Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Management of a Periodontal Pocket Using a Removable Orthodontic Appliance and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy Thu, 03 Sep 2015 16:59:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/374850/ Purpose. As documented in the literature, bony defects can be managed by an orthodontic approach. Methods. This case report describes the treatment of a bony defect caused by orthodontic malposition through phase I periodontal therapy and a simple removable orthodontic appliance used for the first time in a 20-year-old girl. Results. The periodontal pocket was reduced from 8 mm to 3 mm shortly after treatment. Conclusion. This case report concludes that orthodontic therapy can be used successfully in treatment of bony defects caused by mesially tilted molars. Serhat Köseoğlu, Ahmet Fidancıoğlu, Mehmet Sağlam, and Levent Savran Copyright © 2015 Serhat Köseoğlu et al. All rights reserved. A New Design of the Universal Test Rig to Measure the Wear Characterizations of Polymer Acetal Gears (Spur, Helical, Bevel, and Worm) Thu, 03 Sep 2015 16:42:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/at/2015/926918/ This work aims to study the wear characterization of common types of acetal polymer gears (spur, helical, bevel, and worm) using a new TS universal test rig, in order to obtain reliable results and as a reference when compared with acetal nanocomposite gears later. The TS universal test rig consists of three different units that are connected by a main driver shaft and a pair of constantly meshing metal spur gears, which transfer power to the bevel and worm test units. The first unit is used to test the bevel gears, the second unit is used to test the spur and helical gears, and the third unit is used to test the worm gears. The loading mechanism is similarly designed to block the brake mechanism. Hobbing and milling machines were used to machine an injection-moulded polymer flanges and produce the tested gears. All gear pairs, except the worm gear, have identical gear ratios. The experiments were performed at speed 1420 rpm and the torque was 4 Nm. The results showed that the wear rates (in the form of weight loss) of spur gears were consistent with the previous results and the other gear types had larger wear rates. Samy Yousef, T. A. Osman, M. Khattab, Ahmed A. Bahr, and Ahmed M. Youssef Copyright © 2015 Samy Yousef et al. All rights reserved. Unfolding the Phase Space Structure of Noisy Time Series by means of Angular First-Return Maps Thu, 03 Sep 2015 16:30:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/654181/ A new approach which uses the joint probability matrix computation of noisy time series is proposed to construct a phase space portrait which reflects the orbit visitation frequency of the different regions of the phase space. The resulting representation provides a clear cut of the dynamical reconstructed attractor giving both quantitative information and qualitative information about the attractor structure. The orbital distribution recovered in the map is studied by an angular first-return map where the orbital time used for the reconstruction is obtained from the magnitude information of the complex representation of the data belonging to the probability phase portrait. The resulting phase delay coordinates serve to identify phase intermittency. The Lorenz-like Shimizu-Morioka model and the Rossler model are used to present the methodology. Finally, some experimental pressure time series measured on gas-solid fluidized beds operated at different dynamical regimes are presented to analyze the reliability of the proposed method to deal with experimental noise time series. Javier Villa Briongos, Jesús Gómez-Hernández, Daniel Serrano, and Domingo Santana Copyright © 2015 Javier Villa Briongos et al. All rights reserved. Behcet’s Disease with Intracardiac Thrombus Presenting with Fever of Unknown Etiology Thu, 03 Sep 2015 15:33:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crii/2015/149359/ A young male was referred to us for evaluation of fever of unknown origin (FUO). He had history of recurrent painful oral ulcers for one year and moderate to high grade fever, pustulopapular rash, and recurrent genital ulcers for 6 months and hemoptysis for 3 days. He was detected to have intracardiac thrombi and pulmonary arterial thrombosis along with underlying Behcet’s disease (BD). Patient responded to high dose prednisolone (1 mg/Kg/day) along with monthly parenteral cyclophosphamide therapy. This case highlights the fact that BD is an important cause for pulmonary artery vasculitis with intracardiac thrombus formation, and such patients can present with FUO. Sajal Ajmani, Durga Prasanna Misra, Deep Chandh Raja, Namita Mohindra, and Vikas Agarwal Copyright © 2015 Sajal Ajmani et al. All rights reserved. Aerobic Glycolysis as a Marker of Tumor Aggressiveness: Preliminary Data in High Grade Human Brain Tumors Thu, 03 Sep 2015 14:44:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/874904/ Objectives. Glucose metabolism outside of oxidative phosphorylation, or aerobic glycolysis (AG), is a hallmark of active cancer cells that is not directly measured with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, we characterized tumor regions with elevated AG defined based on PET measurements of glucose and oxygen metabolism. Methods. Fourteen individuals with high-grade brain tumors underwent structural MR scans and PET measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen (CMRO2) and glucose (CMRGlu) metabolism, and AG, using 15O-labeled CO, O2 and H2O, and FDG, and were compared to a normative cohort of 20 age-matched individuals. Results. Elevated AG was observed in most high-grade brain tumors and it was associated with decreased CMRO2 and CBF, but not with significant changes in CMRGlu. Elevated AG was a dramatic and early sign of tumor growth associated with decreased survival. AG changes associated with tumor growth were differentiated from the effects of nonneoplastic processes such as epileptic seizures. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that high-grade brain tumors exhibit elevated AG as a marker of tumor growth and aggressiveness. AG may detect areas of active tumor growth that are not evident on conventional FDG PET. Andrei G. Vlassenko, Jonathan McConathy, Lars E. Couture, Yi Su, Parinaz Massoumzadeh, Hayden S. Leeds, Michael R. Chicoine, David D. Tran, Jiayi Huang, Sonika Dahiya, Daniel S. Marcus, Sarah Jost Fouke, Keith M. Rich, Marcus E. Raichle, and Tammie L. S. Benzinger Copyright © 2015 Andrei G. Vlassenko et al. All rights reserved. Fatal Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in an Acquired Aplastic Anemia Patient Treated with Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin and Cyclosporine A Thu, 03 Sep 2015 14:22:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2015/926874/ Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) after immunosuppressive therapy for aplastic anemia (AA) is extremely rare in a nontransplant setting and has not been well described. This report describes a severe AA patient in whom fatal EBV-LPD developed after being treated with rabbit antithymocyte globulins (ATG) and cyclosporine A (CsA). An 81-year-old man was diagnosed as having severe AA. He was started on CsA followed by administration of ATG for five consecutive days. One month after the start of ATG, persistent fever which was not responsive to antibiotics or antifungal agents developed and atypical lymphocytes emerged in peripheral blood. Repeated blood cultures were negative. An extremely high level of EBV virus in his peripheral blood plasma was detected by means of a quantitative real-time PCR assay. Even after the cessation of CsA, the fever persisted and the peripheral atypical lymphocytes proliferated rapidly. The patient suffered from respiratory failure, liver dysfunction, and metabolic acidosis. Rituximab was administered without success and he died. Tohru Takahashi, Yumiko Maruyama, Mayuko Saitoh, Hideto Itoh, Mitsuru Yoshimoto, and Masayuki Tsujisaki Copyright © 2015 Tohru Takahashi et al. All rights reserved. Do Panic Symptoms Affect the Quality of Life and Add to the Disability in Patients with Bronchial Asthma? Thu, 03 Sep 2015 14:20:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psychiatry/2015/608351/ Background. Anxiety and panic are known to be associated with bronchial asthma with variety of impact on clinical presentation, treatment outcome, comorbidities, quality of life, and functional disability in patients with asthma. This study aims to explore the pattern of panic symptoms, prevalence and severity of panic disorder (PD), quality of life, and disability in them. Methods. Sixty consecutive patients of bronchial asthma were interviewed using semistructured proforma, Panic and Agoraphobia scale, WHO Quality of life (QOL) BREF scale, and WHO disability schedule II (WHODAS II). Results. Though 60% of the participants had panic symptoms, only 46.7% had diagnosable panic attacks according to DSM IV TR diagnostic criteria and 33.3% had PD. Most common symptoms were “sensations of shortness of breath or smothering,” “feeling of choking,” and “fear of dying” found in 83.3% of the participants. 73.3% of the participants had poor quality of life which was most impaired in physical and environmental domains. 55% of the participants had disability score more than a mean (18.1). Conclusion. One-third of the participants had panic disorder with significant effect on physical and environmental domains of quality of life. Patients with more severe PD and bronchial asthma had more disability. A. D. Faye, S. Gawande, R. Tadke, V. C. Kirpekar, S. H. Bhave, A. P. Pakhare, and B. Tayade Copyright © 2015 A. D. Faye et al. All rights reserved. Serum and Vitreous Concentrations of Omentin-1 in Diabetic Retinopathy Thu, 03 Sep 2015 14:03:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/754312/ Objective. Omentin, a new discovered adipokine, is implicated to inhibit inflammation. Inflammation is one important mechanism of diabetic retinopathy (DR). The purpose of this work was to evaluate serum and vitreous concentrations of omentin-1 in patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods. This study enrolled 204 diabetic patients (60 without DR, 49 with NPDR, and 95 with PDR) and 65 control subjects. Results. Serum and vitreous omentin-1 levels in PDR patients were markedly decreased compared with those in the other three groups. NPDR patients showed reduced vitreous omentin-1 compared with patients without DR. In addition, control subjects had significantly higher levels of serum and vitreous omentin-1 compared with diabetic patients without DR, NPDR patients, and PDR patients. In addition, serum/vitreous omentin-1 ratio was positively correlated with the development and severity of DR. Conclusion. Serum and vitreous omentin-1 levels, as well as serum/vitreous omentin-1 ratio, are correlated with the presence and severity of DR. Wencui Wan, Qiuming Li, Fengyan Zhang, Guangying Zheng, Yong Lv, Guangming Wan, and Xuemin Jin Copyright © 2015 Wencui Wan et al. All rights reserved. Rational-Like Solutions of a Differential-Difference Equation Related to Ablowitz-Ladik Spectral Problem Thu, 03 Sep 2015 14:00:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijem/2015/373798/ By using the Casoratian technique, we construct the double Casoratian solutions whose entries satisfy matrix equation of a differential-difference equation related to the Ablowitz-Ladik spectral problem. Soliton solutions and rational-like solutions are obtained from taking special cases in general solutions. Jiang-ping Zhang, Qi Li, and Shou-ting Chen Copyright © 2015 Jiang-ping Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Potential Role of Hemopexin and Heme Oxygenase-1 Inducer in a Model of Sepsis Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:42:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physiology/2015/208485/ Background and Aims. Sepsis can evoke disseminated intravascular coagulation, resulting in multiple organ failure and death. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hemopexin (HPx) can mediate cytoprotective mechanisms against these deleterious effects. This study aims to determine a role for HO-1 and HPx in coagulopathy induced by septic inflammation and define whether they can enhance the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Materials and Methods. 48 healthy male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups: control group: animals subjected to laparotomy and bowel manipulation; CLP group: severe sepsis induced by cecal ligation puncture (CLP); CLP + hemin group: animals received single intraperitoneal injection of hemin (50 µmol/kg) 12 h before sepsis induction; CLP + HPx group: animals received single HPx dose (150 µg/rat, i.v.) 30 min before sepsis induction. Survival rates were calculated. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and activated protein C (APC), liver HO-1, serum, and liver IL-10 levels were measured, 48 hrs after sepsis induction. Liver and lung were excised for histopathological examination. Results. Hemin and HPx administration upregulated liver HO-1 and IL-10. They prolonged PT, PTT and increased APC. They reduced the inflammatory infiltrate and thrombosis in liver and lung parenchyma. However, hemin was superior in controlling coagulopathy and HO-1 production, while HPx was more potent stimulant of IL-10 expression. Conclusions. Hemin and HPx have a potential beneficial effect in severe sepsis regarding coagulopathy and inflammation. Passainte S. Hassaan, Radwa A. Mehanna, and Abeer E. Dief Copyright © 2015 Passainte S. Hassaan et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Outcome and Severity in Adult Filipino Patients with Febrile Neutropenia Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:33:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ah/2015/920838/ Aim. The study aimed to describe the profile of Filipino febrile neutropenia patients and to determine parameters associated with severe outcomes. Methods. This is a retrospective study of Filipino febrile neutropenia patients admitted to the Philippine General Hospital. Patients were described in terms of clinical presentation and stratified according to the presence or absence of severe outcomes. Prognostic factors were then identified using regression analysis. Results. 115 febrile episodes in 102 patients were identified. Regression analysis yielded prolonged fever >7 days prior to admission (OR 2.43; 95% CI, 0.77–7.74), isolation of a pathogen on cultures (OR 2.69; 95% CI, 1.04–6.98), and nadir absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 100 during admission (OR 1.96; 95% CI, 0.75–5.12) as significant predictors of poor outcome. Factors that significantly correlated with better outcome were granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) use (OR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11–0.85) and completeness of antibiotic therapy (OR 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10–0.67). Conclusion. Prolonged fever >7 days prior to admission, positive pathogen on cultures, and nadir ANC < 100 during admission predicted severe outcomes, whereas G-CSF use and complete antibiotic therapy were associated with better outcomes. These prognostic variables might be useful in identifying patients that need more intensive treatment and monitoring. Marc Gregory Y. Yu, Ralph Elvi M. Villalobos, Ma. Jasmin Marinela C. Juan-Bartolome, and Regina P. Berba Copyright © 2015 Marc Gregory Y. Yu et al. All rights reserved. Medical History of Elderly Patients in the Emergency Setting: Not an Easy Point-of-Care Diagnostic Marker Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:26:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/emi/2015/490947/ Background. Medical histories are a crucially important diagnostic tool. Elderly patients represent a large and increasing group of emergency patients. Due to cognitive deficits, taking a reliable medical history in this patient group can be difficult. We sought to evaluate the medical history-taking in emergency patients above 75 years of age with respect to duration and completeness. Methods. Anonymous data of consecutive patients were recorded. Times for the defined basic medical history-taking were documented, as were the availability of other sources and times to assess these. Results. Data of 104 patients were included in the analysis. In a quarter of patients (25%, ) no complete basic medical history could be obtained. In the group of patients where complete data could be gathered, only 16 patients were able to provide all necessary information on their own. Including other sources like relatives or GPs prolonged the time until complete medical history from 7.3 minutes (patient only) to 26.4 (+relatives) and 56.3 (+GP) minutes. Conclusions. Medical histories are important diagnostic tools in the emergency setting and are prolonged in the elderly, especially if additional documentation and third parties need to be involved. New technologies like emergency medical cards might help to improve the availability of important patient data but implementation of these technologies is costly and faces data protection issues. Tobias Lindner, Anna Slagman, Arthur Senkin, Martin Möckel, and Julia Searle Copyright © 2015 Tobias Lindner et al. All rights reserved. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:25:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/730390/ Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis. Maria R. Ambrosio, Bruno J. Rocca, Aurora Barone, Monica Onorati, Lucia Mundo, Filippo Crivelli, Franca Di Nuovo, Giulia De Falco, Maria T. del Vecchio, Sergio A. Tripodi, and Piero Tosi Copyright © 2015 Maria R. Ambrosio et al. All rights reserved. Prevention of Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Oral Anticancer Therapies for Solid Tumors Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:17:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/309601/ Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is still a common and debilitating side effect despite recent advances in its prevention and treatment. The intrinsic emetogenicity of chemotherapy agents allowed grouping into four risk groups (high, moderate, low, and minimal risk of emetogenicity). The prevention of acute and delayed CINV for intravenous agents and one day regimens is well studied, although, there are few data about management of CINV induced by oral cytotoxic agents and targeted therapies, usually administered in extended regimens of daily oral use. Until now treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by oral antineoplastic agents remains largely empirical. The level of evidence of prophylactic antiemetics recommended for these agents is low. There are differences in the classification of emetogenic potential of oral antineoplastic agents between the international guidelines and different recommendations for prophylactic antiemetic regimens. Herein we review the evidence for antiemetic regimens for the most used oral antineoplastic agents for solid tumors and propose antiemetic regimens for high to moderate risk and low to minimal risk of emetogenicity. Ana Lúcia Costa, Catarina Abreu, Teresa Raquel Pacheco, Daniela Macedo, Ana Rita Sousa, Catarina Pulido, António Quintela, and Luís Costa Copyright © 2015 Ana Lúcia Costa et al. All rights reserved. MicroRNA Promoter Identification in Arabidopsis Using Multiple Histone Markers Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:14:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/861402/ A microRNA is a small noncoding RNA molecule, which functions in RNA silencing and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. To understand the mechanism of the activation of microRNA genes, the location of promoter regions driving their expression is required to be annotated precisely. Only a fraction of microRNA genes have confirmed transcription start sites (TSSs), which hinders our understanding of the transcription factor binding events. With the development of the next generation sequencing technology, the chromatin states can be inferred precisely by virtue of a combination of specific histone modifications. Using the genome-wide profiles of nine histone markers including H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9Ac, H3K9me2, H3K18Ac, H3K27me1, H3K27me3, H3K36me2, and H3K36me3, we developed a computational strategy to identify the promoter regions of most microRNA genes in Arabidopsis, based upon the assumption that the distribution of histone markers around the TSSs of microRNA genes is similar to the TSSs of protein coding genes. Among 298 miRNA genes, our model identified 42 independent miRNA TSSs and 132 miRNA TSSs, which are located in the promoters of upstream genes. The identification of promoters will provide better understanding of microRNA regulation and can play an important role in the study of diseases at genetic level. Yuming Zhao, Fang Wang, and Liran Juan Copyright © 2015 Yuming Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Constructing a Genome-Wide LD Map of Wild A. gambiae Using Next-Generation Sequencing Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:11:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/238139/ Anopheles gambiae is the major malaria vector in Africa. Examining the molecular basis of A. gambiae traits requires knowledge of both genetic variation and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map of wild A. gambiae populations from malaria-endemic areas. We sequenced the genomes of nine wild A. gambiae mosquitoes individually using next-generation sequencing technologies and detected 2,219,815 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 88% of which are novel. SNPs are not evenly distributed across A. gambiae chromosomes. The low SNP-frequency regions overlay heterochromatin and chromosome inversion domains, consistent with the lower recombinant rates at these regions. Nearly one million SNPs that were genotyped correctly in all individual mosquitoes with 99.6% confidence were extracted from these high-throughput sequencing data. Based on these SNP genotypes, we constructed a genome-wide LD map for wild A. gambiae from malaria-endemic areas in Kenya and made it available through a public Website. The average size of LD blocks is less than 40 bp, and several large LD blocks were also discovered clustered around the para gene, which is consistent with the effect of insecticide selective sweeps. The SNPs and the LD map will be valuable resources for scientific communities to dissect the A. gambiae genome. Xiaohong Wang, Yaw A. Afrane, Guiyun Yan, and Jun Li Copyright © 2015 Xiaohong Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Model Example: Coexisting Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome and the Nutcracker Phenomenon Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:07:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/649469/ Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare cause of gastrointestinal obstruction, caused by external compression of the third part of the duodenum by the SMA. It may be associated with the Nutcracker phenomenon: external compression of the left renal vein. To our knowledge, there are few reports in the literature describing the coexistence of these two conditions and so we take this opportunity to highlight a rare cause of the acute abdomen that might otherwise be overlooked in cases of nonspecific abdominal findings and potentially unremarkable initial investigations. We report a case of SMA syndrome and Nutcracker phenomenon in a 19-year-old female who presented to our emergency department with a short history of epigastric pain and emesis. The SMA syndrome is thought to develop as the result of an abnormally narrow angle between the proximal SMA and the aorta, for which a number of predisposing factors have been described. Surgical options exist; however, the SMA syndrome is typically managed conservatively in the first instance, consistent with the approach described in this case. The Nutcracker phenomenon may give rise to the Nutcracker syndrome in the presence of typical clinical manifestations; however, these did not feature in this case. Rebecca Nunn, Jaimie Henry, Alistair A. P. Slesser, Rukshan Fernando, and Nebil Behar Copyright © 2015 Rebecca Nunn et al. All rights reserved. Strain and Dimension Effects on the Threshold Voltage of Nanoscale Fully Depleted Strained-SOI TFETs Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:07:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2015/850383/ A novel nanoscale fully depleted strained-SOI TFET (FD-SSOI TFET) is proposed and exhaustively simulated through Atlas Device Simulator. It is found that FD-SSOI TFET has the potential of improved on-current and steep subthreshold swing. Furthermore, the effect of strain and dimension on the threshold voltage of FD-SSOI TFET is thoroughly studied by developing a model based on its physical definition. The validity of the model is tested for FD-SSOI TFET by comparison to 2D device simulations. It is shown that the proposed model can predict the trends of threshold voltage very well. This proposed model provides valuable reference to the FD-SSOI TFETs design, simulation, and fabrication. Yu-Chen Li, He-Ming Zhang, Shu-lin Liu, and Hui-Yong Hu Copyright © 2015 Yu-Chen Li et al. All rights reserved. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation? Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:05:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/257471/ The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs) that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx) proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs) in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury. Marijke De Bock, Nan Wang, Elke Decrock, Geert Bultynck, and Luc Leybaert Copyright © 2015 Marijke De Bock et al. All rights reserved. A Dual Band Patch Antenna with a Pinwheel-Shaped Slots EBG Substrate Thu, 03 Sep 2015 13:05:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/815751/ A dual band microstrip patch antenna integrated with pinwheel-shaped electromagnetic band-gap (EBG) structures is proposed. The patch antenna consists of a pair of spiral slots on the patch and is fed by using coaxial line. Its full-wave simulation predicts dual bands from 4.43 GHz to 4.56 GHz and from 4.96 GHz to 5.1 GHz in the C-band. The designed EBG with eight pinwheel-shaped slots addresses smaller frequency drift compared with the traditional square mushroom-like EBG when applied to the patch antenna. With the help of designed EBG structure, the impedance bandwidth, radiation efficiency, and gain of the patch antenna are improved significantly. The 10 dB impedance bandwidth is extended by 3.4% and 6.5% at the low- and high-frequency bands, respectively. The radiation efficiency is increased by 5% and 17.8%, and the realized gain is enhanced by 1.87 dB and 1.56 dB at 4.57 GHz and 5.06 GHz, respectively. The designed EBG structure may have many applications in other types of planar antennas. Xiaoyan Zhang, Zhaopeng Teng, Zhiqing Liu, and Bincheng Li Copyright © 2015 Xiaoyan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Hepatic but Not CNS-Expressed Human C-Reactive Protein Inhibits Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Transgenic Mice Thu, 03 Sep 2015 12:54:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ad/2015/640171/ We recently demonstrated that human C-reactive protein (CRP), expressed hepatically in transgenic mice (CRPtg), improved the outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The liver is the primary site of CRP synthesis in humans and in CRPtg mice but is also expressed by both at low levels in the CNS. To determine if CNS expression of human CRP is sufficient to impact EAE, we generated neuronal CRP transgenic mice (nCRPtg) wherein human CRP expression is driven by the neuron-specific Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) gene promoter. We found that hepatically expressed/blood-borne CRP, but not CNS expressed CRP, lessened EAE severity. These outcomes indicate that the protective actions of human CRP in EAE are manifested in the periphery and not in the CNS and reveal a previously unappreciated site specificity for the beneficial actions of CRP in CNS disease. Tyler T Wright, Rachel V. Jimenez, Todd E. Morgan, Namrata Bali, Xiaogang Hou, Mark A. McCrory, Caleb E. Finch, and Alexander J. Szalai Copyright © 2015 Tyler T Wright et al. All rights reserved. Role of Mas Receptor Antagonist A799 in Renal Blood Flow Response to Ang 1-7 after Bradykinin Administration in Ovariectomized Estradiol-Treated Rats Thu, 03 Sep 2015 12:24:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2015/801053/ Background. The accompanied role of Mas receptor (MasR), bradykinin (BK), and female sex hormone on renal blood flow (RBF) response to angiotensin 1-7 is not well defined. We investigated the role of MasR antagonist (A779) and BK on RBF response to Ang 1-7 infusion in ovariectomized estradiol-treated rats. Methods. Ovariectomized Wistar rats received estradiol (OVE) or vehicle (OV) for two weeks. Catheterized animals were subjected to BK and A799 infusion and mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF, and renal vascular resistance (RVR) responses to Ang 1-7 (0, 100, and 300 ng kg−1 min−1) were determined. Results. Percentage change of RBF (%RBF) in response to Ang1-7 infusion increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of BK, when MasR was not blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OVE group was greater than OV group significantly (). Infusion of 300 ng kg−1 min−1 Ang 1-7 increased RBF by % in OVE group versus % in OV group. However when MasR was blocked, %RBF response to Ang 1-7 in OV group was greater than OVE group insignificantly. Conclusion. Coadministration of BK and A779 compared to BK alone increased RBF response to Ang 1-7 in vehicle treated rats. Such observation was not seen in estradiol treated rats. Aghdas Dehghani, Shadan Saberi, and Mehdi Nematbakhsh Copyright © 2015 Aghdas Dehghani et al. All rights reserved. The Vitreomacular Interface in Diabetic Retinopathy Thu, 03 Sep 2015 12:05:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/392983/ Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading health concern and a major cause of blindness. DR can be complicated by scar tissue formation, macular edema, and tractional retinal detachment. Optical coherence tomography has found that patients with DR often have diffuse retinal thickening, cystoid macular edema, posterior hyaloid traction, and tractional retinal detachment. Newer imaging techniques can even detect fine tangential folds and serous macular detachment. The interplay of the vitreous and the retina in the progression of DR involves multiple chemokine and other regulatory factors including VEGF. Understanding the cells infiltrating pathologic membranes at the vitreomacular interface has opened up the possibility of new targets for pharmacotherapy. Vitrectomies for DR remain a vital tool to help relieve tension on the macula by removing membranes, improving edema absorption, and eliminating the scaffold for new membrane formation. Newer treatments such as triamcinolone acetonide and VEGF inhibitors have become essential as a rapid way to control DR at the vitreomacular interface, improve macular edema, and reduce retinal neovascularization. These treatments alone, and in conjunction with PRP, help to prevent worsening of the VMI in patients with DR. Daniel Agarwal, Rachel Gelman, Claudia Prospero Ponce, William Stevenson, and John B. Christoforidis Copyright © 2015 Daniel Agarwal et al. All rights reserved. Reduced-Pressure Boiling Extraction of Oleuropein Coupled with Ultrasonication from Olive Leaves (Olea europaea L.) Thu, 03 Sep 2015 12:01:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/719485/ Oleuropein was extracted from Frantoio olive leaves using reduced-pressure boiling extraction coupled with ultrasound-assist (URPE). Four important factors, extraction temperature, ultrasonic power, ethanol concentration, and the ratio of solid to liquid, were selected to carry out the response surface methodology (RSM) for seeking optimal conditions on high oleuropein extraction yield at different levels. Box-Behnken design was employed to investigate the effects of the four factors on it. The results showed that the ratio of solid to liquid was the most significant factor of all on oleuropein yield. The optimal operation conditions were obtained as follows: ethanol concentration 75% (v/v), extraction temperature 53°C, ultrasonic power 600 W, and the ratio of solid to liquid 1 : 31. Under these optimal conditions, oleuropein extraction yield was 7.08%, which was close to the predicted value 7.121%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of olive leaves after extraction were provided as well. It was seen that, compared with the untreated leaves, URPE could effectively break cells within the olive leaves. Pu-jun Xie, Li-xin Huang, Cai-hong Zhang, Feng You, Cheng-zhang Wang, and Hao Zhou Copyright © 2015 Pu-jun Xie et al. All rights reserved. A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Study of Dose Comparison of Ramosetron to Prevent Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Thu, 03 Sep 2015 12:00:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/523601/ Purpose. This study was conducted to determine the optimal dose titration of ramosetron to prevent the Rhodes Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (RINVR). Methods. Patients treated with folic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin were randomized into three groups (0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, and 0.6 mg ramosetron before chemotherapy). The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics using RINVR were evaluated. Results. Seventeen, 15, and 18 patients received ramosetron at doses of 0.3 mg, 0.45 mg, and 0.6 mg, respectively. (h), (ng/mL), and (ng·h/mL) were associated with dose escalation significantly, showing a reverse correlation with the RINVR during chemotherapy. Acute CINV was observed in four patients (22.2%), two patients (14.3%), and one (5.6%) patient and a delayed CINV on day 7 was found in eight (47%), three (21.4%), and five (27.8%) patients in each group. The complete response rate was increased with dose escalation (35.3%, 50.0%, and 72.2% in each group) and also showed the tendency for decreasing moderate-to-severe CINV. Conclusions. This study shows a trend regarding the dose-response relationship for ramosetron to prevent CINV, including delayed emesis. It suggested that dose escalation should be considered in patients with CINV in a subsequent cycle of chemotherapy, and an individual approach using RINVR could be useful to monitor CINV. Ka-Rham Kim, Gaeun Kang, Myung-Seo Ki, Hyun-Jeong Shim, Jun-Eul Hwang, Woo-Kyun Bae, Ik-Joo Chung, Jong-Keun Kim, Seongwook Jeong, and Sang-Hee Cho Copyright © 2015 Ka-Rham Kim et al. All rights reserved. Survey of Programs Used to Detect Alternative Splicing Isoforms from Deep Sequencing Data In Silico Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:55:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/831352/ Next-generation sequencing techniques have been rapidly emerging. However, the massive sequencing reads hide a great deal of unknown important information. Advances have enabled researchers to discover alternative splicing (AS) sites and isoforms using computational approaches instead of molecular experiments. Given the importance of AS for gene expression and protein diversity in eukaryotes, detecting alternative splicing and isoforms represents a hot topic in systems biology and epigenetics research. The computational methods applied to AS prediction have improved since the emergence of next-generation sequencing. In this study, we introduce state-of-the-art research on AS and then compare the research methods and software tools available for AS based on next-generation sequencing reads. Finally, we discuss the prospects of computational methods related to AS. Feng Min, Sumei Wang, and Li Zhang Copyright © 2015 Feng Min et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Interface Traps on Direct and Alternating Current in Tunneling Field-Effect Transistors Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:53:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/630178/ We demonstrate the impact of semiconductor/oxide interface traps (ITs) on the DC and AC characteristics of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). Using the Sentaurus simulation tools, we show the impacts of trap density distribution and trap type on the n-type double gate- (DG-) TFET. The results show that the donor-type and acceptor-type ITs have the great influence on DC characteristic at midgap. Donor-like and acceptor-like ITs have different mechanism of the turn-on characteristics. The flat band shift changes obviously and differently in the AC analysis, which results in contrast of peak shift of Miller capacitor for n-type TFETs with donor-like and acceptor-like ITs. Zhi Jiang, Yiqi Zhuang, Cong Li, Ping Wang, and Yuqi Liu Copyright © 2015 Zhi Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Preoperative Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Neutrophilia Are Independent Predictors of Recurrence in Patients with Localized Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:47:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/891045/ Objective. To evaluate the role of preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and absolute neutrophil count (ANC) in patients’ prognosis with localized papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC). Methods. Data from 218 localized pRCC patients (T1-3 N0/+ M0), operated between 1991 and 2011 at two centers, were evaluated retrospectively. Univariable and multivariable analyses using the Cox regression model were performed to determine the associations of NLR and ANC with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Prognostic accuracy was evaluated with the Harrell concordance index. Results. The 5-year RFS rate was 87.0%. Multivariable analysis identified increased NLR (≥3.6) and ANC (≥5300/μL) as independent prognostic factors for RFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.01, ) and (HR = 4.71, ). The final model built by the addition of NLR or ANC improved predictive accuracy (c-index: 0.824, 0.842) compared with the clinicopathological base model (c-index: 0.800), which included TNM stage and tumor necrosis. Conclusions. The NLR and ANC appear to be independent prognostic factors for RFS after surgery for localized pRCC. They significantly increase the accuracy of established prognostic factors. Therefore, we recommend adding NLR and ANC to traditional prognostic model, which may improve its predictive accuracy. Jiwei Huang, Douglas M. Dahl, Liang Dong, Qiang Liu, Kristine Cornejo, Qi Wang, Shulin Wu, Adam S. Feldman, Yiran Huang, Wei Xue, and Chin-Lee Wu Copyright © 2015 Jiwei Huang et al. All rights reserved. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis Identified HSC71 as a Novel Serum Biomarker for Renal Cell Carcinoma Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:46:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/802153/ Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most lethal urologic cancers and about 80% of RCC are of the clear-cell type (ccRCC). However, there are no serum biomarkers for the accurate diagnosis of RCC. In this study, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis on serum samples from ccRCC patients and control group by using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to access differentially expressed proteins. Overall, 16 proteins were significantly upregulated (ratio > 1.5) and 14 proteins were significantly downregulated (ratio < 0.67) in early-stage ccRCC compared to control group. HSC71 was selected and subsequently validated by Western blot in six independent sets of patients. ELISA subsequently confirmed HSC71 as a potential serum biomarker for distinguishing RCC from benign urologic disease with an operating characteristic curve (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76~0.96), achieving sensitivity of 87% (95% CI 69%~96%) at a specificity of 80% (95% CI 61~92%) with a threshold of 15 ng/mL. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis led to identification of serum HSC71 as a novel serum biomarker of RCC, particularly useful in early diagnosis of ccRCC. Yushi Zhang, Yi Cai, Hongyan Yu, and Hanzhong Li Copyright © 2015 Yushi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. An Enhanced Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Algorithm for Reactive Power Optimization considering Distributed Generation Penetration Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/342080/ This paper puts forward a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm with quantum behavior (QPSO) to solve reactive power optimization in power system with distributed generation. Moreover, differential evolution (DE) operators are applied to enhance the algorithm (DQPSO). This paper focuses on the minimization of active power loss, respectively, and uses QPSO and DQPSO to determine terminal voltage of generators, and ratio of transformers, switching group number of capacitors to achieve optimal reactive power flow. The proposed algorithms are validated through three IEEE standard examples. Comparing the results obtained from QPSO and DQPSO with those obtained from PSO, we find that our algorithms are more likely to get the global optimal solution and have a better convergence. What is more, DQPSO is better than QPSO. Furthermore, with the integration of distributed generation, active power loss has decreased significantly. Specifically, PV distributed generations can suppress voltage fluctuation better than PQ distributed generations. Runhai Jiao, Bo Li, Yuancheng Li, and Lingzhi Zhu Copyright © 2015 Runhai Jiao et al. All rights reserved. Validation of a RP-HPLC-DAD Method for Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) Preparations and Assessment of the Marker, Apigenin-7-glucoside, Safety and Anti-Inflammatory Effect Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:36:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/828437/ Chamomile is a medicinal plant, which presents several biological effects, especially the anti-inflammatory effect. One of the compounds related to this effect is apigenin, a flavonoid that is mostly found in its glycosylated form, apigenin-7-glucoside (APG), in natural sources. However, the affectivity and safety of this glycoside have not been well explored for topical application. In this context, the aim of this work was to develop and validate a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC-DAD) method to quantify APG in chamomile preparations. Additionally, the safety and the anti-inflammatory potential of this flavonoid were verified. The RP-HPLC-DAD method was developed and validated with linearity at 24.0–36.0 μg/mL range (). Intra- and interday precision (RSD) were 0.27–2.66% and accuracy was 98.27–101.21%. The validated method was applied in the analysis of chamomile flower heads, glycolic extract, and Kamillen cream, supporting the method application in the quality control of chamomile preparations. Furthermore, the APG safety was assessed by MTT cytotoxicity assay and mutagenic protocols and the anti-inflammatory activity was confirmed by a diminished TNF- production showed by mice macrophages treated with APG following LPS treatment. Felipe Galeti Miguel, Amanda Henriques Cavalheiro, Nathália Favaretto Spinola, Diego Luis Ribeiro, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes, Juliana Issa Hori, Franciane Marquele-Oliveira, Bruno Alves Rocha, and Andresa Aparecida Berretta Copyright © 2015 Felipe Galeti Miguel et al. All rights reserved. Teamwork Assessment Tools in Modern Surgical Practice: A Systematic Review Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:34:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srp/2015/494827/ Introduction. Deficiencies in teamwork skills have been shown to contribute to the occurrence of adverse events during surgery. Consequently, several teamwork assessment tools have been developed to evaluate trainee nontechnical performance. This paper aims to provide an overview of these instruments and review the validity of each tool. Furthermore, the present paper aims to review the deficiencies surrounding training and propose several recommendations to address these issues. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify teamwork assessment tools using MEDLINE (1946 to August 2015), EMBASE (1974 to August 2015), and PsycINFO (1806 to August 2015) databases. Results. Eight assessment tools which encompass aspects of teamwork were identified. The Nontechnical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) assessment was found to possess the highest level of validity from a variety of sources; reliability and acceptability have also been established for this tool. Conclusions. Deficits in current surgical training pathways have prompted several recommendations to meet the evolving requirements of surgeons. Recommendations from the current paper include integration of teamwork training and assessment into medical school curricula, standardised formal training of assessors to ensure accurate evaluation of nontechnical skill acquisition, and integration of concurrent technical and nontechnical skills training throughout training. George Whittaker, Hamid Abboudi, Muhammed Shamim Khan, Prokar Dasgupta, and Kamran Ahmed Copyright © 2015 George Whittaker et al. All rights reserved. Proinflammatory Cytokines Increase Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Alveolar Epithelial Cells Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:30:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/387842/ Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial permeability mediator that is highly expressed in lung epithelium. In nonlung cells proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to increase VEGF expression, but their effects on lung epithelium remain unclear. We hypothesized that increases in alveolar epithelial cell VEGF RNA and protein expression occur after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. We tested this using human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) stimulated with 5 proinflammatory cytokines. VEGF RNA expression was increased 1.4–2.7-fold in response to IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, or TGF-β over 6 hours, with TGF-β having the largest response. TNF-α increased VEGF RNA as early as 1 hour. A mix of IL-1, IL-6, and IL-8 had effects similar to IL-1. TNF-α increased protein expression as early as 4 hours and had a sustained effect at 16 hours, whereas IL-1 did not increase protein expression. Only VEGF165 was present in cultured A549 cells, yet other isoforms were seen in human lung tissue. Increased expression of VEGF in alveolar epithelial cells occurs in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Increased VEGF expression likely contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases and to the angiogenic phenotype of lung cancer, a disease typically preceded by chronic inflammation. James P. Maloney and Li Gao Copyright © 2015 James P. Maloney and Li Gao. All rights reserved. Management of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients on Multiday Cisplatin Based Combination Chemotherapy Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:30:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/943618/ Introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of germ cell tumors. A common side effect of multiday cisplatin chemotherapy is severe nausea and vomiting. Considerable progress has been made in the control of these side effects since the introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy in the 1970s. Germ cell tumor which is a model for a curable neoplasm has also turned into an excellent testing ground to develop effective strategies to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in multiday cisplatin based regimens. The use of combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist, and dexamethasone has greatly improved our ability to prevent and control acute and delayed CINV. Mechanism and pattern of CINV with multiday chemotherapy may differ from those in single day chemotherapy and therefore efficacy of antiemetic drugs as observed in single day chemotherapy may not be applicable. There are only few randomized clinical trials with special emphasis on multiday chemotherapy. Further studies are essential to determine the efficacy, optimal dose, and duration of the newer agents and combinations in multiday cisplatin based chemotherapy. Praveen Ranganath, Lawrence Einhorn, and Costantine Albany Copyright © 2015 Praveen Ranganath et al. All rights reserved. Vibration and Stability of Variable Cross Section Thin-Walled Composite Shafts with Transverse Shear Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:29:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/697493/ A dynamic model of composite shaft with variable cross section is presented. Free vibration equations of the variable cross section thin-walled composite shaft considering the effect of shear deformation are established based on a refined variational asymptotic method and Hamilton’s principle. The numerical results calculated by Galerkin method are analyzed to indicate the effects of ply angle, taper ratio, and transverse shear deformation on the first natural frequency and critical rotating speed. The results are compared with those obtained by using finite element package ANSYS and available in the literature using other models. Ma Jing-min and Ren Yong-sheng Copyright © 2015 Ma Jing-min and Ren Yong-sheng. All rights reserved. A Review of NEPA, a Novel Fixed Antiemetic Combination with the Potential for Enhancing Guideline Adherence and Improving Control of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:28:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/651879/ Combination antiemetic regimens targeting multiple molecular pathways associated with emesis have become the standard of care for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) related to highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapies. Antiemetic consensus guidelines from several professional societies are widely available and updated regularly as new data emerges. Unfortunately, despite substantial research supporting the notion that guideline conformity improves CINV control, adherence to antiemetic guidelines is unsatisfactory. While studies are needed to identify specific barriers to guideline use and explore measures to enhance adherence, a novel approach has been taken to improve clinician adherence and patient compliance, with the development of a new combination antiemetic. NEPA is an oral fixed combination of a new highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), netupitant, and the pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 RA, palonosetron. This convenient antiemetic combination offers guideline-consistent prophylaxis by targeting two critical pathways associated with CINV in a single oral dose administered only once per cycle. This paper will review and discuss the NEPA data in the context of how this first combination antiemetic may overcome some of the barriers interfering with adherence to antiemetic guidelines, enhance patient compliance, and offer a possible advance in the prevention of CINV for patients. Paul J. Hesketh, Matti Aapro, Karin Jordan, Lee Schwartzberg, Snezana Bosnjak, and Hope Rugo Copyright © 2015 Paul J. Hesketh et al. All rights reserved. Retrospective Clinical and Radiological Outcomes after Robotic Assisted Bicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:27:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aorth/2015/747309/ Purpose. Bicompartmental knee arthroplasty (BiKA) is a favorable alternative to total knee arthroplasty for degenerative disease limited to two knee compartments. Recently developed robotic-assisted systems improved the clinical efficacy of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty by providing enhanced component positioning with dynamic ligament balancing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of patients, undergoing bicompartmental knee arthroplasty at a single institution by a single surgeon using a robotic-assisted system. It was hypothesized that robotic assisted BiKA is a prevailing choice for degenerative disease limited to two knee compartments with good functional results. Methods. A search of the institution’s joint registry was conducted to identify patients that underwent robotic-assisted BiKA of the patellofemoral compartment and the medial or lateral compartment. Results. A total number of 29 patients (30 BiKA) with a mean age of 63.6 years were identified who received a patellofemoral resurfacing in combination with medial or lateral compartment resurfacing. Twenty-four out of 29 patients had good to excellent outcome. Conclusion. Robotic assisted bicompartmental arthroplasty using broad indications and only excluding patients with severe deformity and those that have less than 4 mm of joint space in the surviving compartment demonstrated 83% good to excellent results. Cuneyt Tamam, Johannes F. Plate, Marco Augart, Gary G. Poehling, and Riyaz H. Jinnah Copyright © 2015 Cuneyt Tamam et al. All rights reserved. Reconstruction of a Large Anterior Ear Defect after Mohs Micrographic Surgery with a Cartilage Graft and Postauricular Revolving Door Flap Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:25:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cridm/2015/484819/ A novel postauricular revolving door island flap and cartilage graft combination was employed to correct a large defect on the anterior ear of an 84-year-old man who underwent Mohs micrographic surgery for an antihelical squamous cell carcinoma. The defect measured 4.6 × 2.4 cm and spanned the antihelix, scapha, a small portion of the helix, and a large segment of underlying cartilage, with loss of structural integrity and anterior folding of the ear. The repair involved harvesting 1.5 cm2 of exposed cartilage from the scaphoid fossa and then sculpting and suturing it to the remnant of the antihelical cartilage in order to recreate the antihelical crura. The skin of the posterior auricle was then incised just below the helical rim and folded anteriorly to cover the cartilage graft. The flap remained attached by a central subcutaneous pedicle, and an island designed using the full-thickness defect as a stencil template was pulled through the cartilage window anteriorly to resurface the anterior ear. This case demonstrates the use of the revolving door flap for coverage of large central ear defects with loss of cartilaginous support and illustrates how cartilage grafts may be used in combination with the flap to improve ear contour after resection. Stephanie Nemir, Lindsey Hunter-Ellul, Vlad Codrea, and Richard Wagner Copyright © 2015 Stephanie Nemir et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Olanzapine Combined Therapy for Patients Receiving Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy Resistant to Standard Antiemetic Therapy Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/956785/ Objective. Olanzapine is proved to be effective for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). But its efficacy in combination with standard antiemetic therapy is unknown. The purpose of this study is to prove the preventive effect of olanzapine for the prevention of CINV caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapy when used with standard antiemetic therapy. Method. Gynecologic cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy who had grade 2 or 3 nausea in overall phase (0–120 h after chemotherapy) despite standard therapy were assigned to this study. From the next cycles to cycles in which patients developed grade 2 or 3 nausea, they received olanzapine with standard therapy. 5 mg oral olanzapine was administered for 7 days from the day before chemotherapy. The effectiveness of preventive administration of olanzapine was evaluated retrospectively. The primary endpoint was nausea control rate (grade 0 or 1) with olanzapine. Results. Fifty patients were evaluable. The nausea control rate with olanzapine was improved from 58% to 98% in acute phase (0–24 h after chemotherapy) and 2% to 94% in delayed phase (24–120 h after chemotherapy). In overall phase, the nausea control rate improved from 0% to 92%, and it was statistically significant (). Conclusion. Preventive use of olanzapine combined with standard antiemetic therapy showed improvement in control of refractory nausea. Masakazu Abe, Yuka Kasamatsu, Nobuhiro Kado, Shiho Kuji, Aki Tanaka, Nobutaka Takahashi, Munetaka Takekuma, and Yasuyuki Hirashima Copyright © 2015 Masakazu Abe et al. All rights reserved. Impact of CYP1A1 Polymorphisms on Susceptibility to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Meta-Analysis Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:15:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/942958/ Objective. Several studies have evaluated the association between CYP1A1 polymorphisms and the susceptibility of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with inconclusive results. We performed the first comprehensive meta-analysis to summarize the association between CYP1A1 polymorphisms and COPD risk. Method. A systematic literature search was conducted (up to April 2015) in five online databases: PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WeiPu, and WanFang databases. The strength of association was calculated by odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results. Seven case-control studies with 1050 cases and 1202 controls were included. Our study suggested a significant association between the MspI polymorphism and COPD risk (CC versus TC + TT: OR = 1.57, CI: 1.09–2.26, ; CC versus TT: OR = 1.73, CI: 1.18–2.55, ). For the Ile/Val polymorphism, a significant association with COPD risk was observed (GG versus AG + AA: OR = 2.75, CI: 1.29–5.84, P = 0.009; GG versus AA: OR = 3.23, CI: 1.50–6.93, ; AG versus AA: OR = 1.39, CI: 1.01–1.90, ). Subgroup analysis indicated a significant association between the MspI variation and COPD risk among Asians (CC versus TC + TT: OR = 1.70, CI: 1.06–2.71, ; CC versus TT: OR = 1.84, CI: 1.11–3.06, ). Conclusion. The MspI and Ile/Val polymorphisms might alter the susceptibility of COPD, and MspI polymorphism might play a role in COPD risk among Asian population. Cheng-Di Wang, Nan Chen, Lin Huang, Jia-Rong Wang, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Ya-Mei Jiang, Ya-Zhou He, and Yu-Lin Ji Copyright © 2015 Cheng-Di Wang et al. All rights reserved. Electronic Structure Studies and Photocatalytic Properties of Cubic Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:14:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2015/575376/ The photocatalytic ability of cubic Bi1.5ZnNb1.5O7 (BZN) pyrochlore for the decolorization of an acid orange 7 (AO7) azo dye in aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation has been investigated for the first time. BZN catalyst powders prepared using low temperature sol-gel and higher temperature solid-state methods have been evaluated and their reaction rates have been compared. The experimental band gap energy has been estimated from the optical absorption edge and has been used as reference for theoretical calculations. The electronic band structure of BZN has been investigated using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations for random, completely and partially ordered solid solutions of Zn cations in both the and sites of the pyrochlore structure. The nature of the orbitals in the valence band (VB) and the conduction band (CB) has been identified and the theoretical band gap energy has been discussed in terms of the DFT model approximations. Ganchimeg Perenlei, Jose A. Alarco, Peter C. Talbot, and Wayde N. Martens Copyright © 2015 Ganchimeg Perenlei et al. All rights reserved. Orthostatic Intolerance Is Independent of the Degree of Autonomic Cardiovascular Adaptation after 60 Days of Head-Down Bed Rest Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:12:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/896372/ Spaceflight and head-down bed rest (HDBR) can induce the orthostatic intolerance (OI); the mechanisms remain to be clarified. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not OI after HDBR relates to the degree of autonomic cardiovascular adaptation. Fourteen volunteers were enrolled for 60 days of HDBR. A head-up tilt test (HUTT) was performed before and after HDBR. Our data revealed that, in all nonfainters, there was a progressive increase in heart rate over the course of HDBR, which remained higher until 12 days of recovery. The mean arterial pressure gradually increased until day 56 of HDBR and returned to baseline after 12 days of recovery. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity decreased during HDBR and remained suppressed until 12 days of recovery. Low-frequency power of systolic arterial pressure increased during HDBR and remained elevated during recovery. Three subjects fainted during the HUTT after HDBR, in which systemic vascular resistance did not increase and remained lower until syncope. None of the circulatory patterns significantly differed between the fainters and the nonfainters at any time point. In conclusion, our data indicate that the impaired orthostatic tolerance after HDBR could not be distinguished by estimation of normal hemodynamic and/or neurocardiac data. Jiexin Liu, Yongzhi Li, Bart Verheyden, Zhanghuang Chen, Jingyu Wang, Yinghui Li, André E. Aubert, and Ming Yuan Copyright © 2015 Jiexin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Exploring the Functional Disorder and Corresponding Key Transcription Factors in Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Progression Thu, 03 Sep 2015 11:11:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/197603/ This study has analyzed the gene expression patterns of an IPMN microarray dataset including normal pancreatic ductal tissue (NT), intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma (IPMA), intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (IPMC), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) samples. And eight clusters of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with similar expression pattern were detected by -means clustering. Then a survey map of functional disorder in IPMN progression was established by functional enrichment analysis of these clusters. In addition, transcription factors (TFs) enrichment analysis was used to detect the key TFs in each cluster of DEGs, and three TFs (FLI1, ERG, and ESR1) were found to significantly regulate DEGs in cluster 1, and expression of these three TFs was validated by qRT-PCR. All these results indicated that these three TFs might play key roles in the early stages of IPMN progression. Guiying Bai, Chenxuan Wu, Yingtang Gao, and Guiming Shu Copyright © 2015 Guiying Bai et al. All rights reserved. Prophylactic Management of Radiation-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Thu, 03 Sep 2015 10:56:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/893013/ The incidence of nausea and vomiting after radiotherapy is often underestimated by physicians, though some 50–80% of patients may experience these symptoms. The occurrence of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (RINV) will depend on radiotherapy-related factors, such as the site of irradiation, the dosing, fractionation, irradiated volume, and radiotherapy techniques. Patients should receive antiemetic prophylaxis as suggested by the international antiemetic guidelines based upon a risk assessment, taking especially into account the affected anatomic region and the planned radiotherapy regimen. In this field the international guidelines from the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guidelines as well as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) are widely endorsed. The emetogenicity of radiotherapy regimens and recommendations for the appropriate use of antiemetics including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, steroids, and other antiemetics will be reviewed in regard to the applied radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy regimen. Petra Feyer, Franziska Jahn, and Karin Jordan Copyright © 2015 Petra Feyer et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Vitreomacular Adhesion on Age-Related Macular Degeneration Thu, 03 Sep 2015 10:54:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/865083/ Herein, we review the association between vitreomacular adhesion (VMA) and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meta-analyses have shown that eyes with neovascular AMD are twice as likely to have VMA as normal eyes. VMA in neovascular AMD may induce inflammation, macular traction, decrease in oxygenation, sequestering of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and other cytokines or may directly stimulate VEGF production. VMA may also interfere with the treatment effects of anti-VEGF therapy, which is the standard treatment for neovascular AMD, and releasing VMA can improve the treatment response to anti-VEGF treatment in neovascular AMD. We also reviewed currently available methods of relieving VMA. Eui Chun Kang and Hyoung Jun Koh Copyright © 2015 Eui Chun Kang and Hyoung Jun Koh. All rights reserved. Design of an Integrated Vehicle Chassis Control System with Driver Behavior Identification Thu, 03 Sep 2015 10:42:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/954514/ An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal curvature model through genetic algorithm and neural network method. Using it as a base, an integrated chassis control strategy with active front steering (AFS) and direct yaw moment control (DYC) considering driver characteristics was established by model predictive control (MPC) method. Finally, simulations were carried out to verify the control strategy by CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the proposed method enables the control system to adjust its parameters according to the driver behavior identification results and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved. Bing Zhu, Yizhou Chen, Jian Zhao, and Yunfu Su Copyright © 2015 Bing Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Core-Level Modeling and Frequency Prediction for DSP Applications on FPGAs Thu, 03 Sep 2015 10:20:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrc/2015/784672/ Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) provide a promising technology that can improve performance of many high-performance computing and embedded applications. However, unlike software design tools, the relatively immature state of FPGA tools significantly limits productivity and consequently prevents widespread adoption of the technology. For example, the lengthy design-translate-execute (DTE) process often must be iterated to meet the application requirements. Previous works have enabled model-based, design-space exploration to reduce DTE iterations but are limited by a lack of accurate model-based prediction of key design parameters, the most important of which is clock frequency. In this paper, we present a core-level modeling and design (CMD) methodology that enables modeling of FPGA applications at an abstract level and yet produces accurate predictions of parameters such as clock frequency, resource utilization (i.e., area), and latency. We evaluate CMD’s prediction methods using several high-performance DSP applications on various families of FPGAs and show an average clock-frequency prediction error of 3.6%, with a worst-case error of 20.4%, compared to the best of existing high-level prediction methods, 13.9% average error with 48.2% worst-case error. We also demonstrate how such prediction enables accurate design-space exploration without coding in a hardware-description language (HDL), significantly reducing the total design time. Gongyu Wang, Greg Stitt, Herman Lam, and Alan George Copyright © 2015 Gongyu Wang et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Breakthrough and Refractory Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:47:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/595894/ Despite significant progress in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) with the introduction of new antiemetic agents, 30–50% of patients receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC or HEC) and guideline directed prophylactic antiemetics develop breakthrough CINV. International guidelines recommend the treatment of breakthrough CINV with an agent from a drug class that was not used in the prophylactic antiemetic regimen and recommend using the breakthrough medication continuously rather than using it on an as needed basis. There have been very few studies on the treatment of breakthrough CINV. A recent double-blind, randomized, phase III study suggested that olanzapine may be an effective agent for the treatment of breakthrough CINV. Refractory CINV occurs when patients develop CINV during subsequent cycles of chemotherapy when antiemetic prophylaxis has not been successful in controlling CINV in earlier cycles. Patients who develop refractory CINV should be considered for a change in their prophylactic antiemetic regimen. If significant anxiety exists, a benzodiazepine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If a refractory patient is receiving HEC, olanzapine may be added to the prophylactic regimen. If the patient is receiving MEC, olanzapine or an NK-1 receptor antagonist may be added to the prophylactic regimen. Rudolph M. Navari Copyright © 2015 Rudolph M. Navari. All rights reserved. Microwave Assisted Hydrolysis of Holocellulose Catalyzed with Sulfonated Char Derived from Lignin-Rich Residue Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:47:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/106137/ A microwave assisted green process has been developed for production of sugars through liquefying holocellulose catalyzed with sulfonated char derived from the lignin-rich residue produced during pretreatment of lignocellulose. Various reaction parameters including the hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, catalyst content, and the ratio of water to feedstock were evaluated. The maximum sugars yield of 82.6% (based on the dry mass of holocellulose) was obtained under the optimum reaction conditions. The sulfonated char showed superior catalytic performance to that of dilute sulfuric acid in converting holocellulose into sugars under microwave irradiation. Kui Wang, Xinfeng Xie, Zhan Si, Jianchun Jiang, and Jingxin Wang Copyright © 2015 Kui Wang et al. All rights reserved. Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis due to Cholestyramine: A Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:36:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2015/309791/ Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that has been used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia, pruritus due to elevated bile acid levels, and diarrhea due to bile acid malabsorption. This medication can rarely cause hyperchloremic nonanion gap metabolic acidosis, a complication featured in this report of an adult male with concomitant acute kidney injury. This case emphasizes the caution that must be taken in prescribing cholestyramine to patients who may also be volume depleted, in renal failure, or taking spironolactone. Fareed B. Kamar and Rory F. McQuillan Copyright © 2015 Fareed B. Kamar and Rory F. McQuillan. All rights reserved. Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydial Infection in the Era of Genomics Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:35:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/791847/ Trachoma is a blinding disease usually caused by infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) serovars A, B, and C in the upper tarsal conjunctiva. Individuals in endemic regions are repeatedly infected with Ct throughout childhood. A proportion of individuals experience prolonged or severe inflammatory episodes that are known to be significant risk factors for ocular scarring in later life. Continued scarring often leads to trichiasis and in-turning of the eyelashes, which causes pain and can eventually cause blindness. The mechanisms driving the chronic immunopathology in the conjunctiva, which largely progresses in the absence of detectable Ct infection in adults, are likely to be multifactorial. Socioeconomic status, education, and behavior have been identified as contributing to the risk of scarring and inflammation. We focus on the contribution of host and pathogen genetic variation, bacterial ecology of the conjunctiva, and host epigenetic imprinting including small RNA regulation by both host and pathogen in the development of ocular pathology. Each of these factors or processes contributes to pathogenic outcomes in other inflammatory diseases and we outline their potential role in trachoma. Tamsyn Derrick, Chrissy h. Roberts, Anna R. Last, Sarah E. Burr, and Martin J. Holland Copyright © 2015 Tamsyn Derrick et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Self-Assembled Monolayers with Different Chemical Groups on Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Behavior In Vitro Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:34:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/784626/ In addition to serving as a physical support, the extracellular matrix (ECM) actively influences cell behavior. However, the definitive effects of different chemical structures present in the ECM on cell behavior remain obscure. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different chemical structures present in the ECM on cellular physiology using the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 as a model. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) with different chemical modifications, including methyl (-CH3), hydroxyl (-OH), amino (-NH2), carboxyl (-COOH), and mercapto (-SH) groups, were used as microenvironmental models to explore the effects of different structures on SKOV-3 cells. The cell morphology, cell adhesion, cytotoxicity, and functional alterations in cancer cells cultured on different SAMs were analyzed. The results showed that SKOV-3 cells cultured on -NH2 surfaces exhibited the largest contact area, whereas those on -CH3 surfaces exhibited the smallest contact area and mostly rounded morphologies. Additionally, -NH2 and -COOH promoted cell proliferation and adhesion, whereas CH3 inhibited adhesion, leading to G1 arrest during the cell cycle and resulting in cell apoptosis. This study may provide useful information for reconstruction of the ECM and for controlling cell behavior in related areas of study. Jie Li, Ting Guan, Chenjun Hao, Lihua Li, and Yu Zhang Copyright © 2015 Jie Li et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Modified MMT/Glass/Vinylester Multiscale Composites and Their Mechanical Properties Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:32:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/506029/ Montmorillonite (MMT) may become a preferred filler material for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites due to its high aspect ratio, large surface area, and low charge density. In the present paper, MMT/glass/vinylester multiscale composites are prepared with untreated and surface-treated MMT clay particles with an MMT content of 1.0 wt%. Effects of surface treatment on mechanical properties of MMT/glass/vinylester multiscale composites are investigated through tensile and bending tests, which revealed enhanced mechanical properties in the case of surface-treated MMT. Thermal properties are studied through thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). X-Ray diffraction is performed to investigate the interaction between MMT and the matrix. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) is also performed for both untreated and surface-treated MMT. Furthermore, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) is conducted to investigate the path of fracture propagation within the composite surface, showing that the surface-treated MMT based multiscale composite has better interactions with the host matrix than the untreated MMT multiscale composites. These composites with enhanced mechanical strength can be used for various mechanical applications. Garima Mittal, Vivek Dhand, Ji Il Ryu, Kyong Yop Rhee, Hyeon-Ju Kim, and Dong Ho Jung Copyright © 2015 Garima Mittal et al. All rights reserved. Complications of Macular Peeling Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:29:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/467814/ Macular peeling refers to the surgical technique for the removal of preretinal tissue or the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in the macula for several retinal disorders, ranging from epiretinal membranes (primary or secondary to diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment…) to full-thickness macular holes, macular edema, foveal retinoschisis, and others. The technique has evolved in the last two decades, and the different instrumentations and adjuncts have progressively advanced turning into a safer, easier, and more useful tool for the vitreoretinal surgeon. Here, we describe the main milestones of macular peeling, drawing attention to its associated complications. Mónica Asencio-Duran, Beatriz Manzano-Muñoz, José Luis Vallejo-García, and Jesús García-Martínez Copyright © 2015 Mónica Asencio-Duran et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Heating at Oven-Dry State on Steam Treated Bamboo Powder Thermal Fluidity Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:29:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/579659/ In hot molding processes of woody material, it is important to understand the effect of oven-dry heating on the property of woody biomass material, such as thermal fluidity. In this study, thermal flow tests of untreated and steam treated bamboo powder were conducted to investigate the effects of heating at an oven-dry state on thermal fluidity. The test temperature was set to 200°C. Before the thermal flow test, powder was dry-heated in a capillary rheometer at 200°C with a variable heating time. Thermogravimetry was conducted to understand the thermal changes of the powder during an increasing temperature and constant temperature. Fluidity of untreated powder was improved with a short dry-heating but decreased with a long dry-heating. In contrast, steam treated powder fluidity was high compared to untreated one, but its fluidity did not improve from dry-heating. From these thermogravimetry results, the chemical changes associated with component volatilization relate with the thermal fluidity. Therefore, the decrease in fluidity from dry-heating occurred because fluidity related components escape from the powder through volatilization. S. Kajikawa and T. Iizuka Copyright © 2015 S. Kajikawa and T. Iizuka. All rights reserved. Validated HPTLC Method for Quantification of Luteolin and Apigenin in Premna mucronata Roxb., Verbenaceae Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:26:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2015/682365/ A simple, rapid, and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method was developed for quantitative estimation of luteolin and apigenin in Premna mucronata Roxb., family Verbenaceae. Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates using toluene : ethyl acetate : formic acid (6 : 4 : 0.3) as mobile phase for elution of markers from extract. The determination was carried out in fluorescence mode using densitometric absorbance-reflection mode at 366 nm for both luteolin and apigenin. The methanolic extract of Premna mucronata was found to contain 10.2 mg/g % luteolin and 0.165 mg/g % of apigenin. The method was validated in terms of linearity, LOD and LOQ, accuracy, precision, and specificity. The calibration curve was found to be linear between 200 and 1000 ng/band for luteolin and 50 and 250 ng/band for apigenin. For luteolin and apigenin, the limit of detection was found to be 42.6 ng/band and 7.97 ng/band while the limit of quantitation was found to be 129.08 ng/band and 24.155 ng/band, respectively. This developed validated method is capable of quantifying and resolving luteolin and apigenin and can be applicable for routine analysis of extract and plant as a whole. Nayan G. Patel, Kalpana G. Patel, Kirti V. Patel, and Tejal R. Gandhi Copyright © 2015 Nayan G. Patel et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Transcription Factor Regulation by Integrating Gene Expression and DNase I Hypersensitive Sites Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:24:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/757530/ Transcription factors are proteins that bind to DNA sequences to regulate gene transcription. The transcription factor binding sites are short DNA sequences (5–20 bp long) specifically bound by one or more transcription factors. The identification of transcription factor binding sites and prediction of their function continue to be challenging problems in computational biology. In this study, by integrating the DNase I hypersensitive sites with known position weight matrices in the TRANSFAC database, the transcription factor binding sites in gene regulatory region are identified. Based on the global gene expression patterns in cervical cancer HeLaS3 cell and HelaS3-ifnα4h cell (interferon treatment on HeLaS3 cell for 4 hours), we present a model-based computational approach to predict a set of transcription factors that potentially cause such differential gene expression. Significantly, 6 out 10 predicted functional factors, including IRF, IRF-2, IRF-9, IRF-1 and IRF-3, ICSBP, belong to interferon regulatory factor family and upregulate the gene expression levels responding to the interferon treatment. Another factor, ISGF-3, is also a transcriptional activator induced by interferon alpha. Using the different transcription factor binding sites selected criteria, the prediction result of our model is consistent. Our model demonstrated the potential to computationally identify the functional transcription factors in gene regulation. Guohua Wang, Fang Wang, Qian Huang, Yu Li, Yunlong Liu, and Yadong Wang Copyright © 2015 Guohua Wang et al. All rights reserved. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:23:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/979530/ Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland) using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ) at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp.) dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG) were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems. Malin Bomberg, Mari Nyyssönen, Petteri Pitkänen, Anne Lehtinen, and Merja Itävaara Copyright © 2015 Malin Bomberg et al. All rights reserved. Functional and Morphological Correlations before and after Video-Documented 23-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Membrane and ILM Peeling in Patients with Macular Pucker Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:23:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/297239/ Purpose. To assess functional and morphological alterations following video-documented surgery for epiretinal membranes. Methods. Forty-two patients underwent video-documented 23-gauge vitrectomy with peeling of epiretinal (ERM) and inner limiting membrane (ILM). Patient assessment was performed before and 3 and 6 months including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp biomicroscopy, SD-OCT, and central 2° and 18° microperimetry. In addition, all video-documented areas of peeling on the retinal surface were evaluated postoperatively using an additional focal 2° microperimetry. Retinal sensitivity and BCVA were correlated with morphological changes (EZ and ELM) in the foveal region and in regions of membrane peeling. Results. Overall, BCVA increased from 0.6 (±0.2) to 0.2 (±0.2) logMAR after 6 months with an increase in retinal sensitivity (17.9 ± 2.7 dB to 26.8 ± 3.1 dB, ). We observed a significant correlation between the integrity of the EZ but not of the ELM and the retinal sensitivity, overall and in peeling areas (). However, no significant correlation between alterations in the area of peeling and overall retinal sensitivity regarding visual acuity gain could be observed after 6 months (). In contrast, overall postoperative retinal sensitivity was significantly decreased in patients with a visual acuity gain lower than 2 lines () correlating with EZ defects seen in OCT. Conclusions. Mechanical trauma of epiretinal membrane and ILM peeling due to the use of intraocular forceps may affect the outer retinal structure. Nevertheless, these changes seem to have no significant impact on postoperative functional outcome. Wolfgang J. Mayer, Clara Fazekas, Ricarda Schumann, Armin Wolf, Denise Compera, Anselm Kampik, and Christos Haritoglou Copyright © 2015 Wolfgang J. Mayer et al. All rights reserved. 454-Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Communities from Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Bioreactors Utilizing Universal Primers: Effect of Annealing Temperature Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:22:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/892013/ Identification of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria by molecular tools aimed at the evaluation of bacterial diversity in autotrophic nitrogen removal systems is limited by the difficulty to design universal primers for the Bacteria domain able to amplify the anammox 16S rRNA genes. A metagenomic analysis (pyrosequencing) of total bacterial diversity including anammox population in five autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies, two bench-scale models (MBR and Low Temperature CANON) and three full-scale bioreactors (anammox, CANON, and DEMON), was successfully carried out by optimization of primer selection and PCR conditions (annealing temperature). The universal primer 530F was identified as the best candidate for total bacteria and anammox bacteria diversity coverage. Salt-adjusted optimum annealing temperature of primer 530F was calculated (47°C) and hence a range of annealing temperatures of 44–49°C was tested. Pyrosequencing data showed that annealing temperature of 45°C yielded the best results in terms of species richness and diversity for all bioreactors analyzed. Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro Rodriguez-Sanchez, Belén Rodelas, Ben A. Abbas, Maria Victoria Martinez-Toledo, Mark C. M. van Loosdrecht, F. Osorio, and Jesus Gonzalez-Lopez Copyright © 2015 Alejandro Gonzalez-Martinez et al. All rights reserved. mmnet: An R Package for Metagenomics Systems Biology Analysis Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:22:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/167249/ The human microbiome plays important roles in human health and disease. Previous microbiome studies focused mainly on single pure species function and overlooked the interactions in the complex communities on system-level. A metagenomic approach introduced recently integrates metagenomic data with community-level metabolic network modeling, but no comprehensive tool was available for such kind of approaches. To facilitate these kinds of studies, we developed an R package, mmnet, to implement community-level metabolic network reconstruction. The package also implements a set of functions for automatic analysis pipeline construction including functional annotation of metagenomic reads, abundance estimation of enzymatic genes, community-level metabolic network reconstruction, and integrated network analysis. The result can be represented in an intuitive way and sent to Cytoscape for further exploration. The package has substantial potentials in metagenomic studies that focus on identifying system-level variations of human microbiome associated with disease. Yang Cao, Xiaofei Zheng, Fei Li, and Xiaochen Bo Copyright © 2015 Yang Cao et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Interactions Explain Variance in Cingulate Amyloid Burden: An AV-45 PET Genome-Wide Association and Interaction Study in the ADNI Cohort Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:20:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/647389/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Using discrete disease status as the phenotype and computing statistics at the single marker level may not be able to address the underlying biological interactions that contribute to disease mechanism and may contribute to the issue of “missing heritability.” We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a genome-wide interaction study (GWIS) of an amyloid imaging phenotype, using the data from Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We investigated the genetic main effects and interaction effects on cingulate amyloid-beta (A) load in an effort to better understand the genetic etiology of A deposition that is a widely studied AD biomarker. PLINK was used in the single marker GWAS, and INTERSNP was used to perform the two-marker GWIS, focusing only on SNPs with for the GWAS analysis. Age, sex, and diagnosis were used as covariates in both analyses. Corrected p values using the Bonferroni method were reported. The GWAS analysis revealed significant hits within or proximal to APOE, APOC1, and TOMM40 genes, which were previously implicated in AD. The GWIS analysis yielded 8 novel SNP-SNP interaction findings that warrant replication and further investigation. Jin Li, Qiushi Zhang, Feng Chen, Jingwen Yan, Sungeun Kim, Lei Wang, Weixing Feng, Andrew J. Saykin, Hong Liang, and Li Shen Copyright © 2015 Jin Li et al. All rights reserved. Current Trends about Inner Limiting Membrane Peeling in Surgery for Epiretinal Membranes Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:20:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/671905/ The inner limiting membrane (ILM) is the basement membrane of the Müller cells and can act as a scaffold for cellular proliferation in the pathophysiology of disorders affecting the vitreomacular interface. The atraumatic removal of the macular ILM has been proposed for treating various forms of tractional maculopathy in particular for macular pucker. In the last decade, the removal of ILM has become a routine practice in the surgery of the epiretinal membranes (ERMs), with good anatomical results. However many recent studies showed that ILM peeling is a procedure that can cause immediate traumatic effects and progressive modification on the underlying inner retinal layers. Moreover, it is unclear whether ILM peeling is helpful to improve vision after surgery for ERM. In this review, we describe the current understanding about ILM peeling and highlight the beneficial and adverse effects associated with this surgical procedure. Francesco Semeraro, Francesco Morescalchi, Sarah Duse, Elena Gambicorti, Andrea Russo, and Ciro Costagliola Copyright © 2015 Francesco Semeraro et al. All rights reserved. Biological and Pharmacological Aspects of the NK1-Receptor Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:20:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/495704/ The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) is the main receptor for the tachykinin family of peptides. Substance P (SP) is the major mammalian ligand and the one with the highest affinity. SP is associated with multiple processes: hematopoiesis, wound healing, microvasculature permeability, neurogenic inflammation, leukocyte trafficking, and cell survival. It is also considered a mitogen, and it has been associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. Tachykinins and their receptors are widely expressed in various human systems such as the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, and immune system. Particularly, NK-1R is found in the nervous system and in peripheral tissues and are involved in cellular responses such as pain transmission, endocrine and paracrine secretion, vasodilation, and modulation of cell proliferation. It also acts as a neuromodulator contributing to brain homeostasis and to sensory neuronal transmission associated with depression, stress, anxiety, and emesis. NK-1R and SP are present in brain regions involved in the vomiting reflex (the nucleus tractus solitarius and the area postrema). This anatomical localization has led to the successful clinical development of antagonists against NK-1R in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The first of these antagonists, aprepitant (oral administration) and fosaprepitant (intravenous administration), are prescribed for high and moderate emesis. Susana Garcia-Recio and Pedro Gascón Copyright © 2015 Susana Garcia-Recio and Pedro Gascón. All rights reserved. How to Isolate a Plant’s Hypomethylome in One Shot Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:14:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/570568/ Genome assembly remains a challenge for large and/or complex plant genomes due to their abundant repetitive regions resulting in studies focusing on gene space instead of the whole genome. Thus, DNA enrichment strategies facilitate the assembly by increasing the coverage and simultaneously reducing the complexity of the whole genome. In this paper we provide an easy, fast, and cost-effective variant of MRE-seq to obtain a plant’s hypomethylome by an optimized methyl filtration protocol followed by next generation sequencing. The method is demonstrated on three plant species with knowingly large and/or complex (polyploid) genomes: Oryza sativa, Picea abies, and Crocus sativus. The identified hypomethylomes show clear enrichment for genes and their flanking regions and clear reduction of transposable elements. Additionally, genomic sequences around genes are captured including regulatory elements in introns and up- and downstream flanks. High similarity of the results obtained by a de novo assembly approach with a reference based mapping in rice supports the applicability for studying and understanding the genomes of nonmodel organisms. Hence we show the high potential of MRE-seq in a wide range of scenarios for the direct analysis of methylation differences, for example, between ecotypes, individuals, within or across species harbouring large, and complex genomes. Elisabeth Wischnitzki, Eva Maria Sehr, Karin Hansel-Hohl, Maria Berenyi, Kornel Burg, and Silvia Fluch Copyright © 2015 Elisabeth Wischnitzki et al. All rights reserved. Flocking Control of Multiple Mobile Agents with the Rules of Avoiding Collision Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:07:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/529538/ This paper investigates the flocking and the coordinative control problems of multiple mobile agents with the rules of avoiding collision. We propose a set of control laws using hysteresis in adding new links and applying new potential function to guarantee that the fragmentation of the network can be avoided, under which all agents approach a common velocity vector, and asymptotically converge to a fixed value of interagent distances and collisions between agents can be avoided throughout the motion. Furthermore, we extend the flocking algorithm to solve the flocking situation of the group with a virtual leader agent. The laws can make all agents asymptotically approach the virtual leader and collisions can be avoided between agents in the motion evolution. Finally, some numerical simulations are showed to illustrate the theoretical results. Hongtao Zhou, Wenfeng Zhou, and Wei Zeng Copyright © 2015 Hongtao Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Functional Outcomes: One Year after a Cardiac Arrest Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:05:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/283608/ Objective. The study aim was to characterize the time-course of recovery in impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions, disability, and quality of life during the first year after cardiac arrest. Secondarily, the study described the associations between the instruments used to measure each of these domains. Methods. Measures of global disability (Cerebral Performance Category, CPC, Modified Rankin Scale, mRS), quality of life, activity limitations, participation restrictions, and affective and cognitive impairments were administered to 29 participants 1, 6, and 12 months after cardiac arrest. Results. Global measures of disability indicated recovery between one month and one year after cardiac arrest (mean CPC: 2.1 versus 1.69,  ; mean mRS: 2.55 versus 1.83, ). While global measures of disability were moderately associated with participation, they were poorly associated with other measures. The cohort endorsed depressive symptomatology throughout the year but did not have detectable cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Recovery from cardiac arrest is multifaceted and recovery continues for months depending upon the measures being used. Measures of global disability, reintegration into the community, and quality of life yield different information. Future clinical trials should include a combination of measures to yield the most complete representation of recovery after cardiac arrest. Ketki D. Raina, Jon C. Rittenberger, Margo B. Holm, and Clifton W. Callaway Copyright © 2015 Ketki D. Raina et al. All rights reserved. Correlative Microscopy of Lamellar Hole-Associated Epiretinal Proliferation Thu, 03 Sep 2015 09:04:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/450212/ Purpose. To describe morphology of lamellar hole-associated epiretinal proliferation (LHEP) removed from eyes with lamellar macular holes (LMH). Methods. Based on optical coherence tomography data, 10 specimens of LHEP were removed from 10 eyes with LMH during standard vitrectomy. Specimens were prepared for correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) using an immunonanogold particle of 1.4 nm diameter that was combined with a fluorescein moiety, both having been attached to a single antibody fragment. As primary antibodies, we used antiglial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), anti-CD45, anti-CD64, anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and anticollagen type I and type II. Results. In LHEP, GFAP-positive cells possess ultrastructural characteristics of fibroblasts and hyalocytes. They represent the major cell types and were densely packed in cell agglomerations on vitreous collagen strands. Epiretinal cells of LHEP rarely demonstrated contractive properties as α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts were an infrequent finding. Conclusion. CLEM indicates that epiretinal cells in LHEP might originate from the vitreous and that remodelling processes of vitreous collagen may play an important role in pathogenesis of eyes with LMH. Denise Compera, Enrico Entchev, Christos Haritoglou, Wolfgang J. Mayer, Felix Hagenau, Jean Ziada, Anselm Kampik, and Ricarda G. Schumann Copyright © 2015 Denise Compera et al. All rights reserved. A Derivative-Free Conjugate Gradient Method and Its Global Convergence for Solving Symmetric Nonlinear Equations Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:56:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2015/961487/ We suggest a conjugate gradient (CG) method for solving symmetric systems of nonlinear equations without computing Jacobian and gradient via the special structure of the underlying function. This derivative-free feature of the proposed method gives it advantage to solve relatively large-scale problems (500,000 variables) with lower storage requirement compared to some existing methods. Under appropriate conditions, the global convergence of our method is reported. Numerical results on some benchmark test problems show that the proposed method is practically effective. Mohammed Yusuf Waziri and Jamilu Sabi’u Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Yusuf Waziri and Jamilu Sabi’u. All rights reserved. Effects of Screen Size on Biochemical Conversion of Big Bluestem Biomass for Biofuel Production Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:52:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/947350/ Biomass size reduction is the first step for biofuel production from cellulosic biomass through biochemical pathway, and it is usually performed on a mill with screen installed to control the size of the produced particles. The absence of in-depth knowledge about the effects of screen size throughout the biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass makes it difficult to choose the screen size to conduct biomass size reduction to minimize the energy consumption on mills, maximize the cellulose recovery rate after pretreatment, and maximize the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. The objective of this work is to address this issue by generating new knowledge on the effects of screen size in these three processes: size reduction, pretreatment, and enzymatic hydrolysis in conversion of big bluestem biomass for biofuel production. Four screen sizes used in this study were 1, 2, 4, and 8 mm. It was found that using a larger screen size saved energy in biomass size reduction on a knife mill. Moreover, particles produced with larger screen sizes achieved higher cellulose recovery rate after pretreatment, higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency, and higher total sugar yield. Xiaoxu Song, Meng Zhang, Ke Zhang, Z. J. Pei, and Donghai Wang Copyright © 2015 Xiaoxu Song et al. All rights reserved. Retinal Damage Induced by Internal Limiting Membrane Removal Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:50:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/939748/ The internal limiting membrane (ILM), the basement membrane of the Müller cells, serves as the interface between the vitreous body and the retinal nerve fiber layer. It has a fundamental role in the development, structure, and function of the retina, although it also is a pathologic component in the various vitreoretinal disorders, most notably in macular holes. It was not until understanding of the evolution of idiopathic macular holes and the advent of idiopathic macular hole surgery that the idea of adjuvant ILM peeling in the treatment of tractional maculopathies was explored. Today intentional ILM peeling is a commonly applied surgical technique among vitreoretinal surgeons as it has been found to increase the rate of successful macular hole closure and improve surgical outcomes in other vitreoretinal diseases. Though ILM peeling has refined surgery for tractional maculopathies, like all surgical procedures it is not immune to perioperative risk. The essential role of the ILM to the integrity of the retina and risk of trauma to retinal tissue spurs suspicion with regard to its routine removal. Several authors have investigated the retinal damage induced by ILM peeling and these complications have been manifested across many different diagnostic studies. Rachel Gelman, William Stevenson, Claudia Prospero Ponce, Daniel Agarwal, and John Byron Christoforidis Copyright © 2015 Rachel Gelman et al. All rights reserved. Retinal Changes Induced by Epiretinal Tangential Forces Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:50:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/372564/ Two kinds of forces are active in vitreoretinal traction diseases: tangential and anterior-posterior forces. However, tangential forces are less characterized and classified in literature compared to the anterior-posterior ones. Tangential epiretinal forces are mainly due to anomalous posterior vitreous detachment (PVD), vitreoschisis, vitreopapillary adhesion (VPA), and epiretinal membranes (ERMs). Anomalous PVD plays a key role in the formation of the tangential vectorial forces on the retinal surface as consequence of gel liquefaction (synchysis) without sufficient and fast vitreous dehiscence at the vitreoretinal interface. The anomalous and persistent adherence of the posterior hyaloid to the retina can lead to vitreomacular/vitreopapillary adhesion or to a formation of avascular fibrocellular tissue (ERM) resulting from the proliferation and transdifferentiation of hyalocytes resident in the cortical vitreous remnants after vitreoschisis. The right interpretation of the forces involved in the epiretinal tangential tractions helps in a better definition of diagnosis, progression, prognosis, and surgical outcomes of vitreomacular interfaces. Mario R. Romano, Chiara Comune, Mariantonia Ferrara, Gilda Cennamo, Stefano De Cillà, Lisa Toto, and Giovanni Cennamo Copyright © 2015 Mario R. Romano et al. All rights reserved. Cytotoxicity and Biological Efficacy of Exendin-4-Encapsulated Solid Lipid Nanoparticles in INS-1 Cells Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:44:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/753569/ Exendin-4 (Ex-4), a peptide of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, is a potent insulinotropic agent and alternative drug delivery systems to increase therapeutic utility have been explored. We developed exendin-4-encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (Eudragit Ex-4 SLNs) and compared the effects of Eudragit Ex-4 SLNs with those of native Ex-4 on INS-1 cells. We observed no significant toxic effects of nanoparticles at concentrations from 1 nM to 100 nM. Similar to Ex-4, Eudragit Ex-4 SLNs stimulated the production of cyclic AMP at 10 nM. Moreover, unlike treatment with the vehicle, treatment with 10 nM Eudragit Ex-4 SLNs increased insulin mRNA levels and insulin secretion. These insulinotropic effects of Eudragit Ex-4 SLNs were comparable to those of Ex-4. Thus, our in vitro results suggest that the biological effects of Eudragit Ex-4 SLNs are similar to those of Ex-4, and further in vivo pharmacokinetic studies are required to propose an alternative sustained release drug system. Hee-Sook Jun, Gongdeuk Bae, Young Tag Ko, and Yoon Sin Oh Copyright © 2015 Hee-Sook Jun et al. All rights reserved. Mechanics and Geometry of Solids and Surfaces Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:43:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/382083/ J. D. Clayton, M. A. Grinfeld, T. Hasebe, and J. R. Mayeur Copyright © 2015 J. D. Clayton et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocrystalline Ni50Al50−xMox (x = 0–5) Intermetallic Compound during Mechanical Alloying Process Thu, 03 Sep 2015 08:32:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnp/2015/651852/ Nanocrystalline (, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5) intermetallic compound was produced through mechanical alloying of nickel, aluminum, and molybdenum powders. Powders produced from milling were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Results showed that, with increasing the atomic percent of molybdenum, average grain size decreased from 3 to 0.5 μm. Parameter lattice and lattice strain increased with increasing the atomic percent of molybdenum, while the crystal structure became finer up to 10 nm. Also, maximum microhardness was obtained for NiAl49Mo1 alloy. A. Khajesarvi and G. H. Akbari Copyright © 2015 A. Khajesarvi and G. H. Akbari. All rights reserved. Influence of Individual Surgeon Volume on Oncological Outcome of Colorectal Cancer Surgery Thu, 03 Sep 2015 07:59:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijso/2015/464570/ Background. Surgery performed by a high-volume surgeon improves short-term outcomes. However, not much is known about long-term effects. Therefore we performed the current study to evaluate the impact of high-volume colorectal surgeons on survival. Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of our prospectively collected colorectal cancer database between 2004 and 2011. Patients were divided into two groups: operated on by a high-volume surgeon (>25 cases/year) or by a low-volume surgeon (<25 cases/year). Perioperative data were collected as well as follow-up, recurrence rates, and survival data. Results. 774 patients underwent resection for colorectal malignancies. Thirteen low-volume surgeons operated on 453 patients and 4 high-volume surgeons operated on 321 patients. Groups showed an equal distribution for preoperative characteristics, except a higher ASA-classification in the low-volume group. A high-volume surgeon proved to be an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival in the multivariate analysis . Although overall survival did show a significant difference in the univariate analysis it failed to reach statistical significance in the multivariate analysis . Conclusions. In our study, a higher number of colorectal cases performed per surgeon were associated with longer disease-free survival. Implementing high-volume surgery results in improved long-term outcome following colorectal cancer. Marleen Buurma, Hidde M. Kroon, Marlies S. Reimers, and Peter A. Neijenhuis Copyright © 2015 Marleen Buurma et al. All rights reserved. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Motor Exhaust and Lung Cancer: A Dose-Response Relationship Hidden by Asbestos Exposure Adjustment? The ICARE Study Thu, 03 Sep 2015 07:18:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jce/2015/879302/ Background. In a French large population-based case-control study we investigated the dose-response relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to diesel motor exhaust (DME), taking into account asbestos exposure. Methods. Exposure to DME was assessed by questionnaire. Asbestos was taken into account through a global indicator of exposure to occupational carcinogens or by a specific JEM. Results. We found a crude dose response relationship with most of the indicators of DME exposure, including with the cumulative exposure index. All results were affected by adjustment for asbestos exposure. The dose response relationships between DME and lung cancer were observed among subjects never exposed to asbestos. Conclusions. Exposure to DME and to asbestos is frequently found among the same subjects, which may explain why dose-response relationships in previous studies that adjusted for asbestos exposure were inconsistent. Mireille Matrat, Florence Guida, Sylvie Cénée, Joelle Févotte, Matthieu Carton, Diane Cyr, Gwenn Menvielle, Sophie Paget-Bailly, Loredana Radoï, Annie Schmaus, Simona Bara, Michel Velten, Danièle Luce, Isabelle Stücker, and The Icare Study Group Copyright © 2015 Mireille Matrat et al. All rights reserved. Naegele Forceps Delivery and Association between Morbidity and the Number of Forceps Traction Applications: A Retrospective Study Thu, 03 Sep 2015 07:01:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jp/2015/483195/ Objective. To present the method of Naegele forceps delivery clinically practiced by the lead author, its success rate, and morbidity and to evaluate the relationship between morbidity and the number of forceps traction applications. Methods. Naegele forceps delivery was performed when the fetal head reached station +2 cm, the forceps were applied in the maternal pelvic application, and traction was slowly and gently performed. In the past two years, Naegele forceps delivery was attempted by the lead author in 87 cases, which were retrospectively reviewed. Results. The numbers of traction applications were one in 64.7% of cases, two in 24.7%, and three or more in 10.7%. The success rate was 100%. No severe morbidity was observed in mothers or neonates. Neonatal facial injury occurred most commonly in cases with fetal head malrotation, elevated numbers of traction applications, and maternal complications. Umbilical artery acidemia most commonly occurred in cases with nonreassuring fetal status. The significant crude odds ratio for three or more traction applications was 20 in cases with malrotation. Conclusion. Naegele forceps delivery has a high success rate, but multiple traction applications will sometimes be required, particularly in cases with malrotation. Malrotation and elevated numbers of traction applications may lead to neonatal head damage. Naoki Matsumoto, Toshifumi Takenaka, Nobuyuki Ikeda, Satoshi Yazaki, and Yuichi Sato Copyright © 2015 Naoki Matsumoto et al. All rights reserved. A Nonpolynomial Optimal Algorithm for Sequencing Inspectors in a Repeat Inspection System with Rework Thu, 03 Sep 2015 07:00:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/601029/ Assuming that two types of inspection errors are nonidentical and that only the items rejected by an inspector are reworked and sent to the next inspection cycle, we formulate a combinatorial optimization problem for simultaneously determining both the minimum frequency of inspection-rework cycles and the optimal sequence of inspectors selected from a set of available inspectors, in order to meet the constraints of the outgoing quality level. Based on the inherent properties from our mathematical model, we provide a nonpolynomial optimal algorithm with a time complexity of . Moon Hee Yang and Jae Hyung Cho Copyright © 2015 Moon Hee Yang and Jae Hyung Cho. All rights reserved. Growth Pattern of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in Patients with Delayed Surgical Intervention: Fast Growth Rate Correlates with High Grade and May Result in Poor Prognosis Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:59:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/598134/ Objectives. Previous studies revealed an unclear correlation between the growth rate of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and tumor grade and did not focus on certain histological subtype. This report investigated the correlation between the growth rate and tumor grade in clear cell RCC (ccRCC). Methods. We reviewed 60 patients with 61 ccRCC confirmed by delayed surgeries after at least 12 months of active surveillance. The linear growth rate (LGR), volumetric growth rate (VGR), and volume doubling time (VDT) were calculated, and their correlations with clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Results. The mean LGR, VGR, and VDT were 0.86 (range 0–4.74) cm/year, 20.96 (range 0.31–211.93) cm3/year, and 667 (range 33–3321) days, respectively. ccRCCs with high grade had greater LGR () and VGR () and lower VDT () than ccRCCs with low grade. Grade (OR = 5.185, ) was the only independent risk factor of LGR >0.5 cm/year, and grade (OR = 3.006, ) and initial size (OR = 0.392, ) were independent risk factors of VDT <1 year. Five patients developed metastasis after surgery with LGR >0.5 cm/yr altogether; of them, four had cancer-related death by the last follow-up. Conclusions. Fast growth rate of ccRCC is significantly correlated with high tumor grade and may result in poor prognosis, especially for those with LGR >0.5 cm/yr. Lei Zhang, Wenshi Yin, Lin Yao, Xuesong Li, Dong Fang, Da Ren, Zhongyuan Zhang, Yu Fan, Qun He, Weimin Ci, Zhisong He, and Liqun Zhou Copyright © 2015 Lei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship of the Facial Nerve to the Condylar Process: A Cadaveric Study with Implications for Open Reduction Internal Fixation Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:57:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2015/715126/ Introduction. The mandibular condyle is the most common site of mandibular fracture. Surgical treatment of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) demands direct visualization of the fracture. This project aimed to investigate the anatomic relationship of the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Materials and Methods. Twelve fresh hemicadavers heads were used. An extended retromandibular/preauricular approach was utilized, with the incision being based parallel to the posterior edge of the ramus. Measurements were obtained from the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Results. The temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve was encountered during each approach, crossing the mandible at the condylar neck. The mean tissue depth separating the facial nerve from the condylar neck was 5.5 mm (range: 3.5 mm–7 mm, SD 1.2 mm). The upper division of the facial nerve crossed the posterior border of the condylar process on average 2.31 cm (SD 0.10 cm) anterior to the tragus. Conclusions. This study suggests that the temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve will be encountered in most approaches to the condylar process. As visualization of the relationship of the facial nerve to condyle is often limited, recognition that, on average, 5.5 mm of tissue separates condylar process from nerve should help reduce the incidence of facial nerve injury during this procedure. H. P. Barham, P. Collister, V. D. Eusterman, and A. M. Terella Copyright © 2015 H. P. Barham et al. All rights reserved. Evolution of Lignocellulosic Macrocomponents in the Wastewater Streams of a Sulfite Pulp Mill: A Preliminary Biorefining Approach Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:57:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/102534/ The evolution of lignin, five- and six-carbon sugars, and other decomposition products derived from hemicelluloses and cellulose was monitored in a sulfite pulp mill. The wastewater streams were characterized and the mass balances throughout digestion and total chlorine free bleaching stages were determined. Summative analysis in conjunction with pulp parameters highlights some process guidelines and valorization alternatives towards the transformation of the traditional factory into a lignocellulosic biorefinery. The results showed a good separation of cellulose (99.64%) during wood digestion, with 87.23% of hemicellulose and 98.47% lignin dissolved into the waste streams. The following steps should be carried out to increase the sugar content into the waste streams: (i) optimization of the digestion conditions increasing hemicellulose depolymerization; (ii) improvement of the ozonation and peroxide bleaching stages, avoiding deconstruction of the cellulose chains but maintaining impurity removal; (iii) fractionation of the waste water streams, separating sugars from the rest of toxic inhibitors for 2nd generation biofuel production. A total of 0.173 L of second-generation ethanol can be obtained in the spent liquor per gram of dry wood. The proposed methodology can be usefully incorporated into other related industrial sectors. Tamara Llano, Noelia García-Quevedo, Natalia Quijorna, Javier R. Viguri, and Alberto Coz Copyright © 2015 Tamara Llano et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Outcomes and Risk Factors for Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma and Venous Tumor Thrombus after Radical Nephrectomy and Thrombectomy: The Prognostic Significance of Venous Tumor Thrombus Level Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:47:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/163423/ Introduction. To evaluate the prognostic outcomes and risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with venous tumor thrombus in China. Materials and Methods. We reviewed the clinical information of 169 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate the potential prognostic factors. Results. The median survival time was 63 months. The five-year overall survival and cancer-specific survival rate were 53.6% and 54.4% for all patients. For all patients, significant survival difference was only observed between early (below hepatic vein) and advanced (above hepatic vein) tumor thrombus. However, significant differences existed between both RV/IVC and early/advanced tumor thrombus groups in N0M0 patients. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher tumor thrombus level (, ), N (, ), and M (, ) stages and adrenal gland invasion (, ) were the most significant negative prognostic predictors. Conclusions. In this study, we reported most cases of RCC patients with venous extension in China. We proved that patients with RCC and venous tumor thrombus may have relative promising long-term survival rate, especially those with early tumor thrombus. Qi Tang, Yi Song, Xuesong Li, Maxwell Meng, Qian Zhang, Jin Wang, Zhisong He, and Liqun Zhou Copyright © 2015 Qi Tang et al. All rights reserved. Heterogeneity of Breast Cancer Associations with Common Genetic Variants in FGFR2 according to the Intrinsic Subtypes in Southern Han Chinese Women Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:46:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/626948/ GWAS have identified variation in the FGFR2 locus as risk factors for breast cancer. Validation studies, however, have shown inconsistent results by ethnics and pathological characteristics. To further explore this inconsistency and investigate the associations of FGFR2 variants with breast cancer according to intrinsic subtype (Luminal-A, Luminal-B, ER−&PR−&HER2+, and triple negative) among Southern Han Chinese women, we genotyped rs1078806, rs1219648, rs2420946, rs2981579, and rs2981582 polymorphisms in 609 patients and 882 controls. Significant associations with breast cancer risk were observed for rs2420946, rs2981579, and rs2981582 with OR (95% CI) per risk allele of 1.19 (1.03–1.39), 1.24 (1.07–1.43), and 1.17 (1.01–1.36), respectively. In subtype specific analysis, above three SNPs were significantly associated with increased Luminal-A risk in a dose-dependent manner ; however, only rs2981579 was associated with Luminal-B, and none were linked to ER−&PR− subtypes (ER−&PR−&HER2+ and triple negative). Haplotype analyses also identified common haplotypes significantly associated with luminal-like subtypes (Luminal-A and Luminal-B), but not with ER−&PR− subtypes. Our results suggest that associations of FGFR2 SNPs with breast cancer were heterogeneous according to intrinsic subtype. Future studies stratifying patients by their intrinsic subtypes will provide new insights into the complex genetic mechanisms underlying breast cancer. Huiying Liang, Xuexi Yang, Lujia Chen, Hong Li, Anna Zhu, Minying Sun, Haitao Wang, and Ming Li Copyright © 2015 Huiying Liang et al. All rights reserved. Initial Experience of Sorafenib Neoadjuvant Therapy Combined with Retroperitoneoscopy in Treating T2 Large Renal Carcinoma Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:45:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/609549/ Objectives. To investigate the safety and feasibility of sorafenib neoadjuvant therapy combined with retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy (RRN) in treating T2 large renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods. Retrospectively analyzed 5 cases (2 males and 3 females, aged 52–73 years) of T2 stage large RCC who receive preoperative sorafenib targeted treatment (400 mg bid for 1–3 months) and RRN between March, 2013, and July, 2014. Patient information, therapeutic regimen, drug adverse effect, tumor changes before and after surgery, and perioperative parameters were recorded. Results. During the sorafenib therapy adverse effects included 2 cases of hypertension (Grade I toxicity), 1 case of hand-foot syndrome (Grade I), and 1 case of diarrhea (Grade II), which were all tolerable for patients. CT scan and histopathological tests confirmed significant reduction in the longest dimension (LD) and medium density (MD) of the tumor after therapy as well as tumor hemorrhage, necrosis, and cystic degeneration. All 5 patients received RRN surgery successfully around 2 weeks after drug discontinuation with only 1 case of perioperative complication. Conclusions. Sorafenib neoadjuvant therapy could significantly reduce the size and aggressiveness of T2 large renal tumors, thus reducing the operative challenge and enabling patients who were previously disqualified for operation to receive surgical treatment. Chun-hua Lin, He-jia Yuan, Ke Wang, Ji-tao Wu, Qing-zuo Liu, Sheng-qiang Yu, Chang-ping Men, Zhen-li Gao, and Jiahui Wang Copyright © 2015 Chun-hua Lin et al. All rights reserved. The Roles of Hedgehog Signaling in Upper Lip Formation Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:37:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/901041/ Craniofacial development consists of a highly complex sequence of the orchestrated growth and fusion of facial processes. It is also known that craniofacial abnormalities can be detected in 1/3 of all patients with congenital diseases. Within the various craniofacial abnormalities, orofacial clefting is one of the most common phenotypic outcomes associated with retarded facial growth or fusion. Cleft lip is one of the representative and frequently encountered conditions in the spectrum of orofacial clefting. Despite various mechanisms or signaling pathways that have been proposed to be the cause of cleft lip, a detailed mechanism that bridges individual signaling pathways to the cleft lip is still elusive. Shh signaling is indispensable for normal embryonic development, and disruption can result in a wide spectrum of craniofacial disorders, including cleft lip. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the mechanisms of facial development and the etiology of cleft lip that are related to Shh signaling. Hiroshi Kurosaka Copyright © 2015 Hiroshi Kurosaka. All rights reserved. Audiomotor Integration in Minimally Conscious State: Proof of Concept! Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:36:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/391349/ Patients suffering from chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC) are characterized by profound unawareness and an impairment of large-scale cortical and subcortical connectivity. In this study, we applied an electrophysiological approach aimed at identifying the residual audiomotor connectivity patterns that are thought to be linked to awareness. We measured some markers of audiomotor integration (AMI) in 20 patients affected by DOC, before and after the application of a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation protocol (rTMS) delivered over the left primary motor area (M1), paired to a transauricular alternating current stimulation. Our protocol induced potentiating of the electrophysiological markers of AMI and M1 excitability, paired to a clinical improvement, in all of the patients with minimally conscious state (MCS) but in none of those suffering from unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS). Our protocol could be a promising approach to potentiate the functional connectivity within large-scale audiomotor networks, thus allowing clinicians to differentiate patients affected by MCS from UWS, besides the clinical assessment. Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Antonino Cannavò, Antonio Buda, Rocco Bruno, Carlo Salviera, Placido Bramanti, and Rocco Salvatore Calabrò Copyright © 2015 Antonino Naro et al. All rights reserved. Open and Closed Endotracheal Suctioning and Arterial Blood Gas Values: A Single-Blind Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:28:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ccrp/2015/470842/ Aim. This study was aimed at comparing the effects of the open and closed suctioning techniques on the arterial blood gas values in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Methods. In a clinical trial, we recruited 42 patients after open-heart surgery in an educational hospital. Each patient randomly underwent both open and closed suctioning. ABGs, PaO2, SaO2, PaCO2, were analyzed before and one, five, and fifteen minutes after each suctioning episode. Results. At first the pressure of oxygen in arterial blood increased; however, this increase in the open technique was greater than that of the closed system . The pressure of oxygen decreased five and fifteen minutes after both suctioning techniques . The trends of carbon dioxide variations after the open and closed techniques were upward and downward, respectively. Moreover, the decrease in the level of oxygen saturation five and fifteen minutes after the open suctioning was greater than that of the closed suctioning technique .  Conclusion. Arterial blood gas disturbances in the closed suctioning technique were less than those of the open technique. Therefore, to eliminate the unwanted effects of endotracheal suctioning on the arterial blood gases, the closed suctioning technique is recommended. Azam Faraji, Alireza Khatony, Gholamreza Moradi, Alireza Abdi, and Mansour Rezaei Copyright © 2015 Azam Faraji et al. All rights reserved. Low-Cost Biodegradation and Detoxification of Textile Azo Dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 by Providencia rettgeri Strain HSL1 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:22:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/894109/ Present study focuses on exploitation of agricultural waste wheat bran (WB) as growth medium for degradation of textile azo dye C.I. Reactive Blue 172 (RB 172) using a single bacterium P. rettgeri strain HSL1 (GenBank accession number JX853768.1). The bacterium was found to completely decolorize 50 mg L−1 of dye RB 172 within 20 h at 30 ± 0.2°C under microaerophilic incubation conditions. Additionally, significant reduction in COD (85%) and TOC (52%) contents of dye decolorized medium was observed which suggested its mineralization. Induction in the activities of azoreductase (159%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (88%) provided an evidence for reductive cleavage of dye RB 172. The HPLC, FTIR, and GC-MS analysis of decolorized products confirmed the degradation of dye into various metabolites. The proposed metabolic pathway for biodegradation of RB 172 has been elucidated which showed the formation of 2 intermediate metabolites, namely, 4-(ethenylsulfonyl) aniline and 1-amino-1-(4-aminophenyl) propan-2-one. The acute and phytotoxicity evaluation of degraded metabolites suggests that bacterial strain favors the detoxification of dye RB 172. Thus, WB could be utilized as a low-cost growth medium for the enrichment of bacteria and their further use for biodegradation of azo dyes and its derivatives containing wastes into nontoxic form. Harshad Lade, Sanjay Govindwar, and Diby Paul Copyright © 2015 Harshad Lade et al. All rights reserved. Minimized Cost Gateway Deployment in Cyber-Physical Systems Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:21:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/813656/ Wireless networks have been widely used in Cyber-Physical System (CPS) for data transmission. A CPS usually contains lots of sensors, and these sensors generate massive data. To make use of these data, we have to collect them through wireless communication. Sensors in a certain CPS do not always adopt same wireless technology, and these sensors formed heterogeneous wireless networks. Communication between different types of wireless networks can only be achieved by utilizing wireless gateways. In this paper, we address the problem of gateway placement for satisfying the bandwidth-requirement of each node by using minimum gateways. This problem can be formulated as a variant of Minimum Geometric Disk Cover problem which has been proved NP-complete. In order to solve our problem, one heuristic gateway placement algorithm and one grid-based heuristic algorithm are proposed. The result of simulation demonstrates that the heuristic algorithm can offer a good solution with big probability. Hao Wang, Jianzhong Li, and Hong Gao Copyright © 2015 Hao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring Pesticide Residues in Surface and Ground Water in Hungary: Surveys in 1990–2015 Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:18:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/717948/ Over 2000 surface, ground and raw drinking water samples have been analyzed in the frame of different monitoring projects in Hungary and watercourses in neighboring countries between 1990 and 2015. Effects of pesticide contamination on ecological farming and drinking water supply have been assessed. Main water pollutant ingredients of agricultural origin in Hungary are herbicides related to maize production. After EU pesticide re-registration, diazinon, atrazine, and trifluralin gradually disappeared as contaminants. High levels of water soluble pollutants (e.g., acetochlor) in surface water result in temporarily enhanced levels in raw drinking water as well. Extreme levels observed for herbicide residues were of agrochemical industrial origin. András Székács, Mária Mörtl, and Béla Darvas Copyright © 2015 András Székács et al. All rights reserved. Extraction of Water Treatment Coagulant from Locally Abundant Kaolin Clays Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:10:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/705837/ Rapid industrialisation is contributing to water pollution. There is a need to identify cheaper and efficient methods of removing contaminants as the demand for clean water rises. A study is carried out to investigate the extraction of alum from locally abundant kaolin clays using sulphuric acid. Alum is a coagulant that is used for raw water treatment. The kaolin clay and alum were characterized by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The effects of particle size, calcination temperature, calcination time, acid-kaolin clay ratio, acid concentration, leaching temperature, and leaching time on extraction efficiency were investigated. The optimum leaching conditions for the calcined kaolin clay were found to be particle size 100 µm, acid-kaolin clay weight ratio 6 : 1, acid concentration 4 M, leaching temperature 100°C, and leaching time 90 min. Under optimised conditions, 66.95% (w/w) aluminum sulphate was extracted. The results showed that sulphuric acid could be used on a large scale to extract alum from kaolin clay. The extracted alum showed similar structural and physical characteristics compared with commercial alum. A dosage of 40 mg/L of the extracted alum showed effective coagulant properties with a great potential of treating raw water. Fidelis Chigondo, Benias Chomunorwa Nyamunda, and Vuyo Bhebhe Copyright © 2015 Fidelis Chigondo et al. All rights reserved. Monte Carlo Alpha Iteration Algorithm for a Subcritical System Analysis Thu, 03 Sep 2015 06:10:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2015/859242/ The α-k iteration method which searches the fundamental mode alpha-eigenvalue via iterative updates of the fission source distribution has been successfully used for the Monte Carlo (MC) alpha-static calculations of supercritical systems. However, the α-k iteration method for the deep subcritical system analysis suffers from a gigantic number of neutron generations or a huge neutron weight, which leads to an abnormal termination of the MC calculations. In order to stably estimate the prompt neutron decay constant (α) of prompt subcritical systems regardless of subcriticality, we propose a new MC alpha-static calculation method named as the α iteration algorithm. The new method is derived by directly applying the power method for the α-mode eigenvalue equation and its calculation stability is achieved by controlling the number of time source neutrons which are generated in proportion to α divided by neutron speed in MC neutron transport simulations. The effectiveness of the α iteration algorithm is demonstrated for two-group homogeneous problems with varying the subcriticality by comparisons with analytic solutions. The applicability of the proposed method is evaluated for an experimental benchmark of the thorium-loaded accelerator-driven system. Hyung Jin Shim, Sang Hoon Jang, and Soo Min Kang Copyright © 2015 Hyung Jin Shim et al. All rights reserved. POD-1/TCF21 Reduces SHP Expression, Affecting LRH-1 Regulation and Cell Cycle Balance in Adrenocortical and Hepatocarcinoma Tumor Cells Wed, 02 Sep 2015 14:25:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/841784/ POD-1/TCF21 may play a crucial role in adrenal and gonadal homeostasis and represses Sf-1/SF-1 expression in adrenocortical tumor cells. SF-1 and LRH-1 are members of the Fzt-F1 subfamily of nuclear receptors. LRH-1 is involved in several biological processes, and both LRH-1 and its repressor SHP are involved in many types of cancer. In order to assess whether POD-1 can regulate LRH-1 via the same mechanism that regulates SF-1, we analyzed the endogenous mRNA levels of POD-1, SHP, and LRH-1 in hepatocarcinoma and adrenocortical tumor cells using qRT-PCR. Hereafter, these tumor cells were transiently transfected with pCMVMycPod-1, and the effect of POD-1 overexpression on E-box elements in the LRH-1 and SHP promoter region were analyzed by ChIP assay. Also, Cyclin E1 protein expression was analyzed to detect cell cycle progression. We found that POD-1 overexpression significantly decreased SHP/SHP mRNA and protein levels through POD-1 binding to the E-box sequence in the SHP promoter. Decreased SHP expression affected LRH-1 regulation and increased Cyclin E1. These findings show that POD-1/TCF21 regulates SF-1 and LRH-1 by distinct mechanisms, contributing to the understanding of POD-1 involvement and its mechanisms of action in adrenal and liver tumorigenesis, which could lead to the discovery of relevant biomarkers. Monica Malheiros França, Bruno Ferraz-de-Souza, Antonio Marcondes Lerario, Maria Candida Barisson Villares Fragoso, and Claudimara Ferini Pacicco Lotfi Copyright © 2015 Monica Malheiros França et al. All rights reserved. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network Wed, 02 Sep 2015 14:20:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/129598/ An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis. Liping Feng, Lipeng Song, Qingshan Zhao, and Hongbin Wang Copyright © 2015 Liping Feng et al. All rights reserved. Isolated Right Ventricular Myocarditis: Rarely Reported Pathology Wed, 02 Sep 2015 14:07:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2015/790246/ Objective. Preventing the morbidity and mortality from isolated right ventricular myocarditis by its early recognition and treatment. Background. The clinical presentation of myocarditis ranges from nonspecific systemic symptoms (fever, myalgia, palpitations, or exertional dyspnea) to fulminant cardiac failure and sudden death. In our case, echocardiography raised the possibility of myocarditis at an early stage, although the signs and symptoms did not indicate right ventricular disease. Review of the literature showed only 4 previous reports, all diagnosed at autopsy, in which diagnosis was not suspected in vivo. Design/Methods. We are reporting case of a 23-year-old male with no past medical history who presented to emergency room with a nonexertional sharp left sided chest pain. Diagnostic tests were conducted, which revealed elevated troponins, decreased right ventricular ejection function but preserved left ventricular function, and no evidence of coronary artery disease. Results. A diagnosis of isolated right ventricular myocarditis was made on the basis of clinical, echocardiographic, and cardiac MRI findings. Conclusions. Isolated right ventricular myocarditis should be suspected in a patient with depressed right ventricular function without left ventricular involvement on echocardiography and cardiac MRI, elevated cardiac enzymes, and no evidence of coronary artery disease. Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk and Muhammad Bilal Munir Copyright © 2015 Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk and Muhammad Bilal Munir. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Biokinetics in EGSB Reactor Wed, 02 Sep 2015 14:05:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/635281/ A three-dimensional model integrating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and biokinetics was established to model an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor in this study. The EGSB reactor treating synthesized municipal wastewater was operated at ambient temperature. The model provided satisfactory modeling results regarding hydrodynamics and biokinetics. The model shows that influent distribution was evenly distributed. In addition, butyrate and propionate degradation rates linearly decreased along the flow direction in the reactor. However, acetate degradation rate increased first and decreased later. VFA degradation rate distributions were different at each reactor cross section. VFA degradation rates near reactor wall were lower than VFA degradation rates at reactor axis. Moreover, a pulse high influent COD concentration had a tiny impact on effluent quality, which indicates that the reactor was stable while treating synthesized wastewater at adopted conditions. Jixiang Yang, Yanqing Yang, Xin Ji, Youpeng Chen, Jinsong Guo, and Fang Fang Copyright © 2015 Jixiang Yang et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Integral Type Reactors: Passive Safety Design and Experiment Wed, 02 Sep 2015 14:04:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/stni/2015/491715/ Li Shengqiang, Yanping Huang, Luciano Burgazzi, and Annalisa Manera Copyright © 2015 Li Shengqiang et al. All rights reserved. An Experimental Performance Evaluation and Compatibility Study of the Bluetooth Low Energy Based Platform for ECG Monitoring in WBANs Wed, 02 Sep 2015 14:00:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/645781/ A long term healthcare monitoring system requires battery operated devices with low-power technologies. Researchers tried to adapt various short-range technologies for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) in ubiquitous health monitoring. The classical Bluetooth is known for its greedy power consumption, IrDA and NFC require line-of-sight conditions, and ANT has weak coexistence features and interference issues. A typical choice remains ZigBee/6LoWPAN over IEEE 802.15.4 based solutions in WBANs because of their low-power consumption. However, the recently proposed Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) announced more compelling features in various aspects. Only few studies have been published supporting these claims on BLE. In this paper, we present a BLE based remote healthcare monitoring platform and we study its compatibility for ECG monitoring. ECG data requires continuous and real-time transmissions, making it particularly challenging for resource constrained devices. In our system, a BLE112 module from Bluegiga and a BLE USB dongle are used for WBAN. The performance of the system is evaluated experimentally and the results showed good potential of this proposed BLE platform in meeting the main QoS requirements of medical applications in terms of throughput, end-to-end delay, and packet error rate, while staying energy efficient. Farid Touati, Ochirkhand Erdene-Ochir, Waiser Mehmood, Ammad Hassan, Adel Ben Mnaouer, Brahim Gaabab, Mohd Fadlee A. Rasid, and Lazhar Khriji Copyright © 2015 Farid Touati et al. All rights reserved. Customers’ Mode Choice Behaviors of Express Service Based on Latent Class Analysis and Logit Model Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:43:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/610673/ As the parcel delivery service is booming in China, the competition among express companies intensifies. This paper employed multinomial logit model (MNL) and latent class model (LCM) to investigate customers’ express service choice behavior, using data from a SP survey. The attributes and attribute levels that matter most to express customers are identified. Meanwhile, the customers are divided into two segments (penny pincher segment and high-end segment) characterized by their taste heterogeneity. The results indicate that the LCM performs statistically better than MNL in our sample. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the taste heterogeneity, especially for further academic and policy research in freight choice behavior. Lian Lian, Shuo Zhang, Zhong Wang, Kai Liu, and Lihuan Cao Copyright © 2015 Lian Lian et al. All rights reserved. Activated Complement Factors as Disease Markers for Sepsis Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:38:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/382463/ Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. Early recognition and effective management are essential for improved outcome. However, early recognition is impeded by lack of clinically utilized biomarkers. Complement factors play important roles in the mechanisms leading to sepsis and can potentially serve as early markers of sepsis and of sepsis severity and outcome. This review provides a synopsis of recent animal and clinical studies of the role of complement factors in sepsis development, together with their potential as disease markers. In addition, new results from our laboratory are presented regarding the involvement of the complement factor, mannose-binding lectin, in septic shock patients. Future clinical studies are needed to obtain the complete profiles of complement factors/their activated products during the course of sepsis development. We anticipate that the results of these studies will lead to a multipanel set of sepsis biomarkers which, along with currently used laboratory tests, will facilitate earlier diagnosis, timely treatment, and improved outcome. Jean Charchaflieh, Julie Rushbrook, Samrat Worah, and Ming Zhang Copyright © 2015 Jean Charchaflieh et al. All rights reserved. Normal Pregnancy Is Associated with Changes in Central Hemodynamics and Enhanced Recruitable, but Not Resting, Endothelial Function Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:36:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrmed/2015/250951/ Introduction. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and reactive hyperemia-related changes in carotid-to-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr%) could offer complementary information about both “recruitability” and “resting” endothelial function (EF). Carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVcf) and pulse wave analysis-derived parameters (i.e., AIx@75) are the gold standard methods for noninvasive evaluation of aortic stiffness and central hemodynamics. If healthy pregnancy is associated with both changes in resting and recruitable EF, as well as in several arterial parameters, it remains unknown and/or controversial. Objectives. To simultaneously and noninvasively assess in healthy pregnant (HP) and nonpregnant (NP) women central parameters in conjunction with “basal and recruitable” EF, employing new complementary approaches. Methods. HP (, 34.2 ± 3.3 weeks of gestation) and age- and cardiovascular risk factors-matched NP () were included. Aortic blood pressure (BP), AIx@75, PWVcf, common carotid stiffness, and intima-media thickness, as well as FMD, L-FMC, and ΔPWVcr %, were measured. Results. Aortic BP, stiffness, and AIx@75 were reduced in HP. ΔPWVcr% and FMD were enhanced in HP in comparison to NP. No differences were found in L-FMC between groups. Conclusion. HP is associated with reduced aortic stiffness, central BP, wave reflections, and enhanced recruitable, but not resting, EF. Juan Torrado, Yanina Zócalo, Ignacio Farro, Federico Farro, Claudio Sosa, Santiago Scasso, Justo Alonso, and Daniel Bia Copyright © 2015 Juan Torrado et al. All rights reserved. Age-Specific Gene Expression Profiles of Rhesus Monkey Ovaries Detected by Microarray Analysis Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:31:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/625192/ The biological function of human ovaries declines with age. To identify the potential molecular changes in ovarian aging, we performed genome-wide gene expression analysis by microarray of ovaries from young, middle-aged, and old rhesus monkeys. Microarray data was validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that a total of 503 (60 upregulated, 443 downregulated) and 84 (downregulated) genes were differentially expressed in old ovaries compared to young and middle-aged groups, respectively. No difference in gene expression was found between middle-aged and young groups. Differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in cell and organelle, cellular and physiological process, binding, and catalytic activity. These genes were primarily associated with KEGG pathways of cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, oocyte meiosis and maturation, MAPK, TGF-beta, and p53 signaling pathway. Genes upregulated were involved in aging, defense response, oxidation reduction, and negative regulation of cellular process; genes downregulated have functions in reproduction, cell cycle, DNA and RNA process, macromolecular complex assembly, and positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process. These findings show that monkey ovary undergoes substantial change in global transcription with age. Gene expression profiles are useful in understanding the mechanisms underlying ovarian aging and age-associated infertility in primates. Hengxi Wei, Xiangjie Liu, Jihong Yuan, Li Li, Dongdong Zhang, Xinzheng Guo, Lin Liu, and Shouquan Zhang Copyright © 2015 Hengxi Wei et al. All rights reserved. The Dynamics of a Cubic Nonlinear System with No Equilibrium Point Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:07:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jndy/2015/257923/ We study the dynamics of a three-dimensional nonlinear system with cubic nonlinearity and no equilibrium points with the use of Poincaré maps, Lyapunov Exponents, and bifurcations diagrams. The system has rich dynamics: chaotic behavior, regular orbits, and 3-tori periodicity. Finally, the proposed system is also reported to verify electronic circuit modeling feasibility. J. O. Maaita, Ch. K. Volos, I. M. Kyprianidis, and I. N. Stouboulos Copyright © 2015 J. O. Maaita et al. All rights reserved. An Omics Perspective on Molecular Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Therapeutics of Cholangiocarcinoma Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:05:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/179528/ Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive biliary tract malignancy arising from the epithelial bile duct. The lack of early diagnostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic measures results in severe outcomes and poor prognosis. Thus, effective early diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers are required to improve the prognosis and prolong survival rates in CCA patients. Recent advancement in omics technologies combined with the integrative experimental and clinical validations has provided an insight into the underlying mechanism of CCA initiation and progression as well as clues towards novel biomarkers. This work highlights the discovery and validation of molecular markers in CCA identified through omics approaches. The possible roles of these molecules in various cellular pathways, which render CCA carcinogenesis and progression, will also be discussed. This paper can serve as a reference point for further investigations to yield deeper understanding in the complex feature of this disease, potentially leading to better approaches for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutics. Pattaya Seeree, Phorutai Pearngam, Supeecha Kumkate, and Tavan Janvilisri Copyright © 2015 Pattaya Seeree et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Inertia Weighted Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization for Solving Global Optimization Problem Wed, 02 Sep 2015 13:05:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2015/292576/ Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO) algorithm is proposed in recent years that simulates the teaching-learning phenomenon of a classroom to effectively solve global optimization of multidimensional, linear, and nonlinear problems over continuous spaces. In this paper, an improved teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is presented, which is called nonlinear inertia weighted teaching-learning-based optimization (NIWTLBO) algorithm. This algorithm introduces a nonlinear inertia weighted factor into the basic TLBO to control the memory rate of learners and uses a dynamic inertia weighted factor to replace the original random number in teacher phase and learner phase. The proposed algorithm is tested on a number of benchmark functions, and its performance comparisons are provided against the basic TLBO and some other well-known optimization algorithms. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence rate and better performance than the basic TLBO and some other algorithms as well. Zong-Sheng Wu, Wei-Ping Fu, and Ru Xue Copyright © 2015 Zong-Sheng Wu et al. All rights reserved. Potential Renoprotective Agents through Inhibiting CTGF/CCN2 in Diabetic Nephropathy Wed, 02 Sep 2015 12:58:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/962383/ Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The development and progression of DN might involve multiple factors. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2, originally known as CTGF) is the one which plays a pivotal role. Therefore, increasing attention is being paid to CCN2 as a potential therapeutic target for DN. Up to date, there are also many drugs or agents which have been shown for their protective effects against DN via different mechanisms. In this review, we only focus on the potential renoprotective therapeutic agents which can specifically abolish CCN2 expression or nonspecifically inhibit CCN2 expression for retarding the development and progression of DN. Songyan Wang, Bing Li, Chunguang Li, Wenpeng Cui, and Lining Miao Copyright © 2015 Songyan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Strong Summability of Fourier Transforms at Lebesgue Points and Wiener Amalgam Spaces Wed, 02 Sep 2015 12:54:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/420750/ We characterize the set of functions for which strong summability holds at each Lebesgue point. More exactly, if is in the Wiener amalgam space and is almost everywhere locally bounded, or , then strong -summability holds at each Lebesgue point of . The analogous results are given for Fourier series, too. Ferenc Weisz Copyright © 2015 Ferenc Weisz. All rights reserved. Microstructure Control of Columnar-Grained Silicon Substrate Solidified from Silicon Melts Using Gas Pressure Wed, 02 Sep 2015 12:32:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/104930/ A silicon substrate with the dimensions of 100 × 140 × 0.3 mm was grown directly from liquid silicon with gas pressure. The silicon melt in the sealed melting part was injected into the growth part at applied pressure of 780–850 Torr. The solidified silicon substrate was then transferred by the pull of the cooled dummy bar. A desirable structure with a liquid-solid interface perpendicular to the pulling direction was formed when the mold temperature in the solidification zone of the growth part was much higher than that of the dummy bar, as this technique should be able to overcome thermal loss through the molds and the limited heat flux derived from the very narrow contact area between the silicon melt and the dummy bar. In addition, because the metallic impurities and expansion of volume during solidification are preferably moved to a liquid phase, a high-quality silicon substrate, without defects such as cracks and impurities in the substrate, could be manufactured in the interface structure. The present study reports the experimental findings on a new and direct growth system for obtaining silicon substrates characterized by high quality and productivity, as a candidate for alternate routes for the fabrication of silicon substrates. Jun-Kyu Lee, Sung-Min Wi, Jin-Seok Lee, Bo-Yun Jang, Joon-Soo Kim, Young-Soo Ahn, and Churl-Hee Cho Copyright © 2015 Jun-Kyu Lee et al. All rights reserved. Recurrent Pleural Effusions Occurring in Association with Primary Pulmonary Amyloidosis Wed, 02 Sep 2015 12:03:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2015/421201/ Recurrent pleural effusions occurring in association with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis and not associated with amyloid cardiomyopathy are rare. These portend an overall poor prognosis with mean survival time of approximately 1.8 months. We hereby report a case of a 59-year-old Caucasian female with recurrent pleural effusions and an ultimate diagnosis of pulmonary amyloidosis in association with plasma cell myeloma. The optimal treatment for recurrent pleural effusions in amyloidosis has not been determined; however, our patient responded to therapy with Cyclophosphamide-Bortezomib- (Velcade-) Dexamethasone (CyBorD) and had no repeat hospitalizations or recurrence of pleural effusion at four-month follow-up after initiation of therapy. Lauren Tada, Humayun Anjum, W. Kenneth Linville, and Salim Surani Copyright © 2015 Lauren Tada et al. All rights reserved. Myocardial Dysfunction and Shock after Cardiac Arrest Wed, 02 Sep 2015 12:03:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/314796/ Postarrest myocardial dysfunction includes the development of low cardiac output or ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction after cardiac arrest. Impaired left ventricular systolic function is reported in nearly two-thirds of patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Hypotension and shock requiring vasopressor support are similarly common after cardiac arrest. Whereas shock requiring vasopressor support is consistently associated with an adverse outcome after cardiac arrest, the association between myocardial dysfunction and outcomes is less clear. Myocardial dysfunction and shock after cardiac arrest develop as the result of preexisting cardiac pathology with multiple superimposed insults from resuscitation. The pathophysiology involves cardiovascular ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiovascular toxicity from excessive levels of inflammatory cytokine activation and catecholamines, among other contributing factors. Similar mechanisms occur in myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary bypass, in sepsis, and in stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Hemodynamic stabilization after resuscitation from cardiac arrest involves restoration of preload, vasopressors to support arterial pressure, and inotropic support if needed to reverse the effects of myocardial dysfunction and improve systemic perfusion. Further research is needed to define the role of postarrest myocardial dysfunction on cardiac arrest outcomes and identify therapeutic strategies. Jacob C. Jentzer, Meshe D. Chonde, and Cameron Dezfulian Copyright © 2015 Jacob C. Jentzer et al. All rights reserved. New-Onset Myocarditis in an Immunocompetent Adult with Acute Metapneumovirus Infection Wed, 02 Sep 2015 11:55:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/814269/ Introduction. A number of viruses have been implicated in viral myocarditis; however, there has been no previous report of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causing this condition. Discovered in 2001, hMPV is typically associated with upper respiratory illness, mainly affecting children. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 25-year-old man with acute systolic heart failure from viral myocarditis secondary to the hMPV. The patient was initially admitted to the general medical ward but developed increasing oxygen requirements resulting in transfer to the cardiac intensive care unit. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was used to help confirm the diagnosis. He was treated with intravenous diuretics, and afterload and preload agents, and he was subsequently discharged home after seven days of hospitalization. Discussion. hMPV is typically a respiratory pathogen; however, it was associated with in myocarditis in our patient. Due to the recent ability to detect this virus, we may see more cases of this, particularly during peak months of infection. Conclusion. This is the first case description of myocarditis associated with hMPV infection. Mark A. Weinreich, Ahmad Y. Jabbar, Nagina Malguria, and Robert W. Haley Copyright © 2015 Mark A. Weinreich et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Suitability of EAF Oxidizing Slag in Concrete: An Eco-Friendly and Sustainable Replacement for Natural Coarse Aggregate Wed, 02 Sep 2015 11:34:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/972567/ Environmental and economic factors increasingly encourage higher utility of industrial by-products. The basic objective of this study was to identify alternative source for good quality aggregates which is depleting very fast due to fast pace of construction activities in India. EAF oxidizing slag as a by-product obtained during the process in steel making industry provides great opportunity to utilize it as an alternative to normally available coarse aggregates. The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and durability properties of concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag in addition to supplementary cementing material fly ash. This study presents the experimental investigations carried out on concrete grades of M20 and M30 with three mixes: (i) Mix A, conventional concrete mix with no material substitution, (ii) Mix B, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash, and (iii) Mix C, 30% replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% replacement of coarse aggregate with EAF oxidizing slag. Tests were conducted to determine mechanical and durability properties up to the age of 90 days. The test results concluded that concrete made with EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash (Mix C) had greater strength and durability characteristics when compared to Mix A and Mix B. Based on the overall observations, it could be recommended that EAF oxidizing slag and fly ash could be effectively utilized as coarse aggregate replacement and cement replacement in all concrete applications. Alan Sekaran, Murthi Palaniswamy, and Sivagnanaprakash Balaraju Copyright © 2015 Alan Sekaran et al. All rights reserved. Modulation Effects of Curcumin on Erythrocyte Ion-Transporter Activity Wed, 02 Sep 2015 11:30:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijcb/2015/630246/ Curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), the yellow biphenolic pigment isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has various medicinal benefits through antioxidation, anti-inflammation, cardiovascular protection, immunomodulation, enhancing of the apoptotic process, and antiangiogenic property. We explored the effects of curcumin in vitro (10−5 M to 10−8 M) and in vivo (340 and 170 mg/kg b.w., oral) on Na+/K+ ATPase (NKA), Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) activity, and membrane lipid hydroperoxides (ROOH) in control and experimental oxidative stress erythrocytes of Wistar rats. As a result, we found that curcumin potently modulated the membrane transporters activity with protecting membrane lipids against hydro-peroxidation in control as well as oxidatively challenged erythrocytes evidenced by stimulation of NKA, downregulation of NHE, and reduction of ROOH in the membrane. The observed results corroborate membrane transporters activity with susceptibility of erythrocyte membrane towards oxidative damage. Results explain the protective mechanism of curcumin against oxidative stress mediated impairment in ions-transporters activity and health beneficial effects. Prabhakar Singh and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi Copyright © 2015 Prabhakar Singh and Syed Ibrahim Rizvi. All rights reserved. Integral Sliding Mode Control of Lur’e Singularly Perturbed Systems Wed, 02 Sep 2015 10:49:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/926762/ This paper investigates the integral sliding mode control problem for Lur’e singularly perturbed systems with sector-constrained nonlinearities. First, we design a proper sliding manifold such that the motion of closed-loop systems with a state feedback controller along the manifold is absolutely stable. To achieve this, we give a matrix inequality-based absolute stability criterion; thus the above problem can be converted into a matrix inequality feasibility problem. In addition, the gain matrix can also be derived by solving the matrix inequality. Then, a discontinuous control law is synthesized to force the system state to reach the sliding manifold and stay there for all subsequent time. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. Yanyan Wang and Wei Liu Copyright © 2015 Yanyan Wang and Wei Liu. All rights reserved. Development of Delirium in the Intensive Care Unit in Patients after Endovascular Aortic Repair: A Retrospective Evaluation of the Prevalence and Risk Factors Wed, 02 Sep 2015 10:16:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ccrp/2015/405817/ Delirium is an acute form of nervous system dysfunction often observed in patients in the intensive care unit. Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is considered a minimally invasive surgical treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Although the operation method is widely used, there are few investigations of the rate and risk factors of delirium development after the operation. In this study, we retrospectively examined the rate of delirium development in the intensive care unit (ICU) after EVAR, as well as the associated preoperative risk factors and effects on the lengths of ICU and hospital stays. We examined the 81 consecutive patients who underwent elective EVAR between November 2013 and August 2014. The Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist was used to diagnose delirium. Twenty patients (24.7%) were diagnosed with delirium in this study. The ICU and hospital length of stays of patients with delirium were 3.3 ± 2.4 days and 14.5 ± 11.9 days, respectively, the latter of which was significantly longer than that of patients without delirium (). Additionally, renal dysfunction, preoperative benzodiazepine use, and intraoperative transfusion were found to be risk factors for the development of delirium after elective EVAR. Yohei Kawatani, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Yujiro Hayashi, Tetsuyoshi Taneichi, Yujiro Ito, Hirotsugu Kurobe, Yuji Suda, and Takaki Hori Copyright © 2015 Yohei Kawatani et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Efficacy and Interindividual Variability in Motor-Cortex Plasticity following Anodal tDCS and Paired-Associative Stimulation” Wed, 02 Sep 2015 10:11:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/903265/ Wolfgang Strube, Tilmann Bunse, Berend Malchow, and Alkomiet Hasan Copyright © 2015 Wolfgang Strube et al. All rights reserved. Some Rare Earth Elements Analysis by Microwave Plasma Torch Coupled with the Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:54:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/156509/ A sensitive mass spectrometric analysis method based on the microwave plasma technique is developed for the fast detection of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in aqueous solution. The plasma was produced from a microwave plasma torch (MPT) under atmospheric pressure and was used as ambient ion source of a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (LTQ). Water samples were directly pneumatically nebulized to flow into the plasma through the central tube of MPT. For some REEs, the generated composite ions were detected in both positive and negative ion modes and further characterized in tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimized conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) was at the level 0.1 ng/mL using MS2 procedure in negative mode. A single REE analysis can be completed within 2~3 minutes with the relative standard deviation ranging between 2.4% and 21.2% (six repeated measurements) for the 5 experimental runs. Moreover, the recovery rates of these REEs are between the range of 97.6%–122.1%. Two real samples have also been analyzed, including well and orange juice. These experimental data demonstrated that this method is a useful tool for the field analysis of REEs in water and can be used as an alternative supplement of ICP-MS. Xiaohong Xiong, Tao Jiang, Wenhao Qi, Jun Zuo, Meiling Yang, Qiang Fei, Saijin Xiao, Aimin Yu, Zhiqiang Zhu, and Huanwen Chen Copyright © 2015 Xiaohong Xiong et al. All rights reserved. Influence of CAG Repeat Polymorphism on the Targets of Testosterone Action Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:51:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/298107/ In the last decade, ample evidence has demonstrated the growing importance of androgen receptor (AR) CAG repeat polymorphism in andrology. This genetic parameter is able to condition the peripheral effects of testosterone and therefore to influence male sexual function and fertility, cardiovascular risk, body composition, bone metabolism, the risk of prostate and testicular cancer, the psychiatric status, and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we extensively discuss the literature data and identify a role for AR CAG repeat polymorphism in conditioning the systemic testosterone effects. In particular, our main purpose was to provide an updated text able to shed light on the many and often contradictory findings reporting an influence of CAG repeat polymorphism on the targets of testosterone action. Giacomo Tirabassi, Angelo Cignarelli, Sebastio Perrini, Nicola delli Muti, Giorgio Furlani, Mariagrazia Gallo, Francesco Pallotti, Donatella Paoli, Francesco Giorgino, Francesco Lombardo, Loredana Gandini, Andrea Lenzi, and Giancarlo Balercia Copyright © 2015 Giacomo Tirabassi et al. All rights reserved. Phylogenetic Group Determination of Escherichia coli Isolated from Animals Samples Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:42:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/258424/ This study analyzes the occurrence and distribution of phylogenetic groups of 391 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from poultry, cattle, and water buffalo. The frequency of the phylogroups was A = 19%, B1 = 57%, B2 = 2.3%, C = 4.6%, D = 2.8%, E = 11%, and F = 3.3%. Phylogroups A () and F () were associated with E. coli strains isolated from poultry, phylogroups B1 () and E () were associated with E. coli isolated from cattle, and phylogroups B2 () and D () were associated with E. coli isolated from water buffalo. This report demonstrated that some phylogroups are associated with the host analyzed and the results provide knowledge of the phylogenetic composition of E. coli from domestic animals. Fernanda Morcatti Coura, Soraia de Araújo Diniz, Marcos Xavier Silva, Jamili Maria Suhet Mussi, Silvia Minharro Barbosa, Andrey Pereira Lage, and Marcos Bryan Heinemann Copyright © 2015 Fernanda Morcatti Coura et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Norovirus in Korea in 2013 Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:36:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/468304/ Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis. The molecular epidemiology of norovirus exhibits temporal and geographical fluctuations, and new variants of the GII.4 genotype emerge every 2-3 years to cause global epidemics of acute gastroenteritis. We investigated GI and GII genotypes of human norovirus strains isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Korea in 2013. Norovirus antigen test was performed on 2,980 fecal specimens from January to December 2013. RNA was extracted from norovirus antigen-positive fecal suspensions, and the norovirus capsid (VP1) and polymerase (RdRp) genes were characterized by RT-PCR and sequencing. Of the 230 genotyped strains, GII.4 (77.3%) was the most frequently observed capsid genotype, followed by GII.3 (6.1%) and GII.13 (3.9%). A norovirus GII.4 variant, GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012, was the most frequently found polymerase/capsid genotype (65.7%), followed by GII.P17/GII.17 (2.1%) and GII.P21/GII.3 (2.1%). Phylogenetic, similarity, and capsid epitope analyses of GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 strains were performed. We concluded that the norovirus GII.4 variant, GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012, was the main cause of norovirus-related gastroenteritis in Korea in 2013. Jae-Seok Kim, Hyun Soo Kim, Jungwon Hyun, Han-Sung Kim, and Wonkeun Song Copyright © 2015 Jae-Seok Kim et al. All rights reserved. Advances in MRI Techniques and Applications Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:23:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/139043/ Zhengchao Dong, Trevor Andrews, Chuanmiao Xie, and Takeshi Yokoo Copyright © 2015 Zhengchao Dong et al. All rights reserved. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/876509/ Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement. L. Feller, R. A. G. Khammissa, I. Schechter, G. Thomadakis, J. Fourie, and J. Lemmer Copyright © 2015 L. Feller et al. All rights reserved. An Additive Effect of Oral N-Acetyl Cysteine on Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:17:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpath/2015/540271/ Background. Helicobacter pylori is highly adapted to the gastric environment where it lives within or beneath the gastric mucous layer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of N-acetyl cysteine to the treatment regimen of H. pylori infection would affect eradication rates of the disease. Methods. A total of 79 H. pylori positive patients were randomized to two therapeutic groups. Both groups received a 14-day course of three-drug regimen including amoxicillin/clarithromycin/omeprazole. Experimental group (38 subjects) received NAC, and control group (41 subjects) received placebo, besides three-drug regimen. H. pylori eradication was evaluated by urea breath test at least 4 weeks after the cessation of therapy. Results. The rate of H. pylori eradication was 72.9% and 60.9% in experimental and control groups, respectively (). By logistic regression modeling, female gender (OR 3.68, 95% CI: 1.06–5.79; ) and treatment including NAC (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 0.68–3.15; ) were independent factors associated with H. pylori eradication. Conclusion. The results of the present study show that NAC has an additive effect on the eradication rates of H. pylori obtained with three-drug regimen and appears to be a promising means of eradicating H. pylori infection. Seyed Mohammad-Taghi Hamidian, Najmeh-sadat Aletaha, Reza Taslimi, and Mohammad Montazeri Copyright © 2015 Seyed Mohammad-Taghi Hamidian et al. All rights reserved. Alternative Living Kidney Donation Programs Boost Genetically Unrelated Donation Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:11:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtrans/2015/748102/ Donor-recipient ABO and/or HLA incompatibility used to lead to donor decline. Development of alternative transplantation programs enabled transplantation of incompatible couples. How did that influence couple characteristics? Between 2000 and 2014, 1232 living donor transplantations have been performed. In conventional and ABO-incompatible transplantation the willing donor becomes an actual donor for the intended recipient. In kidney-exchange and domino-donation the donor donates indirectly to the intended recipient. The relationship between the donor and intended recipient was studied. There were 935 conventional and 297 alternative program transplantations. There were 66 ABO-incompatible, 68 domino-paired, 62 kidney-exchange, and 104 altruistic donor transplantations. Waiting list recipients () were excluded as they did not bring a living donor. 1131 couples remained of whom 196 participated in alternative programs. Genetically unrelated donors (486) were primarily partners. Genetically related donors (645) were siblings, parents, children, and others. Compared to genetically related couples, almost three times as many genetically unrelated couples were incompatible and participated in alternative programs (). 62% of couples were genetically related in the conventional donation program versus 32% in alternative programs (). Patient and graft survival were not significantly different between recipient programs. Alternative donation programs increase the number of transplantations by enabling genetically unrelated donors to donate. Rosalie A. Poldervaart, Mirjam Laging, Tessa Royaards, Judith A. Kal-van Gestel, Madelon van Agteren, Marry de Klerk, Willij Zuidema, Michiel G. H. Betjes, and Joke I. Roodnat Copyright © 2015 Rosalie A. Poldervaart et al. All rights reserved. Nanomaterials for Optical Sensing and Sensors: Plasmonics, Raman, and Optofluidics Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:07:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/162537/ Zhida Xu, Meng Lu, Hyunjong Jin, Tao Chen, and Tiziana C. Bond Copyright © 2015 Zhida Xu et al. All rights reserved. Green Space and Child Weight Status: Does Outcome Measurement Matter? Evidence from an Australian Longitudinal Study Wed, 02 Sep 2015 09:04:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2015/194838/ Objective. To examine whether neighbourhood green space is beneficially associated with (i) waist circumference (WC) and (ii) waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) across childhood. Methods. Gender-stratified multilevel linear regressions were used to examine associations between green space and objective measures of weight status in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, a nationally representative source of data on 4,423 children aged 6 y to 13 y. WC and WtHR were measured objectively. Percentage green space within the local area of residence was calculated. Effect modification by age was explored, adjusting for socioeconomic confounding. Results. Compared to peers with 0–5% green space locally, boys and girls with >40% green space tended to have lower WC (  −1.15, 95% CI −2.44, 0.14;   −0.21, 95% CI −1.47, 1.05) and WtHR (  −0.82, 95% CI −1.65, 0.01;   −0.32, 95% CI −1.13, 0.49). Associations among boys were contingent upon age (  ) and robust to adjustment for socioeconomic variables. The benefits of greener neighbourhoods appeared from age 7, with mean WC and WtHR for boys aged 13 y with >40% green space at 73.85 cm and 45.75% compared to those with 0–5% green space at 75.18 cm and 46.62%, respectively. Conclusions. Greener neighbourhoods appear beneficial to alternative child weight status measures, particularly among boys. Taren Sanders, Xiaoqi Feng, Paul P. Fahey, Chris Lonsdale, and Thomas Astell-Burt Copyright © 2015 Taren Sanders et al. All rights reserved. Effect of GBA Mutations on Phenotype of Parkinson’s Disease: A Study on Chinese Population and a Meta-Analysis Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:52:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/916971/ GBA has been identified as a genetic risk factor for PD. Whether the clinical manifestations of PD patients with or without GBA mutations are different has still not reached a consensus. We firstly detected the GBA mutation L444P in 1147 Chinese PD patients and simultaneously evaluated their corresponding clinical data. Then we compared the phenotypes between 646 PD patients with GBA mutations and 10344 PD patients without GBA mutations worldwide through meta-analysis. Through the method of meta-analysis, there was significant difference in age at onset (MD = −3.10 [95% CI: −4.88, −1.32]), bradykinesia as an initial symptom (OR = 1.49 [95% CI: 1.15, 1.94]), having family history (OR = 1.50 [95% CI: 1.18, 1.91]), and dementia (OR = 3.21 [95% CI: 1.97, 5.24]) during the comparison between PD patients with and without GBA mutations. While, in the aspect of tremor as an initial symptom (OR = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.64, 1.03]), the severity of motor symptoms such as H-Y (MD = 0.06 [95% CI: −0.06, 0.17]) and UPDRS-III (MD = 1.61 [95% CI: −0.65, 3.87]) and having dyskinesia (OR = 1.60 [95% CI: 0.90, 2.84]) during the comparison between the two groups revealed no statistical differences. Our results suggested that the phenotypes of PD patients with GBA mutations are different from GBA noncarriers. Yuan Zhang, Qi-ying Sun, Yu-wen Zhao, Li Shu, Ji-feng Guo, Qian Xu, Xin-xiang Yan, and Bei-sha Tang Copyright © 2015 Yuan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Modulation of the Left Prefrontal Cortex with High Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Facilitates Gait in Multiple Sclerosis Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:38:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/251829/ Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease. Gait abnormalities are common and disabling in patients with MS with limited treatment options available. Emerging evidence suggests a role of prefrontal attention networks in modulating gait. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is known to enhance cortical excitability in stimulated cortex and its correlates. We investigated the effect of high-frequency left prefrontal rTMS on gait parameters in a 51-year-old Caucasian male with chronic relapsing/remitting MS with residual disabling attention and gait symptoms. Patient received 6 Hz, rTMS at 90% motor threshold using figure of eight coil centered on location (using 10-20 electroencephalography (EEG) lead localization system). GAITRite gait analysis system was used to collect objective gait measures before and after one session and in another occasion three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Two-tailed within subject repeated measure t-test showed significant enhancement in ambulation time, gait velocity, and cadence after three consecutive daily sessions of rTMS. Modulating left prefrontal cortex excitability using rTMS resulted in significant change in gait parameters after three sessions. To our knowledge, this is the first report that demonstrates the effect of rTMS applied to the prefrontal cortex on gait in MS patients. Amer M. Burhan, Priya Subramanian, Luljeta Pallaveshi, Brittany Barnes, and Manuel Montero-Odasso Copyright © 2015 Amer M. Burhan et al. All rights reserved. Bent and Permutational Properties of Budaghyan-Carlet Hexanomials Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:30:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/467020/ The set related to the existence of Budaghyan-Carlet hexanomials is characterized. By investigating the component functions, it is also proved that none of Budaghyan-Carlet hexanomials cannot be turned into a permutation by adding any linearized polynomial. As a byproduct, a class of quadratic bent functions is obtained. Tao Xie Copyright © 2015 Tao Xie. All rights reserved. Low Growth Hormone Levels in Short-Stature Children with Pituitary Hyperplasia Secondary to Primary Hypothyroidism Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:19:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/283492/ Objective. The follow-up of GH levels in short-stature children with pituitary hyperplasia secondary to primary hypothyroidism (PPH) is reported in a few cases. We aimed to observe changes in GH secretion in short-stature children with PPH. Methods. A total of 11 short-stature children with PPH accompanied by low GH levels were included. They received levothyroxine therapy after diagnosis. Their thyroid hormones, IGF-1, PRL, and pituitary height were measured at baseline and 3 months after therapy. GH stimulation tests were performed at baseline and after regression of thyroid hormones and pituitary. Results. At baseline, they had decreased GH peak and FT3 and FT4 levels and elevated TSH levels. Decreased IGF-1 levels were found in seven children. Elevated PRL levels and positive thyroid antibodies were found in 10 children. The mean pituitary height was  mm. After 3 months, FT3, FT4, and IGF-1 levels were significantly increased (all ), and values of TSH, PRL, and pituitary height were significantly decreased (all ). After 6 months, pituitary hyperplasia completely regressed. GH levels returned to normal in nine children and were still low in two children. Conclusion. GH secretion can be resolved in most short-stature children with PPH. Minghua Liu, Yanyan Hu, Guimei Li, and Wenwen Hu Copyright © 2015 Minghua Liu et al. All rights reserved. Limitations on the Detection Rate of High-Risk HPV by Hybrid Capture 2 Methodology in High Grade Intraepithelial (HSIL) or Atypical Squamous Cells-Cannot Exclude HSIL (ASC-H) Cytological Lesions with Proved CIN2+ Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:14:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2015/746502/ Recent literature data suggest that the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) testing with several molecular techniques could be an alternative to cytology in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+). However, any molecular techniques have its own limits and may give false negative results which must be clearly known before undertaking a primary HPV screening. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the high-risk HPV hybrid capture II detection kit (HCII) which is considered as a “gold standard technique” in a series of 100 women having proved both cytological lesions of atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude an HSIL (ASC-H) or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and histological lesions of CIN2+. The clinical sensitivity of HCII in women with a cytological diagnosis of ASC-H/HSIL and a diagnosis of CIN2+ is high but not absolute and estimated at 96% (95,6% and 100% of women with a diagnosis of CIN2/3 or invasive squamous cell carcinoma, resp.). These data although they are infrequent must be clearly referred before to start an HPV primary screening of CIN2+ especially with HCII methodology. Jean-Christophe Noël and Philippe Simon Copyright © 2015 Jean-Christophe Noël and Philippe Simon. All rights reserved. Favorable Outcomes after Implantation of Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stents in Diabetic Population: Results from INDOLIMUS-G Diabetic Registry Wed, 02 Sep 2015 08:08:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijvm/2015/265670/ Objective. The main aim is to evaluate safety, efficacy, and clinical performance of the Indolimus (Sahajanand Medical Technologies Pvt. Ltd., Surat, India) sirolimus-eluting stent in high-risk diabetic population with complex lesions. Methods. It was a multicentre, retrospective, non-randomized, single-arm study, which enrolled 372 diabetic patients treated with Indolimus. The primary endpoint of the study was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), which is a composite of cardiac death, target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), myocardial infarction (MI), and stent thrombosis (ST). The clinical follow-ups were scheduled at 30 days, 6 months, and 9 months. Results. The mean age of the enrolled patients was 53.4 ± 10.2 years. A total of 437 lesions were intervened successfully with 483 stents (1.1 ± 0.3 per lesion). There were 256 (68.8%) male patients. Hypertension and totally occluded lesions were found in 202 (54.3%) and 45 (10.3%) patients, respectively. The incidence of MACE at 30 days, 6 months and 9 months was 0 (0%), 6 (1.6%), and 8 (2.2%), respectively. The event-free survival at 9-month follow-up by Kaplan Meier method was found to be 97.8%. Conclusion. The use of biodegradable polymer coated sirolimus-eluting stent is associated with favorable outcomes. The results demonstrated in our study depict its safety and efficacy in diabetic population. Anurag Polavarapu, Raghava Sarma Polavarapu, Jayesh Prajapati, Asif Raheem, Kamlesh Thakkar, Shivani Kothari, and Ashok Thakkar Copyright © 2015 Anurag Polavarapu et al. All rights reserved. Investigating the Fabrication Imperfections of Plasmonic Nanohole Arrays and Its Effect on the Optical Transmission Spectra Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:53:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/178583/ We investigate the extraordinary optical transmission spectra of thin gold films perforated with imperfect nanohole arrays using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Exponential shapes for the nanohole sidewalls are used. To the best of our knowledge, such investigation of transmission spectra of imperfect nanohole arrays has not previously been demonstrated. It was found that the asymmetry between the two openings of the circular nanoholes or bending to their sidewalls strongly modifies both the intensity and resonance positions of the transmission spectra. Furthermore, the results of this study assist in explaining the technicality of extraordinary optical transmission phenomenon and why some experimental results on transmission differ from those expected. Amr M. Mahros and Marwa M. Tharwat Copyright © 2015 Amr M. Mahros and Marwa M. Tharwat. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on the Measurement of Water Bottom Vibration Induced by Underwater Drilling Blasting Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:53:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/496120/ Due to the lack of proper instrumentations and the difficulties in underwater measurements, the studies about water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting are seldom reported. In order to investigate the propagation and attenuation laws of blasting induced water bottom vibration, a water bottom vibration monitor was developed with consideration of the difficulties in underwater measurements. By means of this equipment, the actual water bottom vibration induced by underwater drilling blasting was measured in a field experiment. It shows that the water bottom vibration monitor could collect vibration signals quite effectively in underwater environments. The followed signal analysis shows that the characteristics of water bottom vibration and land ground vibration induced by the same underwater drilling blasting are quite different due to the different geological environments. The amplitude and frequency band of water bottom vibration both exceed those of land ground vibration. Water bottom vibration is mainly in low-frequency band that induced by blasting impact directly acts on rock. Besides the low-frequency component, land vibration contains another higher frequency band component that induced by followed water hammer wave acts on bank slope. Gu Wenbin, Chen Jianghai, Wang Zhenxiong, Wang Zhihua, Liu Jianqing, and Lu Ming Copyright © 2015 Gu Wenbin et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Logic Computation with Debugging Method Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:51:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/120365/ Seesaw gate concept, which is based on a reversible DNA strand branch process, has been found to have the potential to be used in the construction of various computing devices. In this study, we consider constructing full adder and serial binary adder, using the new concept of seesaw gate. Our simulation of the full adder preformed properly as designed; however unexpected exception is noted in the simulation of the serial binary adder. To identify and address the exception, we propose a new method for debugging the molecular circuit. The main idea for this method is to add fan-outs to monitor the circuit in a reverse stepwise manner. These fan-outs are fluorescent signals that can obtain the real-time concentration of the target molecule. By analyzing the monitoring result, the exception can be identified and located. In this paper, examples of XOR and serial binary adder circuits are described to prove the practicability and validity of the molecular circuit debugging method. Xiangrong Liu, Juan Suo, Juan Liu, Yan Gao, and Xiangxiang Zeng Copyright © 2015 Xiangrong Liu et al. All rights reserved. MRI Guided Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy for Moderate-to-Severe Tremor in Parkinson’s Disease Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:26:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/219149/ Background. Thalamotomy is effective in alleviating tremor in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods. Seven PD patients, mean age 59.4 ± 9.8 years (range, 46–74) with a mean disease duration of 5.4 ± 2.8 years (range, 2–10) suffering from severe refractory tremor, underwent ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy using MRI guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), an innovative technology that enables noninvasive surgery. Results. Tremor stopped in the contralateral upper extremity in all patients immediately following treatment. Total UPDRS decreased from 37.4 ± 12.2 to 18.8 ± 11.1 and PDQ-39 decreased from 42.3 ± 16.4 to 21.6 ± 10.8 following MRgFUS. These effects were sustained (mean follow-up 7.3 months). Adverse events during MRgFUS included headache , dizziness , vertigo , and lip paresthesia and following MRgFUS were hypogeusia , unsteady feeling when walking (, resolved), and disturbance when walking tandem (, resolved). Conclusions. Thalamotomy using MRgFUS is safe and effective in PD patients. Large randomized studies are needed to assess prolonged efficacy and safety. Ilana Schlesinger, Ayelet Eran, Alon Sinai, Ilana Erikh, Maria Nassar, Dorith Goldsher, and Menashe Zaaroor Copyright © 2015 Ilana Schlesinger et al. All rights reserved. Predict Defibrillation Outcome Using Stepping Increment of Poincare Plot for Out-of-Hospital Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:20:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/493472/ Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation together with early defibrillation is a key point in the chain of survival for cardiac arrest. Optimizing the timing of defibrillation by predicting the possibility of successful electric shock can guide treatments between defibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation and improve the rate of restoration of spontaneous circulation. Numerous methods have been proposed for predicting defibrillation success based on quantification of the ventricular fibrillation waveform during past decades. To date, however, no analytical technique has been widely accepted for clinical application. In the present study, we investigate whether median stepping increment that is calculated from the Euclidean distance of consecutive points in Poincare plot could be used to predict the likelihood of successful defibrillation. Electrocardiographic recordings of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients were obtained from the external defibrillators. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve and compared with the results of other established features. The results indicated that median stepping increment has comparable performance to the established methods in predicting the likelihood of successful defibrillation. Yushun Gong, Yubao Lu, Lei Zhang, Hehua Zhang, and Yongqin Li Copyright © 2015 Yushun Gong et al. All rights reserved. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper Wed, 02 Sep 2015 07:16:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/269296/ Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF) by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA), hydrogen peroxide (HP), and chitosan (CH) were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05) when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers. Lina Garcia-Mier, Sandra Neli Jimenez-Garcia, Ramon Gerardo Guevara-González, Ana Angelica Feregrino-Perez, Luis Miguel Contreras-Medina, and Irineo Torres-Pacheco Copyright © 2015 Lina Garcia-Mier et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Tutomesh for a Tension-Free and Tridimensional Repair of Uterovaginal and Vaginal Vault Prolapse: Preliminary Report Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:58:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srp/2015/303679/ Objective. To evaluate efficacy in terms of vaginal capacity, coital function, and recurrence prevention of a new biological mesh of bovine pericardium (Tutomesh) in the repair of severe POP. Methods. Thirty cases of patients suffering from stage III uterine or apical prolapse undergone surgical repair by means of a modified sacrospinous ligament suspension combined with mesh attachment to both the cardinal ligaments, posterior and anterior colporrhaphy, and perineal body fixation. The mesh was replaced inside the pelvis with the goal of reconstructing the tridimensional fascial disposition of the structures sustaining the correct axis of vagina. Follow-up was done at 12 months with POPIQ analysis. Results. One total mesh failure occurred early after surgery due to marked deficiency of anatomy. Two cystoceles were observed at 12 months in two patients treated for apical prolapse where anterior repair was not performed. Two other patients developed a de novo SUI at 12 months. No reported abnormalities of coital function or dyspareunia were ever found after surgery. Conclusions. It is possible that the utilization of a tension-free and tridimensional placement of Tutomesh might favor a more physiologic reconstruction of the vaginal axis as compared with traditional sacrospinous ligament suspension. Danilo Dodero and Luca Bernardini Copyright © 2015 Danilo Dodero and Luca Bernardini. All rights reserved. Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:53:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/481676/ The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system. Kazuhiro Yamaguchi, Takaharu Nagahashi, Takuya Akiyama, Hideaki Matsue, Kunio Uekado, Takakazu Namera, Hiroshi Fukui, and Satoshi Nanamatsu Copyright © 2015 Kazuhiro Yamaguchi et al. All rights reserved. Soft Tissue Masses of Hand: A Radio-Pathological Correlation Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:48:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/rrp/2015/752054/ Aim. To evaluate soft tissue masses of the hand with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (USG) and to correlate imaging findings with pathological findings. Material and Methods. Thirty-five patients with soft tissue masses of the hand were evaluated with high resolution USG and contrast enhanced MRI of the hand, prospectively over a period of 2.5 years. The radiological diagnosis was then compared with cytology/histopathology. Results. There were a total of 19 (55%) females. The mean age was 27.45 ± 14.7 years. Majority (45%) of cases were heteroechoic. Four cases were predominantly hyperechoic. These were later diagnosed as lipomas. Four cases were anechoic (diagnosed as ganglions). Only four lesions showed hyperintense signal on T1-weighted images. Out of these, 3 were lipomas and one was cavernous haemangioma. Three lesions were hypointense on T2-weighted images. All these lesions were diagnosed as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. A correct diagnosis was possible on MRI in 80% of cases . Conclusion. MRI provides specific findings for diagnosis of certain soft tissue lesions of the hand. Ultrasonography allows accurate diagnosis of hemangioma/vascular malformations. However, in most conditions, imaging findings are nonspecific and diagnosis rests on pathologic evaluation. Aditi Agarwal, Mahesh Prakash, Pankaj Gupta, Satyaswarup Tripathy, Nandita Kakkar, Radhika Srinivasan, and Niranjan Khandelwal Copyright © 2015 Aditi Agarwal et al. All rights reserved. Calibration of Smartphone-Based Weather Measurements Using Pairwise Gossip Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:42:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/494687/ Accurate and reliable daily global weather reports are necessary for weather forecasting and climate analysis. However, the availability of these reports continues to decline due to the lack of economic support and policies in maintaining ground weather measurement systems from where these reports are obtained. Thus, to mitigate data scarcity, it is required to utilize weather information from existing sensors and built-in smartphone sensors. However, as smartphone usage often varies according to human activity, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurement data. In this paper, we present a heuristic-based pairwise gossip algorithm that will calibrate smartphone-based pressure sensors with respect to fixed weather stations as our referential ground truth. Based on actual measurements, we have verified that smartphone-based readings are unstable when observed during movement. Using our calibration algorithm on actual smartphone-based pressure readings, the updated values were significantly closer to the ground truth values. Jane Louie Fresco Zamora, Shigeru Kashihara, and Suguru Yamaguchi Copyright © 2015 Jane Louie Fresco Zamora et al. All rights reserved. Self-Care Practices for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: Study Protocol of a European Multicenter Survey—The COCO Study Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:37:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/272189/ Background. Self-care for common colds is frequent, yet little is known about the spectrum, regional differences, and potential risks of self-care practices in patients from various European regions. Methods/Design. We describe the study protocol for a cross-sectional survey in 27 primary care centers from 14 European countries. At all sites, 120 consecutive adult patients, who visit their general practitioner for any reason, filled in a self-administered 27-item questionnaire. This addresses patients’ self-care practices for common colds. Separately, the subjective level of discomfort when having a common cold, knowing about the diseases’ self-limited nature, and medical and sociodemographic data are requested. Additionally, physicians are surveyed on their use of and recommendations for self-care practices. We are interested in investigating which self-care practices for common colds are used, whether the number of self-care practices used is influenced by knowledge about the self-limited nature of the disease, and the subjective level of discomfort when having a cold and to identify potential adverse interactions with chronic physician-prescribed medications. Further factors that will be considered are, for example, demographic characteristics, chronic conditions, and sources of information for self-care practices. All descriptive and analytical statistics will be performed on the pooled dataset and stratified by country and site. Discussion. To our knowledge, COCO is the first European survey on the use of self-care practices for common colds. The study will provide new insight into patients’ and general practitioners’ self-care measures for common colds across Europe. Birgitta M. Weltermann, Biljana Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Anika Thielmann, Juliette Chambe, Heidrun Lingner, Enzo Pirrotta, Krzysztof Buczkowski, Selda Tekiner, Slawomir Czachowski, Tamer Edirne, Andrzej Zielinski, Hülya Yikilkan, Tuomas Koskela, Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Robert D. Hoffman, Marija Petek Šter, Clara Guede Fernández, Ayşegül Uludağ, Kathryn Hoffmann, Vildan Mevsim, and Sanda Kreitmayer Pestic Copyright © 2015 Birgitta M. Weltermann et al. All rights reserved. Role of MALAT1 as a Prognostic Factor for Survival in Various Cancers: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Meta-Analysis Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:23:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/164635/ Objectives. The expression of metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), a highly abundant and ubiquitously expressed long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), influences clinical parameters and may have prognostic value in cancer. This meta-analysis evaluated the prognostic role of MALAT1 in various cancers. Materials and Methods. Systematic literature searches of PubMed and EMBASE databases were conducted for eligible studies of the prognostic role of MALAT1 in cancer. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were analyzed. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were assessed to evaluate the influence of MALAT1 expression on patient prognosis. Results. Nine studies with a total of 932 patients were included in the analysis. Elevated MALAT1 expression was significantly correlated with poor OS (HR 2.02; 95% CI: 1.62–2.52; ; %). Subgroup analysis indicated that tumor type, histology type, ethnicity, and measurement technique did not affect the prognostic value of MALAT1 for OS. The HR of elevated MALAT1 for DFS was 2.78 (95% CI: 1.87–4.15; ; %). Conclusions. Elevated MALAT1 expression is correlated with poor OS in various types of cancer, suggesting that this gene is a prognostic factor for different types of cancer. Yao Wei and Ben Niu Copyright © 2015 Yao Wei and Ben Niu. All rights reserved. Structures and Low Dimensional Classifications of Hom-Poisson Superalgebras Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:16:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/354341/ Hom-Poisson superalgebras can be considered as a deformation of Poisson superalgebras. We prove that Hom-Poisson superalgebras are closed under tensor products. Moreover, we show that Hom-Poisson superalgebras can be described using only the twisting map and one binary operation. Finally, all algebra endomorphisms on 2-dimensional complex Poisson superalgebras are computed, and their associated Hom-Poisson superalgebras are described explicitly. Qingcheng Zhang, Chunyue Wang, and Zhu Wei Copyright © 2015 Qingcheng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Hypoxia Strongly Affects Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins and Translocases, as Shown by Quantitative Proteomics of HeLa Cells Wed, 02 Sep 2015 06:05:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/678527/ Hypoxia is an important and common characteristic of many human tumors. It is a challenge clinically due to the correlation with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Understanding the biochemical response to hypoxia would facilitate the development of novel therapeutics for cancer treatment. Here, we investigate alterations in gene expression in response to hypoxia by quantitative proteome analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with LCMS/MS. Human HeLa cells were kept either in a hypoxic environment or under normoxic conditions. 125 proteins were found to be regulated, with maximum alteration of 18-fold. In particular, three clusters of differentially regulated proteins were identified, showing significant upregulation of glycolysis and downregulation of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and translocases. This interaction is likely orchestrated by HIF-1. We also investigated the effect of hypoxia on the cell cycle, which shows accumulation in G1 and a prolonged S phase under these conditions. Implications. This work not only improves our understanding of the response to hypoxia, but also reveals proteins important for malignant progression, which may be targeted in future therapies. Paula A. Bousquet, Joe Alexander Sandvik, Magnus Ø. Arntzen, Nina F. Jeppesen Edin, Stine Christoffersen, Ute Krengel, Erik O. Pettersen, and Bernd Thiede Copyright © 2015 Paula A. Bousquet et al. All rights reserved. Biomarkers of Brain Function and Injury: Biological and Clinical Significance Wed, 02 Sep 2015 05:47:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/389023/ Diego Gazzolo, Giovanni Li Volti, Antonio W. D. Gavilanes, and Giovanni Scapagnini Copyright © 2015 Diego Gazzolo et al. All rights reserved. Effects of a Particular Heptapeptide on the IFN-α-Sensitive CML Cells Tue, 01 Sep 2015 14:13:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/325026/ Using the phage display biopanning technique, we have previously identified a heptapeptide KLWVIPQ which specifically binds to the surface of the IFN-α-sensitive but not the IFN-α-resistant CML cells. The effects of this heptapeptide on the IFN-α-sensitive CML cells were investigated in the present study. IFN-α-sensitive KT-1/A3 and IFN-α-resistant KT-1/A3R CML cells were transfected by pEGFP-KLWVIPQ expression vector and/or induced by IFN-α. WST-1 cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to determine the effects of this heptapeptide and/or IFN-α on CML cells. The viability of the KT-1/A3 cells was inhibited and apoptosis was induced by either expression of the heptapeptide KLWVIPQ or IFN-α treatment with concurrent upregulation of P53 and downregulation of P210bcr/abl. However, these effects were not observed in the IFN-α-resistant KT-1/A3R cells. These results suggest that the heptapeptide KLWVIPQ shares a similar mechanism with IFN-α in the regulation of CML cell growth and apoptosis, implying that the heptapeptide KLWVIPQ could be a novel target to go further into mechanisms of IFN-α sensitivity and/or resistance in CML. Fu-lan Yang, Fang-zhi Chen, Xin-xing Wan, Xi Zhou, Mei-juan Zhou, Han-chun Chen, Jun-jiang Fu, and Dian-zheng Zhang Copyright © 2015 Fu-lan Yang et al. All rights reserved. Rhabdomyosarcoma: Advances in Molecular and Cellular Biology Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:55:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2015/232010/ Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue malignancy in childhood and adolescence. The two major histological subtypes of RMS are alveolar RMS, driven by the fusion protein PAX3-FKHR or PAX7-FKHR, and embryonic RMS, which is usually genetically heterogeneous. The prognosis of RMS has improved in the past several decades due to multidisciplinary care. However, in recent years, the treatment of patients with metastatic or refractory RMS has reached a plateau. Thus, to improve the survival rate of RMS patients and their overall well-being, further understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of RMS and identification of novel therapeutic targets are imperative. In this review, we describe the most recent discoveries in the molecular and cellular biology of RMS, including alterations in oncogenic pathways, miRNA (miR), in vivo models, stem cells, and important signal transduction cascades implicated in the development and progression of RMS. Furthermore, we discuss novel potential targeted therapies that may improve the current treatment of RMS. Xin Sun, Wei Guo, Jacson K. Shen, Henry J. Mankin, Francis J. Hornicek, and Zhenfeng Duan Copyright © 2015 Xin Sun et al. All rights reserved. Genomic Copy Number Variation Affecting Genes Involved in the Cell Cycle Pathway: Implications for Somatic Mosaicism Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:52:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/757680/ Somatic genome variations (mosaicism) seem to represent a common mechanism for human intercellular/interindividual diversity in health and disease. However, origins and mechanisms of somatic mosaicism remain a matter of conjecture. Recently, it has been hypothesized that zygotic genomic variation naturally occurring in humans is likely to predispose to nonheritable genetic changes (aneuploidy) acquired during the lifetime through affecting cell cycle regulation, genome stability maintenance, and related pathways. Here, we have evaluated genomic copy number variation (CNV) in genes implicated in the cell cycle pathway (according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes/KEGG) within a cohort of patients with intellectual disability, autism, and/or epilepsy, in which the phenotype was not associated with genomic rearrangements altering this pathway. Benign CNVs affecting 20 genes of the cell cycle pathway were detected in 161 out of 255 patients (71.6%). Among them, 62 individuals exhibited >2 CNVs affecting the cell cycle pathway. Taking into account the number of individuals demonstrating CNV of these genes, a support for this hypothesis appears to be presented. Accordingly, we speculate that further studies of CNV burden across the genes implicated in related pathways might clarify whether zygotic genomic variation generates somatic mosaicism in health and disease. Ivan Y. Iourov, Svetlana G. Vorsanova, Maria A. Zelenova, Sergei A. Korostelev, and Yuri B. Yurov Copyright © 2015 Ivan Y. Iourov et al. All rights reserved. Nailfold Capillaroscopy in Rheumatic Diseases: Which Parameters Should Be Evaluated? Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:52:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/974530/ Video nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC), considered as an extension of the widefield technique, allows a more accurate measuring and storing of capillary data and a better defining, analyzing, and quantifying of capillary abnormalities. Capillaroscopic study is often performed on the patients suspected of having microcirculation problems such as Raynaud’s phenomenon as the main indication for nailfold capillaroscopy. Capillaroscopic findings based on microcirculation studies can provide useful information in the fields of pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and monitoring therapy. Nailfold capillaroscopy provides a vital assessment in clinical practices and research; for example, its reputation in the early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis is well established and it is also used as a classification criterion in this regard. This review focuses on the manner of performing video nailfold capillaroscopy and on a common approach for measuring capillary dimensions in fingers and toes. Mahnaz Etehad Tavakol, Alimohammad Fatemi, Abdolamir Karbalaie, Zahra Emrani, and Björn-Erik Erlandsson Copyright © 2015 Mahnaz Etehad Tavakol et al. All rights reserved. Biomarkers of Brain Damage: S100B and NSE Concentrations in Cerebrospinal Fluid—A Normative Study Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:31:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/379071/ NSE and S100B belong among the so-called structural proteins of the central nervous system (CNS). Lately, this group of structural proteins has been profusely used as specific biomarkers of CNS tissue damage. So far, the majority of the research papers have focused predominantly on the concentrations of these proteins in blood in relation to CNS damage of various origins. Considering the close anatomic and functional relationship between the brain or spinal cord and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in case of a CNS injury, a rapid and pronounced increase of the concentrations of structural proteins specifically in CSF takes place. This study inquires into the physiological concentrations of NSE and S100B proteins in CSF, carried out on a sufficiently large group of 601 patients. The detected values can be used for determination of a normal reference range in CSF in a clinical laboratory diagnostics. Lenka Hajduková, Ondřej Sobek, Darina Prchalová, Zuzana Bílková, Martina Koudelková, Jiřina Lukášková, and Inka Matuchová Copyright © 2015 Lenka Hajduková et al. All rights reserved. BF3·Et2O Catalysed 4-Aryl-3-phenyl-benzopyrones, Pro-SERMs, and Their Characterization Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:28:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aps/2015/527159/ We have synthesized the novel 4-(4-hydroxy-benzyl)-3-phenyl-chromen-2-one which is a precursor of SERMs with a smaller number of steps and good yield. Two methodologies for the synthesis have been worked out. Anhydrous BF3·Et2O catalyzed reaction was found to be selective for product formation while anhydrous AlCl3, FeCl3, and SnCl4 catalyzed ones were nonselective. Ambika Srivastava, Pooja Singh, and Rajesh Kumar Copyright © 2015 Ambika Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Solitary Peripheral Osteoma of the Angle of the Mandible Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:28:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/430619/ Solitary peripheral osteoma is a benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumor arising from craniofacial bones such as the sinus, temporal, or jaw bones but rarely originating from the mandible. Osteoma consists of compact or cancellous bone that may be of peripheral, central, or extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum and is commonly a unilateral, pedunculated mushroom-like mass. Solitary peripheral osteomas are characterized by well-defined, rounded, or oval radiopaque mass in the computed tomography. Although multiple osteomas of the jaws are a hallmark of Gardner’s syndrome (familial adenomatous polyposis), nonsyndromic cases are typically solitary. Herein, we report a rare case of solitary peripheral osteoma of the angle of the mandible in a 27-year-old female with clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic findings. Kapil Kshirsagar, Kalyani Bhate, Vivek Pawar, S. N. SanthoshKumar, Supriya Kheur, and Shrikant Dusane Copyright © 2015 Kapil Kshirsagar et al. All rights reserved. Radiological Imaging for Assessing the Respectability of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:25:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/497942/ Hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most difficult tumors to stage and treat. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography/computer tomography (PET/CT) in evaluating the resectability of HCC. A systematic search was performed of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for individual studies and pooled data as well as test for heterogeneity and public bias. Our data showed that CT had the highest pooled sensitivity at 95% (95% CI: 91–97), whereas PET/CT had the highest pooled specificity at 81% (95% CI: 69–90). The area under the curve (AUC) of CT, MRI, and PET/CT was 0.9269, 0.9194, and 0.9218, respectively. In conclusion, CT is the most frequently used imaging modality to assess HCC resectability with a good sensitivity and specificity. MRI was generally comparable with that of CT and can be used as an alternative imaging technique. PET/CT appears to be the best technique in detecting lymph node and distant metastasis in HCC but has no clear role in helping to evaluate issues of local resectability. Hongchen Zhang, Jian Zhu, Fayong Ke, Mingzhe Weng, Xiangsong Wu, Maolan Li, Zhiwei Quan, Yingbin Liu, Yong Zhang, and Wei Gong Copyright © 2015 Hongchen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Focal Surfaces and Surfaces at a Constant Distance from the Edge of Regression on a Surface Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:17:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/397126/ We investigate the relationship between focal surfaces and surfaces at a constant distance from the edge of regression on a surface. We show that focal surfaces F1 and F2 of the surface M can be obtained by means of some special surfaces at a constant distance from the edge of regression on the surface M. Semra Yurttancikmaz and Omer Tarakci Copyright © 2015 Semra Yurttancikmaz and Omer Tarakci. All rights reserved. Coincidence of Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell and Meningomyelocele in a Dizygotic Twin Pregnancy Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:17:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/629561/ Pentalogy of Cantrell is an extremely rare and lethal syndrome. Ectopia cordis is frequently found in fetuses with POC but not required for incomplete forms. Likewise, meningomyelocele is a relatively uncommon neural tube defect affecting central nervous system and associated with neurological problems. Herein, we presented a woman with dizygotic twin pregnancy having coincidence of incomplete POC and MMC in each individual fetus, which has never been reported previously. Hakan Timur, Aytekin Tokmak, Hatice Bayram, Esra Şükran Çakar, and Nuri Danışman Copyright © 2015 Hakan Timur et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Pharmacological Method to Study the Chinese Medicinal Formula Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:15:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/436807/ Objectives. Hua-Zheng-Hui-Sheng-Dan (HZHSD) was used as an experimental model to explore research methods of large formulae in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using current molecular biology approaches. Materials and Methods. The trypan blue exclusion assay was used to determine cell viability and cell numbers. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The concentration of cyclin D1 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median effect principle was used in drug combination studies. An orthogonal experimental design was used to estimate the effects of each herb at different concentrations. The HeLa xenograft mouse model was used to compare the antitumor activity of drugs in vivo. Results. Among the 35 herbs that comprise HZHSD, Radix Rehmanniae Preparata (RRP), Caesalpinia sappan (CS), Evodia rutaecarpa (ER), Folium Artemisiae Argyi (FAA), Leonurus japonicus Houtt (LJH), Tumeric (Tu), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA), and Trogopterus Dung (TD) effectively inhibited the proliferation of HeLa and SKOV3 cells. Only RRR had an effect on HeLa and SKOV3 cell viability. According to the median effect principle, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) (AS), Tabanus (Ta), and Pollen Typhae (PT), which were proven to have a significant synergistic inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HeLa cells, were added to the original eight positive herbs. The combination of RPA and AS had a synergistic effect on inducing cell cycle S phase arrest and decreasing intracellular cyclin D1 in HeLa cells. By orthogonal experimental design, LJH and Tu were considered unnecessary herbs. The small formula (SHZHSD) consisted of RPA, AS, RRR, Ta., TD, PT, ER, CS, and FAA and was able to inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis. The antitumor effects of HZHSD and SHZHSD were also compared in vivo. Conclusions. Through molecular biology approaches both in vitro and in vivo, research into single drugs, and analysis using the median effect principle and orthogonal experimental design, the small formula (SHZHSD) was determined from the original formula (HZHSD). SHZHSD exhibited superior antitumor activity compared with the original formula both in vitro and in vivo. Rui Cao, Hong Zhang, Jie Guo, Xiao-hui Liu, Chang Liu, Cui-hong Zhu, and Xiong-zhi Wu Copyright © 2015 Rui Cao et al. All rights reserved. The Strategic Role of Nonbinding Communication Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:10:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/910614/ This paper studies the conditions that improve bargaining power using threats and promises. We develop a model of strategic communication, based on the conflict game with perfect information, in which a noisy commitment message is sent by a better-informed sender to a receiver who takes an action that determines the welfare of both. Our model captures different levels of aligned-preferences, for which classical games such as stag hunt, hawk-dove, and prisoner’s dilemma are particular cases. We characterise the Bayesian perfect equilibrium with nonbinding messages under truth-telling beliefs and sender’s bargaining power assumptions. Through our equilibrium selection we show that the less conflict the game has, the more informative the equilibrium signal is and less credibility is necessary to implement it. Luis A. Palacio, Alexandra Cortés-Aguilar, and Manuel Muñoz-Herrera Copyright © 2015 Luis A. Palacio et al. All rights reserved. Iliac Crest Avulsion Fracture in a Young Sprinter Tue, 01 Sep 2015 13:07:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/302503/ Avulsion fracture of the iliac crest is an uncommon pathology. It usually occurs in teenagers during sport activities, more common in boys. We report a case of 16-year-old male competitive sprinter, who had an avulsion of a part of the iliac crest and the anterior-superior iliac spine during a competition. The traumatism occurred during the period of acceleration phase out of the blocks which corresponds to the maximum traction phase on the tendons. Then a total loss of function of the lower limb appears forcing him to stop the run. X-ray and CT scan confirmed the rare diagnosis of avulsion of the quasitotality of the iliac crest apophysis, corresponding to Salter 2 fracture. We performed an open reduction and internal fixation with two screws, allowing a return to sport after 3 months and his personal best record in the 100 meters at the 6th postoperative month. L. Casabianca, R. Rousseau, P. Loriaut, A. Massein, G. Mirouse, A. Gerometta, and F. Khiami Copyright © 2015 L. Casabianca et al. All rights reserved. Usefulness of Nonenhanced Computed Tomography for Diagnosing Urolithiasis without Pyuria in the Emergency Department Tue, 01 Sep 2015 12:58:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/810971/ We compared the clinical utility of nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT) and intravenous urography (IVU) in patients with classic symptoms of renal colic without evidence of a urine infection. This was a retrospective analysis of IVU and NECT performed in adult patients with suspected renal colic at an emergency department between January 2005 and December 2013. The records of all patients in NECT and IVU groups were reviewed, and the patients were categorized according to the cause of their symptoms. A total of 2218 patients were enrolled. Of these patients, 1525 (68.8%) underwent IVU and 693 (31.2%) underwent NECT. The patients in NECT group were older (45.48 ± 14.96 versus 42.37 ± 13.68 years, p < 0.001), had less gross hematuria (7.6 versus 2.9%, p < 0.001), and were admitted more often (18.6 versus 12.0%, p < 0.001) than the patients in IVU group. Urinary stones were detected in 1413 (63.7%) patients. NECT had a higher detection rate of urolithiasis than IVP (74.0 versus 59.0%, p < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the incidence of urinary stones greater than 4mm between groups from the radiologic findings (p = 0.79) or the full medical record review (p = 0.87). Dong Hoon Lee, In Ho Chang, Jin Wook Kim, Byung Hoon Chi, and Sung Bin Park Copyright © 2015 Dong Hoon Lee et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Perioperative β-Blockers on Pulmonary Complications among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Undergoing Lung Resection Surgery Tue, 01 Sep 2015 12:58:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/lci/2015/204826/ The aim of this study is to determine if COPD patients undergoing lung resection with perioperative β-blocker use are more likely to suffer postoperative COPD exacerbations than those that did not receive perioperative β-blockers. Methods. A historical cohort study of COPD patients, undergoing lung resection surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 2002 and 2006. Primary outcomes were the rate of postoperative COPD exacerbations, defined as any initiation or increase of glucocorticoids for documented bronchospasm. Results. 520 patients with COPD were identified who underwent lung resection. Of these, 205 (39%) received perioperative β-blockers and 315 (61%) did not. COPD was mild among 361 patients (69% of all patients), moderate in 117 patients (23%), and severe in 42 patients (8%). COPD exacerbations occurred among 11 (5.4%) patients who received perioperative β-blockers and among 20 (6.3%) patients who did not. Secondary outcomes, which included respiratory failure, 30-day mortality, and the presence or absence of any cardiovascular complication, ICU transfer, cardiovascular complication, or readmission within 30 days, did not differ in prevalence between the two groups. Conclusions. This study implies that perioperative β-blockers use among COPD patients undergoing lung resection surgery does not impact the rate of exacerbations. A. Kamath, D. E. Stover, A. Hemdan, I. Belinskaya, R. M. Steingart, Y. Taur, and M. B. Feinstein Copyright © 2015 A. Kamath et al. All rights reserved. Expression Signatures of Long Noncoding RNAs in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Tue, 01 Sep 2015 12:33:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/276049/ Purpose. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common pediatric spinal deformity, is considered a complex genetic disease. Causing genes and pathogenesis of AIS are still unclear. This study was designed to identify differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) involving the pathogenesis of AIS. Methods. We first performed comprehensive screening of lncRNA and mRNA in AIS patients and healthy children using Agilent human lncRNA + mRNA Array V3.0 microarray. LncRNAs expression in different AIS patients was further evaluated using quantitative PCR. Results. A total of 139 lncRNAs and 546 mRNAs were differentially expressed between AIS patients and healthy control. GO and Pathway analysis showed that these mRNAs might be involved in bone mineralization, neuromuscular junction, skeletal system morphogenesis, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism, and regulation of signal pathway. Four lncRNAs (ENST00000440778.1, ENST00000602322.1, ENST00000414894.1, and TCONS_00028768) were differentially expressed between different patients when grouped according to age, height, classification, severity of scoliosis, and Risser grade. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the abnormal expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs in AIS, and the expression of some lncRNAs was related to clinical features. This study is helpful for further understanding of lncRNAs in pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis of AIS. Xiao-Yang Liu, Liang Wang, Bin Yu, Qian-yu Zhuang, and Yi-Peng Wang Copyright © 2015 Xiao-Yang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Distributed Multiagent for NAO Robot Joint Position Control Based on Echo State Network Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:54:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/945493/ Based on echo state networks, the joints position control of NAO robot is studied in this paper. The process to control the robot position can be divided into two phases. The senor parameters are released during the first phase. Depending on the dynamic coupling effect between the angle acceleration of passive joint and the torque of active joint, passive joint can be controlled indirectly to the desired position along the desired trajectory. The ESN control rules during the first phase are described and ESN controller is designed to control the motion of passive joint. The brake is locked during the second phase; then active joint is controlled to the desired position. The experimental control system based on PMAC controller is designed and developed. Finally, the joint position control of the NAO robot is achieved successfully by experiments. Echo state networks utilized incremental updates driven by new sensor readings and massive short memory with history inputs; thus varying communication rates can help imitate human upper limb motion based on wearable sensors to obtain human joint angles. Ling Qin and Bo Lei Copyright © 2015 Ling Qin and Bo Lei. All rights reserved. Bilateral Intracranial Vertebral Artery Stenosis Presenting as Recurrent Prolonged Presyncopal Episodes Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:47:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/251536/ Amongst various mechanisms of presyncopal events, posterior circulation disease needs to be considered. This particular mechanism has been underrecognized. We describe a case of a 76-year-old patient with recurrent posterior circulation TIAs, presenting as recurrent prolonged presyncopal events. Banu Sundar, Majaz Moonis, Ajay Wakhloo, and Ajit Puri Copyright © 2015 Banu Sundar et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Factor VIII as a Risk Factor in Indian Patients with DVT Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:46:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/srp/2015/307879/ Introduction. Elevated factor VIII population in the Indian population has not been studied as a possible risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). High factor VIII level is considered a predisposing factor for DVT and its recurrence. However it is known to vary between populations and its exact role in the etiopathogenesis of thrombophilia remains unknown. Material and Methods. Factor VIII levels of patients with DVT who had undergone a prothrombotic workup as a part of their workup was compared to normal age matched controls in a 1 : 3 ratio. Results. There were 75 patients with DVT who had undergone a prothrombotic workup in the course of their treatment for lower limb DVT. In these, 64% had levels of factor VIII more than 150 as compared to 63% of normal controls (, not significant). Conclusion. Elevated factor VIII in the Indians may not be associated with the same thrombotic risk as seen in the West. We find a variation in the levels of factor VIII with a different “normal” than what is reported in other populations. This needs further study to elucidate the role of factor VIII in the evaluation and treatment of thrombophilia. Darpanarayan Hazra, Indrani Sen, Edwin Stephen, Sunil Agarwal, Sukesh Chandran Nair, and Joy Mammen Copyright © 2015 Darpanarayan Hazra et al. All rights reserved. Error Estimation of Functions by Fourier-Laguerre Polynomials Using Matrix-Euler Operators Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:44:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijanal/2015/478345/ Various investigators have studied the degree of approximation of a function using different summability (Cesáro means of order : , Euler , and Nörlund ) means of its Fourier-Laguerre series at the point after replacing the continuity condition in Szegö theorem by much lighter conditions. The product summability methods are more powerful than the individual summability methods and thus give an approximation for wider class of functions than the individual methods. This has motivated us to investigate the error estimation of a function by -transform of its Fourier-Laguerre series at frontier point , where is a general lower triangular regular matrix. A particular case, when is a Cesáro matrix of order 1, that is, , has also been discussed as a corollary of main result. M. L. Mittal and Mradul Veer Singh Copyright © 2015 M. L. Mittal and Mradul Veer Singh. All rights reserved. Pull-In Analysis of the Flat Circular CMUT Cell Featuring Sealed Cavity Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:44:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/150279/ Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are one of the appealing MEMS devices. Most studies treat CMUTs as rigid plates vibrating in open air, ignoring the mechanical boundary conditions for simplification and resulting in cumulative errors in coupled fields. This paper presents a new analytical model for the pull-in characteristics of the flat circular CMUT cell featuring sealed cavity. Utilizing the plate theory coupled with Boyle’s law, the paper establishes a strong relation between the pressures inside the sealed cavity and the pull-in characteristics for the first time. Not only did we point out that the existence of the pressure inside the sealed cavity cannot be omitted, but we also quantified the direct effect of the pressure ratios on the pull-in phenomenon. The pull-in voltages increase while the pull-in ratios decrease with the pressure ratios of the pressure inside the sealed cavity to the ambient pressure. The proposed calculation process delivers a good approximation of the pull-in voltages and displacements, which are consistent with COMSOL simulation results. Particularly, the percentage error of our calculation process is 6.986% for the worst case. Therefore, our proposed analytical model accurately and efficiently predicts the pull-in characteristics and this paper offers new perspectives and reference value in designing and modeling the CMUTs. Wen Zhang, Hui Zhang, Fei Du, Jianchao Shi, Shijiu Jin, and Zhoumo Zeng Copyright © 2015 Wen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Syndecan-1 in Cancer: Implications for Cell Signaling, Differentiation, and Prognostication Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:42:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/796052/ Syndecan-1, a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is critically involved in the differentiation and prognosis of various tumors. In this review, we highlight the synthesis, cellular interactions, and the signalling pathways regulated by syndecan-1. The basal syndecan-1 level is also crucial for understanding the sequential changes involving malignant transformation, tumor progression, and advanced or disseminated cancer stages. Moreover, we focus on the cellular localization of this proteoglycan as cell membrane anchored and/or shed, soluble syndecan-1 with stromal or nuclear accumulation and how this may carry different, highly tissue specific prognostic information for individual tumor types. Tünde Szatmári, Rita Ötvös, Anders Hjerpe, and Katalin Dobra Copyright © 2015 Tünde Szatmári et al. All rights reserved. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:38:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2015/967472/ Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. Rani Kanthan, Jenna-Lynn Senger, Shahid Ahmed, and Selliah Chandra Kanthan Copyright © 2015 Rani Kanthan et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Analytical Method for Trace Ammonium in Freshwater and Seawater Using 4-Methoxyphthalaldehyde as Fluorescent Reagent Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:35:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/387207/ A novel fluorescent reagent for determination of ammonium, 4-methoxyphthalaldehyde (MOPA), was successfully synthesized in this study. Under alkaline conditions, MOPA could reacted with ammonium rapidly at room temperature, producing fluorescent substance which had maximum excitation at 370 nm and emission wavelength at 454 nm. Based on this, a novel fluorescence analysis method was established for the determination of trace ammonium in natural water. Experimental parameters including reagent concentration, pH, reaction equilibrium time, and metal ions masking agent were optimized. The results showed that the optimized MOPA concentration was 0.12 g/L, pH was in the range of 11.2–12.0, and sulfite concentration was 0.051 g/L, respectively. Metal ions masking agent had no obvious effect on the fluorescence signal. With the reaction time of 15 minutes, linear range of this method was between 0.025 and 0.300 μmol/L, and the method detecting limit was 0.0058 μmol/L. The matrix recovery of the proposed method was in the range of 93.6–108.1%. Compared with the OPA method, this method was much more sensitive and rapid without the interference of background peak and would be more suitable for developing a portable fluorescence detection system. Ying Liang, Yingming Pan, Qing Guo, Hongzhi Hu, Chancui Wu, and Qian Zhang Copyright © 2015 Ying Liang et al. All rights reserved. Shifting and Variational Properties for Fourier-Feynman Transform and Convolution Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:32:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/580653/ Shifting, scaling, modulation, and variational properties for Fourier-Feynman transform of functionals in a Banach algebra are given. Cameron and Storvick's translation theorem can be obtained as a corollary of our result. We also study shifting, scaling, and modulation properties for the convolution product of functionals in . Byoung Soo Kim Copyright © 2015 Byoung Soo Kim. All rights reserved. Multiconstrained QoS Routing Using a Differentially Guided Krill Herd Algorithm in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:26:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/862145/ This paper presents a multiconstrained quality-of-service routing (QoSR) based on a differentially guided krill herd (DGKH) algorithm in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). QoSR is a NP-complete and significant problem with immense challenges in determining an optimum path that simultaneously satisfies various constraints in MANETs, where the topology varies constantly. Various heuristic algorithms are widely used to solve this problem with compromise on excessive computational complexities and/or low performance. This paper proposes a krill herd based algorithm called DGKH, where the krill individuals do not update the position in comparison with one-to-one (as usual), but instead it uses the information from various krill individuals and then searches to determine a feasible path. Experiment results on MANETs with different number nodes (routes) are considered with three constraints which are maximum allowed delay, maximum allowed jitter, and minimum requested bandwidth. It is demonstrated that the proposed DGKH algorithm is an effective approximation algorithm exhibiting satisfactory performance than the KHA and existing algorithms in the literature by determining an optimum path that satisfies more than one QoS constraint in MANETs. D. Kalaiselvi and R. Radhakrishnan Copyright © 2015 D. Kalaiselvi and R. Radhakrishnan. All rights reserved. Riga-Fede Disease Associated with Natal Teeth: Two Different Approaches in the Same Case Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:25:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/234961/ Natal teeth are those present in the oral cavity at the child’s birth. These teeth can cause ulcers on the ventral surface of the tongue, lip, and the mother’s breast characterizing the Riga-Fede Disease. The treatment depends on the tooth’s mobility and the risk of aspiration or swallowing; whether it is supernumerary or regular primary teeth; whether it is causing interference in breastfeeding; breast and oral soft tissue injuries; and the general state of child’s health. A 1-month-old female infant was diagnosed with two natal teeth and an ulcerated lesion on the ventral surface of the tongue, leading to the clinical diagnosis of Riga-Fede Disease. The treatment performed consisted of the maintenance of the natal tooth that showed no increased mobility, adding a small increment of glass ionomer cement to its incisal edge, and orientation for hygiene with saline solution. Due to the increased mobility of the other natal tooth, surgical removal was performed. There was regular monitoring of the patient and complete wound healing was observed after 15 days. The proposed treatment was successful and the patient is still in follow-up without recurrence of the lesion after one year. Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato, Cintia Aparecida Damo Simões, Flávio Simões, Priscila Alves Nespolo, and Álvaro Henrique Borges Copyright © 2015 Luiz Evaristo Ricci Volpato et al. All rights reserved. Distributed Robust Attitude Tracking of Multiple Spacecraft with Disturbances and Unmodelled Dynamics Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:21:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/941697/ This paper considers the distributed robust attitude tracking problem of multiple spacecraft subject to disturbances and unmodelled dynamics. We designed a distributed robust attitude controller for each spacecraft using the relative attitudes and relative angular velocities of neighbors to ensure that the attitude tracking errors between the leader and the followers converge to zero under the condition that the communication graph among the followers is undirected and connected and at least one follower has the access to the leader. The control algorithm achieves robust attitude tracking under the existence of the disturbances and unmodelled dynamics by selecting the control gains according to the given condition. Dapeng Yang and Xiangdong Liu Copyright © 2015 Dapeng Yang and Xiangdong Liu. All rights reserved. Intermediaries in Trust: Indirect Reciprocity, Incentives, and Norms Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:18:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/234528/ Any trust situation involves a certain amount of risk for trustors that trustees could abuse. In some cases, intermediaries exist who play a crucial role in the exchange by providing reputational information. To examine under what conditions intermediary opinion could have a positive impact on cooperation, we designed two experiments based on a modified version of the investment game where intermediaries rated the behaviour of trustees under various incentive schemes and different role structures. We found that intermediaries can increase trust if there is room for indirect reciprocity between the involved parties. We also found that the effect of monetary incentives and social norms cannot be clearly separable in these situations. If properly designed, monetary incentives for intermediaries can have a positive effect. On the one hand, when intermediary rewards are aligned with the trustor’s interest, investments and returns tend to increase. On the other hand, fixed monetary incentives perform less than any other incentive schemes and endogenous social norms in ensuring trust and fairness. These findings should make us reconsider the mantra of incentivization of social and public conventional policy. Giangiacomo Bravo, Flaminio Squazzoni, and Károly Takács Copyright © 2015 Giangiacomo Bravo et al. All rights reserved. Altruism, Noise, and the Paradox of Voter Turnout: An Experimental Study Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:16:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/972753/ This paper addresses the paradox of voter turnout, wherein observed voting participation rates are far greater than what rational choice theory would predict. Voters face multiple voting choices, stochastic voting costs, and candidates offering different economic platforms. A combination of two approaches attempts to resolve this paradox: quantal response equilibrium (QRE) analysis, which introduces noise into the decision-making process, and the possibility of ethical (altruism-motivated) voting. A series of laboratory experiments empirically tests the predictions of the resulting model. Participants in the experiments are also given opportunities for communicating online with their immediate neighbors, in order to enhance the chances that subjects would realize the possibility of ethical voting. The results show that ethical voting occurs but gains momentum only in the presence of a vocal advocate and even then it mostly dissipated by the second half of the session. The QRE-based model was able to explain some but not all of the overvoting that was observed, relative to the Nash equilibrium prediction. There is evidence to suggest that communication via the chat feature generated some of the voting and also some of the ethical voting. Sarah A. Tulman Copyright © 2015 Sarah A. Tulman. All rights reserved. Preference for Efficiency or Confusion? A Note on a Boundedly Rational Equilibrium Approach to Individual Contributions in a Public Good Game Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:13:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/961930/ By using data from a voluntary contribution mechanism experiment with heterogeneous endowments and asymmetric information, we estimate a quantal response equilibrium (QRE) model to assess the relative importance of efficiency concerns versus noise in accounting for subjects overcontribution in public good games. In the benchmark specification, homogeneous agents, overcontribution is mainly explained by error and noise in behavior. Results change when we consider a more general QRE specification with cross-subject heterogeneity in concerns for (group) efficiency. In this case, we find that the majority of the subjects make contributions that are compatible with the hypothesis of preference for (group) efficiency. A likelihood-ratio test confirms the superiority of the more general specification of the QRE model over alternative specifications. Luca Corazzini and Marcelo Tyszler Copyright © 2015 Luca Corazzini and Marcelo Tyszler. All rights reserved. Energy-Based Spectrum Sensing under Nonreconstruction Framework Tue, 01 Sep 2015 11:01:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/259890/ To reduce the computational complexity and rest on less prior knowledge, energy-based spectrum sensing under nonreconstruction framework is studied. Compressed measurements are adopted directly to eliminate the effect of reconstruction error and high computational complexity caused by reconstruction algorithm of compressive sensing. Firstly, we summarize the conventional energy-based spectrum sensing methods. Next, the major effort is placed on obtaining the statistical characteristics of compressed measurements and its corresponding squared form, such as mean, variance, and the probability density function. And then, energy-based spectrum sensing under nonreconstruction framework is addressed and its performance is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. Simulations for the different parameters are performed to verify the performance of the presented algorithm. The theoretical analysis and simulation results reveal that the performance drops slightly less than that of conventional energy-normalization method and reconstruction-based spectrum sensing algorithm, but its computational complexity decreases remarkably, which is the first thing one should think about for practical applications. Accordingly, the presented method is reasonable and effective for fast detection in most cognitive scenarios. Yulong Gao and Yanping Chen Copyright © 2015 Yulong Gao and Yanping Chen. All rights reserved. Recurrent Episodes of Thyrotoxicosis in a Man following Pregnancies of his Spouse with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:56:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2015/940241/ Over an 8-year period, a male patient presented three times to an endocrinologist with strikingly similar presentations, including palpitations, anxiety, and tremors. Each of his presentations occurred following either the birth of one of his two children or his wife’s late termination of pregnancy. This patient’s illness followed the typical time course of silent thyroiditis: hyperthyroidism, followed by euthyroidism, a late hypothyroid phase, and then a complete resolution of symptoms and normalization of thyroid function tests over a period of several months. We discuss the curious clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and a literature review of alternate explanations for this patient’s condition, including a discussion of the impact of seasonal shift, spousal’s autoimmune disease, stress, and evolutionary changes in males postpartum. Although the differential diagnosis is broad in this case and the thyrotoxicosis could have coincidentally followed pregnancies of the patient’s wife, documented hormonal changes in men during postpartum period in conjunction with the timeline of the patient’s condition are suggestive of recurrent “sympathetic” postpartum thyroiditis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent painless thyroiditis in a man following pregnancies of his wife with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Regina Belokovskaya and Alice C. Levine Copyright © 2015 Regina Belokovskaya and Alice C. Levine. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation on Vortex Shedding from a Hydrofoil with a Beveled Trailing Edge Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:53:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mse/2015/565417/ To better understand the vortex shedding mechanism and to assess the capability of our numerical methodology, we conducted numerical investigations of vortex shedding from truncated and oblique trailing edges of a modified NACA 0009 hydrofoil. The hybrid particle-mesh method and the vorticity-based subgrid scale model were employed to simulate these turbulent wake flows. The hybrid particle-mesh method combines the vortex-in-cell and the penalization methods. We have implemented numerical schemes to more efficiently use available computational resources. In this study, we numerically investigated vortex shedding from various beveled trailing edges at a Reynolds number of 106. We then compared the numerical results with the experimental data, which show good agreement. We also conducted numerical simulations of wakes behind the hydrofoil at rest in periodically varying flows. Results reveal that vortex shedding is affected by the periodicity of a free-stream flow, as well as the trailing-edge shape. Seung-Jae Lee, Jun-Hyeok Lee, and Jung-Chun Suh Copyright © 2015 Seung-Jae Lee et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Methods and Applications in Biomechanical Modeling 2014 Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:37:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/768652/ Eduardo Soudah, Eddie Y. K. Ng, Zhonghua Sun, and Spandan Maiti Copyright © 2015 Eduardo Soudah et al. All rights reserved. Family Planning Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Married Men and Women in Rural Areas of Pakistan: Findings from a Qualitative Need Assessment Study Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:35:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrmed/2015/190520/ This paper presents the findings of a qualitative assessment aimed at exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding family planning and factors that influence the need for and use of modern contraceptives. A descriptive exploratory study was conducted with married women and men aged between 15 and 40. Overall, 24 focus group discussions were conducted with male and female participants in three provinces of Pakistan. The findings reveal that the majority knew about some modern contraceptive methods, but the overall contraceptive use was very low. Knowledge and use of any contraceptive method were particularly low. Reasons for not using family planning and modern contraception included incomplete family size, negative perceptions, in-laws’ disapproval, religious concerns, side-effects, and lack of access to quality services. The majority preferred private facilities over the government health facilities as the later were cited as derided. The study concluded the need for qualified female healthcare providers, especially for long term family planning services at health facilities instead of camps arranged occasionally. Addressing issues around access, affordability, availability, and sociocultural barriers about modern contraception as well as involving men will help to meet the needs and ensure that the women and couples fulfill their childbearing and reproductive health goals. Ghulam Mustafa, Syed Khurram Azmat, Waqas Hameed, Safdar Ali, Muhammad Ishaque, Wajahat Hussain, Aftab Ahmed, and Erik Munroe Copyright © 2015 Ghulam Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:28:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/324369/ Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits. Ingrid Melnikovova, Tomas Fait, Michaela Kolarova, Eloy C. Fernandez, and Luigi Milella Copyright © 2015 Ingrid Melnikovova et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cyclic Loading on the Lateral Behavior of Offshore Monopiles Using the Strain Wedge Model Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:23:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/485319/ This paper presents the effect of cyclic loading on the lateral behavior of monopiles in terms of load-displacement curves, deflection curves, and - curves along the pile. A commercial software, Strain Wedge Model (SWM), was employed, simulating a 7.5 m in diameter and 60 m long steel monopile embedded into quartz sands. In order to account for the effect of cyclic loading, accumulated strains were calculated based on the results of drained cyclic triaxial compression tests, and the accumulated strains were combined with static strains representing input strains into the SWM. The input strains were estimated for different numbers of cycles ranging from 1 to 105 and 3 different cyclic lateral loads (25%, 50%, and 75% of static capacity). The lateral displacement at pile head was found to increase with increasing number of cycles and increasing cyclic lateral loads. In order to model these deformations resulting from cyclic loading, the initial stiffness of the - curves has to be significantly reduced. Keunju Kim, Boo Hyun Nam, and Heejung Youn Copyright © 2015 Keunju Kim et al. All rights reserved. Mucinous Bladder Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:13:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2015/783109/ Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma is an extremely rare type of bladder cancer, with aggressive behavior and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The symptoms are similar to those of other bladder tumors. Surgery is the main treatment and remains the only curative option. There may be a progression from mucinous metaplasia to mucinous adenoma and then mucinous adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a 40-year-old woman with recurrent lower urinary tract infections, submitted to imaging tests, which showed a bladder tumor. After transurethral resection, pathology showed intestinal mucinous carcinoma. Metastatic work-up was negative. New surgical procedure showed metaplasia but no recurrence of the carcinoma. The patient is now using antibiotic prophylaxis and will undergo a cystoscopy every 3 months and computed tomography in one year. Bruno Mello R. Santos, Julia Duarte de Souza, Rachel Silviano Brandão Correa Lima, and Enaldo Melo de Lima Copyright © 2015 Bruno Mello R. Santos et al. All rights reserved. Successful Treatment of Acute on Chronic Mesenteric Ischaemia by Common Iliac to Inferior Mesenteric Artery Bypass Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:12:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2015/962603/ Chronic mesenteric ischaemia is a rare and potentially fatal condition most commonly due to atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion of two or more mesenteric arteries. Multivessel revascularisation of both primary mesenteric vessels, the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), is the current mainstay of treatment; however, in a certain cohort of patients, revascularisation one or both vessels may not be possible. Arteries may be technically unreconstructable or the patient may be surgically unfit for the prolonged aortic cross clamping times required. Here we present a case involving a 72-year-old woman with acute on chronic mesenteric ischaemia. She was a high risk surgical patient with severe unreconstructable stenotic disease of the SMA and celiac arteries. She was successfully treated with single vessel revascularisation of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) via a common iliac to IMA reversed vein bypass. At two-year follow-up, the graft remains patent and the patient continues to be symptom-free and is maintaining her weight. D. N. Coakley, F. M. Shaikh, and E. G. Kavanagh Copyright © 2015 D. N. Coakley et al. All rights reserved. Robust Control for Lateral and Longitudinal Channels of Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopters Tue, 01 Sep 2015 09:11:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2015/483096/ Lateral and longitudinal channels are two closely related channels whose control stability influences flight performance of small-scale unmanned helicopters directly. This paper presents a robust control approach for lateral and longitudinal channels in the presence of parameter uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The proposed control approach is performed by two steps. First, by performing system identification in frequency domain, system model of lateral and longitudinal channels can be accurately identified. Then, a robust state feedback controller is designed to stabilize the helicopter in lateral and longitudinal channels simultaneously under extraneous disturbances situation. The proposed approach takes advantages that it reduces order of the controller by preestimating some parameters (like flapping angles) without sacrificing control accuracy. Numerical results show the reliability and effectiveness of the proposed method. Bao Feng Copyright © 2015 Bao Feng. All rights reserved. FRET-Based Detection of Enzymatic Reaction of Botulinum on Microfluidic Device Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:54:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/126598/ A microfluidic device was implemented to detect the enzymatic reaction of botulinum toxin A (BTA) using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The microfluidic device comprised a main channel having two loading zones, a reaction chamber and a side channel perpendicular to the main channel. The reaction chamber defined by weir in the main channel was packed with microbeads. The movement of the peptide substrate and the BTA in the microfluidic device was controlled by electrophoresis, and the enzymatic reaction of the BTA was detected through the changes of the fluorescence intensity in the reaction chamber. As a result, it was observed that the enzymatic reaction was affected by the electric voltage applied for the movement of the BTA and the peptide and improved by packing the microbeads in the reaction chamber. The microfluidic device provides the tool to investigate the proteolysis of the substrate by the BTA. Young Min Bae, Seung Oh Jin, Insoo Kim, and Ki Young Shin Copyright © 2015 Young Min Bae et al. All rights reserved. A Formal Verification Methodology for DDD Mode Pacemaker Control Programs Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:54:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/939028/ Pacemakers are safety-critical devices whose faulty behaviors can cause harm or even death. Often these faulty behaviors are caused due to bugs in programs used for digital control of pacemakers. We present a formal verification methodology that can be used to check the correctness of object code programs that implement the safety-critical control functions of DDD mode pacemakers. Our methodology is based on the theory of Well-Founded Equivalence Bisimulation (WEB) refinement, where both formal specifications and implementation are treated as transition systems. We develop a simple and general formal specification for DDD mode pacemakers. We also develop correctness proof obligations that can be applied to validate object code programs used for pacemaker control. Using our methodology, we were able to verify a control program with millions of transitions against the simple specification with only 10 transitions. Our method also found several bugs during the verification process. Sana Shuja, Sudarshan K. Srinivasan, Shaista Jabeen, and Dharmakeerthi Nawarathna Copyright © 2015 Sana Shuja et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Validity of the Universal Scaling Law on Linear Chains of Silver Nanoparticles Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:47:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/983413/ Due to the wide range of variation in the plasmonic characteristics of the metallic nanoparticles arranged in linear arrays, the optical spectra of these arrays provide a powerful platform for spectroscopic studies and biosensing applications. Due to the coupling effect between the interacting nanoparticles, the excited resonance mode is shifted with the interparticle separation. The change in the resonance energy of the coupled mode is expressed by the fractional plasmon shift which would normally follow a universal scaling behavior. Such a universal law has been successfully applied on a system of dimers under parallel polarization. It has been found that the plasmon shift decays exponentially over interparticle spacing. The decay length is independent of both the nanoparticle and dielectric properties of the surrounding medium. In this paper, the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) is used to examine the validity of extending the universal scaling law to linear chains of several interacting nanoparticles embedded in various host media for both parallel and perpendicular polarizations. Our calculations reveal that the decay length of both the coupled longitudinal mode (LM) and transverse modes (TM) is strongly dependent on the refractive index of the surrounding medium . The decay constant of the LM is linearly proportional to while the corresponding constant of the TM decays exponentially with . Upon changing the nanoparticle size, the change in the peak position of the LM decreases exponentially with the interparticle separation and hence, it obeys the universal law. The sensitivity of coupled LM to the nanoparticle size is more pronounced at both smaller nanoparticle sizes and separations. The sensitivity of the coupled TM to the nanoparticle size on the other hand changes linearly with the separation and therefore, the universal law does not apply in the case of the excited TM. Mohammed Alsawafta, Mamoun Wahbeh, and Vo-Van Truong Copyright © 2015 Mohammed Alsawafta et al. All rights reserved. Reconstruction Method for Optical Tomography Based on the Linearized Bregman Iteration with Sparse Regularization Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:47:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/304191/ Optical molecular imaging is a promising technique and has been widely used in physiology, and pathology at cellular and molecular levels, which includes different modalities such as bioluminescence tomography, fluorescence molecular tomography and Cerenkov luminescence tomography. The inverse problem is ill-posed for the above modalities, which cause a nonunique solution. In this paper, we propose an effective reconstruction method based on the linearized Bregman iterative algorithm with sparse regularization (LBSR) for reconstruction. Considering the sparsity characteristics of the reconstructed sources, the sparsity can be regarded as a kind of a priori information and sparse regularization is incorporated, which can accurately locate the position of the source. The linearized Bregman iteration method is exploited to minimize the sparse regularization problem so as to further achieve fast and accurate reconstruction results. Experimental results in a numerical simulation and in vivo mouse demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed method. Chengcai Leng, Dongdong Yu, Shuang Zhang, Yu An, and Yifang Hu Copyright © 2015 Chengcai Leng et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Different Templates on the Synthesis of Mesoporous Sodalite Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:43:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2015/272613/ Sodalite is a type of zeolite having ultramicropore size and high thermal stability with strong basic sites. However, sodalite has several drawbacks in the catalyst application due to its smallest pore size (2.8 Å) and low surface area. To overcome these disadvantages, microporous sodalite can be modified to have mesoporous structure but maintain its active sites suitable for catalyst applications. This study was focused on the synthesis of mesoporous sodalite using various organic templates as structure directing molecules. A hierarchical mesoporous sodalite has been synthesized hydrothermally at 150°C for crystallization by using several mesotemplate and fumed silica as a silica source. The synthesized samples were characterized using XRD, FTIR, BET surface area, and FESEM. XRD and FTIR showed that all templates being used in the synthesis produced sodalite phase. The sodalite synthesized using organosilane (trimethoxysilyl-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride) and mixture of tetrapropyl ammonium hydroxide and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide with ratio of 1 : 1 showed mesoporosity as proven by higher BET surface area as compared to microporous sodalite with different pore structure as proven by pore distribution. Shima Shirani Lapari, Zainab Ramli, and Sugeng Triwahyono Copyright © 2015 Shima Shirani Lapari et al. All rights reserved. Immobilization Techniques and Integrated Signal Enhancement for POC Nanocolor Microfluidic Devices Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:36:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/386794/ Resonance enhanced absorption (REA) nanocolor microfluidic devices are new promising bioassay platforms, which employ nanoparticle- (NP-) protein conjugates for the immunodetection of medically relevant markers in biologic samples such as blood, urine, and saliva. The core component of a REA test device is a PET chip coated with aluminum and SiO2 thin layers, onto which biorecognitive molecules are immobilized. Upon addition of a sample containing the analyte of interest, a NP-protein-analyte complex is formed in the test device that is captured on the REA chip, for example, via streptavidin-biotin interaction. Thereby, a colored symbol is generated, which allows optical readout. Silver enhancement of the bound nanoparticles may be used to increase the sensitivity of the assay. Herein, we demonstrate that adsorptive immobilization via a cationic polymeric interlayer is a competitive and fast technique for the binding of the capture protein streptavidin onto planar SiO2 surfaces such as REA biochips. Moreover, we report the development of a silver enhancement technology that operates even in the presence of high chloride concentrations as may be encountered in biologic samples. The silver enhancement reagents may be integrated into the microfluidic assay platform to be released upon sample addition. Hereby, a highly sensitive one-step assay can be realized. Marlies Schlauf, Saied Assadollahi, Roland Palkovits, Peter Pointl, and Thomas Gerhard Maria Schalkhammer Copyright © 2015 Marlies Schlauf et al. All rights reserved. Benign Lymphoid Hyperplasia Presenting as Bilateral Scleral Nodules Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:34:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2015/179609/ Purpose. To report a case of transient lymphoid hyperplasia presenting as bilateral nodular scleral mass in a young male patient. Design. Observational case report. Methods. Chart review. Causes of scleritis were considered and excluded based on detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Results. Excisional biopsy of scleral lesions indicated lymphoid tissue. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a polyclonal population of T and B cells consistent with a benign reactive process. Conclusions. Chronic exposure of the ocular adnexa to many allergens and irritants may lead to activation of the inflammatory cascade. In severely allergic patients activation may be exponential and elicit an immune-mediated response resulting in a transient lymphoid reactive process. Ricardo J. Cumba and Rene Vazquez-Botet Copyright © 2015 Ricardo J. Cumba and Rene Vazquez-Botet. All rights reserved. Focused Ion Beam Assisted Interface Detection for Fabricating Functional Plasmonic Nanostructures Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:26:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/468069/ Plasmonic nanoscale devices/structures have gained more attention from researchers due to their promising functions and/or applications. One important technical focus on this rapidly growing optical device technology is how to precisely control and fabricate nanostructures for different functions or applications (i.e., patterning end points should locate at/near the interface while fabricating these plasmonic nanostructures), which needs a systematic methodology for nanoscale machining, patterning, and fabrication when using the versatile nanoprecision tool focused ion beam (FIB), that is, the FIB-assisted interface detection for fabricating functional plasmonic nanostructures. Accordingly, in this work, the FIB-assisted interface detection was proposed and then successfully carried out using the sample-absorbed current as the detection signal, and the real-time patterning depth control for plasmonic structure fabrication was achieved via controlling machining time. Besides, quantitative models for the sample-absorbed currents and the ion beam current were also established. In addition, some nanostructures for localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing applications were developed based on the proposed interface detection methodology for FIB nanofabrication of functional plasmonic nanostructures. It was shown that the achieved methodology can be conveniently used for real-time control and precise fabrication of different functional plasmonic nanostructures with different geometries and dimensions. Houxiao Wang, Wei Zhou, and Er Ping Li Copyright © 2015 Houxiao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Capsule Endoscopy Findings to Subsequent Double Balloon Enteroscopy: A Dual Center Experience Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:26:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dte/2015/438757/ Background. There has been a growing use of both capsule endoscopy (CE) and double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to diagnose and treat patients with obscure gastrointestinal blood loss and suspected small bowel pathology. Aim. To compare and correlate sequential CE and DBE findings in a large series of patients at two tertiary level hospitals in Wisconsin. Methods. An IRB approved retrospective study of patients who underwent sequential CE and DBE, at two separate tertiary care academic centers from May 2007 to December 2011, was performed. Results. 116 patients were included in the study. The mean age ± SD was 66.6 ± 13.2 years. There were 56% males and 43.9% females. Measure of agreement between prior capsule and DBE findings was performed using kappa statistics, which gave kappa value of 0.396 with . Also contingency coefficient was calculated and was found to be 0.732 (). Conclusions. Our study showed good overall agreement between DBE and CE. Findings of angioectasia had maximum agreement of 69%. Amandeep S. Kalra, Andrew J. Walker, Mark E. Benson, Anurag Soni, Nalini M. Guda, Mehak Misha, and Deepak V. Gopal Copyright © 2015 Amandeep S. Kalra et al. All rights reserved. Improved Quantum Artificial Fish Algorithm Application to Distributed Network Considering Distributed Generation Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:23:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2015/851863/ An improved quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (IQAFSA) for solving distributed network programming considering distributed generation is proposed in this work. The IQAFSA based on quantum computing which has exponential acceleration for heuristic algorithm uses quantum bits to code artificial fish and quantum revolving gate, preying behavior, and following behavior and variation of quantum artificial fish to update the artificial fish for searching for optimal value. Then, we apply the proposed new algorithm, the quantum artificial fish swarm algorithm (QAFSA), the basic artificial fish swarm algorithm (BAFSA), and the global edition artificial fish swarm algorithm (GAFSA) to the simulation experiments for some typical test functions, respectively. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can escape from the local extremum effectively and has higher convergence speed and better accuracy. Finally, applying IQAFSA to distributed network problems and the simulation results for 33-bus radial distribution network system show that IQAFSA can get the minimum power loss after comparing with BAFSA, GAFSA, and QAFSA. Tingsong Du, Yang Hu, and Xianting Ke Copyright © 2015 Tingsong Du et al. All rights reserved. Competition, Income Distribution, and the Middle Class: An Experimental Study Tue, 01 Sep 2015 08:22:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2015/303912/ We study the effect of competition on income distribution by means of a two-stage experiment. Heterogeneous endowments are earned in a contest, followed by a surplus-sharing task. The experimental test confirms our initial hypothesis that the existence of a middle class is as effective as institutional hurdles in limiting the power of the less able in order to protect the more able players from being expropriated. Furthermore, majoritarian voting with a middle class involves fewer bargaining impasses than granting veto rights to the more able players and, therefore, is more efficient. Bernhard Kittel, Fabian Paetzel, and Stefan Traub Copyright © 2015 Bernhard Kittel et al. All rights reserved.