Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Extension of Matched Asymptotic Method to Fractional Boundary Layers Problems Thu, 20 Nov 2014 14:07:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/107535/ We were concerned with the description of the boundary layers problems within the scope of fractional calculus. However, we will note that one of the main methods used to solve these problems is the matched asymptotic method. We should mention that this was not achievable via the existing fractional derivative definitions, because they do not obey the chain rule. In order to accommodate the matched asymptotic method to the scope of fractional derivative, we proposed a relatively new derivative called the beta-derivative. We presented some useful information for this operator. With the reward of this operator, we presented the idea of matched asymptotic method in finding solutions of the fractional boundary layers problems. The method was illustrated with an example. Abdon Atangana and Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo Copyright © 2014 Abdon Atangana and Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo. All rights reserved. Synthesis Antimicrobial and Anticancer Evaluation of 1-Aryl-5-(o-methoxyphenyl)-2-S-benzyl Isothiobiurets Thu, 20 Nov 2014 13:46:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmc/2014/352626/ A series of S-benzyl aryl thiourea were condensed with o-Methoxy phenyl isocyanate to yield respective isothiobiuret derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, IR, and Mass Spectral studies and tested for biological activities. Mohammed M. Ansari, Shirish P. Deshmukh, Rizwan Khan, and Mohammed Musaddiq Copyright © 2014 Mohammed M. Ansari et al. All rights reserved. Approximate Generalized Cubic -Derivations Thu, 20 Nov 2014 13:38:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2014/757956/ We will show the general solution of the functional equation = and investigate the stability of cubic -derivations associated with the given functional equation on Banach -algebras. Heejeong Koh and Dongseung Kang Copyright © 2014 Heejeong Koh and Dongseung Kang. All rights reserved. Diversity of Bacterial Photosymbionts in Lubomirskiidae Sponges from Lake Baikal Thu, 20 Nov 2014 13:22:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbd/2014/152097/ Sponges are permanent benthos residents which establish complex associations with a variety of microorganisms that raise interest in the nature of sponge-symbionts interactions. A molecular approach, based on the identification of the 16S rRNA and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit genes, was applied to investigate diversity and phylogeny of bacterial phototrophs associated with four species of Lubomirskiidae in Lake Baikal. The phylogeny inferred from both genes showed three main clusters of Synechococcus associated with Baikalian sponges. One of the clusters belonged to the cosmopolitan Synechococcus rubescens group and the two other were not related to any of the assigned phylogenetic groups but placed as sister clusters to S. rubescens. These results expanded the understanding of freshwater sponge-associated photoautotroph diversity and suggested that the three phylogenetic groups of Synechococcus are common photosynthetic symbionts in Lubomirskiidae sponges. Nina V. Kulakova, Natalia N. Denikina, and Sergei I. Belikov Copyright © 2014 Nina V. Kulakova et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Fertilizer Types on the Growth and Yield of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin, Southern Guinea, Savanna Zone of Nigeria Thu, 20 Nov 2014 13:03:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aag/2014/947062/ Field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Kwara State University, Malete, Ilorin, to evaluate the effect of compost, organomineral, and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of Amaranthus caudatus as well as its residual effects. Amaranthus was grown with compost Grade B (unamended compost), organomineral fertilizer Grade A (compost amended with mineral fertilizer), and NPK 15-15-15 and no fertilizer (control). All the treatments except control were applied at the rate of 100 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the Amaranthus yield of 18.9 t/ha produced from Grade A was significantly () higher than 17.6 t/ha obtained from NPK fertilizer. Residual effect of Amaranthus growth parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, and yield values obtained from Grade A was also significantly () higher than that of NPK, compost, and control values. Thus, organomineral fertilizer could be used in cultivation of Amaranthus caudatus in Ilorin and in similar type of soil in similar agroecology. Olowoake Adebayo Abayomi and Ojo James Adebayo Copyright © 2014 Olowoake Adebayo Abayomi and Ojo James Adebayo. All rights reserved. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:56:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/923859/ The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. Abdelghani Bouras, Mageed A. Ghaleb, Umar S. Suryahatmaja, and Ahmed M. Salem Copyright © 2014 Abdelghani Bouras et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Tropical Cyclones’ Characteristic Factors on Hainan Island Using Data Mining Technology Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:55:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2014/735491/ A new methodology combining data mining technology with statistical methods is proposed for the prediction of tropical cyclones’ characteristic factors which contain latitude, longitude, the lowest center pressure, and wind speed. In the proposed method, the best track datasets in the years 1949~2012 are used for prediction. Using the method, effective criterions are formed to judge whether tropical cyclones land on Hainan Island or not. The highest probability of accurate judgment can reach above 79%. With regard to TCs which are judged to land on Hainan Island, related prediction equations are established to effectively predict their characteristic factors. Results show that the average distance error is improved compared with the National Meteorological Centre of China. Ruixu Zhou, Wensheng Gao, Bowen Zhang, Xianggan Fu, Qinzhu Chen, Song Huang, and Yafeng Liang Copyright © 2014 Ruixu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. mTOR Signaling in Protein Translation Regulation: Implications in Cancer Genesis and Therapeutic Interventions Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:51:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mbi/2014/686984/ mTOR is a central nutrient sensor that signals a cell to grow and proliferate. Through distinct protein complexes it regulates different levels of available cellular energy substrates required for cell growth. One of the important functions of the complex is to maintain available amino acid pool by regulating protein translation. Dysregulation of mTOR pathway leads to aberrant protein translation which manifests into various pathological states. Our review focuses on the role mTOR signaling plays in protein translation and its physiological role. It also throws some light on available data that show translation dysregulation as a cause of pathological complexities like cancer and the available drugs that target the pathway for cancer treatment. Mehvish Showkat, Mushtaq A. Beigh, and Khurshid I. Andrabi Copyright © 2014 Mehvish Showkat et al. All rights reserved. Invariant Surfaces under Hyperbolic Translations in Hyperbolic Space Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:27:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/838564/ We consider hyperbolic rotation (), hyperbolic translation (), and horocyclic rotation () groups in , which is called Minkowski model of hyperbolic space. Then, we investigate extrinsic differential geometry of invariant surfaces under subgroups of in . Also, we give explicit parametrization of these invariant surfaces with respect to constant hyperbolic curvature of profile curves. Finally, we obtain some corollaries for flat and minimal invariant surfaces which are associated with de Sitter and hyperbolic shape operator in . Mahmut Mak and Baki Karlığa Copyright © 2014 Mahmut Mak and Baki Karlığa. All rights reserved. Familial Pancreatic Cancer: The Case for Prophylactic Pancreatectomy in Lieu of Serial Screening and Shared Decision Making Thu, 20 Nov 2014 12:21:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2014/737183/ At-risk family members with familial pancreatic cancer (FCaP) face uncertainty regarding the individual risk of developing pancreatic cancer (CaP) and whether to choose serial screening or prophylactic pancreatectomy to avoid CaP. We treated 2 at-risk siblings with a history of FCaP, congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF), and jaundice secondary to a bile duct stricture. In one, a pancreaticoduodenal resection was done and in the second a total pancreatectomy. Malignancy was not present, but extensive pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIn) 2 was present throughout both pancreata. The clinical course and literature review are presented along with the previously unreported association of CHF and CaP. Mazen E. Iskandar, Michael G. Wayne, Justin G. Steele, and Avram M. Cooperman Copyright © 2014 Mazen E. Iskandar et al. All rights reserved. Teaching Cell Biology in Primary Schools Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:55:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2014/272475/ Basic concepts of cell biology are essential for scientific literacy. However, because many aspects of cell theory and cell functioning are quite abstract, students experience difficulties understanding them. In this study, we investigated whether diverse teaching resources such as the use of replicas of Leeuwenhoek’s microscope, visualization of cells using an optical microscope, construction of three-dimensional cell models, and reading of a comic book about cells could mitigate the difficulties encountered when teaching cell biology to 8th-grade primary school students. The results suggest that these didactic activities improve students’ ability to learn concrete concepts about cell biology, such as the composition of living beings, growth, and cicatrization. Also, the development of skills was observed, as, for example, the notion of cell size. However, no significant improvements were observed in students’ ability to learn about abstract topics, such as the structures of subcellular organelles and their functions. These results suggest that many students in this age have not yet concluded Piaget’s concrete operational stage, indicating that the concepts required for the significant learning of abstract subjects need to be explored more thoroughly in the process of designing programs that introduce primary school students to cell biology. Francele de Abreu Carlan, Lenira Maria Nunes Sepel, and Elgion Lucio Silva Loreto Copyright © 2014 Francele de Abreu Carlan et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Leaves in Rat Models of Oral Mucositis Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:54:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/345939/ Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score was observed in the treatment groups. Significant improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. Alkesh Patel, Subhankar Biswas, Muhammed Haneefa Shoja, Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, and K. Nandakumar Copyright © 2014 Alkesh Patel et al. All rights reserved. Balloon Occlusion Types in the Treatment of Coronary Perforation during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:54:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crp/2014/784018/ Coronary artery perforation is an uncommon complication in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, pericardial tamponade following coronary artery perforation may be lethal, and prompt treatment is crucial in managing such patients. Balloon occlusion and the reversal of anticoagulant activity are the common methods used to prevent cardiac tamponade by reducing the amount of bleeding. Herein, we discuss the pros and cons of currently used occlusion types for coronary perforation. Optimal balloon occlusion methods should reduce the amount of bleeding and ameliorate subsequent myocardial ischemia injury, even during cardiac surgery. Xiangfei Wang and Junbo Ge Copyright © 2014 Xiangfei Wang and Junbo Ge. All rights reserved. Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor in Brain Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:53:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2014/295253/ The incidence of brain metastases for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is reportedly 1.5~5%, and the origin is usually pulmonary. A 77-year-old man presented to our hospital with headache and disturbance of specific skilled motor activities. Computed tomography (CT) showed a massive neoplastic lesion originating in the left temporal and parietal lobes that caused a mass edematous effect. Grossly, total resection of the tumor was achieved. Histological examination revealed much nuclear atypia and mitotic figures. Staining for CD56, chromogranin A, and synaptophysin was positive, indicating NET. The MIB-1 index was 37%. Histopathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as NET. After surgery, gastroscopy and colonoscopy were performed, but the origin was not seen. After discharge, CT and FDG-PET (fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography) were performed every 3 months. Two years later we have not determined the origin of the tumor. It is possible that the brain is the primary site of this NET. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of this phenomenon. Ryota Tamura, Yoshiaki Kuroshima, and Yoshiki Nakamura Copyright © 2014 Ryota Tamura et al. All rights reserved. Healthcare Waste Management: Qualitative and Quantitative Appraisal of Nurses in a Tertiary Care Hospital of India Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:49:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/935101/ Background. The nurse’s role in healthcare waste management is crucial. Objectives. (1) To appraise nurses quantitatively and qualitatively regarding healthcare waste management; (2) to elicit the determinants of knowledge and attitudes of healthcare waste management. Method. A cross-sectional study was undertaken at a tertiary care hospital of Mangalore, India. Self-administered pretested questionnaire and “nonparticipatory observation” were used for quantitative and qualitative appraisals. Percentage knowledge score was calculated based on their total knowledge score. Nurses’ knowledge was categorized as excellent (70%), good (50–70%), and poor (50%). Chi square test was applied to judge the association of study variables with their attitudes and knowledge. Results. Out of 100 nurses 47 had excellent knowledge (70% score). Most (86%) expressed the need of refresher training. No study variable displayed significant association with knowledge. Apt segregation practices were followed except in casualty. Patients and entourages misinterpreted the colored containers. Conclusion. Nurses’ knowledge and healthcare waste management practices were not satisfactory. There is a need of refresher trainings at optimum intervals to ensure sustainability and further improvement. Educating patients and their entourages and display of segregation information board in local language are recommended. Siddharudha Shivalli and Vasudha Sanklapur Copyright © 2014 Siddharudha Shivalli and Vasudha Sanklapur. All rights reserved. Structural, Microhardness, Photoconductivity, and Dielectric Properties of Tris(thiourea) Cadmium Sulphate Single Crystals Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:48:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jssp/2014/153272/ Semiorganic nonlinear optical tris(thiourea) cadmium sulphate (TTCS) single crystals were grown by slow evaporation method. The crystal system, cell parameter of the grown crystal, was identified by powder X-ray diffraction study. The self-focusing -scan technique has been employed to observe the third-order nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was examined by using Vicker’s microhardness test. Chemical etching studies were made on the TTCS crystal using water as an etchant. The dark current and photocurrent properties of the crystal were estimated by using photoconductivity study. The dielectric constant of grown crystal was studied in different temperature by varying applied frequencies. A. P. Arthi, M. Sumithra Devi, and K. Thamizharasan Copyright © 2014 A. P. Arthi et al. All rights reserved. A Flexible Monopole Antenna with Dual-Notched Band Function for Ultrawideband Applications Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:45:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/546064/ We present a flexible ultrawideband (UWB) planar monopole antenna with dual-notched band characteristic printed on a polyimide substrate. The antenna is fed by a step coplanar waveguide (CPW) that provides smooth transitional impedance for improved matching. It operates from 2.76 to 10.6 GHz with return loss greater than 10 dB except for the notch band to reduce the interference with existing 3.5 GHz WiMAX band and 5.5 GHz WLAN band. With a combination of rectangular and circle patches in which the U-shaped slot is carved, the overall size of antenna is 30 mm × 20 mm. Moreover, a pair of arc-shaped stubs located at both sides of the feed line is utilized to create the notch band for WiMAX band. The results also show that the antenna has omnidirectional radiation pattern and smooth gain over the entire operational band. Xiaoyan Zhang and Guohao Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaoyan Zhang and Guohao Wang. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of Hematite Particles in a “Nanomedusa” Morphology Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/902968/ We present the synthesis, characterization, and magnetic properties of hematite particles in a peculiar “nanomedusa” morphology. The particles were prepared from an iron-silica complex by a hydrothermal process in a solution consisting of ethyl acetate and ethanol. The particles’ morphology, structure, and chemical composition were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer. The “hairy” particles consist of a spherical-like core of about 100 nm diameter and fibrous exterior composed of thin “legs” of 5 nm diameter grown along one preferential direction. The particles’ cores are crystalline and undergo a magnetic phase transition to a weakly ferromagnetic state at a temperature of 930 K that matches reasonably the Néel temperature of bulk hematite. However, unlike bulk hematite that undergoes Morin transition to an antiferromagnetic state around room temperature and small hematite nanoparticles that are superparamagnetic, the “nanomedusa” particles remain weakly ferromagnetic down to the lowest investigated temperature of 2 K. Each particle thus represents a nanodimensional “hairy” ferromagnet in a very broad temperature interval, extending much above the room temperature. Such high-temperature ferromagnetic nanoparticles are not frequently found among the nanomaterials. Jin Bae Lee, Hae Jin Kim, Janez Lužnik, Andreja Jelen, Damir Pajić, Magdalena Wencka, Zvonko Jagličić, Anton Meden, and Janez Dolinšek Copyright © 2014 Jin Bae Lee et al. All rights reserved. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:43:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2014/717419/ Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. Daniel de Sousa Michels, Amanda da Mota Silveira Rodrigues, Márcio Nakanishi, André Luiz Lopes Sampaio, and Alessandra Ramos Venosa Copyright © 2014 Daniel de Sousa Michels et al. All rights reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis as a First versus Second Option after Previous Haemodialysis: A Very Long-Term Assessment Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:40:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2014/693670/ For renal replacement therapy, overall survival is more important than the choice of currently available individual therapy. Objectives. To compare patients and technique survival on peritoneal dialysis as first treatment (PDF) versus after previous haemodialysis (HDPD) and other indicators of follow-up. Methods. We prospectively studied 110 incident patients, during the period from August 4, 1993, to June 30, 2012, for patients and technique survival (Kaplan-Meier) (log rank ). Results. Groups: (A) PDF: 37 patients, 24 females, age: 52.2 ± 14.9 years old, time at risk: 2123 patient-months (p/m), mean: 57 ± 42 months; (B) HDPD: 73 patients, 42 females, age: 52.45 ± 14.7 years old, time in haemodialysis: 3569.2 (p/m), range: 3–216 months, mean: 49 ± 45 months, time at risk in PD: 3700 (p/m), mean: 51 ± 49 months. Patients’ survival: (A) PDF: 100%, 76.6%, 65.6%, and 19.7%; (B) HDPD: 95.4%, 65.6%, 43%, and 43% at 12, 60, 120, and 144 months, respectively, . Technique: (A) PDF: 100%, 90%, 59.8%, and 24%; (B) HDPD: 94%, 75%, 32%, and 32% at 12, 60, 120, and 144 months, respectively, . Conclusions. Comparable patient and technique survival were observed. Peritoneal dialysis enables a greater extension of renal replacement therapy for patients with serious difficulties continuing with haemodialysis. Roberto José Barone, María Inés Cámpora, Nélida Susana Gimenez, Liliana Ramirez, Sergio Alberto Panese, and Mónica Santopietro Copyright © 2014 Roberto José Barone et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 Alpha and the Vitamin D Receptor in Mexican Mestizo Patients with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:40:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/302568/ Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Several conditions, such as occupational activities, gender, age, and obesity, have been associated with IDD. However, the development of this disease has strong genetic determinants. In this study, we explore the possible association between rs1800587 (c.-949C>T) of interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and rs2228570 (c.2T>V) and rs731236 (c.1056T>C) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the development of IDD in northwestern Mexican Mestizo population. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by age and gender: patients with symptomatic lumbar IDD and subjects with normal lumbar-spine MRI-scans . Distribution of the mutated alleles in patients and controls was 27.0% versus 28.0% for T of rs1800587 (IL1A); 53.0% versus 58.0% for V of rs2228570 (VDR); and 18.0% versus 21.0% for C of rs731236 (VDR). Our results showed no association between the studied polymorphisms and IDD in this population. This is the first report on the contribution of gene polymorphisms on IDD in a Mexican population. Salvador Cervin Serrano, Dalia González Villareal, Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Jose Guillermo Romero-Navarro, Jose Geovanni Romero Quintana, Eliakym Arámbula Meraz, Ignacio Osuna Ramírez, Veronica Picos-Cárdenas, Julio Granados, Iris Estrada-García, Guzman Sánchez-Schmitz, and Rosalío Ramos-Payán Copyright © 2014 Salvador Cervin Serrano et al. All rights reserved. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:38:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crig/2014/946010/ Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis. Sun-Mi Cho, Bo Young Hong, Yoonjung Kim, Sang Guk Lee, Jin-Young Yang, Juwon Kim, and Kyung-A Lee Copyright © 2014 Sun-Mi Cho et al. All rights reserved. Cheating the CHA2DS2-VASc Score: Thromboembolism in Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:34:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2014/189895/ Atrial fibrillation increases the risk of systemic thromboembolism in general and stroke in particular. Not all patients who develop atrial fibrillation are at significantly heightened risk of thromboembolic complications, however, with the development of risk scoring systems aiding clinicians in determining whether formal anticoagulation is mandated. The most commonly used contemporary scoring systems—CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc—provide a reliable means of assessing stroke risk, but certain cardiac conditions are associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolism without impacting on these risk scores. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, with its apical variant, is such a condition. We present a case of a patient with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial fibrillation who suffered dire thromboembolic consequences despite a reassuringly low CHA2DS2-VASc score and suggest that this scoring system is modified to incorporate the thromboembolic risk inherent to certain cardiomyopathies irrespective of impairment of left ventricular systolic dysfunction or clinical heart failure. Robin A. P. Weir, Nicola MacKenzie, and Colin J. Petrie Copyright © 2014 Robin A. P. Weir et al. All rights reserved. Feature Extraction and Automatic Material Classification of Underground Objects from Ground Penetrating Radar Data Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:12:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2014/347307/ Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a powerful tool for detecting objects buried underground. However, the interpretation of the acquired signals remains a challenging task since an experienced user is required to manage the entire operation. Particularly difficult is the classification of the material type of underground objects in noisy environment. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method. First, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) transforms A-Scan data and approximation coefficients are extracted. Then, fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is used to transform approximation coefficients into fractional domain and we extract features. The features are supplied to the support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to automatically identify underground objects material. Experiment results show that the proposed feature-based SVM system has good performances in classification accuracy compared to statistical and frequency domain feature-based SVM system in noisy environment and the classification accuracy of features proposed in this paper has little relationship with the SVM models. Qingqing Lu, Jiexin Pu, and Zhonghua Liu Copyright © 2014 Qingqing Lu et al. All rights reserved. Transvaginal Appendectomy in Morbidly Obese Patient Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:07:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/368640/ Introduction. Laparoscopic appendectomy has significant benefits in obese patients. However, morbid obesity can be accepted as an exclusion criterion for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Here, we present a transvaginal appendectomy in a 66-year-old morbidly obese (BMI 36 kg/m2, ASA III) patient. Case and Technique. Acute appendicitis was suspected based on history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and ultrasound findings. During laparoscopic surgery, a 5 mm trocar was inserted through the umbilicus and a 5 mm telescope was placed. A 12 mm trocar and a 5 mm grasper were inserted separately through the posterior fornix of the vagina under laparoscopic guidance. The appendix was divided with an endoscopic stapler through the transvaginal 12 mm trocar and removed from the same trocar. The operating time was 75 minutes with minimal blood loss (<10 mL). The patient was discharged 16 hours after surgery uneventfully and she did not require any analgesic administration. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first clinical case that focuses on the transvaginal appendectomy at morbid obesity. We can say that morbid obesity does not constitute an obstacle for treatment of acute appendicitis by transvaginal endoscopic surgery. Mehmet Ali Yagci, Cuneyt Kayaalp, and Mustafa Ates Copyright © 2014 Mehmet Ali Yagci et al. All rights reserved. Intravitreal Aflibercept Outcomes in Patients with Persistent Macular Exudate Previously Treated with Bevacizumab and/or Ranibizumab for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:59:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/497178/ Purpose. To assess whether intravitreal aflibercept (2.0 mg) can effectively reduce persistent macular exudate and enhance visual acuity in ranibizumab (0.5 mg) and/or bevacizumab (1.25 mg) treatment resistant patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods. This retrospective study included 47 treatment resistant eyes from 47 patients switched to intravitreal aflibercept injections after receiving a minimum of 3 injections with either ranibizumab or bevacizumab. Snellen visual acuity and optical coherence tomography were assessed just prior to the first injection (baseline) and prior to the fourth injection (final). Additionally, anatomical regions of persistent macular exudate were tracked to determine if these areas yielded varying responses to aflibercept. Results. At baseline, patients had received an average of 11.3 injections with any prior anti-VEGF drug (SD 5.96). For whole group analysis, baseline and final central retinal thickness were 370.57 µm and 295.7 µm (), respectively. Baseline and final retinal fluid volumes were 4.81 mm3 and 4.37 mm3 (), respectively. Baseline and final logMAR were 0.56 and 0.53 (), respectively. Anatomic location of persistent exudate did not appreciably alter treatment outcome. Conclusion. Central retinal thickness and total retinal fluid volume were reduced in ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab treatment resistant patients following three aflibercept injections. No appreciable change in visual acuity was noted. David R. Griffin, Preston P. Richmond, and John C. Olson Copyright © 2014 David R. Griffin et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Plant Size, Temperature, and Light Intensity on Flowering of Phalaenopsis Hybrids in Mediterranean Greenhouses Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:55:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/420807/ Mediterranean greenhouses for cultivation of Phalaenopsis orchids reproduce the warm, humid, and shaded environment of tropical underbrush. Heating represents the highest production cost, due to the high thermal requirements and the long unproductive phase of juvenility, in which plants attain the critical size for flowering. Our researches aimed to investigate the effect of plant size, temperature, and light intensity, during the phase of flower induction, on flowering of modern genotypes selected for Mediterranean greenhouses. Three experiments were carried out to compare (i) plant size: reduced size versus size considered optimal for flowering (hybrids “Sogo Yukidian,” “Chain Xen Diamond,” and “Pinlong”); (ii) temperature: moderate reduction of temperature versus standard thermal regime (hybrid “Premium”); (iii) light intensity: supplemental lighting versus reference light intensity (hybrid “Premium”). The premature exposure of plants to the inductive treatment delayed the beginning of flowering and reduced the flower stem quality, in all the tested hybrids. In “Premium,” the lower temperature did not affect flowering earliness and commercial quality of flower stems compared to the standard regime, whereas it promoted stem branching. In the same hybrid, supplemental lighting anticipated flowering and promoted the emission of the second stem and the stem branching, compared to the reference light regime. Roberta Paradiso and Stefania De Pascale Copyright © 2014 Roberta Paradiso and Stefania De Pascale. All rights reserved. Dynamic Response of Underground Circular Lining Tunnels Subjected to Incident P Waves Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:48:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/297424/ Dynamic stress concentration in tunnels and underground structures during earthquakes often leads to serious structural damage. A series solution of wave equation for dynamic response of underground circular lining tunnels subjected to incident plane P waves is presented by Fourier-Bessel series expansion method in this paper. The deformation and stress fields of the whole medium of surrounding rock and tunnel were obtained by solving the equations of seismic wave propagation in an elastic half space. Based on the assumption of a large circular arc, a series of solutions for dynamic stress were deduced by using a wave function expansion approach for a circular lining tunnel in an elastic half space rock medium subjected to incident plane P waves. Then, the dynamic response of the circular lining tunnel was obtained by solving a series of algebraic equations after imposing its boundary conditions for displacement and stress of the circular lining tunnel. The effects of different factors on circular lining rock tunnels, including incident frequency, incident angle, buried depth, rock conditions, and lining stiffness, were derived and several application examples are presented. The results may provide a good reference for studies on the dynamic response and aseismic design of tunnels and underground structures. Hua Xu, Tianbin Li, Jingsong Xu, and Yingjun Wang Copyright © 2014 Hua Xu et al. All rights reserved. Alteration of Loperamide-Induced Prostate Relaxation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:47:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/517836/ Objective. To investigate the change of loperamide-induced prostate relaxation in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and Methods. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: (1) control rats fed with normal chow and (2) rats fed with HFD for 6 months. The prostate was removed for histology study. Isolated prostate strips were hung in organ bath and precontracted with 1 μmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. The relaxation responses to loperamide 0.1 to 10 μmol/L were recorded. Western blotting analyses were performed for prostate μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and ATP-sensitive potassium () channel proteins: sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits. Results. Body weight, prostate weight, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol, as well as systolic blood pressure, were significantly increased in the HFD rats. Histology showed prostatic hyperplasia in the HFD rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by loperamide was markedly reduced in HFD when compared to the control. Protein expressions of MOR, SUR, and Kir 6.2 were decreased in HFD-fed rats. Conclusion. Loperamide-induced prostate relaxation is decreased in HFD rats due to reduced MOR and channel expressions. Sheng-Lung Hsu, Hsien-Hui Chung, I-Hung Chen, and Yat-Ching Tong Copyright © 2014 Sheng-Lung Hsu et al. All rights reserved. Plastic Deformation of Metal Tubes Subjected to Lateral Blast Loads Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:23:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/250379/ When subjected to the dynamic load, the behavior of the structures is complex and makes it difficult to describe the process of the deformation. In the paper, an analytical model is presented to analyze the plastic deformation of the steel circular tubes. The aim of the research is to calculate the deflection and the deformation angle of the tubes. A series of assumptions are made to achieve the objective. During the research, we build a mathematical model for simply supported thin-walled metal tubes with finite length. At a specified distance above the tube, a TNT charge explodes and generates a plastic shock wave. The wave can be seen as uniformly distributed over the upper semicircle of the cross-section. The simplified Tresca yield domain can be used to describe the plastic flow of the circular tube. The yield domain together with the plastic flow law and other assumptions can finally lead to the solving of the deflection. In the end, tubes with different dimensions subjected to blast wave induced by the TNT charge are observed in experiments. Comparison shows that the numerical results agree well with experiment observations. Kejian Song, Yuan Long, Chong Ji, and Fuyin Gao Copyright © 2014 Kejian Song et al. All rights reserved. CR TKA UHMWPE Wear Tested after Artificial Aging of the Vitamin E Treated Gliding Component by Simulating Daily Patient Activities Thu, 20 Nov 2014 10:06:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/567374/ The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with  mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods. Jens Schwiesau, Bernhard Fritz, Ines Kutzner, Georg Bergmann, and Thomas M. Grupp Copyright © 2014 Jens Schwiesau et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Anatomy and Kinematics in Asian and Caucasian TKA Patients: Influence on Implant Positioning and Subsequent Loading Conditions in Mobile Bearing Knees Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:58:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/612838/ The objective of our study was to determine the mechanical stress conditions under tibiofemoral loading with an overlay of knee kinematics in deep flexion on two different mobile bearing designs in comparison to in vivo failure modes. This study investigates the seldom but severe complication of fatigue failure of polyethylene components at mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty designs. Assuming a combination of a floor-based lifestyle and tibial malrotation as a possible reason for a higher failure rate in Asian countries we developed a simplified finite element model considering a tibiofemoral roll-back angle of 22° and the range of rotational motion of a clinically established floating platform design (e.motion FP) at a knee flexion angle of 120° in order to compare our results to failure modes found in retrieved implants. Compared to the failure mode observed in the clinical retrievals the locations of the occurring stress maxima as well as the tensile stress distribution show analogies. From our observations, we conclude that the newly introduced finite element model with an overlay of deep knee flexion (lateral roll-back) and considerable internally rotated tibia implant positioning is an appropriate analysis for knee design optimizations and a suitable method to predict clinical failure modes. Allan Maas, Tae Kyun Kim, Rolf K. Miehlke, Thomas Hagen, and Thomas M. Grupp Copyright © 2014 Allan Maas et al. All rights reserved. Age Changes of Jaws and Soft Tissue Profile Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:52:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/301501/ Age-related changes of jaws and soft tissue profile are important both for orthodontists and general dentists. Mouth profile is the area which is manipulated during dental treatment. These changes should be planned in accordance with other components of facial profile to achieve ultimate aim of structural balance, functional efficacy, and esthetic harmony. Through this paper, the authors wish to discuss age changes of the hard and soft tissues of human face which would help not only the orthodontists but also oral surgeons, prosthodontists, pedodontists, and general dentists. Padmaja Sharma, Ankit Arora, and Ashima Valiathan Copyright © 2014 Padmaja Sharma et al. All rights reserved. A Numerical Method for 1-D Parabolic Equation with Nonlocal Boundary Conditions Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcm/2014/923693/ This paper is concerned with a local method for the solution of one-dimensional parabolic equation with nonlocal boundary conditions. The method uses a coordinate transformation. After the coordinate transformation, it is then possible to obtain exact solutions for the resulting equations in terms of the local variables. These exact solutions are in terms of constants of integration that are unknown. By imposing the given boundary conditions and smoothness requirements for the solution, it is possible to furnish a set of linearly independent conditions that can be used to solve for the constants of integration. A number of examples are used to study the applicability of the method. In particular, three nonlinear problems are used to show the novelty of the method. M. Tadi and Miloje Radenkovic Copyright © 2014 M. Tadi and Miloje Radenkovic. All rights reserved. ANCA Associated Vasculitis and Renal Failure Related to Propylthiouracil and Hyperthyroidism Induced Cholestasis in the Same Case Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:41:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/762528/ Introduction. Liver involvement due to hyperthyroidism and also ANCA positive vasculitis related renal failure cases were reported separately several times before. However, to our knowledge, these two complications together in the same case had never been observed before. Case Presentation. The case of an ANCA positive 71-year-old Caucasian male with renal failure and lung involvement, subclinical hyperthyroidism, and intrahepatic cholestatic jaundice was presented in this paper. After exclusion of all of the other possibilities, cholestatic hepatitis was explained by subclinical hyperthyroidism; renal failure and lung involvement were interpreted as ANCA related vasculitis which might be a side effect of propylthiouracil use. Conclusion. The coexistence of these rare conditions in the same patient deserves emphasis and it is worth reporting. This case demonstrates that following the clinical course of the patient is essential after prescribing any medications to see whether any complication occurs or not. If the complications of this case were noticed earlier, it would be possible to treat and to prevent the permanent damages. Mehmet Tuncay, Emine Kivrakoglu, Itir Yegenaga, and Erkan Dervisoglu Copyright © 2014 Mehmet Tuncay et al. All rights reserved. To Evaluate and Explain the Consequences of Abnormal Anal Sphincter Morphology Using the 3-Dimensional Endosonography Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:40:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ara/2014/131032/ The Objective of the Study. To evaluate and explain the consequences of different morphological abnormalities of anal sphincters including the sphincter damage and its extent using the 3-dimensional endosonography. Material and Methods. 56 patients suffering from fecal incontinence all were subjected to analysis of patient symptoms, scoring the severity of symptoms, digital examination, electromyography, and 3D endoanal ultrasonography. Results. 5 patients showed intact anal sphincters and puborectalis muscle. 4 patients found with thick IAS > 4 mm, 4 patients with thin IAS < 2 mm. 3 patients with thin EAS, 12 patients with IAS defects, 15 patients with EAS defects, 8 patients with combined IAS and EAS defects, 2 patients with puborectalis muscle defects and 3 patients with high levels transsphincteric perianal fistulas. Conclusion. No significant relationship was observed between sphincter damage except for combined internal and external sphincter injury and the severity score of FI symptoms. Puborectalis muscle injury and abnormal sphincter thickness are unlikely causes of severe FI. Ashraf Talaat Youssef Copyright © 2014 Ashraf Talaat Youssef. All rights reserved. Perspectives on Employment Integration, Mental Illness and Disability, and Workplace Health Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:35:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aph/2014/258614/ This paper reviews the literature on the interplay between employment integration and retention of individuals diagnosed with mental health and related disability (MHRD). Specifically, the paper addresses the importance of an integrative approach, utilizing a social epidemiological approach to assess various factors that are related to the employment integration of individuals diagnosed with severe mental illness. Our approach to the review incorporates a research methodology that is multilayered, mixed, and contextual. The review examines the literature that aims to unpack employers’ understanding of mental illness and their attitudes, beliefs, and practices about employing workers with mental illness. Additionally we offer a conceptual framework entrenched within the social determinants of the mental health (SDOMH) literature as a way to contextualize the review conclusions. This approach contributes to a holistic understanding of workplace mental health conceptually and methodologically particularly as practitioners and policy makers alike are grappling with better ways to integrate employees who are diagnosed with mental health and disabilities into to the workplace. Nene Ernest Khalema and Janki Shankar Copyright © 2014 Nene Ernest Khalema and Janki Shankar. All rights reserved. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/Systemic Sclerosis Overlap Syndrome Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:29:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/862570/ Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a clinicoradiologic entity associated with diverse medical conditions. It is very important to properly recognize this condition because early diagnosis and treatment usually result in its complete resolution, whereas a delay in giving an adequate therapy may lead to permanent neurologic sequelae. A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a female patient with an overlap syndrome of systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis is presented here. Juliana Gomez, Erik J. Jhonston, and Francisco Zevallos Copyright © 2014 Juliana Gomez et al. All rights reserved. Sedation and Regional Anesthesia for Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson’s Disease Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:26:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jan/2014/139859/ Objective. To present the conscious sedation and the regional anesthesia technique, consisting of scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block, used in our institution for patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods. The study included 26 consecutive patients. A standardized anesthesia protocol was used and clinical data were collected prospectively. Results. Conscious sedation and regional anesthesia were used in all cases. The dexmedetomidine loading dose was 1 μg kg−1 and mean infusion rate was 0.26 μg kg−1 h−1 (0.21) [mean total dexmedetomidine dose: 154.68 μg (64.65)]. Propofol was used to facilitate regional anesthesia. Mean propofol dose was 1.68 mg kg (0.84) [mean total propofol dose: 117.72 mg (59.11)]. Scalp block and superficial cervical plexus block were used for regional anesthesia. Anesthesia related complications were minor. Postoperative pain was evaluated; mean visual analog scale pain scores were 0 at the postoperative 1st and 6th hours and 4 at the 12th and 24th hours. Values are mean (standard deviation). Conclusions. Dexmedetomidine sedation along with scalp block and SCPB provides good surgical conditions and pain relief and does not interfere with neurophysiologic testing during DBS for PD. During DBS the SCPB may be beneficial for patients with osteoarthritic cervical pain. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials Identifier NCT01789385. Onur Ozlu, Sema Sanalbas, Dilek Yazicioglu, Gulten Utebey, and Ilkay Baran Copyright © 2014 Onur Ozlu et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal Activity of Decyl Gallate against Several Species of Pathogenic Fungi Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:25:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/506273/ This work aims to demonstrate that the gallic acid structure modification to the decyl gallate (G14) compound contributed to increase the antifungal activity against several species of pathogenic fungi, mainly, Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Paracoccidioides spp., and Histoplasma capsulatum, according to standardized microdilution method described by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) documents. Moreover this compound has a particularly good selectivity index value, which makes it an excellent candidate for broad-spectrum antifungal prototype and encourages the continuation of subsequent studies for the discovery of its mechanism of action. Ana Carolina Alves de Paula e Silva, Caroline Barcelos Costa-Orlandi, Fernanda Patrícia Gullo, Fernanda Sangalli-Leite, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Liliana Scorzoni, Nayla de Souza Pitangui, Suélen Andrea Rossi, Tatiane Benaducci, Vanessa Gonçalves Wolf, Luis Octávio Regasini, Maicon Segalla Petrônio, Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva, Vanderlan S. Bolzani, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, and Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini Copyright © 2014 Ana Carolina Alves de Paula e Silva et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors Associated with Reoperation for Bleeding following Liver Transplantation Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:25:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/816246/ Introduction. This study’s objective was to identify risk factors associated with reoperation for bleeding following liver transplantation (LTx). Methods. A retrospective study was performed at a single institution between 2001 and 2012. Operative reports were used to identify patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding within 2 weeks following LTx (operations for nonbleeding etiologies were excluded). Results. Reoperation for bleeding was observed in 101/928 (10.8%) of LTx patients. The following characteristics were associated with reoperation on multivariable analysis: recipient MELD score (OR 1.06/MELD unit, 95% CI 1.03, 1.09), number of platelets transfused (OR 0.73/platelet unit, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91), and aminocaproic acid utilization (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27, 0.80). LTx patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding had a longer ICU stay (5 days ± 7 versus 2 days ± 3, ) and hospitalization (18 days ± 9 versus 10 days ± 18, ). The risk of death increased in patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.26, 2.85). Conclusion. Reoperation for bleeding following LTx was associated with increased resource utilization and recipient mortality. A lower threshold for intraoperative platelet transfusion and antifibrinolytics, especially in patients with high lab-MELD score, may decrease the incidence of reoperation for bleeding following LTx. Maxwell A. Thompson, David T. Redden, Lindsey Glueckert, A. Blair Smith, Jack H. Crawford, Keith A. Jones, Devin E. Eckhoff, Stephen H. Gray, Jared A. White, Joseph Bloomer, and Derek A. DuBay Copyright © 2014 Maxwell A. Thompson et al. All rights reserved. Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:25:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jos/2014/897182/ Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD) may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, -scores, and -scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine at femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3%) were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5%) were primiparous; 36 (27.3%) were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5%) never breast fed. Mean FN -scores and -scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS -scores and -scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5%) outliers with low -scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean -scores and -scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years), parity (1–13 viable births), and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years). Ehud Lebel, Yuri Mishukov, Liana Babchenko, Arnon Samueloff, Ari Zimran, and Deborah Elstein Copyright © 2014 Ehud Lebel et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of Tinospora rumphii and Zinc Salt on DNA Damage in Quinoline-Induced Genotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Male Albino Mice Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:15:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/atox/2014/201762/ Tinospora rumphii (T. rumphii) is a folkloric medicinal plant that is widely distributed in Asia and Africa. It has been widely used by locals to treat many diseases including jaundice, which is a manifestation of liver damage. We investigated the action of T. rumphii crude extract together with zinc sulphate, a known tumor modulator, on hepatic injuries induced by intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of quinoline on albino mice. The hepatotoxic effect was assessed by bilirubin concentration in the blood serum, while the genotoxic effect was determined by single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The mice orally fed with the crude extracts, following quinoline exposure, had reduced serum bilirubin concentration and DNA damage. Mice treated with Zinc sulphate, on the other hand, had remarkably reduced DNA damage on hepatocytes. Our findings showed that hepatoprotective potential of T. rumphii extract is dose-dependent and that utilization of the extract as medicinal remedy must be strictly monitored, while zinc was proven to reverse genotoxic effect of quinoline. This study unraveled the potential of T. rumphii extract and zinc as important hepatoprotective agents for future treatment of hepatic damage caused by chemotherapeutic agents used in cancer treatment. Roger Salvacion Tan and Lydia M. Bajo Copyright © 2014 Roger Salvacion Tan and Lydia M. Bajo. All rights reserved. Visual Perception during Mirror-Gazing at One’s Own Face in Patients with Depression Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:13:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/946851/ In normal observers, gazing at one’s own face in the mirror for a few minutes, at a low illumination level, produces the apparition of strange faces. Observers see distortions of their own faces, but they often see hallucinations like monsters, archetypical faces, faces of relatives and deceased, and animals. In this research, patients with depression were compared to healthy controls with respect to strange-face apparitions. The experiment was a 7-minute mirror-gazing test (MGT) under low illumination. When the MGT ended, the experimenter assessed patients and controls with a specifically designed questionnaire and interviewed them, asking them to describe strange-face apparitions. Apparitions of strange faces in the mirror were very reduced in depression patients compared to healthy controls. Depression patients compared to healthy controls showed shorter duration of apparitions; minor number of strange faces; lower self-evaluation rating of apparition strength; lower self-evaluation rating of provoked emotion. These decreases in depression may be produced by deficits of facial expression and facial recognition of emotions, which are involved in the relationship between the patient (or the patient’s ego) and his face image (or the patient’s bodily self) that is reflected in the mirror. Giovanni B. Caputo, Marco Bortolomasi, Roberta Ferrucci, Mario Giacopuzzi, Alberto Priori, and Stefano Zago Copyright © 2014 Giovanni B. Caputo et al. All rights reserved. Viola canescens: Herbal Wealth to Be Conserved Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:00:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jb/2014/345451/ Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb., commonly known as Himalayan White Violet, belongs to Violaceae family. It is found in the Himalayan regions of Pakistan, India, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is a perennial herb which mostly prefers to grow in the shady and moist places. V. canescens is an important medicinal plant which is mostly used in the traditional medicinal system for cough, cold, flu, fever, and malaria and is also given as anticancerous drug. So far, violin (alkaloid), viola quercitrin, methyl salicylate, and saponins are the different phytochemicals which are extracted from this plant. Molecular studies on V. canescens suggest that, in case of adulteration in the powdered form of Viola species, they can be distinguishable by the lengths of their spacer regions. Because of the overexploitation of V. canescens for medicinal purposes, the conservational status of V. canescens in different regions became endangered. It is the need of the hour to utilize different conservational strategies and save this precious medicinal wealth from extinction. Maria Masood, Muhammad Arshad, Saira Asif, and Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari Copyright © 2014 Maria Masood et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Canned Pineapple Consumption on Nutritional Status, Immunomodulation, and Physical Health of Selected School Children Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:47:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2014/861659/ This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of canned pineapple consumption on immunomodulation, nutritional status, and physical health of ninety-eight (98) school children with mean age of . The study participants were divided into three groups: Group A (33) includes subjects who were not given canned pineapple, Group B (33) includes those who were given 140 g, and Group C (32) includes those given 280 g of canned pineapple for nine weeks. Each major group was further divided into two groups: normal (N) and underweight (U) based on 2007 WHO Growth Reference Standards. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical examination, dietary intake, hemoglobin level, and immunological data were analyzed. Results showed a decrease in incidence of viral and bacterial infections for both Group B and Group C (normal and underweight) after canned pineapple consumption. Granulocyte production increased by 0.77–26.61% for normal weight subjects and 14.95–34.55% for underweight. CD16+56 count augmented by 20.44–22.13% for normal weight and 3.57–15.89% for underweight subjects. Thus, intake of both one can (140 g) and two cans (280 g) of canned pineapple may shorten the duration and incidence of infection and may increase the production of granulocytes and CD16+56, but intake of two cans (280 g) demonstrated higher granulocyte and CD16+56 production. This trial is registered with Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140826-000225. Mavil May C. Cervo, Luisito O. Llido, Erniel B. Barrios, and Leonora N. Panlasigui Copyright © 2014 Mavil May C. Cervo et al. All rights reserved. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:33:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/737694/ We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on a perforated domain. Herb E. Kunze, Davide La Torre, Franklin Mendivil, Manuel Ruiz Galán, and Rachad Zaki Copyright © 2014 Herb E. Kunze et al. All rights reserved. What Really Caused the ROKS Cheonan Warship Sinking? Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:17:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aav/2014/514346/ This paper is concerned with the sinking of the Korean naval warship (ROKS Cheonan) and the reported spectra of the seismic signals recorded at the time of the incident. The spectra of seismic signals show prominently amplitude peaks at around 8.5 Hz and its harmonics. These frequencies were explained with the vibrations of a water column due to an underwater explosion. This explanation is highly doubtful and concerns about its validity have already been raised in the scientific community. In this work an alternative explanation is presented: it is shown that the recorded seismic spectra are consistent with the natural frequencies of vibrations of a large submarine with a length of around 113 m. This finding raises the possibility that the ROKS Cheonan sunk because of the collision with a large submarine rather than the explosion of a torpedo or an underwater mine. Hwang Su Kim and Mauro Caresta Copyright © 2014 Hwang Su Kim and Mauro Caresta. All rights reserved. Urinary β2-Microglobulin Is a Good Indicator of Proximal Tubule Injury: A Correlative Study with Renal Biopsies Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:16:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jbm/2014/492838/ Objective. After filtration through glomeruli, β2-microglobulin is reabsorbed in proximal tubules. Increased urinary β2-microglobulin indicates proximal tubule injury and measurement of β2-microglobulin in urine is useful to determine the source of renal injury. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) has been characterized as a selective proximal tubule injury marker. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation of urinary β2-microglobulin concentration and KIM-1 expression as evidence of proximal tubule injury. Methods. Between 2009 and 2012, 46 patients with urine β2-microglobulin (RenalVysion) had follow-up kidney biopsy. Diagnoses included glomerular and tubule-interstitial disease. Immunohistochemical staining for KIM-1 was performed and the intensity was graded from 0 to 3+. Linear regression analysis was applied to correlate the values of urinary β2-microglobulin and KIM-1 staining scores. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Thirty patients had elevated urinary β2-microglobulin. KIM-1 staining was positive in 35 kidney biopsies. There was a significant correlation between urinary β2-microglobulin and KIM-1 staining (P < 0.05). Sensitivity was 86.6%, specificity was 43.7%, positive predictive value was 74.2%, and negative predictive value was 63.6%. Conclusion. Increased urinary β2-microglobulin is significantly correlated with KIM-1 staining in injured proximal tubules. Measurement of urine β2-microglobulin is a sensitive assay for proximal tubule injury. Xu Zeng, Deloar Hossain, David G. Bostwick, Guillermo A. Herrera, and Ping L. Zhang Copyright © 2014 Xu Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Virtual Visits in Home Health Care for Older Adults Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:08:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/689873/ Background. This review identifies the content of virtual visits in community nursing services to older adults and explores the manner in which service users and the nurses use virtual visits. Design. An integrative literature review. Method. Data collection comprised a literature search in three databases: Cinahl, Medline, and PubMed. In addition, a manual search of reference lists and expert consultation were performed. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed in terms of study characteristics, service content and utilization, and patient and health care provider experience. Results. Our review shows that in most studies the service is delivered on a daily basis and in combination with in-person visits. The findings suggest that older home-dwelling patients can benefit from virtual visits in terms of enhanced social inclusion and medication compliance. Service users and their nurses found virtual visits satisfactory and suitable for care delivery in home care to the elderly. Evidence for cost-saving benefits of virtual visits was not found. Conclusions. The findings can inform the planning of virtual visits in home health care as a complementary service to in-person visits, in order to meet the increasingly complex needs of older adults living at home. Anne Marie Lunde Husebø and Marianne Storm Copyright © 2014 Anne Marie Lunde Husebø and Marianne Storm. All rights reserved. Predictors of Salivary Fistulas in Patients Undergoing Salvage Total Laryngectomy Thu, 20 Nov 2014 08:06:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/373825/ Background. Salivary fistula is a common complication after salvage total laryngectomy. Previous studies have not considered the number of layers of pharyngeal closure and have not classified fistulas according to severity. Our objective was to analyze our institutional experience with salvage total laryngectomy, categorize salivary fistulas based on severity, and study the effect of various pharyngeal closure techniques on fistula incidence. Methods. Retrospective analysis of 48 patients who underwent salvage total laryngectomy, comparing pharyngeal closure technique and use of a pectoralis major flap with regard to salivary fistula rate. Fistulas were categorized into major and minor fistulas based on whether operative intervention was required. Results. The major fistula rate was 18.8% (9/48) and the minor fistula rate was 29.2% (14/48). The overall (major plus minor) fistula rate was 47.9%. The overall fistula and major fistula rates decreased with increasing the number of closure layers and with use of a pectoralis major flap; however, these correlations did not reach statistical significance. Other than age, there were no clinicopathologic variables associated with salivary fistulas. Conclusion. For salvage total laryngectomies, increasing the number of closure layers or use of a pectoralis major flap may reduce the risk of salivary fistula. Shethal Bearelly and Steven J. Wang Copyright © 2014 Shethal Bearelly and Steven J. Wang. All rights reserved. Liver Fibrosis and Protection Mechanisms Action of Medicinal Plants Targeting Apoptosis of Hepatocytes and Hepatic Stellate Cells Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:49:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2014/373295/ Following chronic liver injury, hepatocytes undergo apoptosis leading to activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Consequently, activated HSC proliferate and produce excessive extracellular matrix, responsible for the scar formation. The pandemic trend of obesity, combined with the high incidence of alcohol intake and viral hepatitis infections, highlights the urgent need to find accessible antifibrotic therapies. Treatment strategies should take into account the versatility of its pathogenesis and act on all the cell lines involved to reduce liver fibrosis. Medicinal plants are achieving popularity as antifibrotic agents, supported by their safety, cost-effectiveness, and versatility. This review will describe the role of hepatocytes and HSC in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis and detail the mechanisms of modulation of apoptosis of both cell lines by twelve known hepatoprotective plants in order to reduce liver fibrosis. Florent Duval, Jorge E. Moreno-Cuevas, Maria Teresa González-Garza, Carlos Rodríguez-Montalvo, and Delia Elva Cruz-Vega Copyright © 2014 Florent Duval et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics Modeling of a Continuum Robotic Arm with a Contact Point in Planar Grasp Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:48:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jr/2014/308283/ Grasping objects by continuum arms or fingers is a new field of interest in robotics. Continuum manipulators have the advantages of high adaptation and compatibility with respect to the object shape. However, due to their extremely nonlinear behavior and infinite degrees of freedom, continuum arms cannot be easily modeled. In fact, dynamics modeling of continuum robotic manipulators is state-of-the-art. Using the exact modeling approaches, such as theory of Cosserat rod, the resulting models are either too much time-taking for computation or numerically unstable. Thus, such models are not suitable for applications such as real-time control. However, based on realistic assumptions and using some approximations, these systems can be modeled with reasonable computational efforts. In this paper, a planar continuum robotic arm is modeled, considering its backbone as two circular arcs. In order to simulate finger grasping, the continuum arm experiences a point-force along its body. Finally, the results are validated using obtained experimental data. Mohammad Dehghani and S. Ali A. Moosavian Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Dehghani and S. Ali A. Moosavian. All rights reserved. Analysis of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Capsulotomy Cutting Edges and Manual Capsulorhexis Using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:48:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/520713/ Purpose. To investigate the structure and irregularity of the capsulotomy cutting edges created by two femtosecond (FS) laser platforms in comparison with manual continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) using environmental scanning electron microscopy (eSEM). Methods. Ten anterior capsulotomies were obtained using two different FS laser cataract platforms (LenSx, , and Victus, ). In addition, five manual CCC () were obtained using a rhexis forceps. The specimens were imaged by eSEM (FEI Quanta 400, OR, USA). Objective metrics, which included the arithmetic mean deviation of the surface (Sa) and the root-mean-square deviation of the surface (Sq), were used to evaluate the irregularity of both the FS laser capsulotomies and the manual CCC cutting edges. Results. Several microirregularities were shown across the FS laser capsulotomy cutting edges. The edges of manually torn capsules were shown, by comparison of Sa and Sq values, to be smoother () than the FS laser capsulotomy edges. Conclusions. Work is needed to understand whether the FS laser capsulotomy edge microirregularities, not seen in manual CCC, may act as focal points for the concentration of stress that would increase the risk of capsular tear during phacoemulsification as recently reported in the literature. Sebastiano Serrao, Giuseppe Lombardo, Giovanni Desiderio, Lucio Buratto, Domenico Schiano-Lomoriello, Marco Pileri, and Marco Lombardo Copyright © 2014 Sebastiano Serrao et al. All rights reserved. An Average Body Circumference Can Be a Substitute for Body Mass Index in Women Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:25:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amed/2014/592642/ Introduction. Significant correlations between BMI and some body circumferences have been previously reported. In this study we investigated if the average of the sum of eight body circumferences can be a substitute for BMI. Patients and Methods. BMI and eight body circumferences (neck, waist, hip, arm, forearm, wrist, thigh, and ankle) were measured in 193 apparently healthy women aged 20–83, and within a wide range of BMI. Women with BMI ≤ 24.9 were designated as normal, with BMI 25–29.9 as overweight and with BMI ≥ 30 as obese. The relationship of the average body circumference (ABC) of the sum of the eight circumferences, and of each individual circumference with BMI, was evaluated. Results. ABC had the strongest correlation with BMI (, ) among all the circumferences tested. Hip circumference had the strongest correlation with BMI (, ) among the circumferences of individual body sites. Receiver-Operator Characteristic analysis showed that women with ABC > 44.0 cm could be recognized as having BMI ≥ 25 with sensitivity 90.2% and specificity 88.5%, while women with ABC > 47.1 cm could be diagnosed as having BMI ≥ 30 with sensitivity 92.2% and specificity 91.5%. Conclusion. An average body circumference strongly correlated with BMI in women and can serve as a surrogate of BMI. Antonis Polymeris, Peter D. Papapetrou, and Georgios Katsoulis Copyright © 2014 Antonis Polymeris et al. All rights reserved. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:19:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2014/534261/ Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS). In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group), patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group), and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group). Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases. Etsuko Maeshima, Hiroya Koshiba, Kanako Furukawa, Shinichiro Maeshima, and Wataru Sakamoto Copyright © 2014 Etsuko Maeshima et al. All rights reserved. A Review of In Vitro Drug Release Test Methods for Nano-Sized Dosage Forms Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:14:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/304757/ This review summarizes the methods used to study real-time (37°C) drug release from nanoparticulate drug delivery systems and establish an IVIVC. Since no compendial standards exist, drug release is currently assessed using a variety of methods including sample and separate (SS), continuous flow (CF), dialysis membrane (DM) methods, and a combination thereof, as well as novel techniques like voltametry and turbidimetry. This review describes the principle of each method along with their advantages and disadvantages, including challenges with set-up and sampling. The SS method allows direct measurement of drug release with simple set-up requirements, but sampling is cumbersome. With the CF method, sampling is straightforward but the set-up is time consuming. Set-up as well as sampling is easier with the DM, but it may not be suitable for drugs that bind to the membrane. Novel methods offer the possibility of real-time drug release measurement but may be restricted to certain types of drugs. Of these methods, Level A IVIVCs have been obtained with dialysis, alone or in combination with the sample and separate technique. Future efforts should focus on developing mathematical models that describe drug release mechanisms as well as facilitate formulation development of nano-sized dosage forms. Susan D’Souza Copyright © 2014 Susan D’Souza. All rights reserved. Proline Based Chiral Ionic Liquids for Enantioselective Michael Reaction Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:14:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/oci/2014/836126/ Chiral ionic liquids, starting from (S)-proline, have been prepared and evaluated the ability of a chiral catalyst. In Michael reaction of trans-β-nitrostyrene and cyclohexanone, all the reactions were carried out under homogeneous conditions without any solvent except for excess cyclohexanone. The chiral ionic liquid catalyst with the positive charge delocalized bulky pyrrolidinium cation shows excellent yields (up to 92%), diastereoselectivities (syn/anti = 96/4), and enantioselectivities (up to 95% ee) and could be reused at least three times without any loss of its catalytic activity. Such results demonstrated a promising new approach for green and economic chiral synthesis by using the chiral ionic liquids as a chiral catalyst and a chiral medium. Kaoru Nobuoka, Satoshi Kitaoka, Tsutomu Kojima, Yuuki Kawano, Kazuya Hirano, Masakazu Tange, Shunsuke Obata, Yuki Yamamoto, Thomas Harran, and Yuich Ishikawa Copyright © 2014 Kaoru Nobuoka et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Kidney Disease Requiring Healthcare Services: A New Approach to Evaluate Epidemiology of Renal Disease Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:11:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/268362/ Background. Screening-based CKD estimates may not provide a sufficient insight into the impact of CKD on the use of healthcare resources in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of “medicalized” CKD, that is, CKD requiring healthcare services, in an outpatient setting. Design, Setting, Participants, and Measurements. This is a retrospective, longitudinal population-based study conducted in a large general practice setting in Southern Italy (Caserta) using a healthcare database. Over 2006–2011, all patients with a CKD diagnosis, either through CKD-related indications of use associated with drug prescriptions or through CKD-related hospital discharge diagnoses/procedures, were identified using this database. The prevalence of “medicalized” CKD in the general population of Caserta was estimated by age, gender, and calendar year. Results. Overall, 1,989 (1.3%) patients with a diagnosis of CKD were identified from 2006–2011 in the Caserta general population. The one year prevalence increased from 0.9% in 2006 to 1.6% in 2011, which is much lower compared to previous screening-based studies. The prevalence was slightly higher in males and increased significantly with advancing age (in 2011, 0.2% in ≤44 years old versus 9.2% in >80 years old). Conclusions. The findings of this study suggest that, in the general population, the prevalence of “medicalized” CKD is lower compared to the screening-based CKD prevalence. Gianluca Trifirò, Janet Sultana, Francesco Giorgianni, Ylenia Ingrasciotta, Michele Buemi, Marco Muscianisi, Daniele Ugo Tari, Margherita Perrotta, Valeria Canale, Vincenzo Arcoraci, and Domenico Santoro Copyright © 2014 Gianluca Trifirò et al. All rights reserved. Parkinson’s Disease: Low-Dose Haloperidol Increases Dopamine Receptor Sensitivity and Clinical Response Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:01:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2014/684973/ Background. It is known that ultra-low doses of haloperidol can cause dopamine supersensitivity of dopamine D2 receptors and related behaviour in animals. Objective. The objective was to determine whether a daily ultra-low dose of 40 micrograms of haloperidol could enhance the clinical action of levodopa in Parkinson’s disease patients. Method. While continuing their daily treatment with levodopa, 16 patients with Parkinson’s disease were followed weekly for six weeks. They received an add-on daily dose of 40 micrograms of haloperidol for the first two weeks only. The SPES/SCOPA scale (short scale for assessment of motor impairments and disabilities in Parkinson’s disease) was administered before treatment and weekly throughout the trial. Results. The results showed a mean decrease in SPES/SCOPA scores after one week of the add-on treatment. Conclusion. SCOPA scores decreased after the addition of low-dose haloperidol to the standard daily levodopa dose. This finding is consistent with an increase in sensitivity of dopamine D2 receptors induced by haloperidol. Such treatment for Parkinson’s disease may possibly permit the levodopa dose to be reduced and, thus, delay the onset of levodopa side effects. Craig J. Hudson, Philip Seeman, and Mary V. Seeman Copyright © 2014 Craig J. Hudson et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Contemporary Color Tongue Image Extraction Methods Based on HSI Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:59:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbi/2014/534507/ Tongue image with coating is of important clinical diagnostic meaning, but traditional tongue image extraction method is not competent for extraction of tongue image with thick coating. In this paper, a novel method is suggested, which applies multiobjective greedy rules and makes fusion of color and space information in order to extract tongue image accurately. A comparative study of several contemporary tongue image extraction methods is also made from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. As the experimental results show, geodesic active contour is quite slow and not accurate, the other 3 methods achieve fairly good segmentation results except in the case of the tongue with thick coating, our method achieves ideal segmentation results whatever types of tongue images are, and efficiency of our method is acceptable for the application of quantitative check of tongue image. Mingfeng Zhu, Jianqiang Du, and Chenghua Ding Copyright © 2014 Mingfeng Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with Hepatosplenic Granuloma: A Rare Case Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:55:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crii/2014/737453/ Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease which is known to present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Case Report. A 15-year-old male presented with complaints of moderate grade fever and generalized body swelling. There was no history of cough, weight loss, joint pain, oral ulcerations, skin rash, photosensitivity, loss of hair, pain abdomen, jaundice, or any significant illness in the past. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography of the abdomen revealed hypodense lesions in both liver and spleen (without contrast enhancement), suggestive of granulomas along with few retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes. On the basis of immunological tests and renal biopsy report, SLE with hepatosplenic granulomatosis diagnosis was made. He was given pulse methylprednisolone 500 mg, for 3 days and he showed dramatic improvement clinically. Conclusion. Hepatic and splenic granulomas are not common in SLE, but this should be kept in differential diagnosis. Anju Bharti and Lalit Prashant Meena Copyright © 2014 Anju Bharti and Lalit Prashant Meena. All rights reserved. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:41:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/675480/ Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning. Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani, Shahrokh Amiri, Asghar Arfaie, Azadeh Ahmadi, and Mahmoud Farvareshi Copyright © 2014 Ali Reza Shafiee-Kandjani et al. All rights reserved. Robust FDI for a Class of Nonlinear Networked Systems with ROQs Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:35:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/473901/ This paper considers the robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem for a class of nonlinear networked systems (NSs) with randomly occurring quantisations (ROQs). After vector augmentation, Lyapunov function is introduced to ensure the asymptotically mean-square stability of fault detection system. By transforming the quantisation effects into sector-bounded parameter uncertainties, sufficient conditions ensuring the existence of fault detection filter are proposed, which can reduce the difference between output residuals and fault signals as small as possible under framework. Finally, an example linearized from a vehicle system is introduced to show the efficiency of the proposed fault detection filter. An-quan Sun, Lin Zhang, Wen-feng Wang, Jun Wang, Tian-lin Niu, and Jia-li Zhang Copyright © 2014 An-quan Sun et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Screening of Novel 4-Substituted Phenyl-5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-yl]-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:30:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/439243/ The paper describes a convenient method for the preparation of 4-substituted phenyl-5-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-yl]-2H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones. The structures of the synthesized compounds are established by the results of LCMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and IR and elemental analyses. The mercaptotriazoles are indicated to be in thione form by 1H NMR spectra. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds 12d and 12h exhibit encouraging results, while the remaining compounds show moderate activities. On the basis of spectral studies, formation of 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazoles from the isobenzofuran acyl thiosemicarbazides 11(a–h) is ruled out. Namratha Bhandari and Santosh L. Gaonkar Copyright © 2014 Namratha Bhandari and Santosh L. Gaonkar. All rights reserved. Controllability of Singular Linear Systems by Legendre Wavelets Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:01:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2014/573959/ We propose a new method to design an observer and control the linear singular systems described by Legendre wavelets. The idea of the proposed approach is based on solving the generalized Sylvester equations. An example is also given to illustrate the procedure. Wenxin Yu, Yigang He, Xianming Wu, and Kun Gao Copyright © 2014 Wenxin Yu et al. All rights reserved. Design of Highly Isolated Compact Antenna Array for MIMO Applications Thu, 20 Nov 2014 06:00:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/473063/ In order to achieve very high data rates in both the uplink and downlink channels, the multiple antenna systems are used within the mobile terminal as well as the base station of the future generation of mobile networks. When implemented in a size limited platform, the multiple antenna arrays suffer from strong mutual coupling between closely spaced array elements. In this paper, a rigorous procedure for the design of a 4-port compact planar antenna array with high port isolation is presented. The proposed design involves a decoupling network consisting of reactive elements, whose values can be obtained by the method of eigenmode analysis. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed design approach in improving the port isolation of a compact four-element planar array. Tiancong Huang, Yantao Yu, and Lijun Yi Copyright © 2014 Tiancong Huang et al. All rights reserved. Research on Optimal Policy of Single-Period Inventory Management with Two Suppliers Thu, 20 Nov 2014 05:59:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/417319/ We study a single-period inventory control problem with two independent suppliers. With the first supplier, the buyer incurs a high variable cost but negligible fixed cost; with the second supplier, the buyer incurs a lower variable cost but a positive fixed cost. At the same time, the ordering quantity is limited. We develop the optimal inventory control policy when the holding and shortage cost function is convex. We also conduct some numerical experiments to explore the effects of the fixed setup cost K and the ordering capacity Q on the optimal control policy. Baimei Yang, Lihui Sui, and Peipei Zhu Copyright © 2014 Baimei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Caries Distribution, Prevalence, and Treatment Needs among 12–15-Year-Old Secondary School Students in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jds/2014/483760/ Objective. There is a change in the trends and distribution of dental caries in established and nonestablished market economies. The aim of this study was to describe caries distribution, prevalence, and treatment needs among school children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Materials and Methods. The study was a cross-sectional survey of students between the ages of 12 and 15 years. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and clinical oral examination. Analysis of data was done using statistical package for social science version 20.0. Association between variables was tested using chi-square, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance. Results. The study population consisted of 195 school children of mean age years. The prevalence of dental caries was 15.4% (). The mean DMFT score for the entire group was . Dental caries occurred more significantly () on the mandible (66.7%) than on the maxilla (33.3%) and was significantly () more prevalent on the first molars (66.7%) than on the second molars (26.6%). Conclusion. The number of untreated dental caries was high and the restorative index was low among the students. The overall caries prevalence and mean DMFT were low even when compared to other studies in similar populations in Nigeria. Omoigberai Bashiru Braimoh, Ayamma Udo Umanah, and Nzube Anthony Ilochonwu Copyright © 2014 Omoigberai Bashiru Braimoh et al. All rights reserved. The Surface Structure and Thermal Properties of Novel Polymer Composite Films Based on Partially Phosphorylated Poly(vinyl alcohol) with Aluminum Phosphate Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/439839/ Partially phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol (PPVA) with aluminum phosphate (ALPO4) composites was synthesized by solution casting technique to produce (y = 0, 1, and 2). The surface structure and thermal properties of the films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the films have higher thermal stability with strong bonding between PPVA and ALPO4. Asmalina Mohamed Saat and Mohd Rafie Johan Copyright © 2014 Asmalina Mohamed Saat and Mohd Rafie Johan. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone in Rats after Administration Separately by Optimization of an UPLC-MS2 Method Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/354618/ Isoalantolactone and alantolactone are two major active ingredients that are present in many medicinal plants. In this study, a sensitive and rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determination of the two compounds in rat plasma, separately. In this method, an electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was selected for quantification using target fragment ions 233.2187.1 for isoalantolactone (alantolactone) and 245.1189.1 for internal standard (IS). Retention time of the lactones and IS was within 3.0 min. Further calibration suggested a linear regression can be calculated within 2.5–500 ng/mL for isoalantolactone and 4–500 ng/mL for alantolactone. This method was used to compare the pharmacokinetic characteristics of isoalantolactone and alantolactone at a single dose of 5 mg/kg into male Sprague-Dawley rats by intravenous administration separately. The levels of , Kel, CL, , and AUC were significantly increased in the alantolactone group compared to isoalantolactone. These results suggested that isoalantolactone was distributed and eliminated more rapidly than alantolactone in rats when administered, respectively. Renjie Xu, Mengyue Wang, Ying Peng, and Xiaobo Li Copyright © 2014 Renjie Xu et al. All rights reserved. Design Mode Analysis of Pareto Solution Set for Decision-Making Support Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/520209/ Decision making in engineering design problems is challenging because they have multiple and conflicting criteria and complex correlation between design parameters. This study proposes a decision-making support methodology named design mode analysis, which consists of data clustering and principal component analysis (PCA). A design mode is indicated by the eigenvector obtained by PCA and reveals the dominant design parameters in a given dataset. The proposed method is a general framework to obtain the design modes from high-dimensional and large datasets. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on the conceptual design problem of the hybrid rocket engine. Satoru Hiwa, Tomoyuki Hiroyasu, and Mitsunori Miki Copyright © 2014 Satoru Hiwa et al. All rights reserved. A Numerical Test of Padé Approximation for Some Functions with Singularity Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcm/2014/587430/ The aim of this study is to examine some numerical tests of Padé approximation for some typical functions with singularities such as simple pole, essential singularity, brunch cut, and natural boundary. As pointed out by Baker, it was shown that the simple pole and the essential singularity can be characterized by the poles of the Padé approximation. However, it was not fully clear how the Padé approximation works for the functions with the branch cut or the natural boundary. In the present paper, it is shown that the poles and zeros of the Padé approximated functions are alternately lined along the branch cut if the test function has branch cut, and poles are also distributed around the natural boundary for some lacunary power series and random power series which rigorously have a natural boundary on the unit circle. On the other hand, Froissart doublets due to numerical errors and/or external noise also appear around the unit circle in the Padé approximation. It is also shown that the residue calculus for the Padé approximated functions can be used to confirm the numerical accuracy of the Padé approximation and quasianalyticity of the random power series. Hiroaki S. Yamada and Kensuke S. Ikeda Copyright © 2014 Hiroaki S. Yamada and Kensuke S. Ikeda. All rights reserved. Facile Synthesis of Pyrazole- and Benzotriazole-Containing Selenoethers Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/578762/ Azole-containing selenoethers, 1,5-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-3-selena pentane and 1,3-bis(1,2,3-benzotriazol-1-yl)-2-selena propane were prepared by the reaction of corresponding tosylate or chloride with sodium selenide generated in situ from elemental selenium and sodium formaldehydesulfoxylate (rongalite). Andrei S. Potapov, Nina P. Chernova, Vladimir D. Ogorodnikov, Tatiana V. Petrenko, and Andrei I. Khlebnikov Copyright © 2014 Andrei S. Potapov et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Shared Protection Scheme Based on Aggregate Wavelength in High Speed Networks Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2014/510495/ We propose novel analytical model of dynamic link cost evaluation in IP over WDM networks. We suggest disjoint path algorithm for the primary and backup path based on wavelength aggregate information, to provide shared backup. We show the optimality of pair selected because of joint optimization of the pair paths. The shareable capacity factor is introduced to establish the effect of load balancing on resources. We compared our simulation results with that of separate protection at connection and showed improvement on resource utilization performance of the network. We also study the blocking probability of proposed scheme. Anshu Oberoi, J. S. Sohal, and R. S. Kaler Copyright © 2014 Anshu Oberoi et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Vanadium and Cast Temperature on Nitrogen Solubility of Stainless Steel Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jm/2014/528121/ Three stainless steel grades with different vanadium content were produced in open induction furnace. The base chemical composition of investigated stainless steel has contained 18.48–18.75% Cr, 5.17–5.62% Mn, 2.47–2.58% Mo, and 6.39–6.64% Ni. The vanadium contents of the three stainless steel grades were 0.009%, 0.112%, and 0.189%. The proposed stainless steels were casted at temperatures 1753 K and 1833 K. The nitrogen contents were determined for the produced steel grades at every cast temperature. The determined nitrogen contents were compared with those calculated from the developed equation of Grigorenko and Pomarin. The influence of cast temperature and vanadium content on nitrogen solubility was investigated. Interpretation between experimental and calculated nitrogen content was carried out. Increasing vanadium content and decreasing cast temperature were found to have positive significant effect on the nitrogen solubility. There were great deviations between experimental results and those calculated by Grigorenko and Pomarin equation. Saeed Ghali Copyright © 2014 Saeed Ghali. All rights reserved. The Effect of Anthelmintic Treatment on Coccidia Oocyst Shedding in a Wild Mammal Host with Intermittent Cestode Infection Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/302903/ While hosts are routinely exploited by a community of parasite species, the principles governing host responses towards parasites are unclear. Identifying the health outcomes of coinfections involving helminth macroparasites and microparasites is one area of importance for public and domestic animal health. For instance, it is controversial how deworming programmes affect incidence and severity of such important microparasite diseases as malaria. One problem is that most study systems involve domestic and laboratory animals with conditions hardly comparable to those of free-living animals. Here, we study the effect of anthelmintic treatment on coccidia infection intensity in wild Alpine marmots, M. marmota. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that helminth infection has a positive effect on concurrent microparasite infection. However, our work also points to the fact that within-host interactions between helminths and microparasites are context-dependent and can turn to negative ones once helminth burdens increase. Our study suggests that coccidia benefit from intermittent helminth infection in marmots due to the protective effects of helminth infection only during the early phase of the host’s active season. Also, the marmot’s response towards coccidia infection appears optimal only under no helminth infection when the host immune response towards coccidia would not be compromised, thereby pointing to the importance of regular intestinal helminth elimination by marmots just before hibernation. Radovan Václav and Jana Blažeková Copyright © 2014 Radovan Václav and Jana Blažeková. All rights reserved. Heat Transfer Analysis of Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger under Natural Convection Condition in Tank Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2014/279791/ Aiming at the heat transfer calculation of the Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger (PRHR HX), experiments on the heat transfer of C-shaped tube immerged in a water tank were performed. Comparisons of different correlation in literatures with the experimental data were carried out. It can be concluded that the Dittus-Boelter correlation provides a best-estimate fit with the experimental results. The average error is about 0.35%. For the tube outside, the McAdams correlations for both horizontal and vertical regions are best-estimated. The average errors are about 0.55% for horizontal region and about 3.28% for vertical region. The tank mixing characteristics were also investigated in present work. It can be concluded that the tank fluid rose gradually which leads to a thermal stratification phenomenon. Qiming Men, Xuesheng Wang, Xiang Zhou, and Xiangyu Meng Copyright © 2014 Qiming Men et al. All rights reserved. Ascites as the Presenting Symptom of Multiple Myeloma in a Scleroderma Patient Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/235958/ Several reports have demonstrated associations between scleroderma and cancer and between multiple myeloma and autoimmune diseases. Few papers have also reported the concurrence of scleroderma and multiple myeloma. We report a case of multiple myeloma that developed in a male patient after 28 years of fulfilling a diagnosis of scleroderma. The main presenting feature of multiple myeloma was ascites, solely explained by the increased vascular permeability that occurs in this disease. Nadeen Hilal and Adnan Atallah Copyright © 2014 Nadeen Hilal and Adnan Atallah. All rights reserved. The First Molecular Characterization of Picocyanobacteria from the Argentine Sea Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2014/237628/ Picocyanobacteria are abundant throughout the world’s oceans. Particularly, it has been reported that Synechococcus strains have a wide latitudinal distribution, from polar to tropical waters. However, their molecular characterization in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean is still missing. We analyzed Synechococcus genetic diversity in a sector of the Argentine Sea, one of the richest biological areas of the world oceans. 16S rRNA amplicons obtained after PCR amplification of environmental DNA extracted from water samples of this area were used for DGGE and sequenced. Only Synechococcus sequences could be retrieved. On the other hand, we isolated two Synechococcus strains from the environment. Our analyses revealed that the clade I group was widespread from latitude 38°S to 48°S and that can coexist with clade IV strains in shelf waters. The cooccurrence of these two clades may be related to an adaptation to high-nutrient/low-temperature waters. Our data are the first report on Synechococcus ecotypes that would be important contributors to phytoplankton biomass in the Argentine Sea, one of the richest biological areas of the world oceans. Macarena Perez-Cenci, Gonzalo F. Caló, Ricardo I. Silva, Rubén M. Negri, and Graciela L. Salerno Copyright © 2014 Macarena Perez-Cenci et al. All rights reserved. Development of Ultra-Broadband Base Station Antenna for All Mainstream LTE 700/800/900 MHz Frequency Bands Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/201914/ LTE deployment is being accelerated due to its improved radio access structure meeting the requirements of current and next generation of wireless networks. Its low band application presents useful aspects such as low density of base station while providing good in-building penetration. In this work, we design and develop a dual-polarized base station antenna supporting 698 MHz to 960 MHz with an azimuth-plan half-power beam width of 90° covering all mainstream LTE 700/800/900 MHz frequency bands representing the widest low frequency range being actively used in the current mobile communication industry. In the design process, rigorous algorithm based on swarm method is developed to tune the electrical performances under strict base station antenna requirements. Experimental results from pattern tests demonstrate the design analysis and the significant advantages of using swarm method in the antenna development process. Doudou Samb, Zhonglin Wu, Mulin Liu, and Hu Bin Jie Copyright © 2014 Doudou Samb et al. All rights reserved. Factors Influencing Cecal Intubation Time during Retrograde Approach Single-Balloon Enteroscopy Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2014/212307/ Background and Aim. The predisposing factors for prolonged cecal intubation time (CIT) during colonoscopy have been well identified. However, the factors influencing CIT during retrograde SBE have not been addressed. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing CIT during retrograde SBE. Methods. We investigated patients who underwent retrograde SBE at a medical center from January 2011 to March 2014. The medical charts and SBE reports were reviewed. The patients’ characteristics and procedure-associated data were recorded. These data were analyzed with univariate analysis as well as multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify the possible predisposing factors. Results. We enrolled 66 patients into this study. The median CIT was 17.4 minutes. With univariate analysis, there was no statistical difference in age, sex, BMI, or history of abdominal surgery, except for bowel preparation . Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inadequate bowel preparation (odds ratio 30.2, 95% confidence interval 4.63–196.54; ) was the independent predisposing factors for prolonged CIT during retrograde SBE. Conclusions. For experienced endoscopist, inadequate bowel preparation was the independent predisposing factor for prolonged CIT during retrograde SBE. Tzu-Ming Ou, Peng-Jen Chen, Yu-Lueng Shih, Meng-Ting Wang, Hsin-Hung Huang, Wei-Kuo Chang, Tsai-Yuan Hsieh, and Tien-Yu Huang Copyright © 2014 Tzu-Ming Ou et al. All rights reserved. Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Freely Oscillating Cylinders in Water Flow Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/985360/ A concept of energy harvesting from vortex-induced vibrations of a rigid circular cylinder with two piezoelectric beams attached is investigated. The variations of the power levels with the free stream velocity are determined. A mathematical approach including the coupled cylinder motion and harvested voltage is presented. The effects of the load resistance, piezoelectric materials, and circuit combined on the natural frequency and damping of the vibratory system are determined by performing a linear analysis. The dynamic response of the cylinder and harvested energy are investigated. The results show that the harvested level in SS and SP&PS modes is the same with different values of load resistance. For four different system parameters, the results show that the bigger size of cylinder with PZT beams can obtain the higher harvested power. Min Zhang, YingZheng Liu, and ZhaoMin Cao Copyright © 2014 Min Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “15-Deoxy-12,14-prostaglandin J2 Reduces Liver Impairment in a Model of ConA-Induced Acute Hepatic Inflammation by Activation of PPAR and Reduction in NF-B Activity” Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2014/864839/ Kan Chen, Jingjing Li, Junshan Wang, Yujing Xia, Weiqi Dai, Fan Wang, Miao Shen, Ping Cheng, Yan Zhang, Chengfen Wang, Jing Yang, Rong Zhu, Huawei Zhang, Yuanyuan Zheng, Jie Lu, Zhuoyi Fan, Yingqun Zhou, and Chuanyong Guo Copyright © 2014 Kan Chen et al. All rights reserved. Study of the Effect of Dillenia indica Fruit Mucilage on the Properties of Metformin Hydrochloride Loaded Spray Dried Microspheres Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/628382/ Natural materials are preferred over synthetic counterparts because of their biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The present work was proposed to utilize mucilage from natural source for the development of controlled release formulation of metformin hydrochloride. Natural mucilaginous substance extracted from Dillenia indica L. (DI) fruit was used in fabricating controlled release microspheres. The microspheres were prepared by spray drying method under different formulation parameters. The prepared microspheres were studied for particle size, drug excipient compatibility, particle shape and surface morphologies, drug entrapment efficiency, mucoadhesivity, and in vitro drug release properties. The prepared microspheres exhibited mucoadhesive properties and demonstrated controlled release of metformin hydrochloride. The study reveals that the natural materials can be used for formulation of controlled release microspheres and would provide ample opportunities for further study. Hemanta Kumar Sharma and Lila Kanta Nath Copyright © 2014 Hemanta Kumar Sharma and Lila Kanta Nath. All rights reserved. In Vitro Corrosion Studies of Surface Modified NiTi Alloy for Biomedical Applications Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abm/2014/697491/ Electropolishing was conducted on NiTi alloy of composition 49.1 Ti-50.9 Ni at.% under potentiostatic regime at ambient temperature using perchloric acid based electrolyte for 30 sec followed by passivation treatment in an inorganic electrolyte. The corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the electropolished and passivated alloys were evaluated and compared with mechanically polished alloy. Various characterization techniques like scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to analyze the properties of surface modified and mechanically polished alloys. Water contact angle measurements made on the passivated alloy after electropolishing showed a contact angle of 35.6°, which was about 58% lower compared to mechanically polished sample, implying more hydrophilicity. The electrochemical impedance studies showed that, for the passivated alloy, threefold increase in the barrier layer resistance was obtained when compared to electropolished alloy due to the formation of compact titanium oxide. The oxide layer thickness of the passivated samples was almost 18 times higher than electropolished samples. After 14 days immersion in Hanks’ solution, the amount of nickel released was 315 ppb which was nearly half of that obtained for mechanically polished NiTi alloy, confirming better stability of the passive layer. Manju Chembath, J. N. Balaraju, and M. Sujata Copyright © 2014 Manju Chembath et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Compound Control Method for Hydraulically Driven Shearer Drum Lifting Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2014/691787/ In order to adjust shearer drum swiftly and precisely to adapt to the changes of coal seam, a compound control approach based on cerebellar model articulation control and fractional order PID controller was proposed. As the movement precision and response speed of hydraulic system were determined mainly by the control precision of valve-controlled asymmetrical hydraulic cylinder, its working principle and characteristics were analyzed in this paper, with particular focusing on the asymmetry problem. Furthermore, RBF neural network was applied to obtaining reasonable tuning parameters and a control algorithm of proposed controller was designed. Finally, laboratory experiments were developed to verify the validity and effectiveness of proposed compound control method. The testing results, compared with those for other controllers, proved that the proposed compound control method can acquire high movement precision and respond speed in the system of hydraulically driven shearer drum lifting with different control conditions. Lei Si, Zhongbin Wang, Xinhua Liu, and Lin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Lei Si et al. All rights reserved. Synchronizing Spatiotemporal Chaos via a Composite Disturbance Observer-Based Sliding Mode Control Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/693268/ The sliding mode control schemes are investigated to synchronize two spatiotemporal chaotic systems, which are two arrays of a large number of coupled chaotic oscillators. Firstly, sliding mode manifolds with the desired performance are designed. The asymptotic convergence to the origin of the synchronization errors is also proved. However, the terms from parameter fluctuations in equivalent controls are usually impossible to be measured directly. So we regard them as lumped disturbances, but, for practical application, it is difficult to obtain the upper bound of lumped disturbances in advance which often results in a conservative sliding mode control law with large control effort, causing a large amount of chattering. To reduce the chattering and improve the performance of the system, a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the lumped disturbances. A composite synchronization controller that consists of a sliding mode feedback part and a feedforward compensation part based on disturbance observer is developed. The numerical simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Congyan Chen and Shi Qiu Copyright © 2014 Congyan Chen and Shi Qiu. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Second-Order Calibration Methods Applied to Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence Data Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/858106/ Due to the variety of second-order data being generated by modern instruments and various mathematical algorithms being available for analysis purposes, second-order calibration is gaining widespread acceptance by analytical community. It has the so-called second-order advantage; that is, it enables concentration and spectral profiles of sample components to be extracted even in the presence of unexpected interferences. A comprehensive performance comparison of alternating trilinear decomposition (ATLD) and its two variants, that is, alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD) and self-weighted trilinear decomposition (SWATLD), was presented in this paper. The experiment was based on the simultaneous determination of three dihydroxybenzenes, that is, catechol, hydroquinone, and resorcinol, by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) spectroscopy. Two special measures, that is, the consistency (COS) between the resolved and actual profiles and the mean of recovery, were used for evaluation. The optimal result was obtained by the APTLD model with five components. No perceptible difference on the speed of convergence was found. It indicates that EEMF linked with the APTLD algorithm can serve as a potential tool of quantifying dihydroxybenzenes simultaneously in environmental samples. Hui Chen, Zan Lin, Tong Wu, and Chao Tan Copyright © 2014 Hui Chen et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Tea Polyphenol Ophthalmic Gel on Lens Epithelial Cells in Rabbits with Silicone Oil Tamponade after Vitrectomy Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/832381/ Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) ophthalmic gel on lens epithelial cells (LECs) in rabbits with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy. Methods. In this study, unilateral vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade was performed using 2-month-old New Zealand white rabbits (n = 72); meanwhile, age-matched nonoperated rabbits (n = 18) were used as controls. The TP ophthalmic gel was administered topically in the surgical eyes till they were sacrificed. On days 45 and 90 after operation, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and apoptosis of LECs were analyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels were also determined. Results. The results indicate that the levels of ROS and apoptosis were elevated for LECs in rabbits after operation, whereas ΔΨm was decreased. Caspase-3 was apparently increased at both mRNA and protein levels. Treatment of TP ophthalmic gel could reduce the generation of ROS, maintain ΔΨm, inhibit the overexpression of caspase-3, and thus decrease the apoptosis of LECs of rabbits after operation. Conclusions. TP ophthalmic gel can efficiently inhibit caspase-3 overexpression, reduce the apoptosis of LECs, and prevent LECs from damage. Our result provides a new approach to prevent the development of complicated cataract after vitrectomy. Xianzhen Ma, Dadong Guo, Hongsheng Bi, Xiaofeng Xie, Junguo Guo, and Yan Cui Copyright © 2014 Xianzhen Ma et al. All rights reserved. Replacement of Vena Cava up to the Right Atrium during Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Echinococcus alveolaris Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crit/2014/801657/ Management of advanced stage of Echinococcus alveolaris is a very difficult procedure. Surgical treatment like resection and liver transplantation is accepted procedure nowadays. Here we presented a case report of Echinococcus alveolaris which invaded the inferior vena cava up to the right atrium and surrounding tissues. This patient underwent living donor liver transplantation with replacement of inferior vena cava up to the right atrium with cryopreserved cadaveric aortic graft. This procedure is very difficult but it is a life-saving chance for patients in advanced cases of Echinococcus alveolaris. Fahri Yetişir, S. Murad Dogan, Ruslan Mamedov, Cuneyt Kayaalp, and Sezayi Yilmaz Copyright © 2014 Fahri Yetişir et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Odontogenic Infection by Streptococcus constellatus Leading to Systemic Infection in a Cogan’s Syndrome Patient Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/793174/ Odontogenic infection in immunocompromised patients tends to extend systemically beyond the oral cavity. Our case report presents a patient with sepsis due to a Streptococcus constellatus (S. constellatus) odontogenic infection in a 64-year-old-immunocompromised woman with Cogan’s syndrome. She had been suffering from chronic mandibular osteomyelitis which was thought to have been caused by dental caries and/or chronic periodontitis with furcation involvement of the left mandibular first molar. We suspect that the acute symptoms of the chronic osteomyelitis due to S. constellatus led to the systemic infection. This infection could be accelerated by the use of a corticosteroid and an alendronate. This is the first report which represents the potential association between odontogenic infection and Cogan’s syndrome. Masanobu Abe, Yoshiyuki Mori, Ryoko Inaki, Yae Ohata, Takahiro Abe, Hideto Saijo, Kazumi Ohkubo, Kazuto Hoshi, and Tsuyoshi Takato Copyright © 2014 Masanobu Abe et al. All rights reserved. Advancement in Microstructural, Optical, and Mechanical Properties of PVA (Mowiol 10-98) Doped by ZnO Nanoparticles Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physri/2014/742378/ The current paper explores the preparation of PVA nanocomposites by doping with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using the method of coagulation and solvent casting technique. The dopant zinc oxide nanoparticle is prepared by simple precipitation method and is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The XRD studies explore that the average particle size of the synthesized nanoparticles is 55 nm and show that the crystallinity factor of PVA nanocomposites is influenced by the interaction occurring between the PVA main chain and the ZnO nanoparticle. The FTIR spectroscopy suggests that the formulation of complexes occurring between the dopants and the PVA main chain is due to inter or intra molecular hydrogen bonding. UV-vis spectra explore the dramatic decrease in the optical energy gap of nanoparticles doped polymer composites and the variations of Urbach energy () related to crystallinity for various dopant concentrations. The mechanical properties of the PVA nanocomposites were explored using universal testing machine (UTM) that reflects that, for % doping concentration, there is an increase in the tensile strength, stiffness, and Young’s modulus, whereas, for % concentration, the percentage total elongation at fracture is found to be the maximum. The morphological behavior and homogenous nanoparticle distribution in the composites were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). N. B. Rithin Kumar, Vincent Crasta, and B. M. Praveen Copyright © 2014 N. B. Rithin Kumar et al. All rights reserved. The Metabolism of Polysaccharide from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz and Its Effect on Intestinal Microflora Wed, 19 Nov 2014 17:25:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/926381/ An active polysaccharide from the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (PAM) was identified to improve and adjust disordered intestinal flora. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed to identify the components of PAM as rhamnose, glucose, mannose, xylose, and galactose at a ratio of 0.03 : 0.25 : 0.15 : 0.41 : 0.15. PAM metabolized in gastrointestinal tract when incubated with artificial gastric and intestinal juices. Anaerobic incubation of PAM on intestinal flora confirmed that PAM promoted the ability of intestinal bacteria to digest reducing sugar. Based on the Shannon index and similarity coefficient index of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) fingerprinting of the total intestinal bacteria DNA, we concluded that PAM can significantly improve disordered intestinal flora and may be used as an oral adjuvant to regulate intestinal flora. Ruijun Wang, Guisheng Zhou, Mengyue Wang, Ying Peng, and Xiaobo Li Copyright © 2014 Ruijun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Spectrally Encoded Confocal Microscopy for Guiding Lumpectomy Wed, 19 Nov 2014 15:33:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/573851/ Elena F. Brachtel, Barbara L. Smith, Guillermo J. Tearney, and Dongkyun Kang Copyright © 2014 Elena F. Brachtel et al. All rights reserved. Connection and Deformation of Pathological Images via a Macro Image for Comparing Different Modality Images of Brain Tumor Wed, 19 Nov 2014 15:32:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/368951/ Takashi Ohnishi, Takuya Tanaka, Yuka Nakamura, Noriaki Hashimoto, Hideaki Haneishi, Jennie Taylor, Matija Snuderl, and Yukako Yagi Copyright © 2014 Takashi Ohnishi et al. All rights reserved. MGH Whole Slide Imaging Teleconsultation Practice in Dermatopathology Wed, 19 Nov 2014 15:32:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/347147/ Nicholas C. Jones, Rosalynn M. Nazarian, Lyn M. Duncan, and David C. Wilbur Copyright © 2014 Nicholas C. Jones et al. All rights reserved. Image File Management to Support International Telepathology Wed, 19 Nov 2014 14:29:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/913423/ Liron Pantanowitz, Jeffrey McHugh, William Cable, Chengquan Zhao, and Anil V. Parwani Copyright © 2014 Liron Pantanowitz et al. All rights reserved. Secure Certificateless Signature with Revocation in the Standard Model Wed, 19 Nov 2014 14:15:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/728591/ Certificateless public key cryptography is very attractive in solving the key escrow problem which is inherent in identity- (ID-) based public key cryptography. In the past, a large number of certificateless cryptographic schemes and protocols were presented, but a secure certificateless signature in the standard model (without random oracles) is still not accessible until now. To the best of our knowledge, all the previously proposed certificateless signature schemes were insecure under a considerably strong security model in the sense that they suffered from outsiders’ key replacement attacks or the attacks from the key generation center (KGC). In this paper, we propose a certificateless signature scheme without random oracles. Moreover, our scheme is secure under the strong security model and provides a public revocation mechanism, called revocable certificateless signature (RCLS). Under the standard computational Diffie-Hellman assumption, we formally demonstrate that our scheme possesses existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen-message attacks. Tung-Tso Tsai, Sen-Shan Huang, and Yuh-Min Tseng Copyright © 2014 Tung-Tso Tsai et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Gelam Honey against Oxidative Damage in Young and Aged Rats Wed, 19 Nov 2014 14:04:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/673628/ Aging is characterized by progressive decline in physiological and body function due to increase in oxidative damage. Gelam honey has been accounted to have high phenolic and nonphenolic content to attenuate oxidative damage. This study was to determine the effect of local gelam honey on oxidative damage of aged rats. Twenty-four male Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into young (2 months) and aged (19 months) groups. Each group was further divided into control (fed with plain water) and supplemented with 2.5 mg/kg body weight of gelam honey for 8 months. DNA damage level was determined by comet assay and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The activity of blood and cardiac antioxidant enzymes was determined by spectrophotometer. The DNA damage and MDA level were reduced in both gelam honey supplemented groups. Gelam honey increases erythrocytes CAT and cardiac SOD activities in young and cardiac CAT activity in young and aged groups. The DNA damage was increased in the aged group compared to young group, but reduced at the end of the study. The decline of oxidative damage in rats supplemented with gelam honey might be through the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activities. Zulaikha Sahhugi, Siti Maisarah Hasenan, and Zakiah Jubri Copyright © 2014 Zulaikha Sahhugi et al. All rights reserved. Necrotising Myositis, the Deadly Impersonator Wed, 19 Nov 2014 14:04:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/485651/ We report two cases of patients with necrotising myositis who presented initially with limb pain and swelling on a background of respiratory complaints. Patient 1, a previously well 38-year-old female, underwent various investigations in the emergency department for excessive lower limb pain and a skin rash. Patient 2, a 61-year-old female with a background of rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension, presented to accident and emergency feeling generally unwell and was treated for presumed respiratory sepsis. Both deteriorated rapidly and were referred to the plastic surgery team with soft tissue necrosis, impending multiorgan failure and toxaemia. Large areas of necrotic muscle and skin were debrided, which grew group A streptococci, Streptococcus pyogenes. Patient 1 had a high above knee amputation of the left leg with extensive debridement of the right. Despite aggressive surgical intervention and microbiological input with intensive care support, patient 2 died. These two cases highlight the importance of early diagnosis and prompt surgical and pharmacological intervention in managing this life-threatening disease. Pain is the primary symptom with skin changes being a late and subtle sign in a septic patient. The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotising Fasciitis (LRINEC) may be of use if there is concern to aid diagnosis of this life-threatening disease. A. Rahman, A. K. Abou-Foul, A. Yusaf, J. Holton, and L. Cogswell Copyright © 2014 A. Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Successful Rehabilitation of Partial Edentulous Maxilla and Mandible with New Type of Implants: Molecular Precision Implants Wed, 19 Nov 2014 14:03:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/307364/ The extraction of teeth results in rapid bone resorption both vertically and horizontally in the first month. The loss of alveolar ridge reduces the chance of implant rehabilitation. Atraumatic extraction, implant placement in extraction socket, and an immediate prosthesis have been proposed as alternative therapies to maintain the volume and contours tissue and reduce time and cost of treatment. The immediate load of implants is a universally practiced procedure; nevertheless a successful procedure requires expertise in both the clinical and the reconstructive stages using a solid implant system. Excellent primary stability and high bone-implant contact are only minimal requirements for any type of implant procedure. In this paper we present a case report using a new type of implants. The new type of implants, due to its sophisticated control system of production, provides to the implantologist a safe and reliable implant, with a macromorphology designed to ensure a close contact with the surrounding bone. Matteo Danza, Dorina Lauritano, and Francesco Carinci Copyright © 2014 Matteo Danza et al. All rights reserved. CQFB and PBP in Diagnosis of Local Gear Fault Wed, 19 Nov 2014 14:02:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/670725/ The vibration signal of local gear fault is mainly composed of two components. One is the resonant signal and noise signal and the other one is the transient impulse signal including fault information. The quality factors corresponding to the two components are different. Hence, a method to diagnose local gear fault based on composite quality factor basis and parallel basis pursuit is proposed. First, two different quality factors bases are established using wavelet transform of variable quality factors to obtain the decomposition coefficient. Next, the parallel basis pursuit is adopted for the optimization of the decomposition coefficient. With the derived optimal decomposition coefficient, the resonant components with different quality factors can be reconstructed. By discussing the sparsity of signals treated with different quality factors bases, the suitable composite quality factor basis is selected to perform sparse decomposition on the signal. Besides, the obtained resonant component with low quality factor is subject to demodulation analysis, so as to derive the fault information. The feasibility and validity of the algorithm are shown by the results from simulation signal and practical application of local gear faults. Lingli Cui, Na Wu, Daiyi Mo, Huaqing Wang, and Peng Chen Copyright © 2014 Lingli Cui et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Three-Body Abrasive Wear Behaviour of Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Composites Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:48:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/at/2014/210187/ Various amounts of short fibers (glass and carbon) and particulate fillers like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), silicon carbide (SiC), and alumina (Al2O3) were systematically introduced into the thermoplastic copolyester elastomer (TCE) matrix for reinforcement purpose. The mechanical properties such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and Tan δ by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and three-body abrasive wear performance on a dry sand rubber wheel abrasion tester have been investigated. For abrasive wear study, the experiments were planned according to orthogonal array by considering three factors and three levels. The complex moduli for TCE hybrid composites were pushed to a higher level relative to the TCE filled PTFE composite. At lower temperatures (in the glassy region), the storage modulus increases with increase in wt.% of reinforcement (fiber + fillers) and the value is maximum for the composite with 40 wt.% reinforcement. The loss modulus and damping peaks were also found to be higher by the incorporation of SiC and Al2O3 microfillers. The routine abrasive wear test results indicated that TCE filled PTFE composite exhibited better abrasion resistance. Improvements in the abrasion resistance, however, have not been achieved by short-fiber and particlaute filler reinforcements. From the Taguchi’s experimental findings, optimal combination of control factors were obtained for minimum wear volume and also predictive correlations were proposed. Further, the worn surface morphology of the samples was discussed. Hemanth Rajashekaraiah, Sekar Mohan, Pramoda Kumari Pallathadka, and Suresha Bhimappa Copyright © 2014 Hemanth Rajashekaraiah et al. All rights reserved. Attitude and Knowledge of Indian Emergency Care Residents towards Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:38:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/968430/ Objective. Several studies carried out in developed countries have reported disproportionately high usage of acid suppressive drugs, especially proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). However, systematic assessment of attitude and practices of health care providers towards the use of these drugs in developing countries is lacking. In this study, we assessed the knowledge, attitude, and preferences of resident doctors posted in the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital in North India, towards the use of PPIs. Methods. A questionnaire based survey was carried out. Results. Fifty resident doctors responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-six percent reported prescribing acid suppressive drugs for majority of their patients, while 12% prescribed them to almost all patients they attended. Acute gastritis was the most common indication for prescribing PPI/H2 blockers (50%). The majority of respondents (92%) regarded PPIs as their first choice in acid suppressive agents and 58% administered it through intravenous route. Knowledge about PPI related adverse effects was low. Conclusions. Emergency care residents in India also tend to overuse PPIs in a manner similar to their counterparts in developed countries. Specific measures may be helpful in preventing such practices. Biswa Mohan Padhy, Hemant Singh Bhadauria, and Yogendra Kumar Gupta Copyright © 2014 Biswa Mohan Padhy et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Multicriteria Controller by Means of Fuzzy Logic Approach Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:37:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/afs/2014/758207/ A two-mass fuzzy control system is considered. For fuzzification process, classical both linear and nonlinear membership functions are used. To find optimal values of membership function’s parameters, genetic algorithm is used. To take into account values of both output and intermediate parameters of the system, a penalty function is considered. Research is conducted for the case of speed control system and displacement control system. Obtained results are compared with the case of the system with classical, crisp controller. Andrew Lozynskyy and Lyubomyr Demkiv Copyright © 2014 Andrew Lozynskyy and Lyubomyr Demkiv. All rights reserved. Effects of Inoculum Amount, Initial pH, and Nicotine Load on the Set-Up of Bioaugmented System with Pseudomonas Sp. HF-1 to Treat Tobacco Wastewater Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:35:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/212596/ This study evaluated and optimized the influence of inoculum amount, initial pH, and nicotine load on the construction of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 bioaugmented system for tobacco wastewater treatment. The results demonstrated that the optimum condition for the set-up of strain HF-1 bioaugmented system was 1.10 mg/g (dry weight of strain HF-1/dry weight of activated sludge) of inoculum amount, initial pH 7.0, and 250–1000 mg/L nicotine load. Higher than 1.10 mg/g could lead to noncolonization of strain HF-1 in activated sludge and failure of set-up of this bioaugmented system. Higher than pH 8.0 could restrain the colonization of strain HF-1 in activated sludge. Even though strain HF-1 colonizes in the activated sludge when pH was above 8.0, the removal of nicotine and total organic carbon (TOC) was suppressed due to low activities of bacteria in the activated sludge. Nicotine load did not show inhibition effect on set-up of bioaugmented system, but the ability of TOC removal was restrained when the nicotine load was above 1000 mg/L. This work could offer vital parameters for the set-up of bioaugmented system to treat tobacco wastewater in engineering. Kun Zhang, Hong-zhen He, Dong-sheng Shen, Xin Zheng, Zhou Zhou, Xian-jun Tao, and Mei-zhen Wang Copyright © 2014 Kun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:34:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2014/362932/ Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome. Yeliz Bilir, Erkan Gokce, Banu Ozturk, Faik Alev Deresoy, Ruken Yuksekkaya, and Emel Yaman Copyright © 2014 Yeliz Bilir et al. All rights reserved. Management of Varicella Gangrenosa: A Life-Threatening Condition from Chickenpox Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:34:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/206152/ Varicella gangrenosa, in which gangrenous ulceration of the skin and/or deeper tissues is seen, is a rare but alarming complication of Varicella infection. An early surgical intervention is generally advised, especially in case of sepsis and/or the presence of large necrotic lesions. We describe a case of a previously healthy 12-month-old boy presenting with sepsis due to Varicella gangrenosa. He presented with moderate lesions of moist gangrene. We treated our patient initially with antibiotics (ceftriaxone and metronidazole) and later on flucloxacillin and antiviral therapy (acyclovir) whereupon his condition rapidly improved and all skin lesions healed entirely. This report highlights the possibility of conservative treatment and emphasizes the significance of acyclovir in the management of chickenpox complicated by moist gangrene due to bacterial superinfection. Judith P. M. Schots, Peter Moons, and Jan H. M. B. Stoot Copyright © 2014 Judith P. M. Schots et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation of Viscous Flow Velocity Field around a Marine Cavitating Propeller Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:32:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/272316/ Velocity field around a ship cavitating propeller is investigated based on the viscous multiphase flow theory. Using a hybrid grid, the unsteady Navier-stokes (N-S) and the bubble dynamics equations are solved in this paper to predict the velocity in a propeller wake and the vapor volume fraction on the back side of propeller blade for a uniform inflow. Compared with experimental results, the numerical predictions of cavitation and axial velocity coincide with the measured data. The evolution of tip vortex is shown, and the interaction between the tip vortex of the current blade and the wake of the next one occurs in the far propeller wake. The frequency of velocity signals changes from shaft rate to blade rate. The phenomena reflect the instability of propeller wake. Zhifeng Zhu Copyright © 2014 Zhifeng Zhu. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Next Generation Sequencing: Potential and Application in Drug Discovery” Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:11:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/621354/ Navneet Kumar Yadav, Pooja Shukla, Ankur Omer, Shruti Pareek, A. K. Srivastava, F. W. Bansode, and R. K. Singh Copyright © 2014 Navneet Kumar Yadav et al. All rights reserved. On Marginal Dependencies of the 2 × 2 Kappa Wed, 19 Nov 2014 13:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/as/2014/759527/ Cohen’s kappa is a standard tool for the analysis of agreement in a 2 × 2 reliability study. Researchers are frequently only interested in the kappa-value of a sample. Various authors have observed that if two pairs of raters have the same amount of observed agreement, the pair whose marginal distributions are more similar to each other may have a lower kappa-value than the pair with more divergent marginal distributions. Here we present exact formulations of some of these properties. The results provide a better understanding of the 2 × 2 kappa for situations where it is used as a sample statistic. Matthijs J. Warrens Copyright © 2014 Matthijs J. Warrens. All rights reserved. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomographic Findings of Bietti Crystalline Dystrophy Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:57:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/739271/ We analyzed the OCT features of 24 eyes of 12 patients with Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD) with the Heidelberg HRA2-OCT. Seventeen of 24 eyes were in intermediate stage of the disease and seven in advanced stage of the disease at the time of latest OCT examination performed in 2014. Outer retinal tubulations and retinal hyperreflective dots were present in 20 of 24 eyes. The remaining four eyes had advanced disease with very thin retina. Appearance of bright plaque on top of RPE-Bruch membrane was present in all eyes. Choroidal hyperreflective spots were noted in 19 of 24 eyes. The remaining five eyes had advanced disease stage with very thin choroid. Mean central macular thickness was 163.08 μm ± 62.52 for all eyes (170.35 μm ± 56.46 in eyes with intermediate disease and 145.42 μm ± 77.2 in eyes with advanced disease). Mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 95.37 μm ± 55.93 for the study eyes (116.47 ± 46.92 μm in eyes with intermediate disease and 44.14 μm ± 42.43 in eyes with advanced disease). Choroidal hyperreflective spots were noted in 21 of 24 eyes (87.5%). SD-OCT shows the disease progression in retinal and choroidal layers delicately in eyes with BCD and expands our knowledge about the ongoing disease process. Ali Osman Saatci, Hasan Can Doruk, Aylin Yaman, and Ferit Hakan Öner Copyright © 2014 Ali Osman Saatci et al. All rights reserved. Effect on Intraocular Pressure of Switching from Latanoprost and Travoprost Monotherapy to Timolol Fixed Combinations in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:41:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/720385/ Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes) were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG) or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b) fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was  mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and  mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was  mmHg   % reduction from baseline) at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy . The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant . Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations. Ryoko Igarashi, Tetsuya Togano, Yuta Sakaue, Takaiko Yoshino, Jun Ueda, and Takeo Fukuchi Copyright © 2014 Ryoko Igarashi et al. All rights reserved. Giant Mature Primary Retroperitoneal Teratoma in a Young Adult: Report of a Rare Case and Literature Review Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:39:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/930538/ Teratomas are neoplasms of the embryonic tissues that typically arise in the gonadal and sacrococcygeal regions of adults and children. Primary adult retroperitoneal teratomas are rare and demand challenging management options. We report a case of a unilateral primary retroperitoneal mature cystic teratoma mimicking an adrenal mass in a 28-year-old female patient. Complete resection of the mass was performed by a laparotomy approach. Because of the risk of malignancy, follow-up radiographic studies were performed to ensure the oncologic efficacy of resection. The patient remains free of recurrence to date. Walid Sasi, Giuseppe A. Ricchetti, Laila Parvanta, and Robert Carpenter Copyright © 2014 Walid Sasi et al. All rights reserved. Team Training (Training at Own Facility) versus Individual Surgeon’s Training (Training at Trainer’s Facility) When Implementing a New Surgical Technique: Example from the ONSTEP Inguinal Hernia Repair Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:38:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srp/2014/762761/ Background. When implementing a new surgical technique, the best method for didactic learning has not been settled. There are basically two scenarios: the trainee goes to the teacher’s clinic and learns the new technique hands-on, or the teacher goes to the trainee’s clinic and performs the teaching there. Methods. An informal literature review was conducted to provide a basis for discussing pros and cons. We also wanted to discuss how many surgeons can be trained in a day and the importance of the demand for a new surgical procedure to ensure a high adoption rate and finally to apply these issues on a discussion of barriers for adoption of the new ONSTEP technique for inguinal hernia repair after initial training. Results and Conclusions. The optimal training method would include moving the teacher to the trainee’s department to obtain team-training effects simultaneous with surgical technical training of the trainee surgeon. The training should also include a theoretical presentation and discussion along with the practical training. Importantly, the training visit should probably be followed by a scheduled visit to clear misunderstandings and fine-tune the technique after an initial self-learning period. Jacob Rosenberg, Kristoffer Andresen, and Jannie Laursen Copyright © 2014 Jacob Rosenberg et al. All rights reserved. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery for Intersigmoid Hernia Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:38:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/589649/ Intersigmoid hernia is a rare form of internal hernia. Here, we report a case of intersigmoid hernia and provide a brief review of the 62 cases involving the mesosigmoid reported in Japan from 2000 to 2013. In the current case, a 26-year-old man with no previous history of abdominal surgery presented with abdominal pain and vomiting. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an extensively dilated small bowel and a closed loop of small bowel in the mesosigmoid. The patient was diagnosed with an intestinal obstruction due to an incarcerated internal hernia involving the mesosigmoid. There was no blood flow obstruction at the incarcerated bowel. An elective single-incision laparoscopic surgery was performed after decompression of the bowel using ileus tube. As the ileum herniated into the intersigmoid fossa, the patient was diagnosed with an intersigmoid hernia. The incarcerated small bowel was reduced in order to make it viable, and the hernial defect was closed with interrupted sutures. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on postoperative day five. Takahiro Watanabe, Hidetoshi Wada, Masanori Sato, Yuichirou Miyaki, and Norihiko Shiiya Copyright © 2014 Takahiro Watanabe et al. All rights reserved. Design and Synthesis of Novel Isoxazole Tethered Quinone-Amino Acid Hybrids Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:09:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jaa/2014/721291/ A new series of isoxazole tethered quinone-amino acid hybrids has been designed and synthesized involving 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction followed by an oxidation reaction using cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN). Using this method, for the first time various isoxazole tethered quinone-phenyl alanine and quinone-alanine hybrids were synthesized from simple commercially available 4-bromobenzyl bromide, propargyl bromide, and 2,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde in good yield. P. Ravi Kumar, Manoranjan Behera, M. Sambaiah, Venu Kandula, Nagaraju Payili, A. Jaya Shree, and Satyanarayana Yennam Copyright © 2014 P. Ravi Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Shen-Fu Injection on Neuronal Mitochondrial Function in a Porcine Model of Prolonged Cardiac Arrest Wed, 19 Nov 2014 12:08:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/523847/ Background. Shen-Fu injection (SFI) following cardiac arrest exhibits neurological effects, but its effect on neurological dysfunction is unclear. This study sought to investigate the protective effect of SFI on nerve cells in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Methods. After eight minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation (VF) and 2 minutes of basic life support, 24 pigs were randomized and divided into three cardiopulmonary resuscitation groups, which received central venous injection of either Shen-Fu (SFI group; 1.0 ml/kg), epinephrine (EP group; 0.02 mg/kg), or saline (SA group). Surviving pigs were sacrificed at 24 h after ROSC and brains were removed for analysis for morphologic changes of mitochondria by electron microscopy, for mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) by flow cytometry, and for opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) by mitochondrial light scattering. Results. Compared with the EP and SA groups, SFI treatment reduced opening of MPTP, showing higher MMP. In addition, animals treated with SFI showed slight cerebral ultrastructure damage under the electron microscopy. Conclusion. Shen-Fu injection alleviated brain injury, improved neurological ultrastructure, stabilized membrane potential, and inhibited opening of MPTP. Therefore, SFI could significantly attenuate postresuscitation cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury by modulating mitochondrial dysfunction of nerve cells. Wei Gu, XiaoMin Hou, Haijiang Zhou, and ChunSheng Li Copyright © 2014 Wei Gu et al. All rights reserved. Effect Mechanism of Penstock on Stability and Regulation Quality of Turbine Regulating System Wed, 19 Nov 2014 11:30:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/349086/ This paper studies the effect mechanism of water inertia and head loss of penstock on stability and regulation quality of turbine regulating system with surge tank or not and proposes the construction method of equivalent model of regulating system. Firstly, the complete linear mathematical model of regulating system is established. Then, the free oscillation equation and time response of the frequency that describe stability and regulation quality, respectively, are obtained. Finally, the effects of penstock are analysed by using stability region and response curves. The results indicate that the stability and regulation quality of system without surge tank are determined by time response of frequency which only depends on water hammer wave in penstock, while, for system with surge tank, the time response of frequency depending on water hammer wave in penstock and water-level fluctuation in surge tank jointly determines the stability and regulation quality. Water inertia of penstock mainly affects the stability and time response of frequency of system without surge tank as well as the stability and head wave of time response of frequency with surge tank. Head loss of penstock mainly affects the stability and tail wave of time response of frequency with surge tank. Wencheng Guo, Jiandong Yang, Jieping Chen, and Yi Teng Copyright © 2014 Wencheng Guo et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Characteristics of Kiwira Coal Waste with Rice Husk Blends for Gasification Wed, 19 Nov 2014 11:25:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jen/2014/562382/ Eminent depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution are the key forces driving the implementation cofiring of fossil fuels and biomass. Cogasification as a technology is known to have advantages of low cost, high energy recovery, and environmental friendliness. The performance/efficiency of this energy recovery process substantially depends on thermal properties of the fuel. This paper presents experimental study of thermal behavior of Kiwira coal waste/rice husks blends. Compositions of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% weight percentage rice husk were studied using thermogravimetric analyzer at the heating rate of 10 K/min to 1273 K. Specifically, degradation rate, conversion rate, and kinetic parameters have been studied. Thermal stability of coal waste was found to be higher than that of rice husks. In addition, thermal stability of coal waste/rice husk blend was found to decrease with an increase of rice husks. In contrast, both the degradation and devolatilization rates increased with the amount of rice husk. On the other hand, the activation energy dramatically reduced from 131 kJ/mol at 0% rice husks to 75 kJ/mol at 100% rice husks. The reduction of activation energy is advantageous as it can be used to design efficient performance and cost effective cogasification process. Deodatus Kazawadi, Geoffrey R. John, and Cecil K. King’ondu Copyright © 2014 Deodatus Kazawadi et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Physicochemical Properties, and Antimicrobial Studies of Iron (III) Complexes of Ciprofloxacin, Cloxacillin, and Amoxicillin Wed, 19 Nov 2014 10:30:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmc/2014/735602/ Iron (III) complexes of ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cloxacillin were synthesized and their aqueous solubility profiles, relative stabilities, and antimicrobial properties were evaluated. The complexes showed improved aqueous solubility when compared to the corresponding ligands. Relative thermal and acid stabilities were determined spectrophotometrically and the results showed that the complexes have enhanced thermal and acid stabilities when compared to the pure ligands. Antimicrobial studies showed that the complexes have decreased activities against most of the tested microorganisms. Ciprofloxacin complex, however, showed almost the same activity as the corresponding ligand. Job’s method of continuous variation suggested 1 : 2 metals to ligand stoichiometry for ciprofloxacin complex but 1 : 1 for cloxacillin complex. Fabian I. Eze, Uzoechi Ajali, and Pius O. Ukoha Copyright © 2014 Fabian I. Eze et al. All rights reserved. Pricing Parisian Option under a Stochastic Volatility Model Wed, 19 Nov 2014 10:12:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/956454/ We study the pricing of a Parisian option under a stochastic volatility model. Based on the manipulation problem that barrier options might create near barriers, the Parisian option has been designed as an extended barrier option. A stochastic volatility correction to the Black-Scholes price of the Parisian option is obtained in a partial differential equation form and the solution is characterized numerically. Min-Ku Lee and Kyu-Hwan Jang Copyright © 2014 Min-Ku Lee and Kyu-Hwan Jang. All rights reserved. Cellular Automata Supporting -Connectivity Wed, 19 Nov 2014 10:07:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/765798/ We propose a new algorithm based on cellular automation (CA) for preserving -connectivity, . The CA algorithm transforms an initial grid configuration in a grid with same number of holes but without 1-connected components. Also, maximal thinning of -connected components, , is achieved. The grid can be used as initial for investigating properties of initial grid. Computational performances are evaluated and measured on real cases. The obtained results indicate that the proposed approach achieves comparable complexity as standard approaches; however, the speed-up and scalability of the proposed algorithm are not limited by the number of processing nodes. Biljana Stamatovic, Gregor Kosec, Roman Trobec, Xiao Xuan, and Sinisa Stamatovic Copyright © 2014 Biljana Stamatovic et al. All rights reserved. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Occurring after Exposure to Mycobacterium marinum Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:56:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2014/702613/ Cutaneous infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum have been attributed to aquarium or fish exposure after a break in the skin barrier. In most instances, the upper limbs and fingers account for a majority of the infection sites. While previous cases of necrotizing soft tissue infections related to M. marinum have been documented, the importance of our presenting case is to illustrate the aggressive nature of M. marinum resulting in a persistent necrotizing soft tissue infection of a finger that required multiple aggressive wound debridements, followed by an amputation of the affected extremity, in order to hasten recovery. Shivani S. Patel, M. Lance Tavana, M. Sean Boger, Soe Soe Win, and Bassam H. Rimawi Copyright © 2014 Shivani S. Patel et al. All rights reserved. Management of Posterior Reversible Syndrome in Preeclamptic Women Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:44:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2014/928079/ Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological syndrome associated with a number of conditions including preeclampsia. It is characterized by seizures, alteration of consciousness, visual disturbances, and symmetric white matter abnormalities, typically in the posterior parietooccipital regions of the cerebral hemispheres, at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI). We report three new cases of PRES in preeclamptic patients and describe the management of these patients. We present a brief review of other cases in the literature, with particular attention to the anesthetic management. S. Poma, M. P. Delmonte, C. Gigliuto, R. Imberti, M. Delmonte, A. Arossa, and G. A. Iotti Copyright © 2014 S. Poma et al. All rights reserved. Application of Full Factorial Design in Optimization of Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction of Ginger Essential Oil Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:44:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/828606/ The solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from ginger was optimized using a 23 full factorial design in terms of oil yield to determine the optimum extraction conditions. Sixteen experiments were carried out with three varying parameters, extraction time, microwave power, and type of sample for two levels of each. A first order regression equation best fits the experimental data. The predicted values calculated by the regression model were in good agreement with the experimental values. The results showed that the extraction time is the most prominent factor followed by microwave power level and sample type for extraction process. An average of 0.25% of ginger oil can be extracted using current setup. The optimum conditions for the ginger oil extraction using SFME were the extraction time 30 minutes, microwave power level 640 watts, and sample type, crushed sample. Solvent-free microwave extraction proves a green and promising technique for essential oil extraction. Mumtaj Shah and S. K. Garg Copyright © 2014 Mumtaj Shah and S. K. Garg. All rights reserved. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:43:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apec/2014/319213/ The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC-) graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP) stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards. Busi Rambabu and Y. Srinivasa Rao Copyright © 2014 Busi Rambabu and Y. Srinivasa Rao. All rights reserved. Equal Area Laws and Latent Heat for -Dimensional RN-AdS Black Hole Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:39:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2014/816728/ We study the equal area laws of -dimensional RN-AdS black hole. We choose two kinds of phase diagrams, and . We employ the equal area laws to find an isobar which is the real two-phase coexistence line. Our calculation is much simpler to derive the critical value of the thermodynamic quantities. According to the thermodynamic quantities, we also study the latent heat of the black hole. Li-Chun Zhang, Hui-Hua Zhao, Ren Zhao, and Meng-Sen Ma Copyright © 2014 Li-Chun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Serum Leptin Levels in Treatment-Naive Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome or Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:38:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ad/2014/486282/ Several studies have investigated leptin levels in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with somewhat conflicting results. They have all focused on patients with established relapsing-remitting (RR) MS but have not specifically looked at patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) suggestive of MS, in the early stages of disease. In this study, serum leptin levels were measured in 89 treatment-naïve patients with CIS (53 patients) or RRMS (36 patients) and 73 controls searching for differences between the groups and for associations with several disease parameters. The expected significant sexual dimorphism in leptin levels (higher levels in females) was observed in both MS patients and controls. Increased leptin levels were found in female patients with RRMS compared to female controls () and female CIS patients (). Female CIS patients had comparable levels to controls. Leptin levels correlated positively to disease duration, but not to EDSS, in female patients with RRMS. The results of the present study do not indicate involvement of leptin in the early stages of MS. Normal leptin levels in patients with CIS suggest that leptin does not have a pathogenic role. The ratio leptin/BMI increases during disease course in female MS patients in a time-dependent and disability-independent manner. Maria Eleftheria Evangelopoulos, Georgios Koutsis, and Manolis Markianos Copyright © 2014 Maria Eleftheria Evangelopoulos et al. All rights reserved. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:29:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2014/352071/ The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC) 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand. Rajaa Filali and Mohamed Bouhdadi Copyright © 2014 Rajaa Filali and Mohamed Bouhdadi. All rights reserved. The Impact of Traffic-Induced Bridge Vibration on Rapid Repairing High-Performance Concrete for Bridge Deck Pavement Repairs Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:29:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/632051/ Based on forced vibration tests for high-performance concrete (HPC), the influence of bridge vibration induced by traveling vehicle on compressive strength and durability of HPC has been studied. It is concluded that 1 d and 2 d compressive strength of HPC decreased significantly, and the maximum reduction rate is 9.1%, while 28 d compressive strength of HPC had a slight lower with a 3% maximal drop under the action of two simple harmonic vibrations with 2 Hz, 3 mm amplitude, and 4 Hz, 3 mm amplitude. Moreover, the vibration had a slight effect on the compressive strength of HPC when the simple harmonic vibration had 4 Hz and 1 mm amplitude; it is indicated that the amplitude exerts a more prominent influence on the earlier compressive strength with the comparison of the frequency. In addition, the impact of simple harmonic vibration on durability of HPC can be ignored; this shows the self-healing function of concrete resulting from later hydration reaction. Thus, the research achievements mentioned above can contribute to learning the laws by which bridge vibration affects the properties of concrete and provide technical support for the design and construction of the bridge deck pavement maintenance. Wei Wang, Shuo Liu, Qizhi Wang, Wei Yuan, Mingzhang Chen, Xiaotian Hao, Shuai Ma, and Xuanyu Liang Copyright © 2014 Wei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Psychogenic Nonepileptic Spells in Chronic Epilepsy Patients with Moderate Cognitive Impairment: The Need for Video EEG Monitoring for Adequate Diagnosis Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:22:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2014/121865/ The objective of our study was to emphasize the importance of intensive video EEG monitoring in patients with a well-established diagnosis of epilepsy with moderate cognitive impairment. The idea was to diagnose new onset frequent atypical events prompting the need for frequent emergency room and clinic visits and hospital admissions. Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on patients with chronic epilepsy with moderate cognitive impairment who had an increased incidence of new onset episodes different from the baseline seizures. Data were acquired from electronic medical records. The hospital’s Institutional Review Board gave approval for this retrospective analysis of patient records. We retrospectively analyzed data from three patients with an established diagnosis of epilepsy. Extensive chart reviews were performed with emphasis on type and duration of epilepsy and description of baseline seizures and description of new events. There were two men and one woman with moderate cognitive impairment. One subject had generalized epilepsy and other two had temporal lobe epilepsy. The patients were on an average of two to three antiepileptic medicines. The duration of follow-up in our neurology clinic ranged from 9 months to 5 years. The occurrence of increased frequency of these atypical events as described by the caregivers, despite therapeutic anticonvulsant levels, prompted the need for 5-day intensive video EEG monitoring. New atypical spells were documented in all three patients and the brain waves were normal during those episodes. The diagnosis of pseudoseizures was made based on the data acquired during the epilepsy monitoring unit stay. Our data analysis showed that intensive video EEG monitoring is an important tool to evaluate change in frequency and description of seizures even in cognitively impaired patients with an established diagnosis of epilepsy for adequate seizure management. Diana Mungall Robinson and Batool F. Kirmani Copyright © 2014 Diana Mungall Robinson and Batool F. Kirmani. All rights reserved. Prognostic Efficacy of Nuclear Morphometry at Invasive Front of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Image Analysis Microscopic Study Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:15:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/247853/ Background. Oral cancer is revisited on a pathologist perspective with advanced imaging technique. Objective. The present study assessed the new malignancy grading system at tumor proper (TP) and Bryne’s grading system at invasive tumor front (ITF), morphometric features using software, to clarify their associations with prognosis of oral cancers. Methods. Histologically confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with 5-year follow-up was assessed morphometrically using image analysis at TP and ITF, correlated with the prognosis of patient. Results. On comparison of grading systems, a moderate agreement between both (Bryne and Anneroth) was seen. Among all histological parameters, we noted inverse correlation between degree of mitosis at invasive front and decrease in lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate at ITF with increase rate of recurrence and event of death. An increase in nuclear area, diameter, and perimeter along with decrease circularity in advancing OSCC was seen. Correlation of parameters showed higher values for maximum nuclear diameter, perimeter, and circularity at TP and ITF with recurrence. Conclusion. This study, while limited in sample size, concluded that a combined assessment of clinical TNM staging, histopathological grading system excluding the parameter “mitotic activity” (due to its inverse relation), and nuclear morphometry at the ITF are better prognosticators. This combination proved to be an accurate predictive factor in eliciting the varied molecular characteristics of tumor heterogeneity. V. K. Vaishnavi Vedam, Karen Boaz, and Srikant Natarajan Copyright © 2014 V. K. Vaishnavi Vedam et al. All rights reserved. Successfully Treated Calcific Uremic Arteriolopathy: Two Cases of a High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis with Intravenous Sodium Thiosulfate Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:08:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2014/765134/ Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare and potentially fatal disorder of calcification involving subcutaneous small vessels and fat in patients with renal insufficiency. We describe the successful use of intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) for the treatment of CUA in two patients. The first case was complicated by the development of a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis, which was accompanied by a seizure. Both patients had complete wound healing within five months. Although STS should be considered in the treatment of CUA, little is known about pharmacokinetics and additional studies are required to determine dosing strategies to minimize severe potential side effects. Joshua L. Rein, Kana N. Miyata, Kobena A. Dadzie, Steven J. Gruber, Roxana Sulica, and James F. Winchester Copyright © 2014 Joshua L. Rein et al. All rights reserved. A Method to Accelerate the Convergence of the Secant Algorithm Wed, 19 Nov 2014 09:08:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ana/2014/321592/ We present an acceleration technique for the Secant method. The Secant method is a root-searching algorithm for a general function . We exploit the fact that the combination of two Secant steps leads to an improved, so-called first-order approximant of the root. The original Secant algorithm can be modified to a first-order accelerated algorithm which generates a sequence of first-order approximants. This process can be repeated: two th order approximants can be combined in a th order approximant and the algorithm can be modified to an th order accelerated algorithm which generates a sequence of such approximants. We show that the sequence of th order approximants converges to the root with the same order as methods using polynomial fits of of degree . M. J. P. Nijmeijer Copyright © 2014 M. J. P. Nijmeijer. All rights reserved. Successful Management of Insulin Allergy and Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 4 with Desensitization Therapy and Glucocorticoid Treatment: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:55:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crii/2014/394754/ Introduction. Insulin allergy is a rare complication of insulin therapy, especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Key manifestations are hypersensitivity-related symptoms and poor metabolic control. T1DM, as well as insulin allergy, may develop in the context of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), further complicating management. Case Report. A 17-year-old male patient, diagnosed with T1DM, was treated with various insulin therapy schemes over several months, which resulted in recurrent anaphylactoid reactions and poor glycemic control, after which he was referred to our Endocrinology and Immunology Department. A prick test was carried out for all commercially available insulin presentations and another insulin scheme was designed but proved unsuccessful. A desensitization protocol was started with Glargine alongside administration of Prednisone, which successfully induced tolerance. Observation of skin lesions typical of vitiligo prompted laboratory workup for other autoimmune disorders, which returned positive for autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia. These findings are compatible with APS type 4. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of insulin allergy in type 4 APS, as well as this particular combination in APS. Etiopathogenic components shared by insulin allergy and APS beg for further research in immunogenetics to further comprehend pathophysiologic aspects of these diseases. Joselyn Rojas, Marjorie Villalobos, María Sofía Martínez, Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Wheeler Torres, José Carlos Mejías, Edgar Miquilena, and Valmore Bermúdez Copyright © 2014 Joselyn Rojas et al. All rights reserved. Linearization from Complex Lie Point Transformations Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:54:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/793247/ Complex Lie point transformations are used to linearize a class of systems of second order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which have Lie algebras of maximum dimension , with . We identify such a class by employing complex structure on the manifold that defines the geometry of differential equations. Furthermore we provide a geometrical construction of the procedure adopted that provides an analogue in of the linearizability criteria in . Sajid Ali, M. Safdar, and Asghar Qadir Copyright © 2014 Sajid Ali et al. All rights reserved. Low-Cost Fault Tolerant Methodology for Real Time MPSoC Based Embedded System Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:50:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrc/2014/806237/ We are proposing a design methodology for a fault tolerant homogeneous MPSoC having additional design objectives that include low hardware overhead and performance. We have implemented three different FT methodologies on MPSoCs and compared them against the defined constraints. The comparison of these FT methodologies is carried out by modelling their architectures in VHDL-RTL, on Spartan 3 FPGA. The results obtained through simulations helped us to identify the most relevant scheme in terms of the given design constraints. Mohsin Amin, Muhammad Shakir, Aqib Javed, Muhammad Hassan, and Syed Ali Raza Copyright © 2014 Mohsin Amin et al. All rights reserved. Primary Leiomyoma of the Liver: A Review of a Rare Tumour Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:50:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/959202/ Context. Primary leiomyoma of the liver is a rare tumour with uncertain pathogenesis with similar presentation with other tumours of the liver. Little is known about its clinical course. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary leiomyoma of the liver. Methods. Extensive literature search was carried out for case reports of primary leiomyoma of the liver. Results. A total of 36 cases of primary leiomyoma of the liver were reviewed. The mean age of presentation is 43 years with slight female sex affectation; females accounted for 55.6% of the cases reported in the literature. The average size of the tumour is 8.7 cm. 34.4% of the cases reviewed were incidental finding with the mean follow-up time of 33 months with most cases reporting no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Primary leiomyoma of the liver is very rare tumour with complex pathogenesis which remains largely unknown. Imaging of the tumour does not allow for a tissue specific diagnosis; hence histological review of the tissue specimen and immunohistochemical stains are imperative for diagnosis. Surgical resection is both diagnostic and curative. The diagnosis of primary leiomyoma of the liver should be considered as a differential in the management of liver tumours. Ayodeji Oluwarotimi Omiyale Copyright © 2014 Ayodeji Oluwarotimi Omiyale. All rights reserved. Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:47:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/atox/2014/262895/ Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide) for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario. Reshma Sebastian Cherian and Mohanan Parayanthala Valappil Copyright © 2014 Reshma Sebastian Cherian and Mohanan Parayanthala Valappil. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Neonatal Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat Model for the Development of Cataract Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:19:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2014/463264/ Type 2 diabetes (T2D) generally follows prediabetes (PD) conditions such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Although studies reported an association of IGT or IFG with cataract, the experimental basis for PD associated cataract is not known. Hence, we evaluated neonatal streptozotocin (nSTZ) induced rat model to study PD associated cataractogenesis by injecting STZ to two-day old rats. While majority (70%) of nSTZ injected pups developed IGT (nSTZ-PD) by two months but not cataract even after seven months, remaining (30%) nSTZ rats developed hyperglycemia (nSTZ-D) by two months and mature cataract by seven months. Lens biochemical analysis indicated increased oxidative stress as indicated by increased SOD activity, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl levels in nSTZ-D cataractous lens. There was also increased polyol pathway as assessed by aldose reductase activity and sorbitol levels. Though nSTZ-PD animals have not shown any signs of lenticular opacity, insolubilization of proteins along with enhanced polyol pathway was observed in the lens. Further there was increased oxidative stress in lens of IGT animals. These results suggest that oxidative stress along with increased polyol pathway might play a role in IGT-associated lens abnormalities. In conclusion, nSTZ-PD rat model could aid to investigate IGT-associated lens abnormalities. Madhoosudan A. Patil, Palla Suryanarayana, Uday Kumar Putcha, Myadara Srinivas, and G. Bhanuprakash Reddy Copyright © 2014 Madhoosudan A. Patil et al. All rights reserved. On One 2-Valued Transformation: Its Invariant Measure and Application to Masked Dynamical Systems Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:12:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/513061/ We consider one family of 2-valued transformations on the interval [0, 1] with measure , endowed with a set of weight functions. We construct invariant measure for this multivalued dynamical system with weights and show the interplay between such systems and masked dynamical systems, which leads to image processing. P. I. Troshin Copyright © 2014 P. I. Troshin. All rights reserved. Extensive Genetic Diversity among Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Central Province of Iran Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:05:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/trt/2014/195287/ Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant disease in many countries. According to Iran’s borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan, which are among the 22 high burden countries around the world, this study was conducted to analyze the current molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and survey genetic diversity of Mtb strains in Markazi Province in center of Iran. In this experimental study, 75 sputum specimens and one gastric lavage from all smear-positive TB patients admitted to the public hospitals across the Markazi Province were cultured on specific mycobacterial culture media. Genomic DNA was digested by PvuII and transferred to positively charged nylon membrane by southern blotting method and hybridization by PGRS and DR probes. Genotyping of the isolates by PGRS-RFLP and DR-RFLP displayed a wide range of genetic diversity as 25 and 26 genotypes were identified, respectively. Generally speaking, despite the relatively limited number of isolates in the study, high age of patients and also large heterogeneity found in the setting are both in opposition to active circulation of Mtb strains between patients under study either Iranian or Afghan nationals. Thus, it seems that reactivation of latent infection has had the main role in the spread of tuberculosis. Saman Soleimanpour, Daryoush Hamedi Asl, Keyvan Tadayon, Ali Asghar Farazi, Rouhollah Keshavarz, Kioomars Soleymani, Fereshteh Sadat Seddighinia, and Nader Mosavari Copyright © 2014 Saman Soleimanpour et al. All rights reserved. Nontrivial Solutions for Dirichlet Boundary Value Systems with the -Laplacian Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:56:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmath/2014/505290/ Using critical point theory due to Bonanno (2012), we prove the existence of at least one nontrivial solution for Dirichlet boundary value systems with the -Laplacian. Shang-Kun Wang and Wen-Wu Pan Copyright © 2014 Shang-Kun Wang and Wen-Wu Pan. All rights reserved. Health-Related Quality of Life of Rural Clients Seeking Telepsychology Services Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:33:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijta/2014/168158/ Sixty million US residents live in rural areas, but health policies and interventions developed from an urban mindset often fail to address the significant barriers to health experienced by these local communities. Telepsychology, or psychological services delivered by distance via technology, is an emerging treatment modality with special implications for underserved rural areas. This study found that a sample of rural residents seeking telepsychology services had low health-related quality of life (HRQOL), often due to cooccurring physical and mental health diagnoses including high rates of depression. However, a brief telepsychology treatment delivered to rural clients was associated with an improvement in mental health-related quality of life . These results indicate that despite the complex health needs of these underserved communities, telepsychology interventions may help offset the disparities in health service access in rural areas. Kevin R. Tarlow, Carly E. McCord, Timothy R. Elliott, and Daniel F. Brossart Copyright © 2014 Kevin R. Tarlow et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Antiobesity Media Content on Intention to Eat Healthily and Exercise: A Test of the Ordered Protection Motivation Theory Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:25:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/954784/ This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people’s appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people’s intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information significantly increased people’s intention to exercise as well as their overall coping appraisals (the perceived effectiveness of the recommended behaviors and their ability to perform them). Likewise, increased threat and coping appraisals were both found to significantly influence people’s intention to exercise and diet. Coping (rather than threat) appraisals more strongly predicted behavioral intent. Following the attitude-behavior literature, behavioral intention was used as the most proximate predictor of actual behavior (i.e., stronger intentions increase the likelihood of behavior change). Raeann Ritland and Lulu Rodriguez Copyright © 2014 Raeann Ritland and Lulu Rodriguez. All rights reserved. Production and Structural Characterization of Lactobacillus helveticus Derived Biosurfactant Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:22:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/493548/ A probiotic strain of lactobacilli was isolated from traditional soft Churpi cheese of Yak milk and found positive for biosurfactant production. Lactobacilli reduced the surface tension of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) from 72.0 to 39.5 mNm−1 pH 7.2 and its critical micelle concentration (CMC) was found to be 2.5 mg mL−1. Low cost production of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant was carried out at lab scale fermenter which yields 0.8 mg mL−1 biosurfactant. The biosurfactant was found least phytotoxic and cytotoxic as compared to the rhamnolipid and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at different concentration. Structural attributes of biosurfactant were determined by FTIR, NMR (1H and 13C), UPLC-MS, and fatty acid analysis by GCMS which confirmed the presence of glycolipid type of biosurfactant closely similar to xylolipids. Biosurfactant is mainly constituted by lipid and sugar fractions. The present study outcomes provide valuable information on structural characterization of the biosurfactant produced by L. helveticus MRTL91. These findings are encouraging for the application of Lactobacilli derived biosurfactant as nontoxic surface active agents in the emerging field of biomedical applications. Deepansh Sharma, Baljeet Singh Saharan, Nikhil Chauhan, Anshul Bansal, and Suresh Procha Copyright © 2014 Deepansh Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Effects of High Phosphorus Diet on Bone Metabolism-Related Gene Expression in Young and Aged Mice Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:11:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2014/575932/ In this study, the effects of high phosphorus (P) diet on bone metabolism-related gene expression were investigated in young and aged mice. Twelve- and 80-week-old ddY male mice were divided into two groups, respectively, and fed a control diet containing 0.3% P or a high P diet containing 1.2% P. After 4 weeks of treatment, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration was significantly higher in the high P groups than in the control groups in both young and aged mice and was significantly higher in aged mice than in young mice fed the high P diet. High P diet significantly increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA in the femur of both young and aged mice and significantly increased the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA ratio only in aged mice. High P diet significantly increased mRNA expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 6, calbindin-D9k, and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 1b in the duodenum of both young and aged mice. These results suggest that high P diet increased RANKL mRNA expression in the femur and calcium absorption-related gene expression in the duodenum regardless of age. Furthermore, the high P diet-induced increase in PTH secretion might increase the RANKL/OPG mRNA ratio in aged mice. Shinichi Katsumata, Hiroshi Matsuzaki, Rie Katsumata-Tsuboi, Mariko Uehara, and Kazuharu Suzuki Copyright © 2014 Shinichi Katsumata et al. All rights reserved. Design and Investigation of Disk Patch Antenna with Quad C-Slots for Multiband Operations Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:10:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmst/2014/504363/ An investigation into the design and fabrication of multiband disk patch antenna with symmetrically quad C-slots is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna shows multiband resonance frequencies which highly depend on substrate thickness, dielectric constant, and radius of the disk patch. By incorporating two pairs of C-slots in optimum geometry on the radiating patch, the proposed antenna operates between 2 and 12 GHz at different frequency bands centered at 2.27, 7.505, 9.34, 10.33, and 11.61 GHz. The other antenna parameters are studied like gain, antenna efficiency, and radiation pattern. The proposed antenna may find applications in S-, C-, and X-band. The results are carried out with the aid of HFSS and MOM-based IE3D simulator. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement with each other. J. A. Ansari, Sapna Verma, and Ashish Singh Copyright © 2014 J. A. Ansari et al. All rights reserved. Behavioural Descriptions of Indian Pangolins (Manis crassicaudata) in Captivity Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:10:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijz/2014/795062/ Conservation breeding programmes as an essential tool for conservation of endangered species require a sound knowledge on behaviour of the species. At present time, knowledge of behaviour and biology of Indian pangolins is inadequate and inconsistent. During the present study, an ethogram was developed based on the behavioural observations of seven Indian pangolins (Manis crassicaudata) at Pangolin Conservation Breeding Centre, Nandankanan Zoological Park, Odisha, India, between February 2012 and January 2013. A total of 27 behaviours of seven distinct behavioural categories (stationary body positions, locomotory patterns, maintenance behaviours, explorative behaviours, defensive behaviours, reproductive/social behaviours, and others) were described and illustrated. The results offer a consistent frame of reference for further studies on behavioural patterns of Indian pangolins. Besides, these preliminary observations could be useful in management and breeding of the species in captivity. Rajesh Kumar Mohapatra and Sudarsan Panda Copyright © 2014 Rajesh Kumar Mohapatra and Sudarsan Panda. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Supplementation of Preservation Solution Improves Viability of Osteochondral Grafts Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:02:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/109876/ Allogenic osteochondral tissue (OCT) is used for the treatment of large cartilage defects. Typically, OCTs collected during the disease-screening period are preserved at 4°C; however, the gradual reduction in cell viability during cold preservation adversely affects transplantation outcomes. Therefore, improved storage methods that maintain the cell viability of OCTs are needed to increase the availability of high-quality OCTs and improve treatment outcomes. Here, we evaluated whether long-term hydrogen delivery to preservation solution improved the viability of rat OCTs during cold preservation. Hydrogen-supplemented Dulbecco’s Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM) and University of Wisconsin (UW) solution both significantly improved the cell viability of OCTs during preservation at 4°C for 21 days compared to nonsupplemented media. However, the long-term cold preservation of OCTs in DMEM containing hydrogen was associated with the most optimal maintenance of chondrocytes with respect to viability and morphology. Our findings demonstrate that OCTs preserved in DMEM supplemented with hydrogen are a promising material for the repair of large cartilage defects in the clinical setting. Takuya Yamada, Kentaro Uchida, Kenji Onuma, Jun Kuzuno, Masanobu Ujihira, Gen Inoue, Bunpei Sato, Ryosuke Kurokawa, Rina Sakai, and Masashi Takaso Copyright © 2014 Takuya Yamada et al. All rights reserved. Fournier’s Gangrene as a Postoperative Complication of Inguinal Hernia Repair Wed, 19 Nov 2014 07:00:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/408217/ Fournier’s gangrene is the necrotizing fasciitis of perianal, genitourinary, and perineal regions. Herein, we present a case of scrotal Fournier’s gangrene as a postoperative complication of inguinal hernia repair. A 51-year-old male with giant indirect hernia is presented. Patient underwent inguinal hernia repair, and after an unproblematic recovery period, he was discharged. He applied to our outpatient clinic on the fifth day with swollen and painful scrotum and it turned out to be Fournier’s gangrene. Polypropylene mesh was not infected. Patient recovered and was discharged after repeated debridements. Basic principles in treatment of Fournier’s gangrene are comprised of initial resuscitation, broad-spectrum antibiotics therapy, and early aggressive debridement. In the management of presented case, aggressive debridement was made right after diagnosis and broad-spectrum antibiotics were given to the hemodynamically stable patient. In these circumstances, the important question is whether we could prevent occurrence of Fournier’s gangrene. Tolga Dinc, Selami Ilgaz Kayilioglu, Isa Sozen, Baris Dogu Yildiz, and Faruk Coskun Copyright © 2014 Tolga Dinc et al. All rights reserved. Vaginal Evisceration: An Unexpected Complication of Conization Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:57:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2014/983682/ Background. Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) is routinely performed for the management of high grade intracervical neoplasia (CIN). Several uncommon complications have been described, including postoperative peritonitis, pseudoaneurysm of uterine artery, and bowel fistula. We report a unique case of postoperative vaginal evisceration and the subsequent management. Case. A 73-years-old woman underwent LLETZ for high grade CIN. On postoperative day 3, she was admitted for small bowel evisceration through the vagina. Surgical management was based on combined laparoscopic and transvaginal approach and consisted in bowel inspection and reinstatement, peritoneal washing, and dehiscence repair. Conclusions. Vaginal evisceration is a rare but potentially serious complication of pelvic surgery. This case report is to make clinicians aware of such complication following LLETZ and its management. Ali Ghassani, Benoit Andre, Caroline Simon-Toulza, Yann Tanguy le Gac, Alejandra Martinez, and Fabien Vidal Copyright © 2014 Ali Ghassani et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder in Patient with Sjogren’s Syndrome Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:56:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/158165/ We report a 48-year-old female with the history of Sjogren’s syndrome who presented with 3-week history of tingling, numbness, and shooting back, waist, and bilateral leg pain and numbness in the pelvic region with urinary and bowel incontinence. Physical examination was remarkable for reduced motor power in both lower extremities with spasticity. Sensory deficit was noted at the T6 level. Laboratory investigation revealed elevated ESR and CRP and positive serum antiaquaporin-4 IgG. Thoracic and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed abnormal patchy areas, leptomeningeal enhancement through the thoracic cord extending from T3 through T6 levels, without evidence of cord compression. Impression of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder was made and patient was treated with methylprednisolone intravenously followed by tapering oral prednisone. Neurological symptoms gradually improved with resolution of bowel and urinary incontinence. In a patient with Sjogren’s syndrome who presents with neurological complaints, the possibility of neuromyelitis optica or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder should be considered. Awareness of the possibility of CNS disease is important due to the serious nature of CNS complications, some of which are treatable with immunosuppressants. Our patient with Sjogren’s syndrome who presented with myelopathy benefited from early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy. Supat Thongpooswan, Bikash Chapagain, and Sabiha Bandagi Copyright © 2014 Supat Thongpooswan et al. All rights reserved. Acute Phase Response and Neutrophils : Lymphocyte Ratio in Response to Astaxanthin in Staphylococcal Mice Mastitis Model Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:46:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jvm/2014/147652/ The purpose of the study was to determine the immunotherapeutic effect of astaxanthin (AX) on total clinical score (TCS), C-reactive protein (CRP), and neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio in mice mastitis model challenged with pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four lactating mice were divided in 4 equal groups: group I mice served as normal healthy control, group II, positive control, were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus, group III mice were challenged and treated with AX, and group IV were treated with amoxicillin plus sulbactum. The TCS was higher in postchallenged mice; however it was significantly higher in group II untreated mice as compared to group III and group IV mice. The neutrophil was higher and lymphocyte count was lower in group II mice at 120 hrs post challenge (PC). The CRP was positive in all the challenged group at 24 hrs PC, but it remained positive till 120 hrs PC in group II. The parameters are related to enhancement of the mammary defense and reduction of inflammation. Hence AX may be used alone or as an adjunct therapy with antibiotic for amelioration of mastitis. Development of such therapy may be useful to reduce the antibiotic burden in management of intramammary infection. Tshering Dolma, Reena Mukherjee, B. K. Pati, and U. K. De Copyright © 2014 Tshering Dolma et al. All rights reserved. Pien Tze Huang Overcomes Multidrug Resistance and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells via Suppression of TGF-β Pathway Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:45:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/679436/ The traditional Chinese medicine formula Pien Tze Huang (PZH) has long been used as a folk remedy for cancer. To elucidate the mode of action of PZH against cancer, in the present study we used a 5-FU resistant human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT-8/5-FU) to evaluate the effects of PZH on multidrug resistance (MDR) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as the activation of TGF-β pathway. We found that PZH dose-dependently inhibited the viability of HCT-8/5-FU cells which were insensitive to treatment of 5-FU and ADM, demonstrating the ability of PZH to overcome chemoresistance. Furthermore, PZH increased the intercellular accumulation of Rhodamine-123 and downregulated the expression of ABCG2 in HCT-8/5-FU cells. In addition, drug resistance induced the process of EMT in HCT-8 cells as evidenced by EMT-related morphological changes and alteration in the expression of EMT-regulatory factors, which however was neutralized by PZH treatment. Moreover, PZH inhibited MDR/EMT-enhanced migration and invasion capabilities of HCT-8 cells in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed MDR-induced activation of TGF-β signaling in HCT-8/5-FU cells. Taken together, our study suggests that PZH can effectively overcome MDR and inhibit EMT in human colorectal carcinoma cells via suppression of the TGF-β pathway. Aling Shen, Hongwei Chen, Youqin Chen, Jiumao Lin, Wei Lin, Liya Liu, Thomas J. Sferra, and Jun Peng Copyright © 2014 Aling Shen et al. All rights reserved. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary Molar with Three Mesiobuccal Canals Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:44:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/320196/ It is imperative that the clinician should have comprehensive knowledge about the normal anatomy and its variations of the teeth as the deviations from the usual are very common. An increased awareness of unusual anatomy and a better understanding of the root canal system guide the clinician in accurate diagnosis and treatment of such variations in order to achieve a successful endodontic outcome. The maxillary first molar has been shown to have a wide variation in respect to the number of canals specifically noted in the mesiobuccal root. The current case report shows the successful management of a maxillary molar in which the mesiobuccal root had three canals. Sirisha Gundam, Radhika Maddu, and Sindhura Reddy Gurram Copyright © 2014 Sirisha Gundam et al. All rights reserved. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:37:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2014/425460/ Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38), intervene in it better (4.15), and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6). Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better , intervene better , and implement the guideline better than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice. Paavilainen Eija, Helminen Mika, Flinck Aune, and Lehtomäki Leila Copyright © 2014 Paavilainen Eija et al. All rights reserved. Comparison on the Effects and Safety of Tualang Honey and Tribestan in Sperm Parameters, Erectile Function, and Hormonal Profiles among Oligospermic Males Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:34:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/126138/ Introduction. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Tualang honey on sperm parameters, erectile function, and hormonal and safety profiles. Methodology. A randomized control trial was done using Tualang honey (20 grams) and Tribestan (750 mg) over a period of 12 weeks. Sperm parameters including sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were analyzed and erectile function was assessed using IIEF-5 questionnaire. Hormonal profiles of testosterone, FSH, and LH were studied. The volunteers were randomized into two groups and the outcomes were analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results. A total of 66 participants were involved. A significant increment of mean sperm concentration , motility and morphology was seen in Tualang honey group. In Tribestan group, a significant increment of mean sperm concentration , and morphology was seen. No significant differences of sperm concentration, motility, and morphology were seen between Tualang honey and Tribestan group and similar results were also seen in erectile function and hormonal profile. All safety profiles were normal and no adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Tualang honey effect among oligospermic males was comparable with Tribestan in improving sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. The usage of Tualang honey was also safe with no reported adverse event. Shaiful Bahari Ismail, Mohd. Bustamanizan Bakar, Nik Hazlina Nik Hussain, Mohd Noor Norhayati, Siti Amrah Sulaiman, Hasnan Jaafar, Samsul Draman, Roszaman Ramli, and Wan Zahanim Wan Yusoff Copyright © 2014 Shaiful Bahari Ismail et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Twisted-Tape Turbulators and Nanofluid on Heat Transfer in a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:06:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/920970/ Heat transfer and overall heat transfer in a double pipe heat exchanger fitted with twisted-tape elements and titanium dioxide nanofluid were studied experimentally. The inner and outer diameters of the inner tube were 8 and 16 mm, respectively, and cold and hot water were used as working fluids in shell side and tube side. The twisted tapes were made from aluminum sheet with tape thickness (d) of 1 mm, width (W) of 5 mm, and length of 120 cm. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles with a diameter of 30 nm and a volume concentration of 0.01% (v/v) were prepared. The effects of temperature, mass flow rate, and concentration of nanoparticles on the overall heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer changes in the turbulent flow regime , and counter current flow were investigated. When using twisted tape and nanofluid, heat transfer coefficient was about 10 to 25 percent higher than when they were not used. It was also observed that the heat transfer coefficient increases with operating temperature and mass flow rate. The experimental results also showed that 0.01% TiO2/water nanofluid with twisted tape has slightly higher friction factor and pressure drop when compared to 0.01% TiO2/water nanofluid without twisted tape. The empirical correlations proposed for friction factor are in good agreement with the experimental data. Heydar Maddah, Reza Aghayari, Morshed Farokhi, Shabnam Jahanizadeh, and Khatere Ashtary Copyright © 2014 Heydar Maddah et al. All rights reserved. Design and Evaluation of Polyox and Pluronic Controlled Gastroretentive Delivery of Troxipide Wed, 19 Nov 2014 06:06:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdd/2014/804616/ Objective. Objective of the present work was to develop site-specific gastroretentive drug delivery of Troxipide using polymers Pluronic F127 and Polyox 205 WSR. Troxipide is a novel gastroprotective agent with antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and mucus secreting properties with elimination half-life of 7.4 hrs. Troxipide inhibits H. pylori-derived urease. It is mainly absorbed from stomach. Methods. 32 factorial design was applied to study the effect of independent variable. Effects of concentration of polymer on dependant variables as swelling index, hardness, and % drug release were studied. Pluronic F127 and Polyox 205 WSR were used as rate controlled polymer. Sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were used as effervescent-generating agent. Results. From the factorial batches, it was observed that formulation F5 (19% Pluronic F127 and 80% Polyox 205 WSR) showed optimum controlled drug release (98.60% ± 1.82) for 10 hrs with ability to float >12 hrs. Optimized formulation characterized by FTIR and DSC studies confirmed no chemical interactions between drug and polymer. Gastroretention for 6 hrs for optimized formulations was confirmed by in vivo X-ray placebo study. Conclusion. Results demonstrated feasibility of Troxipide in the development of gastroretentive site-specific drug delivery. Swati C. Jagdale, Shraddha B. Kamble, Bhanudas S. Kuchekar, and Aniruddha R. Chabukswar Copyright © 2014 Swati C. Jagdale et al. All rights reserved. On the Projective Description of Weighted (LF)-Spaces of Continuous Functions Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2014/809584/ We solve the problem of the topological or algebraic description of countable inductive limits of weighted Fréchet spaces of continuous functions on a cone. This problem is investigated for two families of weights defined by positively homogeneous functions. Weights of this form play the important role in Fourier analysis. Catherine V. Komarchuk and Sergej N. Melikhov Copyright © 2014 Catherine V. Komarchuk and Sergej N. Melikhov. All rights reserved. Metacercarial Infection of Wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/807492/ Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (1–42), resp.), followed by the diplostomid Austrodiplostomum compactum (29.5% and 1.27 (1-2)) recovered from the eyes. Metacercariae of Drepanocephalus sp. and Ribeiroia sp., both found in the oral cavity of the fish, were verified at low prevalences (8.2% and 1.6%, resp.) and intensities of infection (only one metacercaria of each of these species per fish). These species of trematodes are reported for the first time in O. niloticus from South America. The potential of occurrence of these parasites in tilapia farming and the control strategies are briefly discussed. Hudson A. Pinto, Vitor L. T. Mati, and Alan L. Melo Copyright © 2014 Hudson A. Pinto et al. All rights reserved. Hypochondroplasia, Acanthosis Nigricans, and Insulin Resistance in a Child with FGFR3 Mutation: Is It Just an Association? Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2014/840492/ FGFR3 mutations cause wide spectrum of disorders ranging from skeletal dysplasias (hypochondroplasia, achondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia), benign skin tumors (epidermal nevi, seborrhaeic keratosis, and acanthosis nigricans), and epithelial malignancies (multiple myeloma and prostate and bladder carcinoma). Hypochondroplasia is the most common type of short-limb dwarfism in children resulting from fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutation. Acanthosis nigricans might be seen in severe skeletal dysplasia, including thanatophoric dysplasia and SADDAN syndrome, without a biochemical evidence of hyperinsulinemia. Insulin insensitivity and acanthosis nigricans are uncommonly seen in hypochondroplasia patients with FGFR3 mutations which may represent a new association. We aim to describe the association of hypochondroplasia, acanthosis nigricans, and insulin resistance in a child harboring FGFR3 mutation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report associating the p.N540 with acanthosis nigricans and the second to describe hyperinsulinemia in hypochondroplasia. This finding demonstrates the possible coexistence of insulin insensitivity and acanthosis nigricans in hypochondroplasia patients. Manal Mustafa, Nabil Moghrabi, and Bassam Bin-Abbas Copyright © 2014 Manal Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. Uni-Vector-Sensor Dimensionality Reduction MUSIC Algorithm for DOA and Polarization Estimation Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/682472/ This paper addresses the problem of multiple signal classification- (MUSIC-) based direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization estimation and proposes a new dimensionality reduction MUSIC (DR-MUSIC) algorithm. Uni-vector-sensor MUSIC algorithm provides estimation for DOA and polarization; accordingly, a four-dimensional peak search is required, which hence incurs vast amount of computation. In the proposed DR-MUSIC method, the signal steering vector is expressed in the product form of arrival angle function matrix and polarization function vector. The MUSIC joint spectrum is converted to the form of Rayleigh-Ritz ratio by using the feature where the 2-norm of polarization function vector is constant. A four-dimensional MUSIC search reduced the dimension to two two-dimensional searches and the amount of computation is greatly decreased. The theoretical analysis and simulation results have verified the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Lanmei Wang, Le Yang, Guibao Wang, Zhihai Chen, and Minggao Zou Copyright © 2014 Lanmei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Jordan Higher Derivable Mappings on Rings Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/algebra/2014/672387/ Let be a ring. We say that a family of maps is a Jordan higher derivable map (without assumption of additivity) on if (the identity map on ) and hold for all and for each . In this paper, we show that every Jordan higher derivable map on a ring under certain assumptions becomes a higher derivation. As its application, we get that every Jordan higher derivable map on Banach algebra is an additive higher derivation. Mohammad Ashraf and Nazia Parveen Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Ashraf and Nazia Parveen. All rights reserved. Fecal Transplantation Treatment of Antibiotic-Induced, Noninfectious Colitis and Long-Term Microbiota Follow-Up Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/913867/ Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and is considered as a treatment for other gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. We followed up the relief of symptoms and long-term, over-a-year microbiota stabilization in a 46-year-old man, who underwent FMT for antibiotic-induced, non-CDI colitis nine months after being treated for CDI by FMT. Fecal and mucosal microbiota was analyzed before the second FMT and during 14 months after FMT by using a high-throughput phylogenetic microarray. FMT resolved the symptoms and restored normal GI-function. Microbiota analysis revealed increased bacterial diversity in the rectal mucosa and a stable fecal microbiota up to three months after FMT. A number of mucosa-associated bacteria increased after FMT and some of these bacteria remained increased in feces up to 14 months. Notably, the increased bacteria included Bifidobacterium spp. and various representatives of Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa, such as Clostridium leptum, Oscillospira guillermondii, Sporobacter termitidis, Anaerotruncus colihominis, Ruminococcus callidus, R. bromii, Lachnospira pectinoschiza, and C. colinum, which are presumed to be anti-inflammatory. The presented case suggests a possible role of microbiota in restoring and maintaining normal GI-functionality and improves our knowledge on the etiology of antibiotic-induced, noninfectious colitis. Reetta Satokari, Susana Fuentes, Eero Mattila, Jonna Jalanka, Willem M. de Vos, and Perttu Arkkila Copyright © 2014 Reetta Satokari et al. All rights reserved. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2014/910497/ Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found () between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated () with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. Shefali Srivastava, Kumkum Mishra, and Pramod Kumar Tandon Copyright © 2014 Shefali Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Mild Dermatoglyphic Deviations in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Average Intellectual Abilities as Compared to Typically Developing Boys Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aurt/2014/968134/ Dermatoglyphics, ridge constellations on the hands and feet, are permanently formed by the second trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, they are considered “fossilized” evidence of a specific prenatal period. A high frequency of dermatoglyphic anomalies, or a high rate of dermatoglyphic asymmetry (discordance), is an indication of developmental instability (prenatal disturbances) prior to 24-week gestation. Most dermatoglyphic studies in psychiatry focus on adult schizophrenia. Studies on dermatoglyphic deviances and autism are sparse, include severely disturbed and intellectually retarded patients with autism, and are carried out mainly in non-Western European populations. In this study, finger print patterns, atd-angles, and palmar flexion crease patterns (PFCs) are compared between Western European adolescent teenage males, of average intellect, with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD; ) and typically developing adolescent teenage males (TD; ). Boys with ASD had a higher rate of discordance in their finger print patterns than TD boys. Thus, the hypothesized prenatal disturbances that play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia and severe autism might not be specific to these severe psychiatric disorders but might also be involved in the etiology of varying degrees of ASD. Esther I. de Bruin, John H. Graham, Anneke Louwerse, and Anja C. Huizink Copyright © 2014 Esther I. de Bruin et al. All rights reserved. Water Physicochemistry and Zooplankton Fauna of Aiba Reservoir Headwater Streams, Iwo, Nigeria Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jeco/2014/105405/ The physicochemical water condition and zooplankton fauna of the two main inflows of Aiba Reservoir were assessed over an annual hydrological cycle (May 2013–March 2014). The concentrations of total solids (TS) and total suspended solids (TSS) in the two streams were unusually higher in the dry season for typical inland waters of Nigeria and showed a decrease from the upper reaches towards the lower reaches (reservoir’s inlet). Dissolved oxygen, , and recorded their highest concentrations at the reservoir’s inlet. A total of 37 species of zooplankton were recorded in the study, comprising 5 species of Protozoa, 14 species of Rotifera, 10 species of Copepoda, 4 species of Ostracoda, and 4 species of Insecta. Aiba stream recorded higher number of zooplankton species and abundance than Onikan stream. While number of zooplankton species and abundance showed an increase from the upper reaches to the lower reaches of both streams, species diversity and equitability generally showed a decrease. Correlation and regression analysis suggests that the concentration of TS and TSS played a major role in determining the zooplankton community structure of the streams. concentrations as well as the community structures of zooplankton faunas of the two streams were indicative of a polluted freshwater system with unstable habitat structure. Emmanuel O. Akindele and Godwin O. Olutona Copyright © 2014 Emmanuel O. Akindele and Godwin O. Olutona. All rights reserved. Aeromonas hydrophila Sepsis Associated with Consumption of Raw Oysters Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2014/163040/ Introduction. Aeromonas hydrophila is a gram negative bacillus that is native to aquatic environments that is increasingly reported in humans. This case is remarkable for A. hydrophila with an initial presentation of acute pancreatitis. Case Presentation. A 61-year-old male presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain for two days. His past medical history was significant for alcohol abuse. Initial laboratory examination showed an elevated white blood cell count, elevated lipase, and elevated liver function tests (LFT). Computer tomography (CT) showed peripancreatic inflammatory changes and retroperitoneal free fluid, suggestive of acute pancreatitis. The patient was treated with intravenous (IV) fluids and IV meropenem. After two days, the patient developed sepsis and respiratory failure and was intubated. Blood cultures were positive for Aeromonas hydrophila sensitive to ciprofloxacin which was added to his treatment. Additionally, it was discovered that this patient had recently vacationed in Florida where he consumed raw oysters. He was discharged home on the eighth day of the hospital admission. Conclusion. This is a rare case of A. hydrophila sepsis in an elderly patient with acute pancreatitis and a history of consumption of raw oysters. This case suggests that A. hydrophila can cause disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals. Ivan Nikiforov, John Goldman, Pramil Cheriyath, Anix Vyas, and Vinod Nookala Copyright © 2014 Ivan Nikiforov et al. All rights reserved. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy with Prior Uterine Artery Ligation at Its Origin Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrmed/2014/420926/ We compared the duration of surgery, blood loss, and complications between patients in whom both uterine arteries were ligated at the beginning of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and patients in whom ligation was done after cornual pedicle. Using a prospective study in a gynecologic laparoscopic center, a total of 52 women who underwent TLH from June 2013 to January 2014 were assigned into two groups. In group A, uterine arteries were ligated after the cornual pedicles as done conventionally. In group B, TLH was done by ligating both uterine arteries at the beginning of the procedure. All the other pedicles were desiccated using harmonic scalpel or bipolar diathermy. Uterus with cervix was removed vaginally or by morcellation. The indication for TLH was predominantly dysfunctional uterine bleeding and myomas in both groups. In group A, the average duration of surgery was 71 minutes, when compared to 60 minutes in group B . In group A, the total blood loss was 70 mL, when compared to 43#x2009;mL in group B (P value < 0.001). There were no major complications in both groups. To conclude, prior uterine artery ligation at its origin during TLH reduces the blood loss and surgical duration as well as the complications during surgery. Vidyashree Ganesh Poojari, Vidya Vishwanath Bhat, and Ravishankar Bhat Copyright © 2014 Vidyashree Ganesh Poojari et al. All rights reserved. An Extremely Rare Reason for Failure of Left Sided Pacemaker Implantation Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2014/453071/ We reported a case of isolated anomaly of the left brachiocephalic vein which is diagnosed during a permanent pacemaker implantation. It is a very rare anomaly and makes the left sided pacemaker implantation impossible. Erdem Özel, Ali Öztürk, Emin Evren Özcan, and Berhan Genç Copyright © 2014 Erdem Özel et al. All rights reserved. The Experience of Melanoma Follow-Up Care: An Online Survey of Patients in Australia Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jsc/2014/429149/ Investigating patients’ reports on the quality and consistency of melanoma follow-up care in Australia would assist in evaluating if this care is effective and meeting patients’ needs. The objective of this study was to obtain and explore the patients’ account of the technical and interpersonal aspects of melanoma follow-up care received. An online survey was conducted to acquire details of patients’ experience. Participants were patients treated in Australia for primary melanoma. Qualitative and quantitative data about patient perceptions of the nature and quality of their follow-up care were collected, including provision of melanoma specific information, psychosocial support, and imaging tests received. Inconsistencies were reported in the provision and quality of care received. Patient satisfaction was generally low and provision of reassurance from health professionals was construed as an essential element of quality of care. “Gaps” in follow-up care for melanoma patients were identified, particularly provision of adequate psychosocial support and patient education. Focus on strategies for greater consistency in the provision of support, information, and investigations received, may generate a cost dividend which could be reinvested in preventive and supportive care and benefit patient well-being. Janine Mitchell, Peta Callaghan, Jackie Street, Susan Neuhaus, and Taryn Bessen Copyright © 2014 Janine Mitchell et al. All rights reserved. Bifurcation Structure in a Bimodal Piecewise Linear Business Cycle Model Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/401319/ We study the bifurcation structure of the parameter space of a 1D continuous piecewise linear bimodal map which describes dynamics of a business cycle model introduced by Day-Shafer. In particular, we obtain the analytical expression of the boundaries of several periodicity regions associated with attracting cycles of the map (principal cycles and related fin structure). By crossing these boundaries the map displays robust chaos. Viktor Avrutin, Iryna Sushko, and Fabio Tramontana Copyright © 2014 Viktor Avrutin et al. All rights reserved. Mental Health Promotion in School: Schoolchildren’s and Families’ Viewpoint Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2014/395286/ While developing mental health work in schools, it is very important to consider the viewpoint of pupils. Parents can also give remarkable information on their children’s viewpoint. The purpose of this study was to produce a description of the concepts used by schoolchildren aged 12–16 years and their families associated with promoting mental health in schools. The research material comprised interviews with schoolchildren and mothers, and verbal answers from the school well-being profile survey . The analysis was conducted by applying the grounded theory method as introduced by Strauss. The study was conducted in a Finnish comprehensive school. Kristiina Puolakka, Anne Konu, Irma Kiikkala, and Eija Paavilainen Copyright © 2014 Kristiina Puolakka et al. All rights reserved. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/497083/ Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ≥20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. Dora H. AlHarkan, Eman S. Kahtani, Priscilla W. Gikandi, and Ahmed M. Abu El-Asrar Copyright © 2014 Dora H. AlHarkan et al. All rights reserved. Newly Developed Software Application for Multiple Access Process Planning Wed, 19 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/539071/ The purchase of a complex system for computer aided process planning (CAPP) can be expensive for little and some middle sized plants, sometimes an inaccessible investment, with a long recoupment period. According to this fact and the author's experience with Eastern European plants, they decided to design a new database application which is suitable for production, stock, and economic data holding as well as processing and exploitation within the manufacturing process. The application can also be used to process a plan according to the selected criteria, for technological documentation and NC program creation. It was based on the theory of a multivariant approach to computer aided plan generation. Its fundamental features, the internal mathematical structure and new code system of processed objects, were prepared by the authors. The verification of the designed information system in real practice has shown that it enables about 30% cost and production time reduction and decreases input material assortment variability. Katarina Monkova and Peter Monka Copyright © 2014 Katarina Monkova and Peter Monka. All rights reserved. Influence of Partitioning Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Deformability Oil-Gas Pipeline Tue, 18 Nov 2014 17:12:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/869481/ Multiphase structure of bainite and M/A constituent can be obtained for X80 oil-gas pipeline through a novel heat online partitioning (HOP) technology. The effects of partitioning temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the experimental steels were researched by means of mechanical properties test, microscopic analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that with the increase of the partitioning temperature, the strength of the experimental steel decreases and the ductility increases because of the increase of bainite lath width, the decrease of dislocation density, the increase of retained austenite content, and carbides coarsening. The decrease of the volume content and stability of retained austenite is the key factor, which leads to the increase of strength and the decrease of plasticity in a high range of partitioning temperature. Jing Ma, Xiaoyong Zhang, Shixia Cheng, and Huilin Gao Copyright © 2014 Jing Ma et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Study on the Thermal Performance of a Shell and Tube Phase Change Heat Storage Unit during Melting Process Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:38:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/360283/ This work presents a numerical study of the thermal performance in a shell and tube phase change heat storage unit. Paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) is filled in the shell space. The heat transfer fluids (HTFs: air and water) flow through the tube and transfer the heat to PCM. A mathematical model involving HTF and PCM is developed to analyze the thermal performance of the phase change heat storage unit and is validated with experimental data. Numerical investigation is conducted to evaluate the effect of HTF inlet velocity on the HTF outlet temperature, Nu, and melt fraction when air or water is used as HTF. Results indicate that the air inlet velocity has a great effect on the air outlet temperature and heat transfer rate, and the water inlet velocity has little effect on the water outlet temperature. The investigated results can provide a reference for designing phase change heat storage system. Wei Li and Chengcheng Kong Copyright © 2014 Wei Li and Chengcheng Kong. All rights reserved. Design and Fabrication of Multipurpose Diagnostic in IR-T1 Tokamak Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:21:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/491804/ The first results of the movable multipurpose probe (MPP) experiments performed on the IR-T1 Tokamak are presented. For this purpose, a moveable MPP was designed, constructed, and installed on the IR-T1 Tokamak for the first time. MPP can measure radial variation of floating potential and ion saturation current, electrostatic fluctuation, magnetic fluctuation, and flow velocity simultaneously. The relation between gradient of Reynolds stress and poloidal particle flux can be investigated by MPP. It can measure the radial variation of radial electric field and poloidal electric field. The most advantage of MPP is to measure electric and magnetic plasma fluctuations simultaneously. MPP is composed of three sections: electrical part, magnetic part, and flow measurement section. This is a compact probe in which do not disturb plasma. The results are presented and discussed. M. Lafouti, M. Ghoranneviss, A. Salar Elahi, and S. Meshkani Copyright © 2014 M. Lafouti et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Interface Effects Based on Two-Dimensional Green’s Functions for the Fluid and Pyroelectric Two-Phase Plane under a Line Heat Source Tue, 18 Nov 2014 16:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/354738/ Two-dimensional Green’s functions for a line heat source applied in the fluid and pyroelectric two-phase plane are presented in this paper. By virtue of the two-dimensional general solutions which are expressed in harmonic functions, six newly introduced harmonic functions with undetermined constants are constructed. Then, all the pyroelectric components in the fluid and pyroelectric two-phase plane can be derived by substituting these harmonic functions into the corresponding general solutions. And the undetermined constants can be obtained by the interface compatibility conditions and the mechanical, electric, and thermal equilibrium conditions. Numerical results are given graphically by contours. Peng-Fei Hou, Wei Tian, and Ke Yuan Copyright © 2014 Peng-Fei Hou et al. All rights reserved. A Framework for Structural Systems Based on the Principles of Statistical Mechanics Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:36:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/501802/ A framework is proposed in which certain well-known concepts of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics can be used and applied to characterize structural systems of interconnected Timoshenko beam elements. We first make the assimilation to a network of nodes linked by potential energy functions that are derived from the stiffness properties of the beams. Then we define a series of thermodynamic quantities inherent to a given structure (i.e., internal energy, heat, pressure, temperature, entropy, and kinetic energy). With the exception of entropy, all of them have the dimensions of energy. In order to test this new framework, a series of experiments was performed on four structural specimens within the elastic regime. Their configurations were taken from the seismic regulations known as Eurocode 8 in order to have a better based reference for our comparisons. The results are then explained within this new framework. Very interesting correlations have been found between the parameters given in the code and our concepts. Rabindranath Andujar, Jaume Roset, and Vojko Kilar Copyright © 2014 Rabindranath Andujar et al. All rights reserved. A Multiposture Locomotor Training Device with Force-Field Control Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/173518/ This paper introduces a multiposture locomotor training device (MPLTD) with a closed-loop control scheme based on joint angle feedback, which is able to overcome various difficulties resulting from mechanical vibration and the weight of trainer to achieve higher accuracy trajectory. By introducing the force-field control scheme used in the closed-loop control, the device can obtain the active-constrained mode including the passive one. The MPLTD is mainly composed of three systems: posture adjusting and weight support system, lower limb exoskeleton system, and control system, of which the lower limb exoskeleton system mainly includes the indifferent equilibrium mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOF) and the driving torque is calculated by the Lagrangian function. In addition, a series of experiments, the weight support and the trajectory accuracy experiment, demonstrate a good performance of mechanical structure and the closed-loop control. Jianfeng Sui, Yali Liu, Runze Yang, and Linhong Ji Copyright © 2014 Jianfeng Sui et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of Broadband Noise Sources of an Axial Fan under Rotating Stall Conditions Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:20:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/507079/ Study on the influence of rotating stall on the aerodynamic noise of axial fan has important value to warn of the occurrence of stall through monitoring the noise variations. The present work is to analyze the aerodynamic noise before and after the phenomenon of rotating stall by solving Navier-Stokes equations, coupled with the throttle condition and the broadband noise sources model. The impeller exit rotational Mach number and rotational Reynolds number are separately 0.407 and . The results show that the aerodynamic noise source of the fan is mainly the rotation noise under the design condition. The vortex noise accounts for the major part of fan noise after the occurrence of stall, and the maximum acoustic power level of the fan appears in the rotor domains. In the evolution process from the stall inception to the stall cell, the high noise regions of the rotor develop along the radial, circumferential, and axial directions, and the area occupied by high noise regions increases from 33% to 46% impeller channels area. On rotating stall condition, the high noise regions occupying about 46% impeller channels area propagate with the stall cell along the circumferential direction at a half of rotor speed. Lei Zhang, Rui Wang, and Songling Wang Copyright © 2014 Lei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Test of Robot Distance Error and Compensation of Kinematic Full Parameters Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:19:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/810684/ In order to improve the positioning accuracy of robots in the workspace, the maximum cube of robots is solved according to ISO 9283:1998 standard. In addition, in order to efficiently test and identify the kinematic parameters of robots, a mapping from robot’s distance error onto kinematic parameter errors is presented based on Hayati’s modified D-H model. Then, by analyzing the condition number of distance error matrix, it is concluded that parameter can be deleted when parameter is added in the joint of the modified model. Furthermore, by analyzing the relationship among the parameters of the distance error model, it is found that the deletion of some unidentified kinematic parameters may not result in the accuracy decrease of kinematic error model. Finally, some compensation experiments of the proposed model without unidentified kinematic parameters are carried out by using a laser tracker system. The results show that the proposed method effectively reduces the distance error and greatly improves the positioning accuracy of robots. Tie Zhang, Liang Du, and Xiaoliang Dai Copyright © 2014 Tie Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Hydrodynamic Study of Oil Leakage in Pipeline via CFD Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:17:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/170178/ This paper describes the transient dynamics behavior of oil flow in a pipe with the presence of one or two leaks through fluid dynamics simulations using the Ansys CFX commercial software. The pipe section is three-dimensional with a pipe length of 10 m, a pipe diameter of 20 cm, and leak diameter of 1.6 mm. The interest of this work is to evaluate the influence of the flow velocity, and the number and position of leaks on the transient pressure behavior. These new data may provide support for more efficient detection systems. Thus, this work intends to contribute to the development of tools of operations in oil and gas industry. Morgana de Vasconcellos Araújo, Severino Rodrigues de Farias Neto, Antonio Gilson Barbosa de Lima, and Flávia Daylane Tavares de Luna Copyright © 2014 Morgana de Vasconcellos Araújo et al. All rights reserved. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Free Particle-Laden Round Jet with Point-Particles: Turbulence Modulation Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:16:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/983263/ Direct numerical simulation method is used to investigate the small scale turbulence modulation for a spatially evolving free round jet. Because the turbulence modulation phenomena can not be accurately measured by experimental method, the turbulence modulations are poorly understood. The particle diameter in our simulation is smaller than the Kolmogorov length scale , and the point force method can be accurately used for the research of small scale turbulence modulation based strictly on the theory of point force method. The simulation uses an explicit coupling scheme between particles and the fluid, which considers two-way coupling between the particle and the fluid. The DNS results are compared with experimental data with equal Reynolds number . The particles modulation on the fluid turbulence properties and coherent vortex structures are quantitatively given in our paper, and some new findings on the particles modulation are explicitly explained in this paper, which will further refine our understanding of intricate mechanism of small scale turbulence modulation for a spatially evolving free round jet. Li Debo, Xu Qisheng, Liu Yaming, and Yin Libao Copyright © 2014 Li Debo et al. All rights reserved. Analysis and Prediction of Micromilling Stability with Variable Tool Geometry Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:04:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/870782/ Micromilling can fabricate miniaturized components using micro-end mill at high rotational speeds. The analysis of machining stability in micromilling plays an important role in characterizing the cutting process, estimating the tool life, and optimizing the process. A numerical analysis and experimental method are presented to investigate the chatter stability in micro-end milling process with variable milling tool geometry. The schematic model of micromilling process is constructed and the calculation formula to predict cutting force and displacements is derived. This is followed by a detailed numerical analysis on micromilling forces between helical ball and square end mills through time domain and frequency domain method and the results are compared. Furthermore, a detailed time domain simulation for micro end milling with straight teeth and helical teeth end mill is conducted based on the machine-tool system frequency response function obtained through modal experiment. The forces and displacements are predicted and the simulation result between variable cutter geometry is deeply compared. The simulation results have important significance for the actual milling process. Ziyang Cao, Hua Li, Zhen Yin, and Wei Liu Copyright © 2014 Ziyang Cao et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology Tue, 18 Nov 2014 14:02:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/508592/ Chien-Hung Liu, Wen-Hsiang Hsieh, Zong-Yu Chang, Gow-Yi Tzou, Steen G. Hanson, and Yunn-Lin Hwang Copyright © 2014 Chien-Hung Liu et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Seismic Response of a Portal Frame Structure Based on the Transfer Matrix Method of Multibody System Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:59:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/614208/ Portal frame structures are widely used in industrial building design but unfortunately are often damaged during an earthquake. As a result, a study on the seismic response of this type of structure is important to both human safety and future building designs. Traditionally, finite element methods such as the ANSYS and MIDAS have been used as the primary methods of computing the response of such a structure during an earthquake; however, these methods yield low calculation efficiencies. In this paper, the mechanical model of a single-story portal frame structure with two spans is constructed based on the transfer matrix method of multibody system (MS-TMM); both the transfer matrix of the components in the model and the total transfer matrix equation of the structure are derived, and the corresponding MATLAB program is compiled to determine the natural period and seismic response of the structure. The results show that the results based on the MS-TMM are similar to those obtained by ANSYS, but the calculation time of the MS-TMM method is only 1/20 of that of the ANSYS method. Additionally, it is shown that the MS-TMM method greatly increases the calculation efficiency while maintaining accuracy. Jianguo Ding, Wei Zhuang, and Pingxin Wang Copyright © 2014 Jianguo Ding et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of Particles Deposition in a Human Upper Airway Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:59:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/207938/ Based on the CT scanned images, a realistic geometric model from nasal cavity to upper six-generation bronchia is rebuilt. In order to effectively simulate the particle movement and deposition, LES model is used and the particles are tracked in the frame of Lagrange. Seven kinds of typical particles, including micron particles (1, 5, and 10 μm) and nanoparticles (1, 5, 20, and 100 nm), and three representative respiratory intensities are adopted as computational case, respectively. Deposition efficiency (), deposition concentration (), and capture efficiency () are introduced. Furthermore, the locations of particle deposition are visualized. The results indicate that the injecting particles from different nasal inlet present “transposition effect.” The values of micron particles are much higher than nanoparticles. The particle diameter plays a weaker role in nanoparticle depositions than micron particles. The highest values of and both occur in nasal cavity, while the highest up to 99.5% occurs in bronchus region. Li Debo, Xu Qi sheng, Liu Yaming, Yin Libao, and Jin Jun Copyright © 2014 Li Debo et al. All rights reserved. Performance Modeling of Proposed GUISET Middleware for Mobile Healthcare Services in E-Marketplaces Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:48:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/248293/ GUISET is a proposed middleware engine currently under study in South Africa. The goal is to provide utility services for small, medium, and macroenterprises in the context of mobile e-services. Three things are important to make this engine effective and efficient: the implementation, performance, and the pricing strategy. The literature has delved richly into implementation issue of similar projects. Both the performance and the pricing strategy issues have not been fully discussed especially in the context of mobile healthcare services. Some literature has addressed the performance issue using the exogenous nonpriority and the preemptive model. However, with providers offering different services using that approach may prove to be difficult to implement. This work extends existing and widely adopted theories to non-preemptive model by using the queuing theory and the simulation model in the context of mobile healthcare services. Our evaluation is based on non-preemptive priority and nonpriority discipline. Our results reveal that the unconditional average waiting time remains the same with reduction in waiting time over the non-preemptive priority model in four out of the five classes observed. This is envisaged to be beneficial in mobile healthcare services where events are prioritized and urgent attention is needed to be given to urgent events. Alaba Olu Akingbesote, Mathew Olusegun Adigun, Sibisuso Xulu, and Edgar Jembere Copyright © 2014 Alaba Olu Akingbesote et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Method Based on CEEMD for Fault Diagnosis of Rolling Bearing Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:43:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ame/2014/676205/ In order to improve the effectiveness for identifying rolling bearing faults at an early stage, the present paper proposed a method that combined the so-called complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition (CEEMD) method with a correlation theory for fault diagnosis of rolling element bearing. The cross-correlation coefficient between the original signal and each intrinsic mode function (IMF) was calculated in order to reduce noise and select an effective IMF. Using the present method, a rolling bearing fault experiment with vibration signals measured by acceleration sensors was carried out, and bearing inner race and outer race defect at a varying rotating speed with different degrees of defect were analyzed. And the proposed method was compared with several algorithms of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to verify its effectiveness. Experimental results showed that the proposed method was available for detecting the bearing faults and able to detect the fault at an early stage. It has higher computational efficiency and is capable of overcoming modal mixing and aliasing. Therefore, the proposed method is more suitable for rolling bearing diagnosis. Meijiao Li, Huaqing Wang, Gang Tang, Hongfang Yuan, and Yang Yang Copyright © 2014 Meijiao Li et al. All rights reserved. Different Resting-State Functional Connectivity Alterations in Smokers and Nonsmokers with Internet Gaming Addiction Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:42:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/825787/ This study investigated changes in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in smokers and nonsmokers with Internet gaming addiction (IGA). Twenty-nine smokers with IGA, 22 nonsmokers with IGA, and 30 healthy controls (HC group) underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. PCC connectivity was determined in all subjects by investigating synchronized low-frequency fMRI signal fluctuations using a temporal correlation method. Compared with the nonsmokers with IGA, the smokers with IGA exhibited decreased rsFC with PCC in the right rectus gyrus. Left middle frontal gyrus exhibited increased rsFC. The PCC connectivity with the right rectus gyrus was found to be negatively correlated with the CIAS scores in the smokers with IGA before correction. Our results suggested that smokers with IGA had functional changes in brain areas related to motivation and executive function compared with the nonsmokers with IGA. Xue Chen, Yao Wang, Yan Zhou, Yawen Sun, Weina Ding, Zhiguo Zhuang, Jianrong Xu, and Yasong Du Copyright © 2014 Xue Chen et al. All rights reserved. New Bioactive Oleanane Type Compounds from Coriandrum sativum Linn. Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:39:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/396436/ Five (1–5) new bioactive oleanane type triterpenoids have been isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. of Umbelliferae family. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant was fractionated in organic solvents. Ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography on HPLC RP-18 to get 1-oxo-11β,21β-dihydroxy-oleanane (1), 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-acetyloleanane (2), 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-angeloyloleanane (3), 1-oxo-11β-O-angeloyl-21β-O-acetyloleanane (4), and 1-oxo-11β,21β-O-dibenzoyloleanane (5). The structures were elucidated after analysis of spectroscopic data, UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 1D, and 2D), and mass measurements. Suspension in water of crude ethyl acetate extract was employed to treat sheep with ringworm disease. All isolated compounds (1–5) displayed excellent activity in terms of inhibition zones, MICs, MBCs, and MFCs against both bacteria and fungi. Ethyl acetate extract showed excellent antiringworm activity in sheep. Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Bilal, Rubina Iqbal, Muhammad Akram, Imam Bakhsh Baloch, and Musa Kaleem Baloch Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Iqbal et al. All rights reserved. Multidisciplinary Interventions in Motor Neuron Disease Tue, 18 Nov 2014 13:26:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnd/2014/435164/ Motor neuron disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of upper motor neuron in the motor cortex and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. Death occurs 2–4 years after the onset of the disease. A complex interplay of cellular processes such as mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and impaired axonal transport are proposed pathogenetic processes underlying neuronal cell loss. Currently evidence exists for the use of riluzole as a disease modifying drug; multidisciplinary team care approach to patient management; noninvasive ventilation for respiratory management; botulinum toxin B for sialorrhoea treatment; palliative care throughout the course of the disease; and Modafinil use for fatigue treatment. Further research is needed in management of dysphagia, bronchial secretion, pseudobulbar affect, spasticity, cramps, insomnia, cognitive impairment, and communication in motor neuron disease. U. E. Williams, E. E. Philip-Ephraim, and S. K. Oparah Copyright © 2014 U. E. Williams et al. All rights reserved. Combination of the DVZ Method, Particle Filter, and Fuzzy Controller for Electric Wheelchair Navigation Tue, 18 Nov 2014 12:54:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijno/2014/137891/ Electric wheelchair is one of the many engines used for the movement of aged and disabled people. This paper introduces an obstacle avoidance using deformable virtual zone (DVZ), particle filter to improve localization and fuzzy controller to join desired target. This controller is developed to increase the independence of disabled and aged people, specifically those who suffer not only disability in the lower limbs but also visual disturbances. To overcome these problems, different perceptive abilities or sensors were introduced. In this context, we developed a control system composed by fuzzy controller to join a target, DVZ method for obstacle avoidance, and particle filter for localization. Also, we present the simulation results of the wheelchair navigation system. Malek Njah and Mohamed Jallouli Copyright © 2014 Malek Njah and Mohamed Jallouli. All rights reserved. Research on a Fast Human-Detection Algorithm for Unmanned Surveillance Area in Bulk Ports Tue, 18 Nov 2014 12:44:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/386764/ With the development of port automation, most operational fields utilizing heavy equipment have gradually become unmanned. It is therefore imperative to monitor these fields in an effective and real-time manner. In this paper, a fast human-detection algorithm is proposed based on image processing. To speed up the detection process, the optimized histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) algorithm that can avoid the large number of double calculations of the original HOG and ignore insignificant features is used to describe the contour of the human body in real time. Based on the HOG features, using a training sample set consisting of scene images of a bulk port, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier combined with the AdaBoost classifier is trained to detect human. Finally, the results of the human detection experiments on Tianjin Port show that the accuracy of the proposed optimized algorithm has roughly the same accuracy as a traditional algorithm, while the proposed algorithm only takes 1/7 the amount of time. The accuracy and computing time of the proposed fast human-detection algorithm were verified to meet the security requirements of unmanned port areas. Chao Mi, Xin He, Haiwei Liu, Youfang Huang, and Weijian Mi Copyright © 2014 Chao Mi et al. All rights reserved.