convexity” of certain quantities, which measure the suitable Gaussian decay at infinity to obtain the Gaussian decay weighted estimates, as well as Carleman inequality. As a consequence we obtain sufficient conditions on the behavior of the solution at two different times and which guarantee the “global” unique continuation of solutions for the Navier-Stokes equations. Zhiwen Duan, Shuxia Han, and Peipei Sun Copyright © 2015 Zhiwen Duan et al. All rights reserved. Myofibroma of the Gingiva: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:51:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/243894/ Myofibromas are benign uncommon fibroblastic tumors of the soft tissue, bone, or internal organs affecting all ages. These lesions histopathologically may mimic many other soft tissue tumors of the oral cavity such as spindle cell tumors of neurogenic and smooth muscle cell origin, thus leading to misdiagnosis and mistreatment. This case report describes a rare benign tumor, which presented as a soft tissue swelling on posterior gingiva. Surgical excision of the lesion was carried out under local anaesthesia. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination confirmed the diagnosis of myofibroma. Myofibroma should be included in the clinical differential diagnosis of masses of the oral soft tissues; however immunohistochemical examination is essential to establish an accurate diagnosis. Vaishali Narayen, Syed Afroz Ahmed, Charu Suri, and Shahela Tanveer Copyright © 2015 Vaishali Narayen et al. All rights reserved. Due-Window Assignment Scheduling with Variable Job Processing Times Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:50:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/740750/ We consider a common due-window assignment scheduling problem jobs with variable job processing times on a single machine, where the processing time of a job is a function of its position in a sequence (i.e., learning effect) or its starting time (i.e., deteriorating effect). The problem is to determine the optimal due-windows, and the processing sequence simultaneously to minimize a cost function includes earliness, tardiness, the window location, window size, and weighted number of tardy jobs. We prove that the problem can be solved in polynomial time. Yu-Bin Wu and Ping Ji Copyright © 2015 Yu-Bin Wu and Ping Ji. All rights reserved. Current Challenges in Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis as Potential Biomarkers of Cancer Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:47:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2015/981458/ An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial in reducing mortality among people suffering from cancer. There is a lack of characteristic early clinical symptoms in most forms of cancer, which highlights the importance of investigating new methods for its early detection. One of the most promising methods is the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are a diverse group of carbon-based chemicals that are present in exhaled breath and biofluids and may be collected from the headspace of these matrices. Different patterns of VOCs have been correlated with various diseases, cancer among them. Studies have also shown that cancer cells in vitro produce or consume specific VOCs that can serve as potential biomarkers that differentiate them from noncancerous cells. This review identifies the current challenges in the investigation of VOCs as potential cancer biomarkers, by the critical evaluation of available matrices for the in vivo and in vitro approaches in this field and by comparison of the main extraction and detection techniques that have been applied to date in this area of study. It also summarises complementary in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro studies conducted to date in order to try to identify volatile biomarkers of cancer. Kamila Schmidt and Ian Podmore Copyright © 2015 Kamila Schmidt and Ian Podmore. All rights reserved. Resampling to Speed Up Consolidation of Point Clouds Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:43:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/646410/ Processing of large-scale scattered point clouds has currently become a hot topic in the field of computer graphics research. A supposedly valid tool in producing a set of denoised, outlier-free, and evenly distributed particles over the original point clouds, Weighted Locally Optimal Projection (WLOP) algorithm, has been used in the consolidation of unorganized 3D point clouds by many researchers. However, the algorithm is considered relatively ineffective, due to the large amount of the point clouds data and the iteration calculation. In this paper, a resampling method applied to the point set of 3D model, which significantly improves the computing speed of the WLOP algorithm. In order to measure the impact of error, which will increase with the improvement of calculation efficiency, on the accuracy of the algorithm, we define two quantitative indicators, that is, the projection error and uniformity of distribution. The performance of our method will be evaluated by using both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Our experimental validation demonstrates that this method greatly improves calculating efficiency, notwithstanding the slightly reduced projection accuracy in comparison to WLOP. Huanyu Yang, Kuangrong Hao, and Yongsheng Ding Copyright © 2015 Huanyu Yang et al. All rights reserved. The Changing Spectrum of Surgically Treated Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:39:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/791704/ Introduction. While the incidence of pancreatic cystic lesions has steadily increased, we sought to evaluate the changes in their surgical management. Methods. Patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013 were identified. Clinicopathologic factors were analyzed and compared to a similar cohort from 1992 to 2002. Results. There were 134 patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013, compared to 73 from 1992 to 2002. The most common preoperative imaging was a CT scan, although 66% underwent EUS and 63% underwent biopsy. Pathology included 18 serous, 47 mucinous, 11 pseudopapillary, and 58 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). In comparing cohorts, there were significantly fewer serous lesions and more IPMN. Postoperative complication rates were similar, and perioperative mortality rates were comparable. Conclusion. There has been a dramatic change in surgically treated pancreatic cystic tumors over the past two decades. Our data suggests that the incorporation of new imaging and diagnostic tests has led to greater detection of cystic tumors and a decreased rate of potentially unnecessary resections. Therefore, all patients with cystic pancreatic lesions should undergo a focused CT-pancreas, and an EUS biopsy should be considered, in order to best select those that would benefit from surgical resection. Jennifer K. Plichta, Jacqueline A. Brosius, Sam G. Pappas, Gerard J. Abood, and Gerard V. Aranha Copyright © 2015 Jennifer K. Plichta et al. All rights reserved. Establishment of MDCK Stable Cell Lines Expressing TMPRSS2 and MSPL and Their Applications in Propagating Influenza Vaccine Viruses in Absence of Exogenous Trypsin Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:38:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/btri/2015/402628/ We established two Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines stably expressing human airway transmembrane protease: transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and mosaic serine protease large form (MSPL) which support multicycle growth of two H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) recombinant vaccines (Re-5 and Re-6) and an H9 avian influenza virus (AIV) recombinant vaccine (Re-9) in the absence of trypsin. Data showed that the cell lines stably expressed TMPRSS2 and MSPL after 20 serial passages. Both MDCK-TMPRSS2 and MDCK-MSPL could proteolytically cleave the HA of Re-5, Re-6, and Re-9 and supported high-titer growth of the vaccine without exogenous trypsin. Re-5, Re-6, and Re-9 efficiently infected and replicated within MDCK-TMPRSS2 and MDCK-MSPL cells and viral titer were comparable to the virus grown in MDCK cells with TPCK-trypsin. Thus, our results indicate a potential application for these cell lines in cell-based influenza vaccine production and may serve as a useful tool for HA proteolytic cleavage-related studies. Zhiyuan Wen, Chao Wu, Weiye Chen, Xianying Zeng, Jianzhong Shi, Jinying Ge, Hualan Chen, and Zhigao Bu Copyright © 2015 Zhiyuan Wen et al. All rights reserved. Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Effects of Magnetic Field Treatment on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seedlings Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:27:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2015/570190/ Magnetic field treatments have been utilized to promote germination and growth of a variety of species of plants; however the mechanism of concern has not been fully elucidated. In this research, wheat seedlings were treated with 500 mT and 1500 mT static magnetic field (SMF) for 10 and 20 min, respectively. Analyzing Fourier transform infrared spectra collected from leaves of seedlings showed that SMF treatments decreased the contents of lipids and proteins, shifted bands to higher wavenumbers in 3000–2800 cm−1 regions, and increased the ratio of CH2/CH3 which likely indicates a structural variation of lipids. For bands assigned to different second structures of proteins, slight bands shifting and changing the ratio of different second structures of proteins were observed due to SMF treatments. To summarize, the results revealed that lipids rather than proteins were sensitive to SMF treatments. The results provided insight into the SMF induced conformational changes of lipids and proteins in wheat leaves, which will help elucidate the biological mechanisms of SMF on plant growth and development. Zhenlin Wei, Dejie Jiao, and Junxiao Xu Copyright © 2015 Zhenlin Wei et al. All rights reserved. Stability Evaluation on Surrounding Rocks of Underground Powerhouse Based on Microseismic Monitoring Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:26:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/937181/ To study the stability of underground powerhouse at Houziyan hydropower station during excavation, a microseismic monitoring system is adopted. Based on the space-time distribution characteristics of microseismic events during excavation of the main powerhouse, the correlation between microseismic events and blasting construction is established; and the microseismic clustering areas of the underground powerhouse are identified and delineated. The FLAC3D code is used to simulate the deformation of main powerhouse. The simulated deformation characteristics are consistent with that recorded by microseismic monitoring. Finally, the correlation between the macroscopic deformation of surrounding rock mass and microseismic activities is also revealed. The results show that multiple faults between 1# and 3# bus tunnels are activated during excavation of floors V and VI of the main powerhouse. The comprehensive method combining microseismic monitoring with numerical simulation as well as routine monitoring can provide an effective way to evaluate the surrounding rock mass stability of underground caverns. Feng Dai, Biao Li, Nuwen Xu, Yongguo Zhu, and Peiwei Xiao Copyright © 2015 Feng Dai et al. All rights reserved. Architecture and Implementation of a Scalable Sensor Data Storage and Analysis System Using Cloud Computing and Big Data Technologies Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:23:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2015/834217/ Sensors are becoming ubiquitous. From almost any type of industrial applications to intelligent vehicles, smart city applications, and healthcare applications, we see a steady growth of the usage of various types of sensors. The rate of increase in the amount of data produced by these sensors is much more dramatic since sensors usually continuously produce data. It becomes crucial for these data to be stored for future reference and to be analyzed for finding valuable information, such as fault diagnosis information. In this paper we describe a scalable and distributed architecture for sensor data collection, storage, and analysis. The system uses several open source technologies and runs on a cluster of virtual servers. We use GPS sensors as data source and run machine-learning algorithms for data analysis. Galip Aydin, Ibrahim Riza Hallac, and Betul Karakus Copyright © 2015 Galip Aydin et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:22:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/505914/ Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (), cross-resistance to β-lactams () and multiple resistance (). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (), penicillin + ampicillin (), penicillin + aztreonam (), and ampicillin (). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains () was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline. Renata Albuquerque Costa, Rayza Lima Araújo, Oscarina Viana Souza, and Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes Vieira Copyright © 2015 Renata Albuquerque Costa et al. All rights reserved. Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome in Double-Hit Lymphoma Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:21:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/249891/ Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a painful condition characterized by hemicranial pain, retroorbital pain, loss of vision, oculomotor nerve paralysis, and sensory loss in distribution of ophthalmic and maxillary division of trigeminal nerve. Lymphomas rarely involve cavernous sinus and simulate Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Here we present a first case of double-hit B cell lymphoma (DHL) relapsing and masquerading as Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. The neurological findings were explained by a lymphomatous infiltration of the right Gasserian ganglion which preceded systemic relapse. As part of this report, the diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome and double-hit lymphoma are reviewed and updated treatment recommendations are presented. Prakash Peddi, Kevin M. Gallagher, Chandrikha Chandrasekharan, Qi Wang, Eduardo Gonzalez-Toledo, Binu S. Nair, Reinhold Munker, Glenn M. Mills, and Nebu V. Koshy Copyright © 2015 Prakash Peddi et al. All rights reserved. Boundedness of Stochastic Delay Differential Systems with Impulsive Control and Impulsive Disturbance Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:16:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/707069/ This paper considers the -moment boundedness of nonlinear impulsive stochastic delay differential systems (ISDDSs). Using the Lyapunov-Razumikhin method and stochastic analysis techniques, we obtain sufficient conditions which guarantee the -moment boundedness of ISDDSs. Two cases are considered, one is that the stochastic delay differential system (SDDS) may not be bounded, and how an impulsive strategy should be taken to make the SDDS be bounded. The other is that the SDDS is bounded, and an impulsive disturbance appears in this SDDS, then what restrictions on the impulsive disturbance should be adopted to maintain the boundedness of the SDDS. Our results provide sufficient criteria for these two cases. At last, two examples are given to illustrate the correctness of our results. Liming Wang, Baoqing Yang, Xiaohua Ding, and Kai-Ning Wu Copyright © 2015 Liming Wang et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of Natural Phenolic Compounds on Aspergillus parasiticus Growth Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:51:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/547925/ Considering the impact of Aspergillus species on crops, it appears to be highly desirable to apply strategies to prevent their growth, as well as to eliminate or reduce their presence in food products. For this reason, the aims of this investigation were to evaluate the effects of ten natural phenolic compounds on the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and to determine which physicochemical properties are involved in the antifungal activity. According to the results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the individual compounds, isoeugenol, carvacrol, and thymol were the most active phenolic components (1.26 mM, 1.47 mM, and 1.50 mM, resp.), followed by eugenol (2.23 mM). On the other hand, creosol, p-cresol, o-cresol, m-cresol, vanillin, and phenol had no effects on fungal development. Logarithm of the octanol/water partition coefficient (log P), refractivity index (RI), and molar volume (MV) were demonstrated to be the descriptors that best explained the antifungal activity correlated to lipophilicity, reactivity of the components, and steric aspect. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds with antifungal activity. Romina P. Pizzolitto, Carla L. Barberis, José S. Dambolena, Jimena M. Herrera, María P. Zunino, Carina E. Magnoli, Héctor R. Rubinstein, Julio A. Zygadlo, and Ana M. Dalcero Copyright © 2015 Romina P. Pizzolitto et al. All rights reserved. Two Cases of Primary Cold Agglutinin Disease Associated with Megaloblastic Anemia Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:44:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2015/913795/ We report two cases of primary cold agglutinin disease (CAD) associated with megaloblastic anemia in Japanese elderly patients. Case 1 was a 67-year-old male and Case 2 was a 55-year-old male. Both patients were diagnosed with primary CAD, with continuously high cold agglutinin titers (1 : >8,192 and 1 : 16,834, resp.), monoclonal IgM-kappa light chains, and no underlying disease. In addition, both patients had megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency. One patient received rituximab and both received vitamin 12 supplementation. To date, no cooccurrence of primary CAD and megaloblastic anemia has been emphasized. Thus, the association of these hematological diseases may be incidental; however, given that CAD is an autoimmune disease which may show antibodies against intrinsic factor and gastric parietal cells, this association was thought to be probably not a coincidence. Clinicians should be aware of the possible simultaneous presence of autoimmune hemolytic/megaloblastic anemia in patients with primary CAD. Shinsaku Imashuku, Naoko Kudo, Katsushige Takagishi, and Katsuyasu Saigo Copyright © 2015 Shinsaku Imashuku et al. All rights reserved. Induced Second Trimester Abortion and Associated Factors in Amhara Region Referral Hospitals Mon, 30 Mar 2015 10:18:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/256534/ Background. Although the vast majority of abortions are performed in the first trimester, still 10–15% of terminations of pregnancies have taken place in the second trimester period globally. As compared to first trimester, second trimester abortions are disproportionately contribute for maternal morbidity and mortality especially in low-resource countries where access to safe second trimester abortion is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of induced second trimester abortion in Amhara region referral hospitals, northwest Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referral hospitals among 416 women who sought abortion services. Participants were selected using systematic sampling technique. Data were collected using pretested structured questionnaire through interviewing. After the data were entered and analyzed; variables which have value < 0.2 in bivariate analysis, not colinear, were entered into multiple logistic regressions to see the net effect with 95% CI and value < 0.05. Results. The prevalence of induced second trimester abortion was 19.2%. Being rural (AOR = 1.86 [95% CI = 1.11–3.14]), having irregular menstrual cycle (AOR = 1.76 [95% CI = 1.03–2.98]), not recognizing their pregnancy at early time (AOR = 2.05 [95% CI = 1.21–3.48]), and having logistics related problems (AOR = 2.37 [95% CI = 1.02–5.53]) were found to have statistically significant association with induced second trimester abortion. Conclusion. Induced second trimester abortion is high despite the availability of first trimester abortion services. Therefore, increase accessibility and availability of safe second trimester abortion services below referral level, counseling and logistical support are helpful to minimize late abortions. Amlaku Mulat, Hinsermu Bayu, Habtamu Mellie, and Amare Alemu Copyright © 2015 Amlaku Mulat et al. All rights reserved.