Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. An Object-Oriented Framework for Versatile Finite Element Based Simulations of Neurostimulation Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:54:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcm/2016/9826596/ Computational simulations of transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) are commonly utilized by the neurostimulation community, and while vastly different TES application areas can be investigated, the mathematical equations and physiological characteristics that govern this research are identical. The goal of this work was to develop a robust software framework for TES that efficiently supports the spectrum of computational simulations routinely utilized by the TES community and in addition easily extends to support alternative neurostimulation research objectives. Using well-established object-oriented software engineering techniques, we have designed a software framework based upon the physical and computational aspects of TES. The framework’s versatility is demonstrated with a set of diverse neurostimulation simulations that (i) reinforce the importance of using anisotropic tissue conductivities, (ii) demonstrate the enhanced precision of high-definition stimulation electrodes, and (iii) highlight the benefits of utilizing multigrid solution algorithms. Our approaches result in a framework that facilitates rapid prototyping of real-world, customized TES administrations and supports virtually any clinical, biomedical, or computational aspect of this treatment. Software reuse and maintainability are optimized, and in addition, the same code can be effortlessly augmented to provide support for alternative neurostimulation research endeavors. Edward T. Dougherty and James C. Turner Copyright © 2016 Edward T. Dougherty and James C. Turner. All rights reserved. Finite Element Optimised Back Analysis of In Situ Stress Field and Stability Analysis of Shaft Wall in the Underground Gas Storage Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:42:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4052483/ A novel optimised back analysis method is proposed in this paper. The in situ stress field of an underground gas storage (UGS) reservoir in a Turkey salt cavern is analysed by the basic theory of elastic mechanics. A finite element method is implemented to optimise and approximate the objective function by systematically adjusting boundary loads. Optimising calculation is performed based on a novel method to reduce the error between measurement and calculation as much as possible. Compared with common back analysis methods such as regression method, the method proposed can further improve the calculation precision. By constructing a large circular geometric model, the effect of stress concentration is eliminated and a minimum difference between computed and measured stress can be guaranteed in the rectangular objective region. The efficiency of the proposed method is investigated and confirmed by its capability on restoring in situ stress field, which agrees well with experimental results. The characteristics of stress distribution of chosen UGS wells are obtained based on the back analysis results and by applying the corresponding fracture criterion, the shaft walls are proven safe. Yifei Yan, Bing Shao, Jianguo Xu, and Xiangzhen Yan Copyright © 2016 Yifei Yan et al. All rights reserved. Robust Fusion Filtering for Multisensor Time-Varying Uncertain Systems: The Finite Horizon Case Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:37:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2720549/ The robust fusion filtering problem is considered for linear time-varying uncertain systems observed by multiple sensors. A performance index function for this problem is defined as an indefinite quadratic inequality which is solved by the projection method in Krein space. On this basis, a robust centralized finite horizon fusion filtering algorithm is proposed. However, this centralized fusion method is with poor real time property, as the number of sensors increases. To resolve this difficulty, within the sequential fusion framework, the performance index function is described as a set of quadratic inequalities including an indefinite quadratic inequality. And a sequential robust finite horizon fusion filtering algorithm is given by solving this quadratic inequality group. Finally, two simulation examples for time-varying/time-invariant multisensor systems are exploited to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in the respect of the real time property and filtering accuracy. Xiaoliang Feng, Funa Zhou, and Chenglin Wen Copyright © 2016 Xiaoliang Feng et al. All rights reserved. Description of the Magnetic Field and Divergence of Multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm Potential Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:36:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2016/8645732/ Explicit formulas for the magnetic field and divergence of multisolenoid Aharonov-Bohm potential are obtained; the mathematical essence of this potential is explained. It is shown that the magnetic field and divergence of this potential are very singular generalized functions concentrated at a finite number of thin solenoids. Deficiency index is found for the minimal operator generated by the Aharonov-Bohm differential expression. Araz R. Aliev, Elshad H. Eyvazov, Said F. M. Ibrahim, and Hassan A. Zedan Copyright © 2016 Araz R. Aliev et al. All rights reserved. Male Involvement in Maternal Health Planning Key to Utilization of Skilled Birth Services in Malindi Subcounty, Kenya Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:25:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aph/2016/5608198/ Background. In Malindi, rural populations face challenges in accessing skilled birth services. Consequently, the majority of women deliver at home and only seek help when they have complications. This paper reports part findings from a study conducted to assess health priority setting process and its implication on availability, access, and use of emergency obstetric care services in Malindi. Methods. The study utilized qualitative methods to collect data from health personnel and maternal health stakeholders including community members. Source and method triangulation was used to strengthen the credibility of study findings. Data was categorized manually into themes around issues relating to utilization of skilled birth services discussed in this paper. Findings. Various barriers to utilization of skilled birth services were cited. However, most were linked to mwenye (the husband) who decides on the place of birth for the wife. Conclusion. Husbands are very influential in regard to decisions on skilled birth service utilization in this community. Their lack of involvement in maternal health planning may contribute as a barrier to utilization of skilled care by pregnant women. There is need to address the mwenye factor in an attempt to mitigate some of the barriers cited for nonutilization of skilled birth services. Lilian Nyamusi Nyandieka, Mercy Karimi Njeru, Zipporah Ng’ang’a, Elizabeth Echoka, and Yeri Kombe Copyright © 2016 Lilian Nyamusi Nyandieka et al. All rights reserved. Selective Inhibition of Bakuchicin Isolated from Psoralea corylifolia on CYP1A in Human Liver Microsomes Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:16:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5198743/ Bakuchicin is a furanocoumarin isolated from Psoralea corylifolia and shows several biological activities. Although there have been studies on the biological effects of bakuchicin, its modulation potency of CYP activities has not been previously investigated. Here, we investigated the inhibitory effects of bakuchicin on the activities of CYP isoforms by using a cocktail of probe substrates in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP. Bakuchicin strongly inhibited CYP1A-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation with an IC50 value of 0.43 μM in HLMs. It was confirmed by human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 with a value of 0.11 μM and 0.32 μM, respectively. A Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated that the inhibition mechanism of bakuchicin was competitive inhibition. Overall, this is the first study to investigate the potential CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 inhibition associated with bakuchicin and to report its competitive inhibitory effects on HLMs. Sun Joo Kim, Heung Chan Oh, Youn-Chul Kim, Gil-Saeng Jeong, and Sangkyu Lee Copyright © 2016 Sun Joo Kim et al. All rights reserved. Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of -Alkylenediphosphoric Acids from Phosphorus Oxychloride Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:08:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/8046893/ The aim of this investigation was to develop an efficient, rapid, and selective method for the synthesis of -alkylenediphosphoric acids (HO)2(O)P-O--O-P(O)(OH)2 from reaction of several diols with phosphorus oxychloride. The reaction was investigated using three methodologies: (i) presence of a base, (ii) classical heating, and (iii) use of microwave irradiation. Influence of reaction temperature and molar ratio of reagents, as well as the nature of the solvent, was studied using these three different methods. Dalila Meziane, Abdelhamid Elias, and Erwann Guénin Copyright © 2016 Dalila Meziane et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Global Harmony Search Algorithm for the Identification of Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems Based on Volterra Filter Modeling Tue, 09 Feb 2016 08:08:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3102845/ This paper describes an improved global harmony search (IGHS) algorithm for identifying the nonlinear discrete-time systems based on second-order Volterra model. The IGHS is an improved version of the novel global harmony search (NGHS) algorithm, and it makes two significant improvements on the NGHS. First, the genetic mutation operation is modified by combining normal distribution and Cauchy distribution, which enables the IGHS to fully explore and exploit the solution space. Second, an opposition-based learning (OBL) is introduced and modified to improve the quality of harmony vectors. The IGHS algorithm is implemented on two numerical examples, and they are nonlinear discrete-time rational system and the real heat exchanger, respectively. The results of the IGHS are compared with those of the other three methods, and it has been verified to be more effective than the other three methods on solving the above two problems with different input signals and system memory sizes. Zongyan Li and Deliang Li Copyright © 2016 Zongyan Li and Deliang Li. All rights reserved. Materials and Bioactive Factors in Dental Restoration and Periodontal Therapy Tue, 09 Feb 2016 07:42:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2016/4809051/ Vesna Miletic, Tihana Divnic-Resnik, Natasa Nikolic Jakoba, Andrija Petar Bosnjak, and Paulo Henrique Perlatti D’Alpino Copyright © 2016 Vesna Miletic et al. All rights reserved. Cubic Trigonometric Nonuniform Spline Curves and Surfaces Tue, 09 Feb 2016 07:36:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7067408/ A class of cubic trigonometric nonuniform spline basis functions with a local shape parameter is constructed. Their totally positive property is proved. The associated spline curves inherit most properties of usual polynomial -spline curves and enjoy some other advantageous properties for engineering design. They have continuity at single knots. For equidistant knots, they have continuity and continuity for particular choice of shape parameter. They can express freeform curves as well as ellipses. The associated spline surfaces can exactly represent the surfaces of revolution. Thus the curve and surface representation scheme unifies the representation of freeform shape and some analytical shapes, which is popular in engineering. Lanlan Yan Copyright © 2016 Lanlan Yan. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of Spreadsheet Applications on Mobile Devices Tue, 09 Feb 2016 07:02:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/9816152/ Advances in mobile screen sizes and feature enhancement for mobile applications have increased the number of users accessing spreadsheets on mobile devices. This paper reports a comparative usability study on four popular mobile spreadsheet applications: OfficeSuite Viewer 6, Documents To Go, ThinkFree Online, and Google Drive. We compare them against three categories of usability criteria: visibility; navigation, scrolling, and feedback; and interaction, satisfaction, simplicity, and convenience. Measures for each criterion were derived in a survey. Questionnaires were designed to address the measures based on the comparative criteria provided in the analysis. Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli, Wenyuan Tao, Zhaopeng Meng, Kang Zhang, Jun Kong, and Yue Ge Copyright © 2016 Veera V. S. M. Chintapalli et al. All rights reserved. Medical Students’ Perceptions of Dementia after Participation in Poetry Workshop with People with Dementia Tue, 09 Feb 2016 07:01:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijad/2016/2785105/ Purpose. Researchers assessed whether medical students’ participation in a poetry workshop with people with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) affected their attitudes towards persons with ADRD. Objective. To add to the growing body of research summarizing the impact of nonclinical interventions on medical students’ perspectives about people with ADRD. Design. Researchers used dementia attitudes scale (DAS) and interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) to analyze participants’ attitudes. Setting. Osteopathic medical school and dementia care unit in the state of New Jersey. Participants. Eleven out of fourteen medical students completed the study. Measurements. Emerging themes were classified from the postintervention semistructured interviews and descriptive statistics were used to compare the preintervention to postintervention DAS. Results. Researchers found statistically significant differences between preintervention and postintervention DAS scores. Study participants scored a preintervention DAS mean, 107.09 (SD = 11.85), that changed positively and significantly to the postintervention DAS mean, 121.82 (SD = 10.38). DAS subdomains, “comfort” () and “knowledge” , and eleven of the twenty DAS items underwent a positive and statistically significant shift from preintervention to postintervention. IPA of the interviews yielded five primary and five secondary themes, supporting the measured statistical outcomes. Conclusion. Medical students’ participation in a poetry workshop, with people with ADRD, positively impacts their attitudes. Alaina J. Garrie, Shruti Goel, and Martin M. Forsberg Copyright © 2016 Alaina J. Garrie et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Preemptive Flurbiprofen Axetil and Tramadol on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate under Spinal Anesthesia Tue, 09 Feb 2016 06:52:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2016/3942040/ Objective. To investigate the efficacy of preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil and tramadol on spinal anesthesia for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Methodology. In this prospective clinical study, we enrolled 60 patients undergoing TURP under spinal anesthesia with small-dose bupivacaine and sufentanil. Patients were randomly divided in two: group flurbiprofen axetil and tramadol (Group FT) intravenously received 1 mg/kg flurbiprofen axetil and 1 mg/kg tramadol 20 min prior to the surgical procedures and group control (Group C) was given normal saline. The characteristics of spinal anesthesia, blood pressure, heart rate, analgesic requirement, visual analogue scale (VAS), and overall satisfaction degree were collected. Results. Time to the first analgesic requirement was significantly longer in Group FT. Patients who needed postoperative analgesics were fewer in Group FT. VAS scores were lower in Group FT at postoperative time points of 1, 2, 6, and 12 h. The patients in Group FT were more satisfied than in Group C. Conclusions. Preoperative flurbiprofen axetil and tramadol can reduce and delay postoperative pain and then decrease analgesic consumption for TURP under spinal anesthesia without an increase of side effects. Jinguo Wang, Hongqin Li, Haichun Ma, and Na Wang Copyright © 2016 Jinguo Wang et al. All rights reserved. Energy Modulated Photon Radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo Feasibility Study Tue, 09 Feb 2016 05:52:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7319843/ A novel treatment modality termed energy modulated photon radiotherapy (EMXRT) was investigated. The first step of EMXRT was to determine beam energy for each gantry angle/anatomy configuration from a pool of photon energy beams (2 to 10 MV) with a newly developed energy selector. An inverse planning system using gradient search algorithm was then employed to optimize photon beam intensity of various beam energies based on presimulated Monte Carlo pencil beam dose distributions in patient anatomy. Finally, 3D dose distributions in six patients of different tumor sites were simulated with Monte Carlo method and compared between EMXRT plans and clinical IMRT plans. Compared to current IMRT technique, the proposed EMXRT method could offer a better paradigm for the radiotherapy of lung cancers and pediatric brain tumors in terms of normal tissue sparing and integral dose. For prostate, head and neck, spine, and thyroid lesions, the EMXRT plans were generally comparable to the IMRT plans. Our feasibility study indicated that lower energy (<6 MV) photon beams could be considered in modern radiotherapy treatment planning to achieve a more personalized care for individual patient with dosimetric gains. Ying Zhang, Yuanming Feng, Xin Ming, and Jun Deng Copyright © 2016 Ying Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:27:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jre/2016/4127619/ This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC) of asynchronous generator (AG) coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory. Rajen Pudur and Sarsing Gao Copyright © 2016 Rajen Pudur and Sarsing Gao. All rights reserved. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills Promote Angiogenesis of Ischemic Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Regulating MicroRNA-233-3p Expression Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:24:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5057328/ Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research shows that Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ) can promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis. Studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are the key component of gene regulation networks, which play a vital role in angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms involving miRNA by which TCM promotes ischemic cardiac angiogenesis have not been reported. We found that microRNA-223-3p (mir-223-3p) was the core miRNA of angiogenesis of rats ischemic cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) and inhibited angiogenesis by affecting RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signal pathway in previous study. Based on the results, we observed biological characteristics and optimal dosage for QSYQ intervening in rats ischemic CMECs angiogenesis and concluded that QSYQ low-dose group had the strongest ability to promote angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium. Using miRNA chip and real-time PCR techniques in this study, we identified mir-233-3p as the pivotal miRNA in QSYQ that regulated angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. From real-time PCR and western blot analysis, research showed that gene and protein expression of factors located RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signaling pathway, including HIF-1α, VEGF, MAPK, PI3K, and AKT, were significantly upregulated by QSYQ to regulate angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. This study showed that QSYQ promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis by downregulating mir-233-3p expression in rats ischemic CMECs. Guo-Hua Dai, Ning Liu, Jing-Wei Zhu, Jing Yao, Chun Yang, Pei-Ze Ma, and Xian-Bo Song Copyright © 2016 Guo-Hua Dai et al. All rights reserved. Texture Classification Using Scattering Statistical and Cooccurrence Features Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:14:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3946312/ Texture classification is an important research topic in image processing. In 2012, scattering transform computed by iterating over successive wavelet transforms and modulus operators was introduced. This paper presents new approaches for texture features extraction using scattering transform. Scattering statistical features and scattering cooccurrence features are derived from subbands of the scattering decomposition and original images. And these features are used for classification for the four datasets containing 20, 30, 112, and 129 texture images, respectively. Experimental results show that our approaches have the promising results in classification. Juan Wang, Jiangshe Zhang, and Jie Zhao Copyright © 2016 Juan Wang et al. All rights reserved. A New Least Squares Support Vector Machines Ensemble Model for Aero Engine Performance Parameter Chaotic Prediction Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:12:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4615903/ Aiming at the nonlinearity, chaos, and small-sample of aero engine performance parameters data, a new ensemble model, named the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) ensemble model with phase space reconstruction (PSR) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is presented. First, to guarantee the diversity of individual members, different single kernel LSSVMs are selected as base predictors, and they also output the primary prediction results independently. Then, all the primary prediction results are integrated to produce the most appropriate prediction results by another particular LSSVM—a multiple kernel LSSVM, which reduces the dependence of modeling accuracy on kernel function and parameters. Phase space reconstruction theory is applied to extract the chaotic characteristic of input data source and reconstruct the data sample, and particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to obtain the best LSSVM individual members. A case study is employed to verify the effectiveness of presented model with real operation data of aero engine. The results show that prediction accuracy of the proposed model improves obviously compared with other three models. Dangdang Du, Xiaoliang Jia, and Chaobo Hao Copyright © 2016 Dangdang Du et al. All rights reserved. Disorder Improves Light Absorption in Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells with Hybrid Light Trapping Structure Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:03:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2016/9371608/ We present a systematic simulation study on the impact of disorder in thin film silicon solar cells with hybrid light trapping structure. For the periodical structures introducing certain randomness in some parameters, the nanophotonic light trapping effect is demonstrated to be superior to their periodic counterparts. The nanophotonic light trapping effect can be associated with the increased modes induced by the structural disorders. Our study is a systematic proof that certain disorder is conceptually an advantage for nanophotonic light trapping concepts in thin film solar cells. The result is relevant to the large field of research on nanophotonic light trapping which currently investigates and prototypes a number of new concepts including disordered periodic and quasiperiodic textures. The random effect on the shape of the pattern (position, height, and radius) investigated in this paper could be a good approach to estimate the influence of experimental inaccuracies for periodic or quasi-periodic structures. Yanpeng Shi, Xiaodong Wang, and Fuhua Yang Copyright © 2016 Yanpeng Shi et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Treatment of Posttraumatic Radioulnar Synostosis Mon, 08 Feb 2016 14:01:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/5956304/ Radioulnar synostosis is a rare complication of forearm fractures. The formation of a bony bridge induces functional disability due to limitation of the pronosupination. Although the etiology of posttraumatic synostosis is unknown, it seems that the incidence is higher in patients who have suffered a concomitant neurological or burn trauma, and extensive soft tissue injury, mainly due to high-energy impact. Surgical treatment, such as reinsertion of distal biceps tendon into the radius, seems to be another possible factor. The aim of the surgical treatment is to remove the bony bridge and restore complete range of movement (ROM), thus preventing recurrence. Literature does not indicate a preferred type of surgical procedure for the aforementioned complication; however, it has been shown that surgical interposition of inert material reduces the formation rate of recurrent bony bridge. We describe a surgical technique in two cases in which the radius and ulna were wrapped with allogenic, cadaver fascia lata graft to prevent bony bridge formation. The data from 2 years of follow-up are reported, indicating full restoration of ROM and no recurrence of synostosis. S. Pfanner, P. Bigazzi, C. Casini, C. De Angelis, and M. Ceruso Copyright © 2016 S. Pfanner et al. All rights reserved. Penis Allotransplantation in Beagle Dog Mon, 08 Feb 2016 13:22:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/1489204/ This is an original research of penis allotransplantation. The paper presents an experiment allogenic penis transplantation model in Beagles, with a focus on recovery of blood supply and changes in tissue architecture. Twenty adult Beagles were allocated to 10 pairs for penile transplantation. After operation, the skin and glans were observed. If adverse symptoms occurred, the transplanted penis was resected and pathologically examined. Frequency of urination, urinary stream, and patency level were recorded 7 days after transplantation. Cystourethrography was performed on Day 10. The transplanted penises were resected on Day 14 for pathological examination. The research showed that transplanted penises survived after allotransplantation, and the dogs regained urination ability. Penis autotransplantation in Beagles is feasible. This preliminary study shows a potential for application of this new procedure for penis transplantation in humans. Yongbin Zhao, Weilie Hu, Lichao Zhang, Fei Guo, Wei Wang, Bangqi Wang, and Changzheng Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yongbin Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:15:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/6737345/ Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are a mesenchymal stem cell source with properties of self-renewal and multipotential differentiation. Compared to bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs), ASCs can be derived from more sources and are harvested more easily. Three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering scaffolds are better able to mimic the in vivo cellular microenvironment, which benefits the localization, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of ASCs. Therefore, tissue-engineered ASCs are recognized as an attractive substitute for tissue and organ transplantation. In this paper, we review the characteristics of ASCs, as well as the biomaterials and tissue engineering methods used to proliferate and differentiate ASCs in a 3D environment. Clinical applications of tissue-engineered ASCs are also discussed to reveal the potential and feasibility of using tissue-engineered ASCs in regenerative medicine. Ru Dai, Zongjie Wang, Roya Samanipour, Kyo-in Koo, and Keekyoung Kim Copyright © 2016 Ru Dai et al. All rights reserved. Sensorineural Tinnitus: Its Pathology and Probable Therapies Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:11:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijoto/2016/2830157/ Tinnitus is not a single disease but a group of different diseases with different pathologies and therefore different treatments. Regarding tinnitus as a single disease is hampering progress in understanding of the pathophysiology of tinnitus and perhaps, more importantly, it is a serious obstacle in development of effective treatments for tinnitus. Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sound that takes many different forms and has similarities with chronic neuropathic pain. The pathology may be in the cochlea, in the auditory nerve, or, most commonly, in the brain. Like chronic neuropathic pain tinnitus is not life threatening but influences many normal functions such as sleep and the ability to concentrate on work. Some forms of chronic tinnitus have two components, a (phantom) sound and a component that may best be described as suffering or distress. The pathology of these two components may be different and the treatment that is most effective may be different for these two components. The most common form of treatment of tinnitus is pharmacological agents and behavioral treatment combined with sound therapy. Less common treatments are hypnosis and acupuncture. Various forms of neuromodulation are becoming in use in an attempt to reverse maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. Aage R. Møller Copyright © 2016 Aage R. Møller. All rights reserved. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:10:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3820704/ The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant ( and ) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant () after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. Nirmal Kumar Subedi, S. M. Abdur Rahman, and Md. Ahsanul Akbar Copyright © 2016 Nirmal Kumar Subedi et al. All rights reserved. Intravitreal Melphalan for Vitreous Seeds: Initial Experience in China Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:08:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/4387286/ Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal melphalan for vitreous seeds from retinoblastoma in Chinese patients. Methods. This is a retrospective review of 17 consecutive Chinese patients (19 eyes) with viable vitreous seeds from retinoblastoma. The patients received multiple intravitreal injections of 20 ug melphalan. Results. The International Classification of Retinoblastoma groups were B in 1 eye, C in 5 eyes, D in 11 eyes, and E in 2 eyes. On average, 6 injections (range: 1–15) were given to each eye at the interval of 2–4 weeks. Successful control of vitreous seeds was achieved in 16 of 19 eyes (84.21%). Globe retention was achieved in 73.68% (14/19) eyes. The patients were followed up for 27 months on average (median: 26; range: 17–42 months). There is a significant difference in response to intravitreal melphalan for cloud, spheres, and dust seeds with a median number of injections of 9, 6, and 3, respectively (). Complications related to intravitreal melphalan included vitreous hemorrhage, cataract, salt-and-pepper retinopathy, and pupil posterior synechia. There was no case of epibulbar extension or systemic metastasis within the period of follow-up. Conclusion. Intravitreal melphalan achieved a high local control rate for vitreous seeds without extraocular extension and with acceptable toxicity in Chinese retinoblastoma patients. Xunda Ji, Peiyan Hua, Jing Li, Jiakai Li, Junyang Zhao, and Peiquan Zhao Copyright © 2016 Xunda Ji et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Dental Enamel Surface Submitted to Fruit Juice Plus Soymilk by Micro X-Ray Fluorescence: In Vitro Study Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:07:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/8123769/ Objective. This paper aimed to analyze the in vitro industrialized fruit juices effect plus soy to establish the erosive potential of these solutions. Materials and Methods. Seventy bovine incisors were selected after being evaluated under stereomicroscope. Their crowns were prepared and randomly divided into 7 groups, using microhardness with allocation criteria. The crowns were submitted to the fruit juice plus soy during 15 days, twice a day. The pH values, acid titration, and Knoop microhardness were recorded and the specimens were evaluated using X-ray microfluorescence (µXRF). Results. The pH average for all juices and after 3 days was significantly below the critical value for dental erosion. In average, the pH value decreases 14% comparing initial time and pH after 3 days. Comparing before and after, there was a 49% microhardness decrease measured in groups (). Groups G1, G2, G5, and G6 are above this average. The analysis by μXRF showed a decrease of approximately 7% Ca and 4% P on bovine crowns surface. Florida (FL) statistical analysis showed a statistically significant 1 difference between groups. Thus, a tooth chance to suffer demineralization due to industrialized fruit juices plus soy is real. Janaína Salmos Brito, Alexandrino Santos Neto, Luciano Silva, Rebeca Menezes, Natália Araújo, Vanda Carneiro, Lara Magalhães Moreno, Jéssica Miranda, Pâmella Álvares, Giselle Nevares, Felipe Xavier, José Alcides Arruda, Ricardo Bessa-Nogueira, Natanael Santos, Gabriela Queiroz, Ana Paula Sobral, Márcia Silveira, Diana Albuquerque, and Marleny Gerbi Copyright © 2016 Janaína Salmos Brito et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Osseointegration by Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Titanium Implants In Vitro and In Vivo Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:07:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2016/3837679/ This study designed a biomimetic implant for reducing healing time and achieving early osseointegration to create an active surface. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a strong regulator protein in osteogenic pathways. Due to hardly maintaining BMP-2 biological function and specificity, BMP-2 efficient delivery on implant surfaces is the main challenge for the clinic application. In this study, a novel method for synthesizing functionalized silane film for superior modification with BMP-2 on titanium surfaces is proposed. Three groups were compared with and without BMP-2 on modified titanium surfaces in vitro and in vivo: mechanical grinding; electrochemical modification through potentiostatic anodization (ECH); and sandblasting, alkali heating, and etching (SMART). Cell tests indicated that the ECH and SMART groups with BMP-2 markedly promoted D1 cell activity and differentiation compared with the groups without BMP-2. Moreover, the SMART group with a BMP-2 surface markedly promoted early alkaline phosphatase expression in the D1 cells compared with the other surface groups. Compared with these groups in vivo, SMART silaning with BMP-2 showed superior bone quality and created contact areas between implant and surrounding bones. The SMART group with BMP-2 could promote cell mineralization in vitro and osseointegration in vivo, indicating potential clinical use. Fu-Yuan Teng, Wen-Cheng Chen, Yin-Lai Wang, Chun-Cheng Hung, and Chun-Chieh Tseng Copyright © 2016 Fu-Yuan Teng et al. All rights reserved. Production and Characterization of Highly Thermostable β-Glucosidase during the Biodegradation of Methyl Cellulose by Fusarium oxysporum Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:06:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bri/2016/3978124/ Production of β-glucosidase from Fusarium oxysporum was investigated during degradation of some cellulosic substrates (Avicel, α-cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and methylcellulose). Optimized production of β-glucosidase using the cellulosic substrate that supported highest yield of enzyme was examined over 192 h fermentation period and varied pH of 3.0–11.0. The β-glucosidase produced was characterized for its suitability for industrial application. Methyl cellulose supported the highest yield of β-glucosidase (177.5 U/mg) at pH 6.0 and 30°C at 96 h of fermentation with liberation of 2.121 μmol/mL glucose. The crude enzyme had optimum activity at pH 5.0 and 70°C. The enzyme was stable over broad pH range of 4.0–7.0 with relative residual activity above 60% after 180 min of incubation. β-glucosidase demonstrated high thermostability with 83% of its original activity retained at 70°C after 180 min of incubation. The activity of β-glucosidase was enhanced by Mn2+ and Fe2+ with relative activities of 167.67% and 205.56%, respectively, at 5 mM and 360% and 315%, respectively, at 10 mM. The properties shown by β-glucosidase suggest suitability of the enzyme for industrial applications in the improvement of hydrolysis of cellulosic compounds into fermentable sugars that can be used in energy generation and biofuel production. Folasade M. Olajuyigbe, Chidinma M. Nlekerem, and Olusola A. Ogunyewo Copyright © 2016 Folasade M. Olajuyigbe et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Quality of Life and Pregnancy Outcomes of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Survivors Treated by Total Thyroidectomy and I131 during Adolescence and Young Adulthood Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:06:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/7586482/ Introduction. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is rare and confers good prognosis. Long-term health related quality of life (HRQoL) and pregnancy outcomes are not well known in subjects treated during adolescence and young adulthood. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis of HRQoL and global self-esteem, using SF-36 and ISP-25 surveys, and of pregnancy outcomes in female survivors of DTC treated by total thyroidectomy and I131 before age of 25 years. Results. Forty-five of 61 patients (74%) responded to the survey. Cumulative I131 activity was ≤3.85 GBq in 18 subjects and >3.85 GBq in 27 subjects. Mean time from diagnosis was 7.6 ± 5.2 years for the group ≤ 3.85 GBq versus 16.9 ± 11.6 years for the group > 3.85 GBq (). No significant alteration in long-term HRQoL and global self-esteem was observed. Thirty pregnancies after I131 were noted in patients from the group > 3.85 GBq and 10 in patients from the group ≤ 3.85 GBq. Frequency of miscarriages was of 17% (group > 3.85 GBq) and 10% (group ≤ 3.85 GBq) with 9 and 24 live births, respectively. No congenital malformations or first year mortality was noted. Conclusion. Long-term HRQoL, global self-esteem, and pregnancy outcomes are not affected in young female survivors of DTC. Melanie Metallo, Lelia Groza, Laurent Brunaud, Marc Klein, Georges Weryha, and Eva Feigerlova Copyright © 2016 Melanie Metallo et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Siting and Sizing of Multiple DG Units for the Enhancement of Voltage Profile and Loss Minimization in Transmission Systems Using Nature Inspired Algorithms Mon, 08 Feb 2016 12:02:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/1086579/ Power grid becomes smarter nowadays along with technological development. The benefits of smart grid can be enhanced through the integration of renewable energy sources. In this paper, several studies have been made to reconfigure a conventional network into a smart grid. Amongst all the renewable sources, solar power takes the prominent position due to its availability in abundance. Proposed methodology presented in this paper is aimed at minimizing network power losses and at improving the voltage stability within the frame work of system operation and security constraints in a transmission system. Locations and capacities of DGs have a significant impact on the system losses in a transmission system. In this paper, combined nature inspired algorithms are presented for optimal location and sizing of DGs. This paper proposes a two-step optimization technique in order to integrate DG. In a first step, the best size of DG is determined through PSO metaheuristics and the results obtained through PSO is tested for reverse power flow by negative load approach to find possible bus locations. Then, optimal location is found by Loss Sensitivity Factor (LSF) and weak (WK) bus methods and the results are compared. In a second step, optimal sizing of DGs is determined by PSO, GSA, and hybrid PSOGSA algorithms. Apart from optimal sizing and siting of DGs, different scenarios with number of DGs (3, 4, and 5) and capacities of DGs ( alone, alone, and   and both) are also analyzed and the results are analyzed in this paper. A detailed performance analysis is carried out on IEEE 30-bus system to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Ambika Ramamoorthy and Rajeswari Ramachandran Copyright © 2016 Ambika Ramamoorthy and Rajeswari Ramachandran. All rights reserved. Construction and Testing of Lightweight and Low-Cost Pneumatically Inflated Solar Concentrators Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:59:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2758546/ Design, construction, and evaluation of a cylindrical-trough solar concentrator with 1.3 m aperture, 2.15 m length, and 0.54 m focal length, with heat-pipe or vacuum tube receiver and one axis tracking system, are presented. Design performance was tested under ASHRAE standard 93-1986 (RA 91). The concentrator system is lightweight and inexpensive since it was made of polymeric membranes and was pneumatically inflated to acquire its cylindrical shape achieving good optical quality. Further implementation of a flat and a cylindrical extension of the concentrating mirror as secondary mirrors was incorporated into the concentrator design in order to compensate for seasonal variations of collected radiation. Total initial investment of $163.30 or $58.5/m2 and efficiencies ranging from 33 to 25% for 25 up to 65°C show an excellent cost-performance ratio. Construction, costs, and efficiencies obtained by us and developed by other groups are compared to emphasize the high cost/benefit ratio and efficiencies of this approach. F. M. I. De Los Santos-García, Y. Nahmad-Molinari, J. Nieto-Navarro, C. Alanís-Ruiz, and Felipe Patiño-Jiménez Copyright © 2016 F. M. I. De Los Santos-García et al. All rights reserved. The Alternative Faces of Macrophage Generate Osteoclasts Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:35:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9089610/ The understanding of how osteoclasts are generated and whether they can be altered by inflammatory stimuli is a topic of particular interest for osteoclastogenesis. It is known that the monocyte/macrophage lineage gives rise to osteoclasts (OCs) by the action of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), which induce cell differentiation through their receptors, c-fms and RANK, respectively. The multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) generated by the engagement of RANK/RANKL are typical OCs. Nevertheless, very few studies have addressed the question of which subset of macrophages generates OCs. Indeed, two main subsets of macrophages are postulated, the inflammatory or classically activated type (M1) and the anti-inflammatory or alternatively activated type (M2). It has been proposed that macrophages can be polarized in vitro towards a predominantly M1 or M2 phenotype with the addition of granulocyte macrophage- (GM-) CSF or M-CSF, respectively. Various inflammatory stimuli known to induce macrophage polarization, such as LPS or TNF-, can alter the type of MGC obtained from RANKL-induced differentiation. This review aims to highlight the role of immune-related stimuli and factors in inducing macrophages towards the osteoclastogenesis choice. N. Lampiasi, R. Russo, and F. Zito Copyright © 2016 N. Lampiasi et al. All rights reserved. Oxygen Mass Transfer in an Aerated Stirred Tank with Double Impellers: A Generalized Correlation Including Spacing Impact Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:30:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijce/2016/7386453/ Stirred aerated tanks by double impellers are used in fermentation and various biological processes for water treatment, food industry, and pharmaceutical production. In this study, a generalized correlation model was developed for the dependent parameter (). The oxygen mass transfer from air to liquid takes place by rotating the double impellers (IBRC and PBPU) in the aerated tank. This model considers Reynolds number, Froude number, power number, the liquid height, and the spacing between impellers as the most significant specifications that are related to aerated tank performance. The spacing between the impellers is considered to be a design factor of such industrial equipment due to its remarkable impact on the oxygen mass transfer. Hayder Mohammed Issa Copyright © 2016 Hayder Mohammed Issa. All rights reserved. An Improved Surface Simplification Method for Facial Expression Animation Based on Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix and Maximum Shape Operator Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:22:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2370919/ Facial animation is one of the most popular 3D animation topics researched in recent years. However, when using facial animation, a 3D facial animation model has to be stored. This 3D facial animation model requires many triangles to accurately describe and demonstrate facial expression animation because the face often presents a number of different expressions. Consequently, the costs associated with facial animation have increased rapidly. In an effort to reduce storage costs, researchers have sought to simplify 3D animation models using techniques such as Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric. The studies conducted have examined the problems in the homogeneity of the local coordinate system between different expression models and in the retainment of simplified model characteristics. This paper proposes a method that applies Homogeneous Coordinate Transformation Matrix to solve the problem of homogeneity of the local coordinate system and Maximum Shape Operator to detect shape changes in facial animation so as to properly preserve the features of facial expressions. Further, root mean square error and perceived quality error are used to compare the errors generated by different simplification methods in experiments. Experimental results show that, compared with Deformation Sensitive Decimation and Feature Edge Quadric, our method can not only reduce the errors caused by simplification of facial animation, but also retain more facial features. Juin-Ling Tseng Copyright © 2016 Juin-Ling Tseng. All rights reserved. A Comparative Analysis of the Endocannabinoid System in the Retina of Mice, Tree Shrews, and Monkeys Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:20:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/3127658/ The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in various parts of the central nervous system, including the retina. The localization of the key eCB receptors, particularly CB1R and CB2R, has been recently reported in rodent and primate retinas with striking interspecies differences. Little is known about the distribution of the enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of these eCBs. We therefore examined the expression and localization of the main components of the eCB system in the retina of mice, tree shrews, and monkeys. We found that CB1R and FAAH distributions are well-preserved among these species. However, expression of NAPE-PLD is circumscribed to the photoreceptor layer only in monkeys. In contrast, CB2R expression is variable across these species; in mice, CB2R is found in retinal neurons but not in glial cells; in tree shrews, CB2R is expressed in Müller cell processes of the outer retina and in retinal neurons of the inner retina; in monkeys, CB2R is restricted to Müller cells. Finally, the expression patterns of MAGL and DAGLα are differently expressed across species. Overall, these results provide evidence that the eCB system is differently expressed in the retina of these mammals and suggest a distinctive role of eCBs in visual processing. Joseph Bouskila, Pasha Javadi, Laurent Elkrief, Christian Casanova, Jean-François Bouchard, and Maurice Ptito Copyright © 2016 Joseph Bouskila et al. All rights reserved. Studies on Pumice Lightweight Aggregate Concrete with Quarry Dust Using Mathematical Modeling Aid of ACO Techniques Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:18:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/9583757/ The lightweight aggregate is an aggregate that weighs less than the usual rock aggregate and the quarry dust is a rock particle used in the concrete for the experimentation. The significant intention of the proposed technique is to frame a mathematical modeling with the aid of the optimization techniques. The mathematical modeling is done by minimizing the cost and time consumed in the case of extension of the real time experiment. The proposed mathematical modeling is utilized to predict four output parameters such as compressive strength (Mpa), split tensile strength (Mpa), flexural strength (Mpa), and deflection (in mm). Here, the modeling is carried out with three different optimization techniques like genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and ant colony optimization (ACO) with 80% of data from experiment utilized for the training and the remaining 20% for the validation. Finally, while testing, the error value is minimized and the performance obtained in the ACO for the parameters such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, and deflection is 91%, 98%, 87%, and 94% of predicted values, respectively, in the mathematical modeling. J. Rex and B. Kameshwari Copyright © 2016 J. Rex and B. Kameshwari. All rights reserved. Empirical Likelihood Inference for First-Order Random Coefficient Integer-Valued Autoregressive Processes Mon, 08 Feb 2016 11:05:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/9505794/ We apply the empirical likelihood method to estimate the variance of random coefficient in the first-order random coefficient integer-valued autoregressive (RCINAR(1)) processes. The empirical likelihood ratio statistic is derived and some asymptotic theory for it is presented. Furthermore, a simulation study is presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Zhiwen Zhao and Wei Yu Copyright © 2016 Zhiwen Zhao and Wei Yu. All rights reserved. Use of Scrambler Therapy in Acute Paediatric Pain: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Mon, 08 Feb 2016 10:06:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/2628919/ We report our clinical experience on the effect of Scrambler Therapy (ST) for a child with acute mixed pain refractory to pharmacological treatment. ST, recently proposed as an alternative treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in adults, is a noninvasive approach to relieve pain, by changing pain perception at brain level. It is safe and has no side effects. Further research is needed to assess its efficacy for acute pain and for paediatric population. Sabrina Congedi, Silvia Spadini, Chiara Di Pede, Martina Ometto, Tatiana Franceschi, Valentina De Tommasi, Caterina Agosto, Pierina Lazzarin, and Franca Benini Copyright © 2016 Sabrina Congedi et al. All rights reserved. Orthopedic Manifestations of Mobius Syndrome: Case Series and Survey Study Mon, 08 Feb 2016 10:05:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2016/9736723/ Background. Mobius Syndrome is a rare disease defined by bilateral congenital 7th nerve palsy. We focus on reporting the prevalence of orthopedic disease in this population. Methods. Twenty-three individuals with Mobius Syndrome underwent orthopedic physical examination, and additional 96 patients filled out a survey for self-reported orthopedic diagnoses. Results. Clubfoot was present in 60% of individuals in the physical exam series and 42% of those in the survey. Scoliosis was present in 26% and 28%, respectively. Poland’s Syndrome was present in 17% and 30%. In addition to these findings, 27% of patients reported having difficulty with anesthesia, including difficulty in intubation and airway problems. Conclusion. An increased prevalence of scoliosis, clubfoot, transverse limb deficiencies, and Poland’s Syndrome is identified in the setting of Mobius Syndrome. In the setting of several deformities often requiring surgical correction, a high incidence of anesthetic difficulty is noted and should be discussed with patients and other providers during surgical planning. Philip McClure, David Booy, Julia Katarincic, and Craig Eberson Copyright © 2016 Philip McClure et al. All rights reserved. Torsional Oscillations in Automotive Transmissions: Experimental Analysis and Modelling Mon, 08 Feb 2016 10:04:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/5721960/ The paper investigates the torsional oscillations of an automotive transmission system by means of an experimental test bench used to validate the proposed lumped parameter model. The rig consists of a Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) and a Manual Transmission (MT) connected through the respective output shafts, while the excitation is provided by two electric motors, which are controlled in speed or torque. The experimental analysis includes the measurement of the external torques, applied by the two electric motors to the mechanical system, and the measurement of the system response in terms of angular speeds at different positions along the transmission line. The frequency response of the system is estimated from the experimental data and compared with the results of a 5-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model, which proves to be adequate to describe the dynamic behaviour of the system up to a frequency of 200 Hz. The comparison between simulated results and experimental data shows good agreement, so the model can be used to predict the torsional vibrations of the transmission system in the linear field. Moreover, the effects of the nonlinearities associated with the mean value of the excitations are shown. Finally the influence of the selected gear ratio on the experimental frequency response is discussed. Enrico Galvagno, Mauro Velardocchia, and Alessandro Vigliani Copyright © 2016 Enrico Galvagno et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Methods for Pricing American Options with Time-Fractional PDE Models Mon, 08 Feb 2016 10:03:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/5614950/ In this paper we develop a Laplace transform method and a finite difference method for solving American option pricing problem when the change of the option price with time is considered as a fractal transmission system. In this scenario, the option price is governed by a time-fractional partial differential equation (PDE) with free boundary. The Laplace transform method is applied to the time-fractional PDE. It then leads to a nonlinear equation for the free boundary (i.e., optimal early exercise boundary) function in Laplace space. After numerically finding the solution of the nonlinear equation, the Laplace inversion is used to transform the approximate early exercise boundary into the time space. Finally the approximate price of the American option is obtained. A boundary-searching finite difference method is also proposed to solve the free-boundary time-fractional PDEs for pricing the American options. Numerical examples are carried out to compare the Laplace approach with the finite difference method and it is confirmed that the former approach is much faster than the latter one. Zhiqiang Zhou and Xuemei Gao Copyright © 2016 Zhiqiang Zhou and Xuemei Gao. All rights reserved. Intelligent Soft Computing on Forex: Exchange Rates Forecasting with Hybrid Radial Basis Neural Network Mon, 08 Feb 2016 10:02:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/3460293/ This paper deals with application of quantitative soft computing prediction models into financial area as reliable and accurate prediction models can be very helpful in management decision-making process. The authors suggest a new hybrid neural network which is a combination of the standard RBF neural network, a genetic algorithm, and a moving average. The moving average is supposed to enhance the outputs of the network using the error part of the original neural network. Authors test the suggested model on high-frequency time series data of USD/CAD and examine the ability to forecast exchange rate values for the horizon of one day. To determine the forecasting efficiency, they perform a comparative statistical out-of-sample analysis of the tested model with autoregressive models and the standard neural network. They also incorporate genetic algorithm as an optimizing technique for adapting parameters of ANN which is then compared with standard backpropagation and backpropagation combined with -means clustering algorithm. Finally, the authors find out that their suggested hybrid neural network is able to produce more accurate forecasts than the standard models and can be helpful in eliminating the risk of making the bad decision in decision-making process. Lukas Falat, Dusan Marcek, and Maria Durisova Copyright © 2016 Lukas Falat et al. All rights reserved. Simple Simulated Propagation Modeling and Experimentation within and around Buildings at 2700 MHz Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:23:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijvt/2016/9846374/ There is a growing interest in understanding wave behavior in urban and suburban environment for 5th generation broadband applications. With the advent of using broadband technologies in buildings, office space and vehicle have become a necessity on a large scale. Models, predictions, and calculations for in-building, within a vehicle or near a reflective object with microscale details, are becoming highly classified in a competitive telecom environment. This paper provides an improved understanding of signal strength behavior within suburban residences with predictions prequalified using a vehicular scanner. Supporting predictions are provided by a ray tracing algorithm developed for dissertation. Results indicate signal strength variation of more than 50 dB from “strong signal” locations such as room centers and far corners to “weak signal” locations where shadowing and tunneling effects are evident. Based on this unique classification a scheme is proposed which indicates that specular scattering provides the major signal energy at more than 70% of the locations within the residences. Finally, an observed rake stabilizing effect is attributed to the proximity of strong scatterers. Tanay Bhatt and Jonathan Bredow Copyright © 2016 Tanay Bhatt and Jonathan Bredow. All rights reserved. The Comparison of Adipose Stem Cell and Placental Stem Cell in Secretion Characteristics and in Facial Antiaging Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:22:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/7315830/ Background. Mesenchymal stem cells are the most commonly used seed cells in biomedical research and tissue engineering. Their secretory proteins have also been proven to play an important role in tissue healing. Methods. We isolated adipose stem cells and placental stem cells and performed analysis examining characteristics. The secretory proteins were extracted from conditioned medium and analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF. The antiaging effect of conditioned mediums was evaluated by the results of facial skin application. Results. Adipose stem cells and placental stem cells were found to be very similar in their surface markers and multipotency. The specific proteins secreted from adipose stem cells were more adept at cell adhesion, migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling, while the proteins secreted by placental stem cells were more adept at angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, cell survival, immunomodulation, and collagen degradation. While these two types of conditioned medium could improve the facial index, the improvement of Melanin index after injection of the adipose stem cell conditioned medium was much more significant. Conclusion. The results suggest that the secreted proteins are ideal cell-free substances for regeneration medicine, especially in the antiaging field. Yan Xu, Shilei Guo, Cui Wei, Honglan Li, Lei Chen, Chang Yin, and Chuansen Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yan Xu et al. All rights reserved. Design of a Distribution Network Using Primal-Dual Decomposition Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:21:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/7851625/ A method to solve the design of a distribution network for bottled drinks company is introduced. The distribution network proposed includes three stages: manufacturing centers, consolidation centers using cross-docking, and distribution centers. The problem is formulated using a mixed-integer programming model in the deterministic and single period contexts. Because the problem considers several elements in each stage, a direct solution is very complicated. For medium-to-large instances the problem falls into large scale. Based on that, a primal-dual decomposition known as cross decomposition is proposed in this paper. This approach allows exploring simultaneously the primal and dual subproblems of the original problem. A comparison of the direct solution with a mixed-integer lineal programming solver versus the cross decomposition is shown for several randomly generated instances. Results show the good performance of the method proposed. J. A. Marmolejo, R. Rodríguez, O. Cruz-Mejia, and J. Saucedo Copyright © 2016 J. A. Marmolejo et al. All rights reserved. Manufacturing of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Microcarriers in a Dynamic System for Clinical Use Mon, 08 Feb 2016 09:19:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/4834616/ The great properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) make these cells an important tool in regenerative medicine. Because of the limitations of hMSCs derived from the bone marrow during isolation and expansion, hMSCs derived from the umbilical cord stroma are a great alternative to overcome these issues. For a large expansion of these cells, we performed a process transfer from static culture to a dynamic system. For this reason, a microcarrier selection out of five microcarrier types was made to achieve a suitable growth surface for the cells. The growth characteristics and metabolite consumption and production were used to compare the cells growth in 12-well plate and spinner flask. The goal to determine relevant process parameters to transfer the expansion process into a stirred tank bioreactor was achieved. Florian Petry, J. Robert Smith, Jasmin Leber, Denise Salzig, Peter Czermak, and Mark L. Weiss Copyright © 2016 Florian Petry et al. All rights reserved. A Bilateral Traumatic Hip Obturator Dislocation Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:59:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2016/3145343/ A case of a bilateral simultaneous traumatic obturator dislocation of both hip joints in an 18-year-old young man following a traffic accident is presented. We reduced the dislocated femoral heads immediately under general anesthesia followed by passive and active exercises and early full-weight bearing mobilization. After 5 years, the result was excellent. Ahmet Adnan Karaarslan, Nihat Acar, Tolga Karci, and Erhan Sesli Copyright © 2016 Ahmet Adnan Karaarslan et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Polyphase Codes Radar Signals in Low SNR Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:38:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1382960/ A novel effective detection method is proposed for electronic intelligence (ELINT) systems detecting polyphase codes radar signal in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) scenario. The core idea of the proposed method is first to calculate the time-frequency distribution of polyphase codes radar signals via Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD); then the modified Hough transform (HT) is employed to cumulate all the energy of WVD’s ridges effectively to achieve signal detection. Compared with the generalised Wigner Hough transform (GWHT) method, the proposed method has a superior performance in low SNR and is not sensitive to the code type. Simulation results verify the validity of the proposed method. Runlan Tian, Guoyi Zhang, Rui Zhou, and Wei Dong Copyright © 2016 Runlan Tian et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Thermal Properties of the Poly(methylmethacrylate)/δ-FeOOH Hybrid Material: An Experimental and Theoretical Study Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:34:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2462135/ The δ-FeOOH/PMMA nanocomposites with 0.5 and 2.5 wt.% of δ-FeOOH were prepared by grafting 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate on the surface of the iron oxyhydroxide particles. The FTIR spectra of the δ-FeOOH/PMMA nanocomposites showed that the silane monomers were covalently attached to the δ-FeOOH particles. Because of the strong interaction between the PMMA and δ-FeOOH nanoparticles, the thermal stability of the δ-FeOOH/PMMA nanocomposites was improved compared to the pure PMMA. The SEM analysis conferred the size agglomerate of particles regarding the morphology of samples. The theoretical study enabled a better understanding of the interaction of the polymer with the iron oxyhydroxide. The DFT-based calculations reinforce the radical trapping mechanism of stabilization of nanocomposites; that is, Fe3+ species might be able to accept electrons coming from the organic phase that decomposes via radical unzipping. The radical scavenge effect delays the weight loss of polymer. Silviana Corrêa, Lívia C. T. Lacerda, Maíra dos S. Pires, Marcus V. J. Rocha, Francisco G. E. Nogueira, Adilson C. da Silva, Marcio C. Pereira, Angela D. B. de Brito, Elaine F. F. da Cunha, and Teodorico C. Ramalho Copyright © 2016 Silviana Corrêa et al. All rights reserved. Properties of Matrix Variate Confluent Hypergeometric Function Distribution Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:34:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jps/2016/2374907/ We study matrix variate confluent hypergeometric function kind 1 distribution which is a generalization of the matrix variate gamma distribution. We give several properties of this distribution. We also derive density functions of , , and , where independent random matrices and follow confluent hypergeometric function kind 1 and gamma distributions, respectively. Arjun K. Gupta, Daya K. Nagar, and Luz Estela Sánchez Copyright © 2016 Arjun K. Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of Sediment Discharges during an Outfall Dredging Operation Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:09:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijocean/2016/8097861/ CORMIX-GTS simulations are carried out to study suspended muddy sediment plumes following the discharge of the spoils taken from the seabed during a marine outfall pipeline dredging operation. Single port discharges are considered at three different locations at 400 m, 800 m, and 1200 m from the shoreline with water depths ranging from 3.5 m to 10.5 m. For discharges in the shallow near-shore region at 400 m offshore, most of the dredge materials are deposited at the seabed and the simulated suspended sediment plumes are found to be carrying a concentration of less than 1 kg/m3 of mainly fine silt and clay. For discharges in the deeper far-shore region at 1200 m offshore, the sediment plumes are more elongated and carrying a concentration of more than 3 kg/m3. Iterative simulations are also conducted to analyse the inherent uncertainty in the input data by varying the ambient velocity and the port’s horizontal angle of discharge. Anton Purnama, Mahad S. Baawain, and Dongdong Shao Copyright © 2016 Anton Purnama et al. All rights reserved. Hematospermia and Cloacogenic Transitional Cell Carcinoma: A Twist on Significance and Meaning Mon, 08 Feb 2016 08:05:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2016/8050459/ A 52-year-old gentleman presented with recurrent hematospermia. Further history revealed recent onset of constipation and difficulty voiding. Rectal examination revealed a firm, polypoid mass and colonoscopy showed suspicious, ulcerated lesions of the rectal mucosa with narrowing of the rectal vault. Pathology demonstrated transitional cell carcinoma of the rectum. While transitional cell carcinoma is a common genitourinary cancer, its presence in the anus and rectum is exceedingly rare. Furthermore, hematospermia is generally not associated with malignancy. This case is a remarkable example of two pathologic processes presenting in rare form and underscores the value of a thorough investigation of hematospermia when associated with other clinical symptoms. Alex M. Hennessey, Jessica M. Clement, Faripour Forouhar, and John A. Taylor III Copyright © 2016 Alex M. Hennessey et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Study of Mixed Convection of the Nanofluids in Two-Sided Lid-Driven Square Cavity with a Pair of Triangular Heating Cylinders Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:52:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2016/8962091/ A numerical study is carried out concerning mixed convection of the nanofluid in two-sided lid-driven square cavity with a pair of triangular heat sources. The upper and bottom moving walls are thermally insulated while the left and right walls are cooled at constant temperature. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved using the finite volume discretization method with SIMPLE algorithm. The method used is validated against previous works. Two cases were considered depending on the direction of moving walls. Effects of various design parameters such as Richardson number , nanoparticle volume fraction , and size and type of nanoparticles on the heat transfer rate are investigated. The results of this investigation illustrate that, by reducing the diameter of the nanoparticles and , the heat transfer rate increases. Moreover, it is found that by changing horizontal direction of the moving walls the heat transfer rate variation is negligible. Zoubair Boulahia, Abderrahim Wakif, and Rachid Sehaqui Copyright © 2016 Zoubair Boulahia et al. All rights reserved. Specific -Admissibility and Design Issues for Uncertain Descriptor Systems with Parametric Uncertainty in the Derivative Matrix Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:32:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6142848/ Stability analysis issues and controller synthesis for descriptor systems with parametric uncertainty in the derivative matrix are discussed in this paper. The proposed descriptor system can extend the system’s modeling extent of physical and engineering systems from the traditional state-space model. First, based on the extended -stability definitions for the descriptor model, necessary and sufficient admissibility and -admissibility conditions for the unforced nominal descriptor system are derived and formulated by compact forms with strict linear matrix inequality (LMI) manner. In contrast, existing results need to involve nonstrict LMIs, which cannot be evaluated by current LMI solvers and need some extra treatments. Deducing from the obtained distinct results, the roust admissibility and -admissibility of the descriptor system with uncertainties in both the derivative matrix and the system’s matrices thus can be coped. Furthermore, by involving a proportional and derivative state feedback (PDSF) control law, we further address the controller design for the resulting closed-loop systems. Since all the proposed criteria are explicitly expressed in terms of the strict LMIs, we can use applicable LMI solvers for evaluating the feasible solutions. Finally, the efficiency and practicability of the proposed approach are demonstrated by two illustrative examples. Chih-Peng Huang Copyright © 2016 Chih-Peng Huang. All rights reserved. Comorbidity Factors and Brain Mechanisms Linking Chronic Stress and Systemic Illness Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:23:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/5460732/ Neuropsychiatric symptoms and mental illness are commonly present in patients with chronic systemic diseases. Mood disorders, such as depression, are present in up to 50% of these patients, resulting in impaired physical recovery and more intricate treatment regimen. Stress associated with both physical and emotional aspects of systemic illness is thought to elicit detrimental effects to initiate comorbid mental disorders. However, clinical reports also indicate that the relationship between systemic and psychiatric illnesses is bidirectional, further increasing the complexity of the underlying pathophysiological processes. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence linking chronic stress and systemic illness, such as activation of the immune response system and release of common proinflammatory mediators. Altogether, discovery of new targets is needed for development of better treatments for stress-related psychiatric illnesses as well as improvement of mental health aspects of different systemic diseases. Vanja Duric, Sarah Clayton, Mai Lan Leong, and Li-Lian Yuan Copyright © 2016 Vanja Duric et al. All rights reserved. Further Results on Resistance Distance and Kirchhoff Index in Electric Networks Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:22:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4682527/ In electric circuit theory, it is of great interest to compute the effective resistance between any pairs of vertices of a network, as well as the Kirchhoff index. Let be the graph obtained from by inserting a new vertex into every edge of and by joining by edges those pairs of these new vertices which lie on adjacent edges of . The set of such new vertices is denoted by . The -vertex corona of and , denoted by , is the graph obtained from vertex disjoint and copies of by joining the th vertex of to every vertex in the th copy of . The -edge corona of and , denoted by , is the graph obtained from vertex disjoint and copies of by joining the th vertex of to every vertex in the th copy of . The objective of the present work is to obtain the resistance distance and Kirchhoff index for composite networks such as -vertex corona and -edge corona networks. Qun Liu, Jia-Bao Liu, and Jinde Cao Copyright © 2016 Qun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Orofacial Pain during Mastication in People with Dementia: Reliability Testing of the Orofacial Pain Scale for Non-Verbal Individuals Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:21:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bn/2016/3123402/ Objectives. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability of the “chewing” subscale of the OPS-NVI, a novel tool designed to estimate presence and severity of orofacial pain in nonverbal patients. Methods. The OPS-NVI consists of 16 items for observed behavior, classified into four categories and a subjective estimate of pain. Two observers used the OPS-NVI for 237 video clips of people with dementia in Dutch nursing homes during their meal to observe their behavior and to estimate the intensity of orofacial pain. Six weeks later, the same observers rated the video clips a second time. Results. Bottom and ceiling effects for some items were found. This resulted in exclusion of these items from the statistical analyses. The categories which included the remaining items () showed reliability varying between fair-to-good and excellent (interobserver reliability, ICC: 0.40–0.47; intraobserver reliability, ICC: 0.40–0.92). Conclusions. The “chewing” subscale of the OPS-NVI showed a fair-to-good to excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability in this dementia population. This study contributes to the validation process of the OPS-NVI as a whole and stresses the need for further assessment of the reliability of the OPS-NVI with subjects that might already show signs of orofacial pain. Merlijn W. de Vries, Corine Visscher, Suzanne Delwel, Jenny T. van der Steen, Marjoleine J. C. Pieper, Erik J. A. Scherder, Wilco P. Achterberg, and Frank Lobbezoo Copyright © 2016 Merlijn W. de Vries et al. All rights reserved. Growth Performance and Nutrient Uptake of Oil Palm Seedling in Prenursery Stage as Influenced by Oil Palm Waste Compost in Growing Media Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:10:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2016/6930735/ The use of composted oil palm wastes in the oil palm nursery as an organic component of growing medium for oil palm seedlings seems promising in sustainable oil palm seedling production. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of six oil palm waste compost rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) on the growth performance of oil palm seedling and nutrient uptake in the prenursery stage (0–3 months). The addition of oil palm compost reduced the soil bulk density (1.32 to 0.53 g cm−3) and increased soil pH (4.7 to 5.1) of growth media. Oil palm waste compost treatment produced positive growth performance up to 70%. A regression analysis indicated in 72% of compost and topsoil mixture as a polybag growth medium was optimum in producing best growth performance of oil palm seedling in the prenursery stage. Foliar analysis implied highest nutrients uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu) for seedlings grown in 60 to 100% compost media. A. B. Rosenani, R. Rovica, P. M. Cheah, and C. T. Lim Copyright © 2016 A. B. Rosenani et al. All rights reserved. Aging Thermal Treatment in the Inconel 725 Brazed Incorporating Tungsten Nanoparticles Mon, 08 Feb 2016 06:57:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/6535491/ Fractures in blade sections of Inconel 725 were impregnated with tungsten nanoparticles and jointed by the brazing process. In order to evaluate their effect over the microstructure, aging thermal treatments at 750°C for 2, 6, 10, and 14 h were done. BNi-9 was selected as brazing filler metal and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence. Before brazing, the fractures were impregnated with a mixture of tungsten NPs in ethanol. Measurements of Vickers microhardness showed an increase in the melting zone of samples with aging thermal treatment for 14 h, which is attributed to the precipitation of the γ′ phase with a typical size of ca. 100 nm. Likewise, the tungsten NPs modified the size and morphology of Cr-Ni eutectics into finer and uniformly distributed microstructures. H. M. Hdz-García, R. Muñoz-Arroyo, A. I. Martinez, M. A. González, E. E. Granda-Gutiérrez, J. L. Acevedo-Dávila, M. Castro-Roman, and F. García-Vázquez Copyright © 2016 H. M. Hdz-García et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Recurrent Rudimentary Horn Ectopic Pregnancies Managed by Methotrexate Therapy and Laparoscopic Excision of the Rudimentary Horn Sun, 07 Feb 2016 15:51:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2016/5747524/ This report presents a case of a 31-year-old woman successfully treated medically for a noncommunicating rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy who presented with a second, successive rudimentary horn pregnancy. Patient underwent laparoscopic excision of right rudimentary horn and right salpingectomy after failed methotrexate therapy. Given the potential for rupture and recurrence, serious efforts should be made to excise a uterine rudimentary horn. Gaby N. Moawad and Elias D. Abi Khalil Copyright © 2016 Gaby N. Moawad and Elias D. Abi Khalil. All rights reserved. A Prediction Model for Membrane Proteins Using Moments Based Features Sun, 07 Feb 2016 15:42:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/8370132/ The most expedient unit of the human body is its cell. Encapsulated within the cell are many infinitesimal entities and molecules which are protected by a cell membrane. The proteins that are associated with this lipid based bilayer cell membrane are known as membrane proteins and are considered to play a significant role. These membrane proteins exhibit their effect in cellular activities inside and outside of the cell. According to the scientists in pharmaceutical organizations, these membrane proteins perform key task in drug interactions. In this study, a technique is presented that is based on various computationally intelligent methods used for the prediction of membrane protein without the experimental use of mass spectrometry. Statistical moments were used to extract features and furthermore a Multilayer Neural Network was trained using backpropagation for the prediction of membrane proteins. Results show that the proposed technique performs better than existing methodologies. Ahmad Hassan Butt, Sher Afzal Khan, Hamza Jamil, Nouman Rasool, and Yaser Daanial Khan Copyright © 2016 Ahmad Hassan Butt et al. All rights reserved. Discussion on the Time-Harmonic Elastodynamic Half-Space Green’s Function Obtained by Superposition Sun, 07 Feb 2016 15:15:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2717810/ The time-harmonic elastodynamic half-space Green’s function derived by Banerjee and Mamoon by way of superposition is discussed and examined against another semianalytical solution and a numerical solution. It is shown that Banerjee and Mamoon’s solution gives infinite z-displacement response when the depth of the source goes to infinity, which is unreasonable and does not agree with other solutions. A possible problem in the derivation is that it is inappropriate to directly extend the results of Mindlin’s superposition method for the elastostatic half-space problem to the dynamic case. The superposition of the six full-space elastodynamic solutions does not satisfy the required boundary conditions of the half-space elastodynamic problem as in the static case and thus does not solve the dynamic half-space problem. Huina Yuan and Ziyang Pan Copyright © 2016 Huina Yuan and Ziyang Pan. All rights reserved. CompaRob: The Shopping Cart Assistance Robot Sun, 07 Feb 2016 15:14:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/4781280/ Technology has recently been developed which offers an excellent opportunity to design systems with the ability to help people in their own houses. In particular, assisting elderly people in their environments is something that can significantly improve their quality of life. However, helping elderly people outside their usual environment is also necessary, to help them to carry out daily tasks like shopping. In this paper we present a person-following shopping cart assistance robot, capable of helping elderly people to carry products in a supermarket. First of all, the paper presents a survey of related systems that perform this task, using different approaches, such as attachable modules and computer vision. After that, the paper describes in detail the proposed system and its main features. The cart uses ultrasonic sensors and radio signals to provide a simple and effective person localization and following method. Moreover, the cart can be connected to a portable device like a smartphone or tablet, thus providing ease of use to the end user. The prototype has been tested in a grocery store, while simulations have been done to analyse its scalability in larger spaces where multiple robots could coexist. Jorge Sales, Jose V. Martí, Raúl Marín, Enric Cervera, and Pedro J. Sanz Copyright © 2016 Jorge Sales et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Vitamins C and E on Depot-Medroxyprogesterone Acetate-Induced Ovarian Oxidative Stress In Vivo Sun, 07 Feb 2016 15:14:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2016/3134105/ A study was designed to investigate ameliorates effect of combined vitamins C and E able to against depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate- (DMPA-) induced ovarian oxidative stress in rat. Twenty-five female Wistar rats were divided into the following groups ( rats each): control (untreated) (C); depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA); DMPA plus green vitamin C (at dose of 0.2 mg/gram; 0.4 mg/gram; 0.8 mg/gram) and vitamin E (0.04 IU/gram). The treatment with combined vitamins C and E was performed for four weeks. Analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) level as a marker of oxidative stress was done colorimetrically. Analysis of SOD level was done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technically. This increase in ovarium MDA was significantly () attenuated by medium dose treatments of combined vitamins C and E. DMPA insignificantly decreased SOD levels compared to the untreated group. This decrease in ovarian SOD level was significantly attenuated by all doses of the combined vitamins C and E. In conclusion, DMPA induces ovarian oxidative stress. Combined vitamins C and E prohibit the increase in ovarian lipid peroxidation, at least in part by modulating of superoxide dismutase. Therefore, this may provide an antioxidant therapy for attenuating the ovarian toxicity found in the DMPA therapy. Atik Ismiyati, I. Wayan Arsana Wiyasa, and Dwi Yuni Nur Hidayati Copyright © 2016 Atik Ismiyati et al. All rights reserved. Retained Products of Conception: An Atypical Presentation Diagnosed Immediately with Bedside Emergency Ultrasound Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:30:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2016/9124967/ Background. Retained products of conception is an important diagnosis to consider in patients presenting with postpartum complaints. Bedside ultrasound is a rapid, accurate, noninvasive modality to evaluate these patients. Objective. To report an atypical case of retained products of conception diagnosed with bedside ultrasound in the emergency department. Case Report. A 27-year-old female who was 1-month postpartum presented with vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and no fever. At the time of initial H&P, bedside ultrasound revealed echogenic material within the endometrial cavity with blood flow seen by color Doppler consistent with retained products of conception. The bedside ultrasound rapidly narrowed the differential and allowed a definitive diagnosis immediately. Ob/Gyn was consulted and dilation and curettage was performed in the operating room. Conclusions. Retained products of conception is an important diagnosis for the emergency physician to consider in at-risk patients. The sonographic findings are easily obtained and interpreted by emergency physicians. Earlier diagnosis of this disease process should lead to more focused patient evaluations and management. Kristin Adkins, Joseph Minardi, Erin Setzer, and Debra Williams Copyright © 2016 Kristin Adkins et al. All rights reserved. Performance and Complexity Evaluation of Iterative Receiver for Coded MIMO-OFDM Systems Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:29:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/7642590/ Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology in combination with channel coding technique is a promising solution for reliable high data rate transmission in future wireless communication systems. However, these technologies pose significant challenges for the design of an iterative receiver. In this paper, an efficient receiver combining soft-input soft-output (SISO) detection based on low-complexity K-Best (LC-K-Best) decoder with various forward error correction codes, namely, LTE turbo decoder and LDPC decoder, is investigated. We first investigate the convergence behaviors of the iterative MIMO receivers to determine the required inner and outer iterations. Consequently, the performance of LC-K-Best based receiver is evaluated in various LTE channel environments and compared with other MIMO detection schemes. Moreover, the computational complexity of the iterative receiver with different channel coding techniques is evaluated and compared with different modulation orders and coding rates. Simulation results show that LC-K-Best based receiver achieves satisfactory performance-complexity trade-offs. Rida El Chall, Fabienne Nouvel, Maryline Hélard, and Ming Liu Copyright © 2016 Rida El Chall et al. All rights reserved. Anomalous Propagation Echo Classification of Imbalanced Radar Data with Support Vector Machine Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:22:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/4129708/ A number of technologically advanced devices, such as radars and satellites, are used in an actual weather forecasting process. Among these devices, the radar is essential equipment in this process because it has a wide observation area and fine resolution in both the time and the space domains. However, the radar can also observe unwanted nonweather phenomena. Anomalous propagation echo is one of the representative nonprecipitation echoes generated by an abnormal refraction phenomenon of a radar beam. Abnormal refraction occurs when the temperature and the humidity change dramatically. In such a case, the radar recognizes either the ground or the sea surface as an atmospheric object. This false observation decreases the accuracy of both quantitative precipitation estimation and weather forecasting. Therefore, a system that can automatically recognize an anomalous propagation echo from the radar data needs to be developed. In this paper, we propose a classification method for separating anomalous propagation echoes from the rest of the weather data by using a combination of a support vector machine classifier and the synthetic minority oversampling technique, to solve the problem of imbalanced data. By using actual cases of anomalous propagation we have confirmed that the proposed method provides good classification results. Hansoo Lee, Eun Kyeong Kim, and Sungshin Kim Copyright © 2016 Hansoo Lee et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship of the Subclavius Muscle with Relevance to Venous Cannulation below the Clavicle Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:21:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/arp/2016/6249483/ Introduction. The catheter “pinch-off syndrome” has been described to be secondary to crimping of the catheter between the clavicle and the first rib, as well as entrapment of the catheter at the site of penetration of the subclavius muscle. The lateral insertion technique has been recommended to prevent catheter pinch-off, but it is unknown if this technique can prevent entrapment by the subclavius muscle. We undertook this study to evaluate the anatomical relationship of the subclavius muscle and the subclavian vein. Methods. Twenty-eight adult cadavers were studied on both right and left sides. The adherence between the subclavian vein and subclavius muscle was subjectively assessed and the distance between the two structures was measured in mm. Results. The subclavius muscle and subclavian vein were tightly adherent in 72% of specimens, partly adherent in 14% with a mean distance of 4.5 mm and loosely connected in 14% with a mean distance of 6.1 mm. Conclusions. The anatomical relationship between the subclavius muscle and vein was very close in the majority of specimens, suggesting that the lateral insertion technique may not prevent penetration of the muscle, which may contribute to catheter pinch-off. The real-time ultrasound-guided technique may prevent penetration of the subclavius muscle. Kyutaro Kawagishi, Joho Tokumine, and Alan Kawarai Lefor Copyright © 2016 Kyutaro Kawagishi et al. All rights reserved. Capecitabine Induced Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Do We Have Always to Switch off the Chemotherapy? Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:20:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2016/2408269/ Capecitabine is a well tolerated and safe 5-fluorouracil agent for adjuvant, neoadjuvant chemotherapy or metastatic cases. Neurological side effects require discontinuation of chemotherapy. We report this unique case of a 50-year-old female, who presented an isolated episode of dysarthria and ataxia under bevacizumab, capecitabine, and oxaliplatin treatment due to reversible multifocal leukoencephalopathy that did not recur after readministration of chemotherapy. Anastasia Bougea, Panagiota Voskou, Constantinos Kilidireas, and Elisabeth Andreadou Copyright © 2016 Anastasia Bougea et al. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Multimorbidity in Primary Care: An Indian Experience Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:19:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/6582487/ Multimorbidity remains an underexplored domain in Indian primary care. We undertook a study to assess the prevalence, correlates, and outcomes of multimorbidity in primary care settings in India. This paper describes the process of development and validation of our data collection tool “Multimorbidity Assessment Questionnaire for Primary Care (MAQ-PC).” An iterative process comprising desk review, chart review, and expert consultations was undertaken to generate the questionnaire. The MAQ-PC contained items on chronic conditions, health care utilization, health related quality of life, disease severity, and sociodemographics. It was first tested with twelve adults for comprehensibility followed by test-retest reliability with 103 patients from four primary care practices. For interrater reliability, two interviewers separately administered the questionnaire to sixteen patients. MAQ-PC displayed strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.69), interrater reliability (Cohen’s Kappa: 0.78–1), and test-retest reliability (ICC: 0.970–0.741). Substantial concordance between self-report and physician diagnosis (Scott Kappa: 0.59–1.0) was observed for listed chronic conditions indicating strong concurrent validity. Nearly 54% had one chronic condition and 23.3% had multimorbidity. Our findings demonstrate MAQ-PC to be a valid and reliable measure of multimorbidity in primary care practice and suggest its potential utility in multimorbidity research in India. Sanghamitra Pati, Mohammad Akhtar Hussain, Subhashisa Swain, Chris Salisbury, Job F. M. Metsemakers, J. André Knottnerus, and Marjan van den Akker Copyright © 2016 Sanghamitra Pati et al. All rights reserved. PIPINO: A Software Package to Facilitate the Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions from Affinity Purification Mass Spectrometry Data Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:17:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2891918/ The functionality of most proteins is regulated by protein-protein interactions. Hence, the comprehensive characterization of the interactome is the next milestone on the path to understand the biochemistry of the cell. A powerful method to detect protein-protein interactions is a combination of coimmunoprecipitation or affinity purification with quantitative mass spectrometry. Nevertheless, both methods tend to precipitate a high number of background proteins due to nonspecific interactions. To address this challenge the software Protein-Protein-Interaction-Optimizer (PIPINO) was developed to perform an automated data analysis, to facilitate the selection of bona fide binding partners, and to compare the dynamic of interaction networks. In this study we investigated the STAT1 interaction network and its activation dependent dynamics. Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was applied to analyze the STAT1 interactome after streptavidin pull-down of biotagged STAT1 from human embryonic kidney 293T cells with and without activation. Starting from more than 2,000 captured proteins 30 potential STAT1 interaction partners were extracted. Interestingly, more than 50% of these were already reported or predicted to bind STAT1. Furthermore, 16 proteins were found to affect the binding behavior depending on STAT1 phosphorylation such as STAT3 or the importin subunits alpha 1 and alpha 6. Stefan Kalkhof, Stefan Schildbach, Conny Blumert, Friedemann Horn, Martin von Bergen, and Dirk Labudde Copyright © 2016 Stefan Kalkhof et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of New Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:12:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/1692540/ In an effort to develop potent antimicrobial agents, new thiosemicarbazone derivatives were synthesized via the reaction of 4-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]thiosemicarbazide with aromatic aldehydes. The compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on pathogenic bacteria and yeasts using the CLSI broth microdilution method. Microplate Alamar Blue Assay was also carried out to determine the antimycobacterial activities of the compounds against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Among these derivatives, compounds 5 and 11 were more effective against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) than chloramphenicol, whereas compounds 1, 2, and 12 and chloramphenicol showed the same level of antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. Moreover, compound 2 and chloramphenicol exhibited the same level of antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. On the other hand, the most potent anticandidal derivatives were found as compounds 2 and 5. These derivatives and ketoconazole exhibited the same level of antifungal activity against Candida glabrata. According to the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay, the tested compounds showed weak to moderate antitubercular activity. Zafer Asım Kaplancıklı, Mehlika Dilek Altıntop, Belgin Sever, Zerrin Cantürk, and Ahmet Özdemir Copyright © 2016 Zafer Asım Kaplancıklı et al. All rights reserved. Uncoupling Protein 2 Increases Susceptibility to Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:12:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/9154230/ Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is upregulated in patients with systemic inflammation and infection, but its functional role is unclear. We up- or downregulated UCP2 expression using UCP2 recombinant adenovirus or the UCP2 inhibitor, genipin, in lungs of mice, and investigated the mechanisms of UCP2 in ALI. UCP2 overexpression in mouse lungs increased LPS-induced pathological changes, lung permeability, lung inflammation, and lowered survival rates. Furthermore, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were decreased, while reactive oxygen species production was increased. Additionally, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activity was elevated, which increased the sensitivity to LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation. LPS-induced apoptosis and release of inflammatory factors were alleviated by pretreatment of the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, but not by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059 in UCP2-overexpressing mice. On the other hand, LPS-induced alveolar epithelial cell death and inflammation were attenuated by genipin. In conclusion, UCP2 increased susceptibility to LPS-induced cell death and pulmonary inflammation, most likely via ATP depletion and activation of MAPK signaling following ALI in mice. Qin Wang, Jianchun Wang, Mingdong Hu, Yu Yang, Liang Guo, Jing Xu, Chuanjiang Lei, Yan Jiao, and JianCheng Xu Copyright © 2016 Qin Wang et al. All rights reserved. SPARCO: Stochastic Performance Analysis with Reliability and Cooperation for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:12:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/7604163/ Reliability is a key factor for application-oriented Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) which are utilized for gaining certain objectives and a demand always exists for efficient data routing mechanisms. Cooperative routing is a promising technique which utilizes the broadcast feature of wireless medium and forwards data with cooperation using sensor nodes as relays. Here, we present a cooperation-based routing protocol for underwater networks to enhance their performance called Stochastic Performance Analysis with Reliability and Cooperation (SPARCO). Cooperative communication is explored in order to design an energy-efficient routing scheme for UWSNs. Each node of the network is assumed to be consisting of a single omnidirectional antenna and multiple nodes cooperatively forward their transmissions taking advantage of spatial diversity to reduce energy consumption. Both multihop and single-hop schemes are exploited which contribute to lowering of path-losses present in the channels connecting nodes and forwarding of data. Simulations demonstrate that SPARCO protocol functions better regarding end-to-end delay, network lifetime, and energy consumption comparative to noncooperative routing protocol—improved Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Depth-based routing (iAMCTD). The performance is also compared with three cooperation-based routing protocols for UWSN: Cognitive Cooperation (Cog-Coop), Cooperative Depth-Based Routing (CoDBR), and Cooperative Partner Node Selection Criteria for Cooperative Routing (Coop Re and dth). Sheeraz Ahmed, Nadeem Javaid, Ashfaq Ahmad, Imran Ahmed, Mehr Yahya Durrani, Armughan Ali, Syed Bilal Haider, and Manzoor Ilahi Copyright © 2016 Sheeraz Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. Mobile Based User-Centered Learning Environment for Adult Absolute Illiterates Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/1841287/ Education plays a vital role in the success of any community. Countries with increased literacy rate have improved their status on the world map. In recent years, the use of e-learning methodologies has been significant. However, majority of the previous methodologies are focused on the formal education or toddlers. The technoliteracy solutions for children are not suitable for adults and those designed specifically for adults are text dominant and require the users of these applications to be functional literate. Moreover, users’ interest (sense of belonging) is not taken into consideration in existing solutions. To address the aforementioned issues, a user study is conducted to collect users’ interests. Another highlight of our study is that we develop our system as a mobile device application to facilitate our target user group. Based on the collected interests, a 3D virtual learning environment is designed and developed for adult illiterate learners. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed environment, an experimental study is carried out with users. The results show that the proposed learning environment significantly improves adults learning. Inayat ur-Rehman, Azra Shamim, Tamim Ahmed Khan, Manzoor Elahi, and Sajjad Mohsin Copyright © 2016 Inayat ur-Rehman et al. All rights reserved. Gold Nanorods-Based Theranostics for Simultaneous Fluorescence/Two-Photon Luminescence Imaging and Synergistic Phototherapies Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:09:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/1082746/ Gold nanorods (GNRs) have shown great potential applications in cancer theranostics due to the unique phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance, which leads to strong electric fields on the surface and consequently enhances the absorption and scattering in the near-infrared (NIR) region. Indocyanine green (ICG), an amphipathic dye, is not only an excellent NIR imaging agent but also an ideal light absorber for laser-mediated photodynamic and photothermal therapy. In this study, in order to integrate the merits of GNRs and ICG in biomedical applications, we developed ICG conjugated silica-coated GNRs (GNR@SiO2-ICG) for cancer imaging and phototherapy. The covalent coupling strategy reduces the probability of leakage/desorption during the delivery. The as-prepared GNR@SiO2-ICG could serve as efficient probes to simultaneously enhance fluorescence (FL) imaging and two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging. In vitro experiments indicated that A375 cells could be killed through synergistic phototherapies effect of GNRs and ICG using single wavelength continuous-wave laser irradiation. Our results indicated that the synthesized GNR@SiO2-ICG are effective for simultaneously enhancing FL/TPL imaging and synergistic phototherapies. Shan Fang, Chunxiao Li, Jing Lin, Haigang Zhu, Daxiang Cui, Yunsheng Xu, and Zhiming Li Copyright © 2016 Shan Fang et al. All rights reserved. Unbounded Solutions for Functional Problems on the Half-Line Sun, 07 Feb 2016 14:01:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2016/8987374/ This paper presents an existence and localization result of unbounded solutions for a second-order differential equation on the half-line with functional boundary conditions. By applying unbounded upper and lower solutions, Green’s functions, and Schauder fixed point theorem, the existence of at least one solution is shown for the above problem. One example and one application to an Emden-Fowler equation are shown to illustrate our results. Hugo Carrasco and Feliz Minhós Copyright © 2016 Hugo Carrasco and Feliz Minhós. All rights reserved. Salivary and Urinary Total Antioxidant Capacity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:59:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pri/2016/5480267/ Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) is a biomarker often used in order to investigate oxidative stress in many pathological conditions. Saliva and urine can be collected noninvasively and represent attractive diagnostic fluids for detecting biomarkers of various pathological conditions. The reviewed case-control and intervention studies that measured salivary or urinary TAC revealed that diseases, antioxidant foods, or supplements and age, gender, and lifestyle factors influenced salivary or urinary TAC. Salivary and urinary TAC were particularly affected by oral or renal status, respectively, as well as by infection; therefore these factors must be taken into account in both case-control and intervention studies. Furthermore, some considerations on sample collection and normalization strategies could be made. In particular, unstimulated saliva could be the better approach to measure salivary TAC, whereas 24 h or spontaneous urine collection should be chosen on the basis of the study outcome and of the creatinine clearance. Finally, the uric acid-independent TAC could be the better approach to evaluate red-ox status of body, in particular after nutritional interventions and in diseases associated with hyperuricaemia. Ilaria Peluso and Anna Raguzzini Copyright © 2016 Ilaria Peluso and Anna Raguzzini. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study of the T Cell Stimulatory and Polarizing Capacity of Human Primary Blood Dendritic Cell Subsets Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:57:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/3605643/ Dendritic cells (DCs) are central players of immune responses; they become activated upon infection or inflammation and migrate to lymph nodes, where they can initiate an antigen-specific immune response by activating naive T cells. Two major types of naturally occurring DCs circulate in peripheral blood, namely, myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Myeloid DCs (mDCs) can be subdivided based on the expression of either CD1c or CD141. These human DC subsets differ in surface marker expression, Toll-like receptor (TLR) repertoire, and transcriptional profile, suggesting functional differences between them. Here, we directly compared the capacity of human blood mDCs and pDCs to activate and polarize CD4+ T cells. CD141+ mDCs show an overall more mature phenotype over CD1c+ mDC and pDCs; they produce less IL-10 and more IL-12 than CD1c+ mDCs. Despite these differences, all subsets can induce the production of IFN-γ in naive CD4+ T cells. CD1c+ and CD141+ mDCs especially induce a strong T helper 1 profile. Importantly, naive CD4+ T cells are not polarized towards regulatory T cells by any subset. These findings further establish all three human blood DCs—despite their differences—as promising candidates for immunostimulatory effectors in cancer immunotherapy. Simone P. Sittig, Ghaith Bakdash, Jorieke Weiden, Annette E. Sköld, Jurjen Tel, Carl G. Figdor, I. Jolanda M. de Vries, and Gerty Schreibelt Copyright © 2016 Simone P. Sittig et al. All rights reserved. Blind Direction-of-Arrival Estimation with Uniform Circular Array in Presence of Mutual Coupling Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:56:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/8109013/ A blind direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm based on the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) is proposed for a uniform circular array (UCA) when strong electromagnetic mutual coupling is present. First, an updated UCA model with mutual coupling in a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) beam space is deduced, and the new manifold matrix is equal to the product of a centrosymmetric diagonal matrix and a Vandermonde-structure matrix. Then we carry out blind DOA estimation through a modified ESPRIT method, thus avoiding the need for spatial angular searching. In addition, two mutual coupling parameter estimation methods are presented after the DOAs have been estimated. Simulation results show that the new algorithm is reliable and effective especially for closely spaced signals. Song Liu, Lisheng Yang, Shizhong Yang, Qingping Jiang, and Haowei Wu Copyright © 2016 Song Liu et al. All rights reserved. Structural Overview and Morphotectonic Evolution of a Strike-Slip Fault in the Zone of North Almora Thrust, Central Kumaun Himalaya, India Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:44:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jgr/2016/6980943/ The aim of the present research is to provide the base line details of the NNW-SSE trending Raintoli fault (RF) which is running parallel to the North Almora Thrust (NAT) along the Saryu valley from Seraghat-Naichun to Seri in the central sector of the Uttarakhand Himalaya, India. The RF is characterized as dextral strike slip fault and behaves as a ductile shear zone within the zone of NAT. The dextral sense of shear movement of RF is delineated by the fabric of the shear zone rocks including microscopically observed indicators such as sigma and delta porphyroclasts, quartz c-axis, and the field structural data. Additionally, in the quaternary period the dextral strike slip fault is reactivated with oblique slip component as characterized by various geomorphic indicators, for example, triangular facets, abandoned river channels, unpaired fluvial terraces, and V-shaped valleys with recurrent seismicity. Further, the morphometric parameters including Valley Floor Width to Valley Height (), asymmetry factor (AF), and gradient index (GI) further prove active nature of RF as suggested by low values of hypsometric integration, V-shaped valley, higher gradient index, and tilting of Saryu basin. Lalit M. Joshi, Pitamber D. Pant, Bahadur S. Kotlia, Girish C. Kothyari, Khayingshing Luirei, and Anoop K. Singh Copyright © 2016 Lalit M. Joshi et al. All rights reserved. Composite GPS Patch Antenna for the AR Bandwidth Enhancement Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:39:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3250920/ A composite Global Positioning System (GPS) patch antenna with a quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler was designed and implemented for working RHCP and had a broadband axial ratio (AR) bandwidth. We designed two patches as a FR-4 patch and 1.5 mm thickness thin ceramic patch with a quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler. A CP radiation pattern was achieved, and the AR bandwidth improved by incorporating a quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler feed structure in a micro-strip patch antenna. SMD by chip elements was applied to the quadrature 3 dB hybrid coupler. For the composite FR-4 and ceramic patch antennas, the VSWR measurement showed a 2 : 1 ratio over the entire design band, and the 3 dB AR bandwidth was 295 and 580 MHz for the FR-4 patch and ceramic patch antennas, respectively. The antenna gains for the composite FR-4 and ceramic patch antennas were measured as 1.36–2.75 and 1.47–2.71 dBi with 15.11–25.3% and 19.25–28.45% efficiency, respectively. Minkil Park, Wonhee Lee, and Taeho Son Copyright © 2016 Minkil Park et al. All rights reserved. Fusion of IR and Visual Images Based on Gaussian and Laplacian Decomposition Using Histogram Distributions and Edge Selection Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:38:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/3130681/ We propose a novel fusion method of IR (infrared) and visual images to combine distinct information from two sources. To decompose an image into its low and high frequency components, we use Gaussian and Laplacian decomposition. The strong high frequency information in the two sources can be easily fused by selecting the large magnitude of Laplacian images. The distinct low frequency information, however, is not as easily determined. As such, we use histogram distributions of the two sources. Therefore, experimental results show that the fused images can contain the dominant characteristics of both sources. Seohyung Lee and Daeho Lee Copyright © 2016 Seohyung Lee and Daeho Lee. All rights reserved. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:12:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mbi/2016/4732791/ Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA) is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression constructs. The PA gene was cloned in expression vectors bearing trc, T5, and T7 promoters and transformed into their respective E. coli hosts. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain maximum expression of PA in soluble form. The expression construct PA-pET32c in DE3-pLysS E. coli host resulted in a maximum production of soluble PA (15 mg L−1) compared to other combinations. Purified PA was subjected to trypsin digestion and binding assay with lethal factor to confirm the protein’s functionality. Biological activity was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay on J774.1 cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with PA and the immunogenicity was tested by ELISA and toxin neutralization assay. This study highlights the expression of soluble and biologically active recombinant PA in larger quantity using simpler E. coli production platform. Nagendra Suryanarayana, Vanlalhmuaka, Bharti Mankere, Monika Verma, Kulanthaivel Thavachelvam, and Urmil Tuteja Copyright © 2016 Nagendra Suryanarayana et al. All rights reserved. Automorphisms and Inner Automorphisms Sun, 07 Feb 2016 13:09:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmath/2016/3983895/ Let be a field of characteristic not and let be central simple superalgebra over , and let be superinvolution on . Our main purpose is to classify the group of automorphisms and inner automorphisms of (i.e., commuting with ) by using the classical theorem of Skolem-Noether. Also we study two examples of groups of automorphisms and inner automorphisms on even central simple superalgebras with superinvolutions. Ameer Jaber and Moh’D Yasein Copyright © 2016 Ameer Jaber and Moh’D Yasein. All rights reserved. Innervation of Cochlear Hair Cells by Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons In Vitro Sun, 07 Feb 2016 11:54:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/1781202/ Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as an autologous source of replacement neurons in the injured cochlea, if they can be successfully differentiated and reconnected with residual elements in the damaged auditory system. Here, we explored the potential of hiPSC-derived neurons to innervate early postnatal hair cells, using established in vitro assays. We compared two hiPSC lines against a well-characterized hESC line. After ten days’ coculture in vitro, hiPSC-derived neural processes contacted inner and outer hair cells in whole cochlear explant cultures. Neural processes from hiPSC-derived neurons also made contact with hair cells in denervated sensory epithelia explants and expressed synapsin at these points of contact. Interestingly, hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured with hair cells at an early stage of differentiation formed synapses with a higher number of hair cells, compared to hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured at a later stage of differentiation. Notable differences in the innervation potentials of the hiPSC-derived neurons were also observed and variations existed between the hiPSC lines in their innervation efficiencies. Collectively, these data illustrate the promise of hiPSCs for auditory neuron replacement and highlight the need to develop methods to mitigate variabilities observed amongst hiPSC lines, in order to achieve reliable clinical improvements for patients. Niliksha Gunewardene, Duncan Crombie, Mirella Dottori, and Bryony A. Nayagam Copyright © 2016 Niliksha Gunewardene et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain Sun, 07 Feb 2016 11:12:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/2646840/ Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns. Ahmed A. Allam, Salah N. Maodaa, Rasha Abo-Eleneen, and Jamaan Ajarem Copyright © 2016 Ahmed A. Allam et al. All rights reserved. The Pattern of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in a Single Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia Sun, 07 Feb 2016 11:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/iji/2016/7802957/ Introduction. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic arthritis in children. Our aim is to describe demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and treatment of JIA patients followed up in Pediatric Rheumatology clinic in a tertiary center in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Medical records of all patients who are followed up between January 2007 and January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were collected about demographic, clinical, and laboratory features and treatment. Results. Total patients were 82, males were 31 (37.8%), and mean age of JIA onset was 7.1 ± 3.6 yr. Mean follow-up duration was 2.67±1.6 yr. Systemic onset JIA (SoJIA) was the commonest (36.5%), followed by polyarticular in 29.2% and oligoarticular in 28%. Large and small joints are involved in 76 (92%) and 30 (36.6%), respectively. Main extra-articular feature was fever in 34 (41.4%). Uveitis was diagnosed in 7 (8.5%) and in 5 (21.7%) of oligoarticular JIA. Anemia was found in 49 (59.7%), high ESR in 45 (54.8%), and leukocytosis and thrombocytosis in 33 (40.2%). Positive ANA was found in 30 (36.5%) mainly in oligoarticular subtype as 12 (52%) patients (out of 23) had this positive test. 9 patients (10.9%) required NSAIDs only, 6 patients (7.3%) required NSAIDs and intra-articular steroids only, and 19 (23%) required NSAIDs, methotrexate, steroids, and biologics. Conclusion. SoJIA is the most common JIA subtype in our study. A population based rather than a single center study will give more details about JIA characteristics in Saudi Arabia Mohammad H. Al-Hemairi, Shatha M. Albokhari, and Mohammed A. Muzaffer Copyright © 2016 Mohammad H. Al-Hemairi et al. All rights reserved. Utilization and Predictors of Electrical Cardioversion in Patients Hospitalized for Atrial Fibrillation Sun, 07 Feb 2016 09:31:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crp/2016/8956020/ Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia in adults associated with thromboembolic complications. External electrical cardioversion (DCCV) is a safe procedure used to convert AF to normal sinus rhythm. We sought to study factors that affect utilization of DCCV in hospitalized patients with AF. The study sample was drawn from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project in the United States. Patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of AF that received DCCV during hospitalization in the years 2000–2010 were included. An estimated 2,810,530 patients with a primary diagnosis of AF were hospitalized between 2001 and 2010, of which 1,19,840 (4.26%) received DCCV. The likelihood of receiving DCCV was higher in patients who were males, whites, privately insured, and aged < 40 years and those with fewer comorbid conditions. Higher CHADS2 score was found to have an inverse association with DCCV use. In-hospital stroke, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost for hospitalization were significantly lower for patients undergoing DCCV during AF related hospitalization. Further research is required to study the contribution of other disease and patient related factors affecting the use of this procedure as well as postprocedure outcomes. Yogita M. Rochlani, Nishi N. Shah, Naga V. Pothineni, and Hakan Paydak Copyright © 2016 Yogita M. Rochlani et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Management and Reconstruction of Hoffman’s Disease (Dissecting Cellulitis of the Scalp) Sun, 07 Feb 2016 09:03:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2016/2123037/ Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, or Hoffman’s disease, is a rare dermatologic condition characterized by recurrent pustules and sinus tract formation leading to scarring and alopecia. Medical management includes the use of corticosteroids, antibiotics, isotretinoin, and adalimumab. In cases where the disease is severe, refractory, and intractable, surgery is an option. We report two cases of Hoffman’s disease, where medical management failed to achieve remission. Surgical treatment was undertaken with complete resection of the affected scalp in staged procedures with subsequent split-thickness skin grafting for reconstruction. Surgery achieved both disease remission and excellent aesthetic outcomes in both patients. Justin M. Hintze, Brittany E. Howard, Carrlene B. Donald, and Richard E. Hayden Copyright © 2016 Justin M. Hintze et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Stem Cells to Model Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia: From Basic Research to Regenerative Medicine Sun, 07 Feb 2016 09:02:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/9279516/ In recent years several genes have linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) as a spectrum disease; however little is known about what triggers their onset. With the ability to generate patient specific stem cell lines from somatic cells, it is possible to model disease without the need to transfect cells with exogenous DNA. These pluripotent stem cells have opened new avenues for identification of disease phenotypes and their relation to specific molecular pathways. Thus, as never before, compounds with potential applications for regenerative medicine can be specifically tailored in patient derived cultures. In this review, we discuss how patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used to model ALS and FTD and the most recent drug screening targets for these diseases. We also discuss how an iPSC bank would improve the quality of the available cell lines and how it would increase knowledge about the ALS/FTD disease spectrum. Erin C. Hedges, Vera J. Mehler, and Agnes L. Nishimura Copyright © 2016 Erin C. Hedges et al. All rights reserved. Coordination of Supply Chain with One Supplier and Two Competing Risk-Averse Retailers under an Option Contract Sun, 07 Feb 2016 08:59:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1970615/ This paper studies an option contract for coordinating a supply chain comprising one risk-neutral supplier and two risk-averse retailers engaged in promotion competition in the selling season. For a given option contract, in decentralized case, each risk-averse retailer decides the optimal order quantity and the promotion policy by maximizing the conditional value-at-risk of profit. Based on the retailers’ decision, the supplier derives the optimal production policy by maximizing expected profit. In centralized case, the optimal decision of the supply chain system is obtained. Based on the decentralized and centralized decision, we find the coordination conditions of the supply chain system, which can optimize the supply chain system profit and make the profits of the supply chain members achieve Pareto optimum. As for the subchain, we also find the coordination conditions, which generalize the results of the supply chain with one supplier and one retailer. Our analysis and numerical experiments show that there exists a unique Nash equilibrium between two retailers, and the optimal order quantity of each retailer increases (decreases) with its own (competitor’s) promotion level. Rui Wang, Shiji Song, and Cheng Wu Copyright © 2016 Rui Wang et al. All rights reserved. Hybrid Films Based on a Bridged Silsesquioxane Doped with Goethite and Montmorillonite Nanoparticles as Sorbents of Wastewater Contaminants Sun, 07 Feb 2016 08:57:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/6286247/ The synthesis and characterization of silsesquioxane (SSO) films with pendant dodecyl groups and doped with goethite (Gt) or montmorillonite (MMT) nanoparticles were carried out and the new materials tested as sorbents of diverse contaminants. The synthetic method used yielded SSO films with the inorganic substrates homogeneously distributed within the polymeric matrices. The new materials were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, and DSC and tested to evaluate their capability for adsorbing metallic cations, organic dyes, and phosphate, frequent contaminants of industrial effluents. All films were found suitable for removing metallic cations. Results also showed that the SSO films undoped and doped with Gt are primarily apt for anionic compounds removal. Although the SSO films doped with MMT are capable of removing cationic contaminants from aqueous samples, the stiffness of the SSO matrix hinders MMT properties as an adsorbent. The possibility of dispersing nanoparticulate systems in the stable and chemically inert SSO matrices simplifies their application for contaminant removal, particularly because it makes the separation process of the absorbed pollutant from the treated medium easier. Carolina V. Waiman, Ignacio E. dell’Erba, Carlos A. Chesta, and María Lorena Gómez Copyright © 2016 Carolina V. Waiman et al. All rights reserved. Modeling of Multihop Wireless Sensor Networks with MAC, Queuing, and Cooperation Sun, 07 Feb 2016 08:57:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/5258742/ We present a Markovian decision process (MDP) framework for multihop wireless sensor networks (MHWSNs) to bound the network performance of both energy constrained (EC) networks and energy harvesting (EH) networks, both with and without relay cooperation. The model provides the fundamental performance limit that a MHWSN can theoretically achieve, under the general constraints from medium access control, routing, and energy harvesting. We observe that the analyses for EC and EH networks fall into two branches of MDP theory, which are finite-horizon process and infinite-horizon process, respectively. The performance metrics for EC and EH networks are different. For EC networks, an appropriate metric is the network lifetime; for EH networks, an appropriate metric is, for example, the network throughput. To efficiently solve the models with high dimension, for the EC networks, we propose a novel computational algorithm by taking advantage of the stochastic shortest path structure of the problem; for the EH networks, we propose a dual linear programming based algorithm by considering the sparsity of the transition matrix. Under the unified MDP framework, numerical results demonstrate the advantages of cooperation for the optimal performance, in both EC and EH networks. Jian Lin and Mary Ann Weitnauer Copyright © 2016 Jian Lin and Mary Ann Weitnauer. All rights reserved. On Coupled Common Fixed Point Theorems for Nonlinear Contractions with the Mixed Weakly Monotone Property in Partially Ordered -Metric Spaces Sun, 07 Feb 2016 08:10:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/7529523/ The main aim of this paper is to establish some coupled common fixed point theorems under a Geraghty-type contraction using mixed weakly monotone property in partially ordered -metric space. Also, we give some sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of a coupled common fixed point. Some examples are provided to demonstrate the validity of our results. Mi Zhou and Xiao-Lan Liu Copyright © 2016 Mi Zhou and Xiao-Lan Liu. All rights reserved. Dependence of Proximal GC Boxes and Binding Transcription Factors in the Regulation of Basal and Valproic Acid-Induced Expression of t-PA Sun, 07 Feb 2016 07:32:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijvm/2016/7928681/ Objective. Endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) release is a pivotal response to protect the circulation from occluding thrombosis. We have shown that the t-PA gene is epigenetically regulated and greatly induced by the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA). We now investigated involvement of known t-PA promoter regulatory elements and evaluated dependence of potential interacting transcription factors/cofactors. Methods. A reporter vector with an insert, separately mutated at either the t-PA promoter CRE or GC box II or GC box III elements, was transfected into HT-1080 and HUVECs and challenged with VPA. HUVECs were targeted with siRNA against histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and selected transcription factors from the Sp/KLF family. Results. An intact VPA-response was observed with CRE mutated constructs, whereas mutation of GC boxes II and III reduced the magnitude of the induction by 54 and 79% in HT-1080 and 49 and 50% in HUVECs, respectively. An attenuated induction of t-PA mRNA was observed after Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5 depletion. KLF2 and p300 (HAT) were identified as positive regulators of basal t-PA expression and Sp4 and KLF9 as repressors. Conclusion. VPA-induced t-PA expression is dependent on the proximal GC boxes in the t-PA promoter and may involve interactions with Sp2, Sp4, and KLF5. Erik Ulfhammer, Pia Larsson, Mia Magnusson, Lena Karlsson, Niklas Bergh, and Sverker Jern Copyright © 2016 Erik Ulfhammer et al. All rights reserved. Demonstration of Improved Charge Transfer in Graphene/Au Nanorods Plasmonic Hybrids Stabilized by Benzyl Thiol Linkers Sun, 07 Feb 2016 07:22:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/2561326/ Hybrids based on graphene decorated with plasmonic gold (Au) nanostructures are being investigated as possible materials combination to add to graphene functionalities of tunable plasmon resonance and enhanced absorption at selected wavelength in the visible-near-infrared region of the spectrum. Here, we report a solution drop-casting approach for fabricating stable hybrids based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and Au nanorods, which are able to activate effective charge transfer from graphene. We demonstrate that CVD graphene functionalization by benzyl thiol (BZT) provides the linker to strong anchoring, via S-Au bonds, Au nanorods to graphene. Optical measurements by spectroscopic ellipsometry give evidence of the introduction of plasmon resonances at 1.85 and 2.25 eV in the Au nanorods/BZT/graphene hybrids, which enable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection. Furthermore, an effective electron transfer from graphene to Au nanorods, resulting in an enhancement of p-type doping of graphene with a consequent decrease of its sheet resistance, is probed by Raman spectroscopy and corroborated by electrical measurements. Giuseppe Valerio Bianco, Maria Michela Giangregorio, Maria Losurdo, Alberto Sacchetti, Pio Capezzuto, and Giovanni Bruno Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Valerio Bianco et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Defective Software Modules Using Class Imbalance Learning Sun, 07 Feb 2016 07:13:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acisc/2016/7658207/ Software defect predictors are useful to maintain the high quality of software products effectively. The early prediction of defective software modules can help the software developers to allocate the available resources to deliver high quality software products. The objective of software defect prediction system is to find as many defective software modules as possible without affecting the overall performance. The learning process of a software defect predictor is difficult due to the imbalanced distribution of software modules between defective and nondefective classes. Misclassification cost of defective software modules generally incurs much higher cost than the misclassification of nondefective one. Therefore, on considering the misclassification cost issue, we have developed a software defect prediction system using Weighted Least Squares Twin Support Vector Machine (WLSTSVM). This system assigns higher misclassification cost to the data samples of defective classes and lower cost to the data samples of nondefective classes. The experiments on eight software defect prediction datasets have proved the validity of the proposed defect prediction system. The significance of the results has been tested via statistical analysis performed by using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test. Divya Tomar and Sonali Agarwal Copyright © 2016 Divya Tomar and Sonali Agarwal. All rights reserved. Contribution of Cell Surface Hydrophobicity in the Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus against Antimicrobial Agents Sun, 07 Feb 2016 06:50:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bri/2016/1091290/ Staphylococcus aureus is found in a wide variety of habitats, including human skin, where many strains are commensals that may be clinically significant or contaminants of food. To determine the physiological characteristics of resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus against pediocin, a class IIa bacteriocin, a resistant strain was compared with wild type in order to investigate the contribution of hydrophobicity to this resistance. Additional clumping of resistant strain relative to wild type in light microscopy was considered as an elementary evidence of resistance attainment. A delay in log phase attainment was observed in resistant strain compared to the wild type strain. A significant increase in cell surface hydrophobicity was detected for resistant strain in both hexadecane and xylene indicating the contribution of cell surface hydrophobicity as adaptive reaction against antimicrobial agents. Puja Lather, A. K. Mohanty, Pankaj Jha, and Anita Kumari Garsa Copyright © 2016 Puja Lather et al. All rights reserved. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling in Immune Cells and Inflammation: Roles and Therapeutic Potential Sun, 07 Feb 2016 06:36:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/8606878/ Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite involved in many critical cell processes. It is produced by the phosphorylation of sphingosine by sphingosine kinases (SphKs) and exported out of cells via transporters such as spinster homolog 2 (Spns2). S1P regulates diverse physiological processes by binding to specific G protein-binding receptors, S1P receptors (S1PRs) 1–5, through a process coined as “inside-out signaling.” The S1P concentration gradient between various tissues promotes S1PR1-dependent migration of T cells from secondary lymphoid organs into the lymphatic and blood circulation. S1P suppresses T cell egress from and promotes retention in inflamed peripheral tissues. S1PR1 in T and B cells as well as Spns2 in endothelial cells contributes to lymphocyte trafficking. FTY720 (Fingolimod) is a functional antagonist of S1PRs that induces systemic lymphopenia by suppression of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs. In this review, we summarize previous findings and new discoveries about the importance of S1P and S1PR signaling in the recruitment of immune cells and lymphocyte retention in inflamed tissues. We also discuss the role of S1P-S1PR1 axis in inflammatory diseases and wound healing. Masayo Aoki, Hiroaki Aoki, Rajesh Ramanathan, Nitai C. Hait, and Kazuaki Takabe Copyright © 2016 Masayo Aoki et al. All rights reserved. Coordinated Semidirectional Distributed Antenna System with Capacity and Energy Efficiency Analyses for Cloud Cellular Network Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:33:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/8042871/ In order to further explore the coordination gain from the cloud cellular network, the Coordinated Semidirectional Distributed Antenna System (CS-DAS) is proposed with deploying 180-degree sector antennas. Based on the CS-DAS, the coordinated cellular deployment structure is established with corresponding communication procedure designs. The handover process for CS-DAS is designed with less handover rate and signaling overheads. The system performances of ergodic capacity and Energy Efficiency are derived, with a strong focus on the downlink performances, and analyzed with comparisons of current cellular structure. The numerical expressions of ergodic capacity are obtained with improvements of coordinated gain. The Energy Efficiency with different transmission modes is also investigated. The simulation results verify the performance improvements. Xiaodong Xu, Chengjin Luo, Ya Liu, Xiaofeng Tao, and Ping Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xiaodong Xu et al. All rights reserved. Surgical and Functional Results of Hybrid 25-27-Gauge Vitrectomy Combined with Coaxial 2.2 mm Small Incision Cataract Surgery Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:33:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/9186351/ Purpose. To investigate outcomes after coaxial 2.2 mm small incision cataract surgery combined with hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy in eyes with vitreoretinal disease and age-related cataract. Methods. A single-center, retrospective case series study of 55 subjects (55 eyes) with a mean age of 70 years who underwent combined small incision phacoemulsification, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation, and hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy during the 12-month period to December 2014. Intraoperative and postoperative complications and visual results were the main outcome measures. Results. The mean follow-up period was 6 months (range: 2–18 months). Intraoperative findings were 3 retinal breaks (5.5%). No cases required corneal or scleral suture or conversion to larger-gauge vitrectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of posterior capsule opacification (12.7%), elevated intraocular pressure >30 mmHg (1.8%), and fibrin reaction (5.5%). There were no cases of hypotony (<7 mmHg), IOL decentration, or postoperative endophthalmitis. Visual acuity (mean ± SD) improved from logMAR preoperatively to logMAR at final postoperative visit (). Conclusion. Surgical and visual outcomes suggest hybrid 25-27-gauge vitrectomy combined with small incision phacoemulsification and IOL implantation is feasible, safe, and effective as a one-step surgical procedure for the management of vitreoretinal pathologies and concurrent cataract. Fabian Höhn, Florian Kretz, and Mitrofanis Pavlidis Copyright © 2016 Fabian Höhn et al. All rights reserved. The Heavy Links between Geological Events and Vascular Plants Evolution: A Brief Outline Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:33:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijeb/2016/9264357/ Since the rise of photosynthesis, life has influenced terrestrial atmosphere, particularly the O2 and the CO2 content (the latter being originally more than 95%), changing the chemistry of waters, atmosphere, and soils. Billions of years after, a far offspring of these first unicellular forms conquered emerging lands, not only completely changing landscape, but also modifying geological cycles of deposition and erosion, many chemical and physical characteristics of soils and fresh waters, and, more, the cycle of various elements. So, there are no doubts that vascular plants modified geology; but it is true that also geology has affected (and, more, has driven) plant evolution. New software, PyRate, has determined vascular plant origin and diversification through a Bayesian analysis of fossil record from Silurian to today, particularly observing their origination and extinction rate. A comparison between PyRate data and geological history suggests that geological events massively influenced plant evolution and that also the rise of nonflowering seed plants and the fast diffusion of flowering plants can be explained, almost partly, with the environmental condition changes induced by geological phenomena. Aldo Piombino Copyright © 2016 Aldo Piombino. All rights reserved. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Cattle Farmers and Farm Residents in Three Northeastern Provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:32:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7059196/ Little is known about Coxiella burnetii infection among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. Thus, the present study was conducted to detect the seroprevalence of C. burnetii infection and estimate associated risk factors among cattle farmers and farm residents in China. A cross-sectional study was designed, and sera of 362 people living or working on 106 cattle farms were tested for C. burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies by immunofluorescence assay. Overall C. burnetii seroprevalence was 35.6% (129/362, 95% CI: 30.70–40.57), and 112 participants had experienced a past infection and seventeen (4.7%) had experienced a relatively recent infection. In the final combined multilevel model, the following activities were significantly associated with presence of antibodies against C. burnetii: milking cattle, providing general healthcare to cattle, providing birth assistance, contact dead-born animals, urbanization, and presence of mice and/or rats in the stable. Moreover, presence of disinfection equipment was a significant protective factor. This is the first study addressing the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. burnetii infection in cattle farmers and farm residents in three northeastern provinces and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China. Wu-Wen Sun, Wei Cong, Mao-Hui Li, Chun-Feng Wang, Xiao-Feng Shan, and Ai-Dong Qian Copyright © 2016 Wu-Wen Sun et al. All rights reserved. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:29:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/6058147/ Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors. Jaehong Kim and Jong-Sup Bae Copyright © 2016 Jaehong Kim and Jong-Sup Bae. All rights reserved. Clinical Screening Tools for Sarcopenia and Its Management Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:25:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cggr/2016/5978523/ Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in muscle mass and function, is affecting the older population worldwide. Sarcopenia is associated with poor health outcomes, such as falls, disability, loss of independence, and mortality; however it is potentially treatable if recognized and intervened early. Over the last two decades, there has been significant expansion of research in this area. Currently there is international recognition of a need to identify the condition early for intervention and prevention of the disastrous consequences of sarcopenia if left untreated. There are currently various screening tools proposed. As yet, there is no consensus on the best tool. Effective interventions of sarcopenia include physical exercise and nutrition supplementation. This review paper examined the screening tools and interventions for sarcopenia. Solomon C. Y. Yu, Kareeann S. F. Khow, Agathe D. Jadczak, and Renuka Visvanathan Copyright © 2016 Solomon C. Y. Yu et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Mean Platelet Volume as a Predictor of Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:22:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ccrp/2016/4370834/ Background. An increase in the mean platelet volume (MPV) has been proposed as a novel prognostic indicator in critically ill patients. Objective. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether there is an association between MPV and mortality in critically ill patients. Methods. We did electronic search in Medline, Scopus, and Embase up to November 2015. Results. Eleven observational studies, involving 3724 patients, were included. The values of initial MPV in nonsurvivors and survivors were not different, with the mean difference with 95% confident interval (95% CI) being 0.17 (95% CI: −0.04, 0.38; ). However, after small sample studies were excluded in sensitivity analysis, the pooling mean difference of MPV was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.60; ). In addition, the MPV was observed to be significantly higher in nonsurvivor groups after the third day of admission. On the subgroup analysis, although patient types (sepsis or mixed ICU) and study type (prospective or retrospective study) did not show any significant difference between groups, the difference of MPV was significantly difference on the unit which had mortality up to 30%. Conclusions. Initial values of MPV might not be used as a prognostic marker of mortality in critically ill patients. Subsequent values of MPV after the 3rd day and the lower mortality rate unit might be useful. However, the heterogeneity between studies is high. Pattraporn Tajarernmuang, Arintaya Phrommintikul, Atikun Limsukon, Chaicharn Pothirat, and Kaweesak Chittawatanarat Copyright © 2016 Pattraporn Tajarernmuang et al. All rights reserved. Dendritic Cells under Hypoxia: How Oxygen Shortage Affects the Linkage between Innate and Adaptive Immunity Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:20:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/5134329/ Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered as one of the main regulators of immune responses. They collect antigens, process them, and present typical antigenic structures to lymphocytes, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response. All these processes take place under conditions of oxygen shortage (hypoxia) which is often not considered in experimental settings. This review highlights how deeply hypoxia modulates human as well as mouse immature and mature dendritic cell functions. It tries to link in vitro results to actual in vivo studies and outlines how hypoxia-mediated shaping of dendritic cells affects the activation of (innate) immunity. Sandra Winning and Joachim Fandrey Copyright © 2016 Sandra Winning and Joachim Fandrey. All rights reserved. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:14:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2016/4756894/ Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily). Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any other accompanying symptoms. The child was further investigated with computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture. Results. Computed tomography scan showed normal ventricular size and lumbar puncture revealed an elevated opening pressure of 360 mm H2O. RhGH was discontinued and acetazolamide 250 mg per os twice daily was initiated. Eight weeks later, the papilledema was resolved. Conclusions. There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of treatment with rhGH and the development of PTC. All children receiving rhGH should have a complete ophthalmological examination if they report headache or visual disturbances shortly after the treatment. Discontinuation of rhGH and initiation of treatment with acetazolamide may be needed and regular follow-up examinations by an ophthalmologist should be recommended. Eleni Loukianou, Anastasia Tasiopoulou, Constantinos Demosthenous, and Dimitrios Brouzas Copyright © 2016 Eleni Loukianou et al. All rights reserved. Imaging Techniques for Diagnosis of Thoracic Aortic Atherosclerosis Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:12:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijvm/2016/4726094/ The most severe complications after cardiac surgery are neurological complications including stroke which is often caused by emboli merging from atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta to the brain. Information about the thoracic aorta is crucial in reducing the embolization risk for both surgical open and closed chest procedures such as transaortic heart valve implantation. Several techniques are available to screen the ascending aorta, for example, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), epiaortic ultrasound, TEE A-view method, manual palpation, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper provides a description of the advantages and disadvantages of these imaging techniques. Wouter W. Jansen Klomp, George J. Brandon Bravo Bruinsma, Arnoud W. van ’t Hof, Jan. G. Grandjean, and Arno P. Nierich Copyright © 2016 Wouter W. Jansen Klomp et al. All rights reserved. Nanosensing Backed by the Uncertainty Principle Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:12:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnt/2016/3794109/ Possibility for a novel type of sensors for detecting nanosized substances (e.g., macromolecules or molecule clusters) through their effects on electron tunneling in a double nanoscale semiconductor heterostructure is discussed. We studied spectral distributions of localized/delocalized states of a single electron in a double quantum well (DQW) with relation to slight asymmetry perturbations. The asymmetry was modeled by modification of the dot shape and the confinement potential. Electron energy uncertainty is restricted by the differences between energy levels within the spectra of separated QWs. Hence, we established a direct relationship between the uncertainty of electron localization and the energy uncertainty. We have shown in various instances that a small violation of symmetry drastically affects the electron localization. These phenomena can be utilized to devise new sensing functionalities. The charge transport in such sensors is highly sensitive to minuscule symmetry violation caused by the detected substance. The detection of the electron localization constitutes the sensor signal. I. Filikhin, A. Karoui, and B. Vlahovic Copyright © 2016 I. Filikhin et al. All rights reserved. A Processor-Sharing Scheduling Strategy for NFV Nodes Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2016/3583962/ The introduction of the two paradigms SDN and NFV to “softwarize” the current Internet is making management and resource allocation two key challenges in the evolution towards the Future Internet. In this context, this paper proposes Network-Aware Round Robin (NARR), a processor-sharing strategy, to reduce delays in traversing SDN/NFV nodes. The application of NARR alleviates the job of the Orchestrator by automatically working at the intranode level, dynamically assigning the processor slices to the virtual network functions (VNFs) according to the state of the queues associated with the output links of the network interface cards (NICs). An extensive simulation set is presented to show the improvements achieved with respect to two more processor-sharing strategies chosen as reference. Giuseppe Faraci, Alfio Lombardo, and Giovanni Schembra Copyright © 2016 Giuseppe Faraci et al. All rights reserved. Medicinal Effect of Nutraceutical Fruits for the Cognition and Brain Health Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:08:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/scientifica/2016/3109254/ The recent era is witnessing evaluation of medicinal and nutritional value of fruits and fruit juices for the management and prevention of brain diseases like headache stress, anxiety, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases by the scientists and researchers worldwide. Fruits possess various chemicals such as antioxidants and polyphenols, which reduce and balance the effect of hormone in brain responsible for brain disease. Natural remedy is cheap, easily available, nontoxic, and easy to prepare and provides good mental health as compared to other remedies. The main objective of this review is to acknowledge medicinal benefits of fruits for the cognition and management of brain disease. Raj K. Keservani, Anil K. Sharma, and Rajesh K. Kesharwani Copyright © 2016 Raj K. Keservani et al. All rights reserved. Comparison between New-Onset and Old-Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes with Ketosis in Rural Regions of China Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:07:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/3010243/ Objectives. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with ketosis was common because of late diagnosis and lacking adequate treatment in rural regions of China. This study aimed to provide the data of T2D with ketosis among inpatients in a south-west border city of China. Methods. Data of 371 patients of T2D with ketosis who were hospitalized between January 2011 and July 2015 in Baoshan People’s Hospital, Yunnan, China, were analyzed. New-onset and old-diagnosed T2D patients presenting with ketosis were compared according to clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and chronic diabetic complications. Results. Overall, the blood glucose control was poor in our study subjects. Male predominated in both groups (male prevalence was 68% in new-onset and 64% in old-diagnosed groups). Overweight and obesity accounted for 50% in new-onset and 46% in old-diagnosed cases. Inducements of ketosis were 13.8% in new-onset and 38.7% in old-diagnosed patients. Infections were the first inducements in both groups. The prevalence of chronic complications of diabetes was common in both groups. Conclusions. More medical supports were needed for the early detection and adequate treatment of diabetes in rural areas of China. Shichun Du, Xia Yang, Degang Shi, and Qing Su Copyright © 2016 Shichun Du et al. All rights reserved. Acute Footshock Stress Induces Time-Dependent Modifications of AMPA/NMDA Protein Expression and AMPA Phosphorylation Thu, 04 Feb 2016 13:05:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/7267865/ Clinical studies on patients with stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders reported functional and morphological changes in brain areas where glutamatergic transmission is predominant, including frontal and prefrontal areas. In line with this evidence, several preclinical works suggest that glutamate receptors are targets of both rapid and long-lasting effects of stress. Here we found that acute footshock- (FS-) stress, although inducing no transcriptional and RNA editing alterations of ionotropic AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits, rapidly and transiently modulates their protein expression, phosphorylation, and localization at postsynaptic spines in prefrontal and frontal cortex. In total extract, FS-stress increased the phosphorylation levels of GluA1 AMPA subunit at Ser845 immediately after stress and of GluA2 Ser880 2 h after start of stress. At postsynaptic spines, stress induced a rapid decrease of GluA2 expression, together with an increase of its phosphorylation at Ser880, suggesting internalization of GluA2 AMPA containing receptors. GluN1 and GluN2A NMDA receptor subunits were found markedly upregulated in postsynaptic spines, 2 h after start of stress. These results suggest selected time-dependent changes in glutamatergic receptor subunits induced by acute stress, which may suggest early and transient enhancement of AMPA-mediated currents, followed by a transient activation of NMDA receptors. Daniela Bonini, Cristina Mora, Paolo Tornese, Nathalie Sala, Alice Filippini, Luca La Via, Marco Milanese, Stefano Calza, Gianbattista Bonanno, Giorgio Racagni, Massimo Gennarelli, Maurizio Popoli, Laura Musazzi, and Alessandro Barbon Copyright © 2016 Daniela Bonini et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Calcination on the Crystallography and Nonbiogenic Aragonite Formation of Ark Clam Shell under Ambient Condition Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:59:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2016/2914368/ This paper presents a study of crystallographic evolution of disposed ark clam shell (ACS) after calcination at 400–1400°C which was kept at room temperature under ambient condition in Malaysia during nine months. A better understanding of hydration and recarbonation of ACS powder (≤63 μm) after calcination was discovered by PXRD and FTIR. The research focuses on the crystallographic transformation, biogenic calcite decomposition, and unusual atmospheric aragonite formation in ACS after calcination and atmospheric air exposure. Ex situ PXRD showed calcite present in ACS at ≤900°C. ACS transformed to pyrogenic fcc CaO at ≥800°C after three months. Long term atmospheric air exposure of decarbonized ACS caused nucleation of nonbiogenic aragonite, vaterite, calcite, and portlandite. However, in situ PXRD analysis of ACS at instantaneous temperature without cooling process does not indicate the presence of aragonite, vaterite, and portlandite crystals. FTIR spectra revealed CaO–CO2 bond in ACS dissociated with temperature (600–900°C) to form CaO and CO2. Ca–OH bond was also traced in FTIR spectra of ≥700°C. It resulted by hydroadsorption of CaO with H2O in atmospheric air. Chee Wah Loy, Khamirul Amin Matori, Way Foong Lim, Siegbert Schmid, Norhazlin Zainuddin, Zaidan Abdul Wahab, Zarifah Nadakkavil Alassan, and Mohd Hafiz Mohd Zaid Copyright © 2016 Chee Wah Loy et al. All rights reserved. The Contrast Structures for a Class of Singularly Perturbed Systems with Heteroclinic Orbits Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:55:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6405853/ Singularly perturbed problems are often used as the models of ecology and epidemiology. In this paper, a class of semilinear singularly perturbed systems with contrast structures are discussed. Firstly, we verify the existence of heteroclinic orbits connecting two equilibrium points about the associated systems for contrast structures in the corresponding phase space. Secondly, the asymptotic solutions of the contrast structures by the method of boundary layer functions and smooth connection are constructed. Finally, the uniform validity of the asymptotic expansion is defined and the existence of the smooth solutions is proved. Han Xu and Yinlai Jin Copyright © 2016 Han Xu and Yinlai Jin. All rights reserved. Simulation Study on Miscibility Effect of CO2/Solvent Injection for Enhanced Oil Recovery at Nonisothermal Conditions Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:55:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2562971/ The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) determines the main mechanism of CO2 flooding, which is either an immiscible or miscible process. This paper examines the recovery improvements of CO2 flooding in terms of both the injection temperature and solvent composition. The results show that a lower temperature injection and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) mixture can considerably improve oil recovery due to the reduced MMP in the swept area caused by the injected solvent. For the pure CO2 injection at the reservoir temperature, oil recovery is 59% after 1.0 PV CO2 injection. The oil recoveries by CO2-LPG mixtures are improved to 73% with 0.1 mole fractions of LPG and 81% with 0.2 mole fractions of LPG. The recovery factor from low-temperature CO2 injection is 78%, which is 32% higher compared to the isothermal case. The recoveries obtained by low-temperature CO2-LPG injection increase up to 87% of the initial oil. Heat transfer between the reservoir and the formation of over/underburden should be considered in order to describe the process more accurately. Additionally, the recovery factors from the heat transfer models are decreased by 4–12% in comparison with the original nonisothermal models. Moon Sik Jeong and Kun Sang Lee Copyright © 2016 Moon Sik Jeong and Kun Sang Lee. All rights reserved. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:50:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2016/1320423/ Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a “safer” approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments. James Ahn, Hyung Seok Ahn, Jae Hoon Cheong, and Ike dela Peña Copyright © 2016 James Ahn et al. All rights reserved. Standardizing Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Translation to Clinical Use: Selection of GMP-Compliant Medium and a Simplified Isolation Method Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:48:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/6810980/ Umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) are a focus for clinical translation but standardized methods for isolation and expansion are lacking. Previously we published isolation and expansion methods for UC-MSCs which presented challenges when considering good manufacturing practices (GMP) for clinical translation. Here, a new and more standardized method for isolation and expansion of UC-MSCs is described. The new method eliminates dissection of blood vessels and uses a closed-vessel dissociation following enzymatic digestion which reduces contamination risk and manipulation time. The new method produced >10 times more cells per cm of UC than our previous method. When biographical variables were compared, more UC-MSCs per gram were isolated after vaginal birth compared to Caesarian-section births, an unexpected result. UC-MSCs were expanded in medium enriched with 2%, 5%, or 10% pooled human platelet lysate (HPL) eliminating the xenogeneic serum components. When the HPL concentrations were compared, media supplemented with 10% HPL had the highest growth rate, smallest cells, and the most viable cells at passage. UC-MSCs grown in 10% HPL had surface marker expression typical of MSCs, high colony forming efficiency, and could undergo trilineage differentiation. The new protocol standardizes manufacturing of UC-MSCs and enables clinical translation. J. Robert Smith, Kyle Pfeifer, Florian Petry, Natalie Powell, Jennifer Delzeit, and Mark L. Weiss Copyright © 2016 J. Robert Smith et al. All rights reserved. Chinese Herbal Medicine Fuzheng Kang-Ai Decoction Inhibited Lung Cancer Cell Growth through AMPKα-Mediated Induction and Interplay of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:14:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5060757/ The aim of this study is to investigate the actions of Chinese herbal medicine, called “Fuzheng Kang-Ai” (FZKA for short) decoction, against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. We showed that the effect of FZKA decoction significantly inhibited growth of A549 and PC9 cells. Furthermore, FZKA increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and induced protein expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and forkhead homeobox type O3a (FOXO3a). The specific inhibitor of AMPKα (Compound C) blocked FZKA-induced protein expression of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a. Interestingly, silencing of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a overcame the inhibitory effect of FZKA on cell growth. Moreover, silencing of IGFBP1 attenuated the effect of FZKA decoction on FOXO3a expression, and exogenous expression of FOXO3a enhanced the FZKA-stimulated phosphorylation of AMPKα. Accordingly, FZKA inhibited the tumor growth in xenograft nude mice model. Collectively, our results show that FZKA decoction inhibits proliferation of NSCLC cells through activation of AMPKα, followed by induction of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a proteins. Exogenous expression of FOXO3a feedback enhances FZKA decoction-stimulated IGFBP1 expression and phosphorylation of AMPKα. The reciprocal interplay of IGFBP1 and FOXO3a contribute to the overall responses of FAKA decoction. Fang Zheng, Jingjing Wu, Xiong Li, Qing Tang, LiJun Yang, Xiaobing Yang, WanYin Wu, and Swei Sunny Hann Copyright © 2016 Fang Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Habitat Ecology and Ichthyofaunal Diversity of Two Creeks and Their Associated Streams from Port Blair, South Andaman Islands Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:10:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2016/1649368/ Habitat ecology and ichthyofaunal diversity were analyzed from two creeks and their associated streams in Port Blair: one was perennial and the other one was seasonal. Various habitat types like riffles, pools, and major and minor bends in both streams were studied. The perennial stream has 12 riffles and 14 pools from head point to the entering point of the creek. The seasonal stream has 15 riffles and 13 pools from the starting point to the sink. The perennial stream was found to have higher ichthyofaunal diversity than the seasonal stream: 1701 individuals constituting 8 orders, 30 families, 42 genera, and 54 species were recorded. Among these, 395 specimens represented by 21 species were found in perennial stream, 291 specimens with 11 species were found in seasonal stream, 863 specimens by 48 species were noted in creek, and 152 specimens constituting 14 species in sink were recorded. The physicochemical parameters of the habitats showed more or less a similar trend. The average dissolved oxygen value of the perennial stream was higher than that of the seasonal stream. Higher temperature values were noted during the postmonsoon season. This study has indicated a wide lacuna in the knowledge of the fresh water habitats and their inhabitants on these islands. M. Arun Kumar, S. Venu, and G. Padmavati Copyright © 2016 M. Arun Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Parents’ Experiences of Caring Responsibility for Their Adult Child with Schizophrenia Thu, 04 Feb 2016 12:09:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/schizort/2016/1958198/ As a consequence of the latest psychiatry-related reform in Sweden and its implementation, relatives and family members have taken over from the formal healthcare system significant responsibility for the care of persons with a mental disability and illness. The aim of this study was to systematically describe and analyze the experiences of parents’ informal care responsibility. The questions were, what are the experiences around parents’ informal care activities and responsibilities and how do parents construct and manage their caring responsibility and with what consequences? Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted (16 hours of recorded material) with eight parents who were all members of the Interest Association for Schizophrenia (Intresseföreningen för Schizofreni (IFS)) in Sweden. A mixed hermeneutic deductive and inductive method was used for the interpretation of the material. The parents endow their informal caring responsibility with meaning of being a good, responsible, and accountable parent with respect to their social context and social relationships as well as with respect to the psychiatric care representatives. In this tense situation, parents compromise between elements of struggle, cooperation, avoidance, and adaption in their interaction with the world outside, meaning the world beyond the care provision for their child, as well as with the world inside themselves. Ann Blomgren Mannerheim, Ulla Hellström Muhli, and Eleni Siouta Copyright © 2016 Ann Blomgren Mannerheim et al. All rights reserved. Mean Platelet Volume in Patients with Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Thu, 04 Feb 2016 11:36:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/1051572/ Objective. We aimed to investigate the mean platelet volume (MPV) of the patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Methods. The medical records of 46 patients with the diagnosis of NAION and 90 control subjects were retrospectively evaluated. All participants underwent complete ocular examination including intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. Hematocrit, MPV, hemoglobin, and platelet levels of the patients with NAION were compared with those of control subjects. Results. There was no significant difference between the groups in platelet counts (). NAION group had significantly higher MPV values ( fL) than that of control subjects ( fL) (). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that MPV is an independent predictor of NAION (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13–2.28; ). The mean IOP was significantly higher in NAION group (). IOP was also found as an independent predictor of NAION according to the regression analysis (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.08–1.48; ). Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that the MPV values were significantly higher in NAION patients, suggesting that larger platelets may contribute to the pathogenesis of the NAION. Muhammed Şahin, Alparslan Şahin, Bilal Elbey, Harun Yüksel, Fatih Mehmet Türkcü, and Abdullah Kürşat Cingü Copyright © 2016 Muhammed Şahin et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effects of Simvastatin and Irinotecan against Colon Cancer Cells with or without Irinotecan Resistance Thu, 04 Feb 2016 11:34:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/7891374/ Aims. We here investigated whether the combination of simvastatin and irinotecan could induce the synergistic effect on colon cancer cells with or without resistance to irinotecan. Methods. We investigated cell proliferation assay and assessed cell death detection ELISA and caspase-3 activity assay of various concentrations of simvastatin and irinotecan to evaluate the efficacy of drug combination on colon cancer cells with or without irinotecan resistance. Results. The IC50 values of simvastatin alone and irinotecan alone were  μM () and  μM () in HT-29 cells without resistance to irinotecan. The IC50 values of these two drugs were  μM () and  μM (), respectively, in HT-29 cell with resistance to irinotecan. The results of combinations of the various concentrations of two drugs showed that combined treatment with irinotecan and simvastatin more efficiently suppressed cell proliferation of HT-29 cells even with resistance to irinotecan as well as without resistance. Furthermore, the combination of simvastatin and irinotecan at molar ratio showed the best synergistic interaction. Conclusion. Simvastatin could act synergistically with irinotecan to overcome irinotecan resistance of colon cancer. Hyun Joo Jang, Eun Mi Hong, Juah Jang, Jung Eun Choi, Se Woo Park, Hyun Woo Byun, Dong Hee Koh, Min Ho Choi, Sea Hyub Kae, and Jin Lee Copyright © 2016 Hyun Joo Jang et al. All rights reserved. Hydroxytyrosol Protects against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through a PI3K/Akt-Dependent Mechanism Thu, 04 Feb 2016 11:23:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2016/1232103/ Objective. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of hydroxytyrosol (HT) during the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rat hearts. Methods. The rats were randomized into five groups: sham group, I/R group, HT+I/R group, HT+LY294002+I/R group, and LY+I/R group. Myocardial infarct size, markers of oxidative stress, extent of myocardial apoptosis, echocardiographically assessed cardiac function, and expression of Akt and GSK 3β were measured in each group. Results. Prereperfusion administration of HT was associated with a significantly smaller area of myocardial infarction and remarkably decreased level of myocardial apoptosis and necrosis, as evidenced by a lower apoptotic index, reduced cleaved caspase-3, and the serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase MB. Moreover, HT also attenuated the impairment of cardiac systolic function. However, cotreatment with LY294002 and HT completely abolished the above cardioprotective effects of HT. A subsequent mechanistic study revealed that the cardioprotective effects of HT during the process of I/R of the myocardium were dependent on the activation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Conclusion. Pretreatment with HT may have antiapoptotic and cardioprotective effects against myocardial I/R injury, and these effects seem to be related to the activation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway in the myocardium. Ying-hao Pei, Jiao Chen, Liang Xie, Xiao-min Cai, Run-Hua Yang, Xing Wang, and Jian-bin Gong Copyright © 2016 Ying-hao Pei et al. All rights reserved. Scrotal Abscess Precipitating Late Infection of a Malleable Penile Prosthesis: The Risk Never Evanesces Thu, 04 Feb 2016 11:12:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2016/3280418/ Although infrequent, infections represent the dreadful complication of penile prosthesis implantation. The incidence substantially decreases after a few infection-free postoperative months. We report herein a case of a very late penile prosthesis infection from a fistualizing scrotal abscess in a 67-year-old man. The patient presented with a one-month history of persistent penile-base discharge from a right hemiscrotal swelling. On examination, mild penile tenderness and a discharging penoscrotal-junction sinus were noted. Microbiological wound culture was positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed this multiloculated fluid collection’s communication with the right corporal body. Removal of the prosthesis was performed. Pathological evaluation of the dissected fistula was suggestive of acute on top of chronic inflammatory reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a scrotal abscess leading to penile prosthesis infection 15 years after an uneventful implantation. Osama Mustafa, Sultan Althakafi, Said Kattan, Mohamed Kattan, and Naif AlHathal Copyright © 2016 Osama Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. Structural Controllability of Discrete-Time Linear Control Systems with Time-Delay: A Delay Node Inserting Approach Thu, 04 Feb 2016 10:53:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/1429164/ This paper is concerned with the structural controllability analysis for discrete-time linear control systems with time-delay. By adding virtual delay nodes, the linear systems with time-delay are transformed into corresponding linear systems without time-delay, and the structural controllability of them is equivalent. That is to say, the time-delay does not affect or change the controllability of the systems. Several examples are also presented to illustrate the theoretical results. Ailing Qi, Xuewei Ju, Qing Zhang, and Zengqiang Chen Copyright © 2016 Ailing Qi et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Two Different OCT Systems: Retina Layer Segmentation and Impact on Structure-Function Analysis in Glaucoma Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:44:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/8307639/ Purpose. To compare two different spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems in regard to full macular thickness (MT) and ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) measures and in regard to structure-function correlation when compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP). Methods. Seventeen primary open angle glaucoma patients and 16 controls (one eye per subject) were enrolled. MT and GCIPL thicknesses were measured by Cirrus and Spectralis OCTs. Octopus Perimeter 101 (G2 protocol) reports sensitivity in mean defect (dB). Differences between measurements were assessed with Student’s -test and Bland Altman. Diagnostic performance was also compared between each parameter calculating the areas under the operator receiver (ROC). Linear models were used to investigate structure-function association between OCT and SAP. Results. Disagreement between OCTs in both MT and GCIPL values was significant. Spectralis values were thicker than Cirrus. Average difference between OCTs was 21.64 μm (SD 4.5) for MT and 9.8 μm (SD 5.4) for GCIPL (). Patients differed significantly from controls in both OCTs, in both measurements. MT and GCIPL were negatively associated with MD (). Conclusions. Although OCT values were not interchangeable, both machines differentiated patients from controls with statistical significance. Structure-function analysis results were comparable, when either OCT was compared to SAP. Livia M. Brandao, Anna A. Ledolter, Andreas Schötzau, and Anja M. Palmowski-Wolfe Copyright © 2016 Livia M. Brandao et al. All rights reserved. Periodic Exposure of Keratinocytes to Cold Physical Plasma: An In Vitro Model for Redox-Related Diseases of the Skin Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:43:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/9816072/ Oxidative stress illustrates an imbalance between radical formation and removal. Frequent redox stress is critically involved in many human pathologies including cancer, psoriasis, and chronic wounds. However, reactive species pursue a dual role being involved in signaling on the one hand and oxidative damage on the other. Using a HaCaT keratinocyte cell culture model, we investigated redox regulation and inflammation to periodic, low-dose oxidative stress after two, six, eight, ten, and twelve weeks. Chronic redox stress was generated by recurrent incubation with cold physical plasma-treated cell culture medium. Using transcriptome microarray technology, we identified both acute ROS-stress responses as well as numerous adaptions after several weeks of redox challenge. We determined a differential expression (2-fold, FDR < 0.01, ) of 260 genes that function in inflammation and redox homeostasis, such as cytokines (e.g., IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), growth factors (e.g., CSF2, FGF, and IGF-2), and antioxidant enzymes (e.g., HMOX, NQO1, GPX, and PRDX). Apoptotic signaling was affected rather modestly, especially in p53 downstream targets (e.g., BCL2, BBC3, and GADD45). Strikingly, the cell-protective heat shock protein HSP27 was strongly upregulated (). These results suggested cellular adaptions to frequent redox stress and may help to better understand the inflammatory responses in redox-related diseases. Anke Schmidt, Thomas von Woedtke, and Sander Bekeschus Copyright © 2016 Anke Schmidt et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Method of Dexterity Analysis for a 5-DOF Manipulator Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:37:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jr/2016/8901820/ The dexterity characteristics and dexterous workspace features are applied as the considerable and key kinematics properties to evaluate the manipulator performance. In this paper, a novel method of the dexterity analysis with the character of graphic dexterity and a new concept of the spatial mapping envelope surface are proposed for a 5-degree of freedom (DOF) manipulator. Additionally, for an arbitrary selected point and a dexterous workspace, the dexterity characteristics and the dexterity conditions are drawn, respectively. Finally, the dexterous workspace of this 5-DOF manipulator is obtained and it can be utilized as the basis research of this manipulator in future such as the structure optimization and motion control. Wanjin Guo, Ruifeng Li, Chuqing Cao, and Yunfeng Gao Copyright © 2016 Wanjin Guo et al. All rights reserved. Extensive Use of Interventional Therapies Improves Survival in Unresectable or Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:31:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/8732521/ Aim. To assess the outcomes of patients with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma (ICC) treated by a tailored therapeutic approach, combining systemic with advanced image-guided local or locoregional therapies. Materials and Methods. Treatment followed an algorithm established by a multidisciplinary GI-tumor team. Treatment options comprised ablation (RFA, CT-guided brachytherapy) or locoregional techniques (TACE, radioembolization, i.a. chemotherapy). Results. Median survival was 33.1 months from time of diagnosis and 16.0 months from first therapy. UICC stage analysis showed a median survival of 15.9 months for stage I, 9 months for IIIa, 18.4 months for IIIc, and 13 months for IV. Only the number of lesions, baseline serum CEA and serum CA19-9, and objective response (RECIST) were independently associated with survival. Extrahepatic metastases had no influence. Conclusion. Patients with unresectable ICC may benefit from hepatic tumor control provided by local or locoregional therapies. Future prospective study formats should focus on supplementing systemic therapy by classes of interventions (“toolbox”) rather than specific techniques, that is, local ablation leading to complete tumor destruction (such as RFA) or locoregional treatment leading to partial remission (such as radioembolization). This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials Registry (Deutsche Register Klinischer Studien), DRKS-ID: DRKS00006237. Ricarda Seidensticker, Max Seidensticker, Kathleen Doegen, Konrad Mohnike, Kerstin Schütte, Patrick Stübs, Erika Kettner, Maciej Pech, Holger Amthauer, and Jens Ricke Copyright © 2016 Ricarda Seidensticker et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Mexican Children in New York Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:29:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2016/2420167/ This paper analyses the risk factors for being overweight or obese among the children of Mexican migrants in the United States. It draws on a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and participant observation with 30 parents in New York State. Findings indicate risks related to nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity before migration, adaptation to US lifestyles, and the cultural tendency to value being overweight as a sign of greater health and higher socioeconomic status. Findings also show that mothers use various strategies to resist the excessive consumption of fast food, yet they simultaneously experience dilemmas around the family’s consumption due to the gender norm that women are responsible for children’s diet. Esperanza Tuñón-Pablos and Joanna Dreby Copyright © 2016 Esperanza Tuñón-Pablos and Joanna Dreby. All rights reserved. A Statistical Approach in Designing an RF-Based Human Crowd Density Estimation System Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:25:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2016/8351017/ The study of human crowd density estimation (H-CDE) using radio frequency is limited due to the nature of wireless medium and the advancement of visual-based systems. There were two statistical methods, namely, One-Way Analysis of Variance and Design of Experiment applied in designing the H-CDE system. One-Way Analysis of Variance is used to investigate the difference in signal attenuation between dynamic and static crowds. The Design of Experiment is utilized to identify significant crowd properties that affect wireless signal propagation. The significant factors were later trained into the H-CDE algorithm for the purpose of estimating the human crowd density in a defined sector. A sector comprising three placements of 2.4 GHz ZigBee wireless nodes continuously reported the received signal strength indicator to the main node. The results showed that the H-CDE system was 75.00% and 70.83% accurate in detecting the low and medium human crowd density, respectively. A signal path loss propagation model was also proposed to assist in predicting the human crowd density. The human crowd properties verified by using the statistical approach may offer a new side of understanding and estimating the human crowd density. S. Y. Fadhlullah and Widad Ismail Copyright © 2016 S. Y. Fadhlullah and Widad Ismail. All rights reserved. Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis with Paraneoplastic Polymyositis: A Rare Malignancy with Rare Complication Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:22:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2016/8242597/ Lymphomatoid granulomatosis is a rare Epstein-Barr virus driven lymphoproliferative disease. It most commonly presents with symptoms of lung involvement such as cough, chest tightness, and dyspnea or constitutional symptoms of weight loss, malaise, and fever. The diagnosis is obtained by biopsy and histopathology. Here we report the case of a 31-year-old male who presented with weight loss, rash, and weakness and was diagnosed with lymphomatoid granulomatosis with paraneoplastic polymyositis. We explore the relationship of Epstein-Barr virus with inflammatory myopathy and discuss paraneoplastic inflammatory myopathy. Shanley O’Brien and Paul Schmidt Copyright © 2016 Shanley O’Brien and Paul Schmidt. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Efficiency of the Axial-Flow Pump at Part Loads due to Installing Outlet Guide Vanes Mechanism Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:20:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6375314/ In order to investigate the influence of adjustable outlet guide vane on the hydraulic performance of axial-flow pump at part loads, the axial-flow pump with 7 different outlet guide vane adjustable angles was simulated based on the RNG turbulent model and Reynolds time-averaged equations. The Vector graphs of airfoil flow were analyzed in the different operating conditions for different adjustable angles of guide vane. BP-ANN prediction model was established about the effect of adjustable outlet guide vane on the hydraulic performance of axial-flow pump based on the numerical results. The effectiveness of prediction model was verified by theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that, with the adjustable angle of guide vane increasing along clockwise, the high efficiency area moves to the large flow rate direction; otherwise, that moves to the small flow rate direction. The internal flow field of guide vane is improved by adjusting angle, and the flow separation of tail and guide vane inlet ledge are decreased or eliminated, so that the hydraulic efficiency of pumping system will be improved. The prediction accuracy of BP-ANN model is 1%, which can meet the requirement of practical engineering. Fan Yang, Hao-ru Zhao, and Chao Liu Copyright © 2016 Fan Yang et al. All rights reserved. Pinning Controllability Scheme of Directed Complex Delayed Dynamical Networks via Periodically Intermittent Control Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:16:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1585928/ This paper studies the pinning controllability of directed complex delayed dynamical networks by using periodic intermittent control scheme. The general and low-dimensional pinning synchronization criteria are derived to illustrate the design of periodic intermittent control scheme. According to our low-dimensional pinning criterion, especially, the constraint condition of coupling strength is obtained when the network structure and amounts of pinned nodes are fixed. An algorithm is presented to determine the amounts of periodically intermittent controllers and locate these intermittent controllers in a directed network, in which the significance of nodes out- (in-) degree in pinning control of complex network is also illustrated. Finally, a directed network consisting of 12 coupled delayed Chua oscillators is designed as numerical example to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis. Shaolin Li, Jinde Cao, and Yinghui He Copyright © 2016 Shaolin Li et al. All rights reserved. Theoretical Description of the Glass Preparation with the Necessary Optical Properties Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:10:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aot/2016/7561952/ The method to get the glass media with necessary optical characteristics is proposed. This method is based on inserting a necessary number of heterogeneous centers of given activity into the system. The theoretical description of the nucleation process in such situation is given and the resulting formulas allow choosing the characteristics of heterogeneous centers necessary to get the required optical characteristics of the media. Victor Kurasov Copyright © 2016 Victor Kurasov. All rights reserved. Preallocated Duplicate Name Prefix Detection Mechanism Using Naming Pool in CCN Based Mobile IoT Networks Thu, 04 Feb 2016 09:08:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2016/9684032/ As the number of mobile devices and IoT (internet of things) devices has explosively increased, various contents are created anytime and anywhere. To meet such trend, current internet architecture has exposed many limitations such as high control overhead due to multistaged address resolution, frequent location updates, and network congestion. Recently, information centric networking (ICN) is considered as new networking architecture to redesign current internet’s content exchange paradigm. In current ICN architecture, whenever a mobile node moves to a new domain, it needs long latency to configure and confirm the temporary name prefix. So, this paper presents an efficient name prefix configuration mechanism in mobile CCN to reduce the latency needed for the name prefix configuration during MCS’s handover. From the performance analysis, the proposed mechanism is shown to provide lower control overhead and lower resource consumption. Juyong Lee and Jihoon Lee Copyright © 2016 Juyong Lee and Jihoon Lee. All rights reserved. New Imaging in Gastrointestinal Tract Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:52:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/5785871/ Roberto Grassi, Antonio Pinto, Lorenzo Mannelli, Daniele Marin, and Maria Antonietta Mazzei Copyright © 2016 Roberto Grassi et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing Human Bile Preparation for Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:48:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5185317/ Aims. Bile is an important body fluid which assists in the digestion of fat and excretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds. In the present study, an improved sample preparation for human bile was established. Methods and Material. The method involved acetone precipitation followed by protein extraction using commercially available 2D Clean-Up kit. The effectiveness was evaluated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) profiling quality, including number of protein spots and spot distribution. Results. The total protein of bile fluid in benign biliary disorders was 0.797 ± 0.465 μg/μL. The sample preparation method using acetone precipitation first followed by 2D Clean-Up kit protein extraction resulted in better quality of 2DE gel images in terms of resolution as compared with other sample preparation methods. Using this protocol, we obtained approximately 558 protein spots on the gel images and with better protein spots presentation of haptoglobin, serum albumin, serotransferrin, and transthyretin. Conclusions. Protein samples of bile prepared using acetone precipitation followed by 2D Clean-Up kit exhibited high protein resolution and significant protein profile. This optimized protein preparation protocol can effectively concentrate bile proteins, remove abundant proteins and debris, and yield clear presentation of nonabundant proteins and its isoforms on 2-dimensional electrophoresis gel images. Hao-Tsai Cheng, Sen-Yung Hsieh, Chang-Mu Sung, Betty Chien-Jung Pai, Nai-Jen Liu, and Carl PC Chen Copyright © 2016 Hao-Tsai Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Investigations on Structural and Optical Properties of Hydrothermally Synthesized Zn2SnO4 Nanoparticles Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:44:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physri/2016/1801795/ Ternary oxide Zn2SnO4 has emerged as a promising material due to its tunable work function, band gap energy, and electric resistivity by simply varying the composition of the material. Zinc stannate nanoparticles were synthesized by green hydrothermal growth technique at 200°C for the reaction time of 24 h using stannic chloride pentahydrate (SnCl4·5H2O) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) as precursors maintained at pH value of 8. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the phase purity and high crystalline nature of the synthesized sample. The estimated crystallite size was about 12.3 nm corresponding to the most prominent plane (311) using Scherrer equation. Morphology of the sample was characterized by SEM analysis, which confirmed the presence of small size nanoparticles. The optical property of synthesized sample was studied by using UV-visible and PL spectroscopy analysis. The derived optical band gap of 3.94 eV was found to be blue shifted as compared to bulk Zn2SnO4 (3.6 eV), which should be attributed to the quantum size effects. Room temperature photoluminescence spectrum showed emission bands at 397 nm and 468 nm. L. Allwin Joseph, J. Emima Jeronsia, M. Mary Jaculine, and S. Jerome Das Copyright © 2016 L. Allwin Joseph et al. All rights reserved. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Cell-Based Therapeutics for Wound Healing Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:40:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/4157934/ Chronic wounds are a source of substantial morbidity for patients and are a major financial burden for the healthcare system. There are no current therapies that reliably improve nonhealing wounds or reverse pathological scarring. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising source of novel cell-based therapies due to the ease of their harvest and their integral role in the native wound repair process. Recent work has addressed the problems of loss of plasticity and off-target delivery through use of modern bioengineering techniques. Here we describe the applications of MSCs harvested from different sources to the wound healing process and recent advances in delivery of MSCs to targeted sites of injury. Samir Malhotra, Michael S. Hu, Clement D. Marshall, Tripp Leavitt, Alexander T. M. Cheung, Jennifer G. Gonzalez, Harleen Kaur, H. Peter Lorenz, and Michael T. Longaker Copyright © 2016 Samir Malhotra et al. All rights reserved. Formation of Silver Nanoclusters from a DNA Template Containing Ag(I)-Mediated Base Pairs Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:22:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bca/2016/7485125/ A series of DNA double helices containing different numbers of silver(I)-mediated base pairs involving the artificial nucleobases imidazole or 2-methylimidazole has been applied for the generation of DNA-templated silver nanoclusters. The original Ag(I)-containing nucleic acids as well as the resulting nanoclusters and nanoparticles have been characterized by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show for the first time that metal-mediated base pairs can be used for the templated growth of metal nanoclusters. J. Christian Léon, Linda Stegemann, Martin Peterlechner, Stefanie Litau, Gerhard Wilde, Cristian A. Strassert, and Jens Müller Copyright © 2016 J. Christian Léon et al. All rights reserved. Management of Multiple Sclerosis in the Breastfeeding Mother Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:21:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/msi/2016/6527458/ Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. Relapsing-Remitting MS is characterized by acute attacks followed by remission. Treatment is aimed at halting these attacks; therapy may last for months to years. Because MS disproportionately affects females and commonly begins during the childbearing years, clinicians treat pregnant or nursing MS patients. The intent of this review is to perform an in-depth analysis into the safety of drugs used in breastfeeding women with MS. This paper is composed of several drugs used in the treatment of MS and current research regarding their safety in breastfeeding including immunomodulators, immunosuppressants, monoclonal antibodies, corticosteroids, and drugs used for symptomatic treatment. Typically, some medications are large polar molecules which often do not pass into the milk in clinically relevant amounts. For this reason, interferon beta is likely safe for the infant when given to a breastfeeding mother. However, other drugs with particularly dangerous side effects may not be recommended. While treatment options are available and some data from clinical studies does exist, there continues to be a need for investigation and ongoing review of the medications used in breastfeeding mothers. Saneea Almas, Jesse Vance, Teresa Baker, and Thomas Hale Copyright © 2016 Saneea Almas et al. All rights reserved. Research on Historical and Future Spatial-Temporal Variability of Precipitation in China Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:19:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/9137201/ Based on observed data and data simulated by climate models, temporal variation and spatial distribution of precipitation in China from 1961 to 2050 were investigated. The slope of annual precipitation and Mann-Kendall statistical test were applied to quantify the trend magnitude and detect the significant trend, respectively. Besides, decadal and interannual variations of different rain belts were analyzed to reveal the spatial changing pattern of precipitation. Results indicated the following. (1) During 1961–2011, annual precipitation in Haihe River Basin decreased significantly while the annual precipitation in river basins in the northwest increased significantly. Although the annual precipitation of Yangtze River Basin has an indistinctive decreasing trend, that in the middle and lower reaches has increased and that in the upper reaches has decreased. Arid zone and humid zone are shrinking while semiarid and semihumid zone are expanding. Transformation between semiarid and arid zones, humid and semihumid zones is frequent. During 2011–2050, annual precipitation will not change much (−6~12%) except river basins in the southwest (more than 40%) compared with the baseline. Besides, the area of arid zone will decrease and humid zone area will increase. Transformation area between semiarid and arid zone and humid and semihumid zone is small. Jun Yin, Denghua Yan, Zhiyong Yang, Zhe Yuan, Yong Yuan, Hao Wang, and Xiaoliang Shi Copyright © 2016 Jun Yin et al. All rights reserved. Newly Emerging Parasitic Threats for Human Health: National and International Trends Thu, 04 Feb 2016 08:00:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4283270/ Lidia Chomicz, David Bruce Conn, Jacek P. Szaflik, and Beata Szostakowska Copyright © 2016 Lidia Chomicz et al. All rights reserved. Self-Perception of Swallowing-Related Problems in Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Patients Diagnosed with 24-Hour Oropharyngeal pH Monitoring Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:40:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/7659016/ Background and Objectives. Swallowing difficulty is considered one of the nonspecific symptoms that many patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux complain of. However, the relationship between laryngopharyngeal reflux and swallowing problems is not clear. The purpose of this work is to explore correlation between swallowing-related problems and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in a group of patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal pH monitoring and to study the effect of laryngopharyngeal reflux on the patients’ self-perception of swallowing problems. Methods. 44 patients complaining of reflux-related problems were included in the study. Patients underwent 24-hour oropharyngeal pH monitoring and were divided into positive and negative LPR groups based on the pH monitoring results. All patient filled out the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) and Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) questionnaires. Comparison was made between the positive and negative LPR groups regarding the results of the DHI and RSI ratings. Also, correlation between DHI scores, RSI scores, and pH monitoring results was studied. Results. Significant difference was reported between positive and negative LPR groups regarding DHI scores, RSI scores, and overall rating of swallowing difficulty. There was significant correlation demonstrated between DHI scores, RSI scores, and 24-hour oropharyngeal pH results. Conclusion. Laryngopharyngeal reflux appears to have a significant impact on patients’ self-perception of swallowing problems as measured by DHI. Tamer A. Mesallam and Mohamed Farahat Copyright © 2016 Tamer A. Mesallam and Mohamed Farahat. All rights reserved. Longitudinal Frequencies of Blood Leukocyte Subpopulations Differ between NOD and NOR Mice but Do Not Predict Diabetes in NOD Mice Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:39:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/4208156/ Immune phenotyping provides insight into disease pathogenesis and prognostic markers. Trajectories from age of 4 to 36 weeks were modeled for insulin autoantibodies and for leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood from female NOD () and NOR () mice. NOD mice had higher trajectories of insulin autoantibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, IgD+IgM− B lymphocytes, and NK cells and lower trajectories of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes, IgM+ B lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes than NOR mice (all ). Of these, only the increased IAA trajectory was observed in NOD mice that developed diabetes as compared to NOD mice that remained diabetes-free. Therefore, the profound differences in peripheral blood leukocyte proportions observed between the diabetes-prone NOD mice and the diabetes-resistant mice do not explain the variation in diabetes development within NOD mice and do not provide markers for diabetes prediction in this model. Tanja Telieps, Meike Köhler, Irina Treise, Katharina Foertsch, Thure Adler, Dirk H. Busch, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Admar Verschoor, Kerstin Adler, Ezio Bonifacio, and Anette-Gabriele Ziegler Copyright © 2016 Tanja Telieps et al. All rights reserved. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Palladium-Copper Nanoalloys with Improved Catalytic Activity for Ethanol Electrooxidation Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:39:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijelc/2016/4261012/ A facile solvothermal strategy is developed for the preparation of nanometer sized Pd-Cu alloy. We can control the morphology of these alloys with the use of ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of KOH. Namely, by increasing the concentration of KOH/EG, the Pd-Cu alloys with different morphologies from near-spherical nanoparticles (NPs) to nanorods and nanowire networks have been prepared. Among all these alloys, near-spherical Pd-Cu NPs-modified electrodes exhibit the highest catalytic activity (11.7 mA/cm2) and stability toward the electrooxidation of ethanol in comparison with commercial Pd/C-modified ones (2.1 mA/cm2). Hao Wang, Weihua Yang, Qinhao Zhang, and Qingchao Qiu Copyright © 2016 Hao Wang et al. All rights reserved. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steels in CCTS Environment Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:38:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijc/2016/3121247/ The paper reports the results of an experimental work on the effect of steel microstructures on morphology and protectiveness of the corrosion scale formed in water saturated by supercritical CO2. Two HSLA steels were tested. The microstructures were modified by means of different heat treatments. Weight loss was measured after exposure at CO2 partial pressure of 80 bar and 60°C temperature. The morphology of the scale was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Cathodic potentiodynamic tests were carried out on precorroded specimens for evaluating the effect of preformed scales on cathodic polarization curves in CO2 saturated sulphuric acid solution at pH 3, which is the value estimated for water saturated by supercritical CO2. The results are discussed in order to evaluate the effect of iron carbide network on scale growth and corrosion rate. Weight loss tests evidenced average corrosion rate values in the range 1–2.5 mm/y after 150-hour exposure. The presence of thick siderite scale significantly reduces the corrosion rate of carbon steel. A slight decrease of the corrosion rate was observed as the scale thickness increases and moving from martensite to microstructures containing carbides. M. Cabrini, S. Lorenzi, and T. Pastore Copyright © 2016 M. Cabrini et al. All rights reserved. First Case Report of Sinusitis with Lophomonas blattarum from Iran Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:15:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2016/2614187/ Introduction. Lophomonas blattarum is a rare cause of bronchopulmonary and sinus infection. This paper presents a rare case of Lophomonas sinusitis. Case Presentation. The patient was a 31-year-old woman who was admitted because of a history of upper respiratory infection and sinusitis. Direct microscopic examination of the sputum and nasal discharge showed large numbers of living Lophomonas blattarum with irregular movement of flagella. The patient was successfully treated by Metronidazole 750 mg t.i.d. for 30 days. Conclusions. This is the first case report of Lophomonas blattarum sinusitis from Iran. Fariba Berenji, Mahmoud Parian, Abdolmajid Fata, Mahdi Bakhshaee, and Fereshte Fattahi Copyright © 2016 Fariba Berenji et al. All rights reserved. Attenuation of Oxidative Stress of Erythrocytes by Plant-Derived Flavonoids, Orientin and Luteolin Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:12:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3401269/ Erythrocytes are easy to be injured by oxidative stress in their lifespan. Although there are several chemicals such as vitamin C (VC) that would be able to reduce oxidative stress, natural herbal products still remain an interesting research area. The current study investigated the effects of two plant-derived flavonoids, orientin and luteolin, on erythrocytes and their possible mechanisms. This experiment was divided into nine groups, which were normal group, model group, VC control group, and treated groups with different doses of orientin and luteolin (10, 20, and 40 μg/mL), respectively. Hemolysis rate was determined by spectrophotometry. Antioxidative enzyme and products were evaluated by different methods. Erythrocyte cell surface and cellular structure were observed with scanning or transmission electron microscope, respectively. Oxidative stress induced significant increase in hemolysis rate of erythrocytes. Orientin or luteolin ameliorated hemolysis of erythrocytes in oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Both orientin and luteolin reduced oxidative products and increased antioxidative enzyme activities. Moreover, orientin and luteolin attenuated oxidative stress induced damage of erythrocyte cell surface morphology and cellular structure. In conclusion, orientin and luteolin could protect human erythrocytes from oxidative damage by attenuating oxidative stress, protecting antioxidative enzyme activities, and preserving integrity of erythrocyte structure. Fang An, Shulin Wang, Danhua Yuan, Yuewen Gong, and Shuhua Wang Copyright © 2016 Fang An et al. All rights reserved. Antibiotic-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Increasing Success Remains a Challenge as a Nosocomial Pathogen Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:09:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpath/2016/7318075/ Antibiotic-resistant infectious bacteria currently imply a high risk and therefore constitute a strong challenge when treating patients in hospital settings. Characterization of these species and of particular strains is a priority for the establishment of diagnostic tests and preventive procedures. The relevance of Acinetobacter baumannii as a problematic microorganism in inpatient facilities, particularly intensive care units, has increased over time. This review aims to draw attention to (i) the historical emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, (ii) the current status of surveillance needs in Latin America, and (iii) recent data suggesting that A. baumannii continues to spread and evolve in hospital settings. First, we present synopsis of the series of events leading to the discovery and precise identification of this microorganism in hospital settings. Then key events in the acquisition of antibiotic-resistant genes by this microorganism are summarized, highlighting the race between new antibiotic generation and emergence of A. baumannii resistant strains. Here we review the historical development of this species as an infectious threat, the current state of its distribution, and antibiotic resistance characteristics, and we discuss future prospects for its control. Ana Maria Gonzalez-Villoria and Veronica Valverde-Garduno Copyright © 2016 Ana Maria Gonzalez-Villoria and Veronica Valverde-Garduno. All rights reserved. Intrahepatic Fat Content and Markers of Hepatic Fibrosis in Obese Children Thu, 04 Feb 2016 07:07:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/4890974/ Aim. We evaluated both direct and indirect hepatic fibrosis markers in obese children and their relationship with intrahepatic fat (IHF) content. We also aimed to investigate the possible roles of IHF and fibrosis markers in metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods. 189 obese children were divided into simple obese (SOB), simple steatosis (SS), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) groups according to their IHF and blood alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. They were also scored for the MS components. IHF was assessed as a continuous variable by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). In addition, 30 nonobese children were enrolled as controls and their direct hepatic fibrosis markers and IHF were assessed. Results. Age was related to IHF, NFS, and FIB-4. Both NFS and APRI were related to IHF more significantly than the direct markers. In the estimation of liver function impairment, indirect markers had greater AUROC than direct markers. In MS, IHF and all the fibrosis markers showed similar AUROC. Conclusions. Both direct and indirect markers played a valuable role in evaluating MS. Indirect markers were more effective in distinguishing fatty hepatitis. Age is an important factor underlying hepatic steatosis and fibrosis even in children. Wei Wu, Hongxi Zhang, Xiaoqin Xu, Ke Huang, and Junfen Fu Copyright © 2016 Wei Wu et al. All rights reserved. Ischemic Left Ventricular Perforation Covered by a Thrombus in a Patient Presenting with Cerebral Ischemia: Importance of Time-Sensitive Performance and Adequate Interpretation of Bedside Transthoracic Echography Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:45:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2016/7565042/ If myocardial infarction remains silent, only clinical signs of complications may unveil its presence. Life-threatening complications include myocardial rupture, thrombus formation, or arterial embolization. In the presented case, a 76-year-old patient was admitted with left-sided hemiparesis. In duplex sonography, a critical stenosis of the right internal carotid artery was identified and initially but retrospectively incorrectly judged as the potential cause for ischemia. During operative thromboendarterectomy, arterial embolism of the right leg occurred coincidentally, more likely pointing towards a cardioembolic origin. Percutaneous interventions remained unsuccessful and local fibrinolysis was applied. Delayed bedside echocardiography by an experienced cardiologist demonstrated a discontinuity of the normal myocardial texture of the left ventricular apex together with an echodense, partly floating structure merely attached by a thin bridge not completely sealing the myocardial defect, accompanied by pericardial effusion. The patient was immediately transferred to emergency cardiac surgery with extirpation of the thrombus, aortocoronary bypass graft placement, and aneurysmectomy. This didactic case reveals decisive structural shortcomings in patient’s admission and triage processes and underlines, if performed timely and correctly, the value of transthoracic echocardiography as a noninvasive and cost-effective tool allowing immediate decision-making, which, in this case, led to the correct but almost fatally delayed diagnosis. A. J. Fischer, P. Lebiedz, M. Wiaderek, M. Lichtenberg, D. Böse, S. Martens, and F. Breuckmann Copyright © 2016 A. J. Fischer et al. All rights reserved. Current Applications for the Use of Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal in Critically Ill Patients Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:43:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/9781695/ Mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory failure has been associated with secondary lung injury, termed ventilator-induced lung injury. Extracorporeal venovenous carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) appears to be a feasible means to facilitate more protective mechanical ventilation or potentially avoid mechanical ventilation in select patient groups. With this expanding role of ECCO2R, we aim to describe the technology and the main indications of ECCO2R. Luigi Camporota and Nicholas Barrett Copyright © 2016 Luigi Camporota and Nicholas Barrett. All rights reserved. Diversity of 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol-Degrading Bacteria in a Waste Water Sample Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:41:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/7589068/ Eighteen bacterial strains, isolated from a waste water sample collected from a chemically contaminated site, Patancheru (17°32′N 78°16′E/17.53°N 78.27°E), India, were able to decolorize 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) in the presence of an additional carbon source. These eighteen 4C2NP-decolorizing strains have been identified as members of four different genera, including Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, and Leuconostoc based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Most of the bacteria (10) belonged to the genus Bacillus and contributed 56% of the total 4C2NP-degrading bacteria, whereas the members of genera Paenibacillus and Pseudomonas represented 22% and 17%, respectively, of total 4C2NP-degrading isolates. There was only one species of Leuconostoc capable of degrading 4C2NP. This is the first report of the diversity of 4C2NP-decolorizing bacteria in a waste water sample. Furthermore, one bacterium, Bacillus aryabhattai strain PC-7, was able to decolorize 4C2NP up to a concentration of 2.0 mM. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole as the final product of 4C2NP decolorization in strain PC-7. Pankaj Kumar Arora, Alok Srivastava, and Vijay Pal Singh Copyright © 2016 Pankaj Kumar Arora et al. All rights reserved. Lack of Association between Pulse Steroid Therapy and Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:41:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/msi/2016/5794910/ Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). The purpose of this study was to determine the possible factors affecting BMD in patients with MS. We included consecutive 155 patients with MS and 90 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Patients with MS exhibited significantly lower T-scores and Z-scores in the femoral neck and trochanter compared to the controls. Ninety-four (61%) patients had reduced bone mass in either the lumbar spine or the femoral neck; of these, 64 (41.3%) had osteopenia and 30 (19.4%) had osteoporosis. The main factors affecting BMD were disability, duration of MS, and smoking. There was a negative relationship between femoral BMD and EDSS and disease duration. No association with lumbar BMD was determined. There were no correlations between BMD at any anatomic region and cumulative corticosteroid dose. BMD is significantly lower in patients with MS than in healthy controls. Reduced BMD in MS is mainly associated with disability and duration of the disease. Short courses of high dose steroid therapy did not result in an obvious negative impact on BMD in the lumbar spine and femoral neck in patients with MS. Serap Zengin Karahan, Cavit Boz, Sevgi Kilic, Nuray Can Usta, Mehmet Ozmenoglu, Vildan Altunayoglu Cakmak, and Sibel Gazioglu Copyright © 2016 Serap Zengin Karahan et al. All rights reserved. Antianemic Treatment of Cancer Patients in German Routine Practice: Data from a Prospective Cohort Study—The Tumor Anemia Registry Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:41:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anemia/2016/8057650/ The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess current antianemic treatment of cancer patients in German routine practice, including diagnostics, treatments, and quality of life (QoL). 88 study sites recruited 1018 patients at the start of antianemic treatment with hemoglobin (Hb) levels <11 g/dL (females) or <12 g/dL (males). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks. 63% of the patients had inoperable solid tumors, 22% operable solid tumors, and 15% hematological malignancies. Over 85% received chemotherapy. Median age was 67 years; 48% were male. Red blood cell transfusions (RBCTx) were given to 59% of all patients and to 55% of the patients with Hb ≥8 g/dL on day 1 of the observation period (day 1 treatment). Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) were the second most frequently applied day 1 treatment (20%), followed by intravenous (IV) iron (15%) and ESA + IV iron (6%). Only about a third of patients were tested for blood serum iron parameters at the start of treatment. Overall, more than half of the patients had long-term responses to antianemic therapy. Our data suggest that in routine practice diagnostics for treatable causes of anemia are underused. A high proportion of cancer patients receive RBCTx. It should be discussed whether thorough diagnostics and earlier intervention could decrease the need for RBCTx. This trial is registered with NCT01795690. Tilman Steinmetz, Jan Schröder, Margarete Plath, Hartmut Link, Michèle Vogt, Melanie Frank, and Norbert Marschner Copyright © 2016 Tilman Steinmetz et al. All rights reserved. Certain Aspects of Silver and Silver Nanoparticles in Wound Care: A Minireview Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:39:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2016/7614753/ Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in recent years and is a major health problem. In this context silver and silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been known to have inhibitory and bactericidal effects and was used throughout history for treatment of skin ulcer, bone fracture, and supporting wound healing. In all of these applications prevention and treatment of bacterial colonized/infected wounds are critical. In this context silver and its derivatives play an important role in health care. Silver is widely used in clinical practice in the form of silver nitrate and/or silver sulfadiazine. In the last few years silver nanoparticles entered into clinical practice as both antimicrobial and antifungal agents. In addition, nanosilver is used in coating medical devices (catheters) and as component of wound dressings. In this paper we present summarized information about silver and nanoparticles made of silver in the context of their useful properties, especially antibacterial ones, being of a great interest for researchers and clinicians. Marek Konop, Tatsiana Damps, Aleksandra Misicka, and Lidia Rudnicka Copyright © 2016 Marek Konop et al. All rights reserved. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Copper Electrodeposition in a Modified Hull Cell Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:36:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijelc/2016/3482406/ The primary current distribution and the resistance of a modified Hull cell are calculated by using conformal mapping technique coupled with numerical evaluation of the resulting integral equations. An approximate analytical expression for the primary current distribution of a modified Hull cell is presented. The primary current distribution along the cathode surface is noticed varying in controlled manner as a function of position on the substrate. The current distributions (primary, secondary, and tertiary) in the cell have also been calculated at different applied average current densities (2, 4.1, and 8.2 mA cm−2) through numerical simulation by using finite element based software. The numerical simulation result of the primary current distribution is then compared with the analytical solution and a good match is found. Experimentally, single Cu metal electrodeposition is carried out at different applied average current densities (2, 4.1, and 8.2 mA cm−2) in a modified Hull. The current distribution (primary, secondary, and tertiary) results obtained from the numerical simulation are compared with the experimental results and a satisfactory match is found. Surface morphology of the Cu deposits is examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Srinivas Palli and Suhash R. Dey Copyright © 2016 Srinivas Palli and Suhash R. Dey. All rights reserved. Determining Sustainable Land Use by Modal Split Shift Strategy for Low Emissions: Evidence from Medium-Sized Cities of China Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:34:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/2745092/ The rapid urbanization in medium-sized cities in China has led to revolution of transportation systems resulting in negative impacts on the environment. Evaluating the relationship among land use, modal split, and traffic emission can help propose regional optimal land use pattern by modal shift strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Data were collected from seven medium-sized cities in China. The study first evaluated the land use that influences mode split and the relationship between modal split and traffic emission. Then a sustainable mode shift strategy was provided to reduce emissions. Lastly, we provided constructive suggestions for sustainable land use pattern by mode shift strategy. To reduce emission per trip, nonmotorized trip modes and public transit should be increased, and, accordingly, the residence-industry and residence-retain mix entropy should be increased. The study found that the regions with job-housing balance or retail-housing mix could increase the mode share of nonmotorized vehicle traffic and reduce car use. The modal shift can in the future benefit emission reductions. Wenzhu Zhou and Zhibin Li Copyright © 2016 Wenzhu Zhou and Zhibin Li. All rights reserved. Influence of Thermal Radiation on Unsteady MHD Free Convection Flow of Jeffrey Fluid over a Vertical Plate with Ramped Wall Temperature Thu, 04 Feb 2016 06:01:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/6257071/ Influence of thermal radiation on unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection flow of Jeffrey fluid over a vertical plate with ramped wall temperature is studied. The Laplace transform technique is used to obtain the analytical solutions. Expressions for skin friction and Nusselt number are also obtained. Results of velocity and temperature distributions are shown graphically for embedded parameters such as Jeffrey fluid parameter , Prandtl number , Grashof number , Hartmann number , radiation parameter , and dimensionless time . It is observed that the amplitude of velocity and temperature profile for isothermal are always higher than ramped wall temperature. Nor Athirah Mohd Zin, Ilyas Khan, and Sharidan Shafie Copyright © 2016 Nor Athirah Mohd Zin et al. All rights reserved. Applying Hybrid Decision-Making Method Based on Fuzzy AHP-WOWA Operator for Emergency Alternative Evaluation of Unattended Train Operation Metro System Thu, 04 Feb 2016 05:58:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2016/4105079/ Optimal alternative selection to address the emergency situation is critical for dispatcher group in Unattended Train Operation (UTO) to guide emergency process. It is difficult to provide the precise decision value under one criterion and to evaluate the emergency alternatives among multiple dispatchers. This paper presents a hybrid emergency decision-making method integrating fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) described by linguistic terms with enhanced weighted ordered weighted averaging (WOWA) operator. The enhanced WOWA operator aggregates the preference matrices of multidispatcher through the constructed emergency response task model of dispatcher group in OCC. This calculation approach takes into consideration the relations of emergency tasks to derive the importance weights of dispatchers and integrates them into the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case study of applying the method in an emergency of a train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of the methods associated with the group multicriteria decision-making (GMCDM) theory in emergency management of UTO metro system. Bobo Zhao, Tao Tang, and Bin Ning Copyright © 2016 Bobo Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Value of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Radiation Encephalopathy Induced by Radiotherapy for Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis Wed, 03 Feb 2016 14:20:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/5126074/ In this study, articles in English and Chinese were selected from available electronic databases prior to September 2014. The metabolic concentrations and patterns of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), Choline (Cho), Creatine (Cr), NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and Cho/Cr ratios in radiotherapy-induced radiation encephalopathy by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were extracted. A meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively synthesize findings of these studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using random or fixed effective models. Heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the Cochrane test and statistics. The results indicated that a total of 4 researches involving 214 patients met inclusion criteria. Depending on methodologies of selected studies, control groups were referred to as healthy subjects. The combined analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in value of Cr between radiotherapy group and healthy control group (WMD = −1.483, 95% CI: −67.185–64.219, ). However, there were significant difference in values of NAA (WMD = −18.227, 95%CI: −36.317–−0.137, ), Cho (WMD = 38.003, 95%CI: 5.155–70.851, ), NAA/Cr (WMD = −1.175, 95%CI: −1.563–−0.787, ), NAA/Cho (WMD = −1.108, 95%CI: −2.003–0.213, ), and Cho/Cr (WMD = −0.773, 95%CI: 0.239–1.307, ). In conclusion, MRS can be regarded as an effective and feasible imaging test for radiotherapy-induced radiation encephalopathy in NPC patients. Wang-Sheng Chen, Jian-Jun Li, Lan Hong, Zeng-Bao Xing, Fen Wang, and Chang-Qing Li Copyright © 2016 Wang-Sheng Chen et al. All rights reserved. Colchicum autumnale in Patients with Goitre with Euthyroidism or Mild Hyperthyroidism: Indications for a Therapeutic Regulative Effect—Results of an Observational Study Wed, 03 Feb 2016 14:19:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2541912/ Introduction. Goitre with euthyroid function or with subclinical or mild hyperthyroidism due to thyroid autonomy is common. In anthroposophic medicine various thyroid disorders are treated with Colchicum autumnale (CAU). We examined the effects of CAU in patients with goitre of both functional states. Patients and methods. In an observational study, 24 patients with goitre having suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels with normal or slightly elevated free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) (group 1, ) or normal TSH, fT3, and fT4 (group 2, ) were included. After 3 months and after 6 to 12 months of CAU treatment, we investigated clinical pathology using the Hyperthyroid Symptom Scale (HSS), hormone status (TSH, fT4, and fT3), and thyroidal volume (tV). Results. After treatment with CAU, in group 1 the median HSS decreased from 4.5 (2.3–11.8) to 2 (1.3–3) () and fT3 decreased from 3.85 (3.5–4.78) to 3.45 (3.3–3.78) pg/mL (). In group 2 tV (13.9% (18.5%–6.1%)) and TSH () were reduced. Linear regression for TSH and fT3 in both groups indicated a regulative therapeutic effect of CAU. Conclusions. CAU positively changed the clinical pathology of subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyroidal volume in patients with euthyroid goitre by normalization of the regulation of thyroidal hormones. Christian Scheffer, Marion Debus, Christian Heckmann, Dirk Cysarz, and Matthias Girke Copyright © 2016 Christian Scheffer et al. All rights reserved. Impact Parameter Dependence of Ratio in Probing the Nuclear Symmetry Energy Using Heavy-Ion Collisions Wed, 03 Feb 2016 14:18:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ahep/2016/9317873/ The impact parameter dependence of ratio is examined in heavy-ion collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon within a transport model. It is shown that the sensitivity of ratio on symmetry energy shows a transition from central to peripheral collisions; that is, the stiffer symmetry energy leads to a larger ratio in peripheral collisions while the softer symmetry energy always leads this ratio to be larger in central collisions. After checking the kinematic energy distribution of ratio, we found this transition of sensitivity of ratio to symmetry energy is mainly from less energetic pions; that is, the softer symmetry energy gets the less energetic pions to form a smaller ratio in peripheral collisions while these pions generate a larger ratio in central collisions. Undoubtedly, the softer symmetry energy can also lead more energetic pions to form a larger ratio in peripheral collisions. Nevertheless, considering that most of pions are insufficiently energetic at this beam energy, we therefore suggest the ratio as a probe of the high-density symmetry energy effective only in central at most to midcentral collisions, thereby avoiding the possible information of low-density symmetry energy carried in ratio from peripheral collisions. Gao-Feng Wei, Guo-Qiang He, Xin-Wei Cao, and Yi-Xin Lu Copyright © 2016 Gao-Feng Wei et al. All rights reserved. Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Approaches of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Wed, 03 Feb 2016 14:15:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/av/2016/4621659/ Infectious bronchitis (IB) is one of the major economically important poultry diseases distributed worldwide. It is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and affects both galliform and nongalliform birds. Its economic impact includes decreased egg production and poor egg quality in layers, stunted growth, poor carcass weight, and mortality in broiler chickens. Although primarily affecting the respiratory tract, IBV demonstrates a wide range of tissues tropism, including the renal and reproductive systems. Thus, disease outcome may be influenced by the organ or tissue involved as well as pathotypes or strain of the infecting virus. Knowledge on the epidemiology of the prevalent IBV strains in a particular region is therefore important to guide control and preventions. Meanwhile previous diagnostic methods such as serology and virus isolations are less sensitive and time consuming, respectively; current methods, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), and sequencing, offer highly sensitive, rapid, and accurate diagnostic results, thus enabling the genotyping of new viral strains within the shortest possible time. This review discusses aspects on pathogenesis and diagnostic methods for IBV infection. Faruku Bande, Siti Suri Arshad, Abdul Rahman Omar, Mohd Hair Bejo, Muhammad Salisu Abubakar, and Yusuf Abba Copyright © 2016 Faruku Bande et al. All rights reserved. Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey Wed, 03 Feb 2016 14:05:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/4891015/ In this study, flood hazard maps were prepared for the Mert River Basin, Samsun, Turkey, by using GIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). In this river basin, human life losses and a significant amount of property damages were experienced in 2012 flood. The preparation of flood risk maps employed in the study includes the following steps: (1) digitization of topographical data and preparation of digital elevation model using ArcGIS, (2) simulation of flood lows of different return periods using a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS), and (3) preparation of flood risk maps by integrating the results of (1) and (2). Vahdettin Demir and Ozgur Kisi Copyright © 2016 Vahdettin Demir and Ozgur Kisi. All rights reserved. Taurine Transporter Gene Expression in Mononuclear Blood Cells of Type 1 Diabetes Patients Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:52:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/7313162/ Background. Taurine transporter gene expression (RNA-TauT) has a role in retinal cell function and is modulated in vitro and in vivo by hyperglycemia and/or oxidative stress. This study was aimed at testing whether RNA-TauT gene expression is modified in blood mononuclear peripheral cells (MPCs) of type 1 diabetic patients, is related to plasma markers of oxidative stress or endothelial dysfunction, or, finally, is related to presence of retinopathy. Methods. RNA-TauT was measured in MPCs by real-time PCR-analysis in 35 type 1 diabetic patients and in 33 age- and sex-matched controls, additionally measuring plasma and cell taurine and markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Results. RNA-TauT, expressed as , was significantly higher in MPCs of type 1 diabetic patients than in controls [median (interquartile range): 1.32(0.31) versus 1.00(0.15); ]. In diabetic patients RNA-TauT was related to HbA1c (; ) and inversely to plasma homocysteine (; ) being additionally significantly higher in MPCs of patients without retinopathy [(); 1.36(0.34)] compared to those with retinopathy [(); 1.16(0.20)], independently from HbA1c or diabetes duration. Conclusions. RNA-TauT gene expression is significantly upregulated in MPCs of type 1 diabetes patients and is related to HbA1c levels and inversely to plasma homocysteine. Finally, in diabetes patients, RNA-TauT upregulation seems to be blunted in patients with retinopathy independently of their metabolic control or longer diabetes duration. Zaleida Napoli, Giuseppe Seghieri, Loria Bianchi, Roberto Anichini, Alessandra De Bellis, Ilaria Campesi, Ciriaco Carru, Stefano Occhioni, Angelo Zinellu, and Flavia Franconi Copyright © 2016 Zaleida Napoli et al. All rights reserved. An Algorithm for Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor over Land Based on Passive Microwave Satellite Data Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:51:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2016/4126393/ Precipitable water vapor (PWV) is one of the most variable components of the atmosphere in both space and time. In this study, a passive microwave-based retrieval algorithm for PWV over land without land surface temperature (LST) data was developed. To build the algorithm, two assumptions exist: (1) land surface emissivities (LSE) at two adjacent frequencies are equal and (2) there are simple parameterizations that relate transmittance, atmospheric effective radiating temperature, and PWV. Error analyses were performed using radiosonde sounding observations from Zhangye, China, and CE318 measurements of Dalanzadgad (43°34′37′′N, 104°25′8′′E) and Singapore (1°17′52′′N, 103°46′48′′E) sites from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), respectively. In Zhangye, the algorithm had a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 4.39 mm and a bias of 0.36 mm on cloud-free days, while on cloudy days there was an RMSE of 4.84 mm and a bias of 0.52 mm because of the effect of liquid water in clouds. The validations in Dalanzadgad and Singapore sites showed that the retrieval algorithm had an RMSE of 4.73 mm and a bias of 0.84 mm and the bigger errors appeared when the water vapor was very dry or very moist. Fang-Cheng Zhou, Xiaoning Song, Pei Leng, Hua Wu, and Bo-Hui Tang Copyright © 2016 Fang-Cheng Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory Therapy Modulates Nrf2-Keap1 in Kidney from Rats with Diabetes Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:33:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/4693801/ This study addressed the relationship of proinflammatory cytokines and Nrf2-Keap1 system in diabetic nephropathy. The experimental groups were control, diabetic, and diabetic treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The renal function, proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines, oxidative stress, morphology, and nephrin expression were assessed. Diabetic group showed impaired renal function in association with oxidative stress and decreased Nrf2 nuclear translocation. These results were associated with increased mesangial matrix index, interstitial fibrosis, and increased nephrin expression in cortex and urine excretion. Additionally, interleukin-1β, IL-6, and transforming growth factor-β1 were increased in plasma and kidney. MMF treatment conserved renal function, prevented renal structural alterations, and partially prevented the proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines overexpression. Despite that MMF treatment induced nephrin overexpression in renal tissue, preventing its urinary loss. MMF salutary effects were associated with a partial prevention of oxidative stress, increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and conservation of antioxidant enzymes in renal tissue. In conclusion, our results confirm that inflammation is a key factor in the progression of diabetic nephropathy and suggest that treatment with MMF protects the kidney by an antioxidant mechanism, possibly regulated at least in part by the Nrf2/Keap1 system, in addition to its well-known anti-inflammatory effects. Abraham Said Arellano-Buendía, Montserrat Tostado-González, Fernando Enrique García-Arroyo, Magdalena Cristóbal-García, María Lilia Loredo-Mendoza, Edilia Tapia, Laura-Gabriela Sánchez-Lozada, and Horacio Osorio-Alonso Copyright © 2016 Abraham Said Arellano-Buendía et al. All rights reserved. Quantum Analysis on Time Behavior of a Lengthening Pendulum Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:26:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physri/2016/1696105/ Quantum properties of a lengthening pendulum are studied under the assumption that the length of the string increases at a steady rate. Advanced analysis for various physical problems in several types of quantum states, such as propagators, Wigner distribution functions, energy eigenvalues, probability densities, and dispersions of physical quantities, is carried out using quantum wave functions of the system. In particular, the time behavior of Gaussian-type wave packets is investigated in detail. The probability density for a Gaussian wave packet displaced in the positive at oscillates back and forth from the center (). This phenomenon is very similar to the classical motion of the pendulum. As a consequence, we can confirm that there is a correspondence between its quantum and classical behaviors. When we analyze a dynamical system in view of quantum mechanics, the quantum and classical correspondence is very important in order for the associated quantum theory to be valid and viable. Jeong Ryeol Choi and Ji Nny Song Copyright © 2016 Jeong Ryeol Choi and Ji Nny Song. All rights reserved. Vibration Analysis of Partially Damaged Rotor Bar in Induction Motor under Different Load Condition Using DWT Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:24:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2016/3530464/ The relevance of the development of monitoring systems for rotating machines is not only the ability to detect failures but also how early these failures can be detected. The purpose of this paper is to present an experimental study of partially damaged rotor bar in induction motor under different load conditions based on discrete wavelet transform analysis. The approach is based on the extraction of features from vibration signals at different level of damage and three mechanical load conditions. The proposed analysis is reliable for tracking the damage in rotor bar. The paper presents an analysis and extraction of vibration features for partially damaged rotor bar in induction motors. The experimental analysis shows the change in behavior of vibration due to load condition and progressive damage. Jose Rangel-Magdaleno, Hayde Peregrina-Barreto, Juan Ramirez-Cortes, Roberto Morales-Caporal, and Israel Cruz-Vega Copyright © 2016 Jose Rangel-Magdaleno et al. All rights reserved. Uptake and Effects of the e-Vita Personal Health Record with Self-Management Support and Coaching, for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated in Primary Care Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:22:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2016/5027356/ We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of a personal health record. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Uptake and usage were monitored using log data. Outcomes were self-reported diabetes self-care, diabetes-related distress, and emotional wellbeing. Patients’ health status was collected from their medical chart. 132 patients agreed to participate in the study of which less than half (46.1%) did not return to the personal health record after 1st login. Only 5 patients used the self-management support program within the personal health record, 3 of whom asked a coach for feedback. Low use of the personal health record was registered. No statistical significant differences on any of the outcome measures were found between baseline and 6 month follow-up. This study showed minimal impact of implementing a personal health record including self-management support in primary diabetes care. Successful adoption of web-based platforms, as ongoing patient centered care, is hard to achieve without additional strategies aimed at enhancing patient motivation and engaging professionals. M. van Vugt, M. de Wit, F. Sieverink, Y. Roelofsen, S. H. Hendriks, H. J. G. Bilo, and F. J. Snoek Copyright © 2016 M. van Vugt et al. All rights reserved. Existence Results for Some Equilibrium Problems Involving -Monotone Bifunction Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:20:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmms/2016/2093026/ This paper deals with some existence results of equilibrium problems on convex and closed sets (either bounded or unbounded) in Banach spaces. Moreover, an application to the existence of solution for a differential inclusion is given. Ayed E. Hashoosh, Mohsen Alimohammady, and M. K. Kalleji Copyright © 2016 Ayed E. Hashoosh et al. All rights reserved. Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment Using Improved Weighted Round Robin Algorithm for Nonpreemptive Dependent Tasks Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:08:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/3896065/ Cloud computing uses the concepts of scheduling and load balancing to migrate tasks to underutilized VMs for effectively sharing the resources. The scheduling of the nonpreemptive tasks in the cloud computing environment is an irrecoverable restraint and hence it has to be assigned to the most appropriate VMs at the initial placement itself. Practically, the arrived jobs consist of multiple interdependent tasks and they may execute the independent tasks in multiple VMs or in the same VM’s multiple cores. Also, the jobs arrive during the run time of the server in varying random intervals under various load conditions. The participating heterogeneous resources are managed by allocating the tasks to appropriate resources by static or dynamic scheduling to make the cloud computing more efficient and thus it improves the user satisfaction. Objective of this work is to introduce and evaluate the proposed scheduling and load balancing algorithm by considering the capabilities of each virtual machine (VM), the task length of each requested job, and the interdependency of multiple tasks. Performance of the proposed algorithm is studied by comparing with the existing methods. D. Chitra Devi and V. Rhymend Uthariaraj Copyright © 2016 D. Chitra Devi and V. Rhymend Uthariaraj. All rights reserved. Behavioural Change according to the Si/Al Ratio of Successive Na-Mordenites Observed through Their Dielectric Relaxation during Water Vapour Adsorption Process Wed, 03 Feb 2016 13:03:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jma/2016/7532951/ The experimental study of water vapour adsorption phenomenon on a zeolite, by dielectric relaxation measurement, makes it possible to determine the variations in the exchangeable cation hopping activation energy, on the surface of the solid, in relation to the number of adsorbed molecules. The present work shows that it is possible to explain the change observed in the energy, by means of simple assumptions based, on the one hand, on the models used in order to simulate the adsorption process and, on the other hand, on the distribution of the molecules adsorbed near the exchangeable cations. Thus, the phenomenological interpretation suggested here, about the change in the exchangeable cation hopping energy, obtained by dielectric relaxation measurement, makes us with a mind to conceive a simple method for explaining the results leading to new information on the organization of the first adsorbed molecules on the surface of the studied zeolite. Then, it can be verified that these conclusions confirm the assumptions already developed for interpreting the inferences from previous experiments carried out by means of other techniques. Sekou Diaby Copyright © 2016 Sekou Diaby. All rights reserved. Serum NT-proBNP Levels Are Not Related to Vitamin D Status in Young Patients with Congenital Heart Defects Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:56:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/3970284/ Context. Hypovitaminosis D frequently occurs in early life and increases with age. Vitamin D has been suggested to influence cardiac performance and N-terminal-pro-type B natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in adults with heart failure. Objectives. To assess the vitamin D status and the impact of hypovitaminosis D on circulating NT-proBNP levels in young patients with congenital heart defects (CHD). Design and Patients. This cross-sectional study included the assessment of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), parathyroid function markers, and NT-proBNP levels in a series of 230 young in-patients (117 females, 113 males; 6.4 (4.0–9.1) years (median, interquartile range)) with CHD. Results. Serum 25OHD levels <20 ng/mL were detected in 55.3% of patients. Optimal 25OHD levels (>30 ng/mL) occurred in 25% of patients. Serum 25OHD levels inversely correlated with age (, ) and height standard deviation score (, ). After correction for age, 25OHD negatively correlated with serum PTH levels (, ). PTH levels above the upper quartile (44 pg/mL) occurred in 32% of hypovitaminosis D patients. Serum NT-proBNP levels were not correlated with 25OHD and PTH levels. Conclusions. Half of the young CHD patients were diagnosed with 25OHD deficiency and a third of hypovitaminosis D patients experienced hyperparathyroidism. Nonetheless, serum NT-proBNP levels were not associated with hypovitaminosis D as well as hyperparathyroidism. E. Passeri, R. Rigolini, E. Costa, C. Verdelli, C. Arcidiacono, M. Carminati, and S. Corbetta Copyright © 2016 E. Passeri et al. All rights reserved. Left Inferior Vena Cava and Right Retroaortic Renal Vein Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:56:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2016/1270856/ Nowadays, incidental anatomical variants are frequent findings, due to the widespread diffusion of cross-sectional imaging. This case report illustrates a fairly uncommon anatomical variant, that is, the copresence of left inferior vena cava and retroaortic right renal vein reported in a 46-year-old lady, undergoing a staging CT for breast cancer. Although the patient was asymptomatic, the authors highlight potential risks related to the above-mentioned condition and the importance of correct identification and diagnosis of the findings. Alberto Nania, Fabio Capilli, and Eugenia Longo Copyright © 2016 Alberto Nania et al. All rights reserved. Amlodipine and the Successful Management of Post-Electroconvulsive Therapy Agitation Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:56:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2016/3962491/ Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective nonpharmacologic treatment for the management of depression and some other psychiatric disorders. Post-ECT agitation occurs in up to 12% of ECT treatments and is characterized by motor restlessness, irritability, disorientation, and panic-like behaviors. The severity of post-ECT agitation ranges from mild and self-limited to serious and severe forms requiring prompt medical intervention to protect the patient and the medical staff. In severe agitation medical management may be necessary which consists of using sedative agents, either benzodiazepines or propofol. The side-effects of these sedative agents, especially in the elderly population, necessitate finding ways that could help the prevention of the occurrence of agitation after ECT treatments. We report a 68-year-old female with major depression who was referred for ECT. She experienced severe post-ECT agitation requiring medical intervention after all ECT treatments. Administering of oral amlodipine (5 mg) one hour before ECT treatment successfully prevented the occurrence of post-ECT agitation in this patient. We briefly discuss the possible underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology of amlodipine in the prevention of post-ECT agitation. Ali Shahriari, Maryam Khooshideh, and Mahdi Sheikh Copyright © 2016 Ali Shahriari et al. All rights reserved. Blowup Phenomenon of Solutions for the IBVP of the Compressible Euler Equations in Spherical Symmetry Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:41:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2016/3781760/ The blowup phenomenon of solutions is investigated for the initial-boundary value problem (IBVP) of the -dimensional Euler equations with spherical symmetry. We first show that there are only trivial solutions when the velocity is of the form for any value of or any positive integer . Then, we show that blowup phenomenon occurs when and . As a corollary, the blowup properties of solutions with velocity of the form are obtained. Our analysis includes both the isentropic case and the isothermal case . Ka Luen Cheung and Sen Wong Copyright © 2016 Ka Luen Cheung and Sen Wong. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:25:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jl/2016/3128604/ In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied. Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru, Girma Biresaw, Brent Tisserat, and Roque Evangelista Copyright © 2016 Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru et al. All rights reserved. Relationship between Daytime Sleepiness and Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells in Glaucomatous Disease Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:21:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2016/5317371/ Patients with glaucoma showed to have higher daytime sleepiness measured by Epworth sleepiness scale. In addition, this symptom was associated with pupillary reflex and polysomnography parameters. These ipRGC functions might be impaired in patients with glaucoma, leading to worse quality of life. Carolina P. B. Gracitelli, Gloria Liliana Duque-Chica, Ana Laura de Araújo Moura, Marina Roizenblatt, Balazs V. Nagy, Geraldine Ragot de Melo, Paula Delegrego Borba, Sérgio H. Teixeira, Sergio Tufik, Dora Fix Ventura, and Augusto Paranhos Jr. Copyright © 2016 Carolina P. B. Gracitelli et al. All rights reserved. Using Fresh Frozen Plasma for Acute Airway Angioedema to Prevent Intubation in the Emergency Department: A Retrospective Cohort Study Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:18:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/emi/2016/6091510/ Background. Angioedema (AE) is a common condition which can be complicated by laryngeal edema, having up to 40% mortality. Although sporadic case reports attest to the benefits of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in treating severe acute bouts of AE, little evidence-based support for this practice is available at present. Study Objectives. To compare the frequency, duration of intubation, and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay in patients with acute airway AE, with and without the use of FFP. Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, investigating adults admitted to large community hospital ICU with a diagnosis of AE during the years of 2007–2012. Altogether, 128 charts were reviewed for demographics, comorbidities, hospital courses, and outcomes. A total of 20 patients received FFP (108 did not). Results. Demographics and comorbidities did not differ by treatment group. However, nontreated controls did worse in terms of intubation frequency (60% versus 35%; ) and ICU stay (3.5 days versus 1.5 days; ). Group outcomes were otherwise similar. Conclusion. In an emergency department setting, the use of FFP should be considered in managing acute airway nonhereditary AE (refractory to steroid, antihistamine, and epinephrine). Larger prospective, better controlled studies are needed to devise appropriate treatment guidelines. Aya Saeb, Karen H. Hagglund, and Christine T. Cigolle Copyright © 2016 Aya Saeb et al. All rights reserved. Drug-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Nifedipine Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:11:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2016/1971465/ Background. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a frequent cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Drug hypersensitivity is the most common etiology and the list of drugs that can induce AIN is not exhaustive yet. Case Report. Here, we describe the case of a 43-year-old man who was treated with nifedipine (Adalate®) for Raynaud’s syndrome. After nifedipine introduction, serum creatininemia progressively increased from 91 to 188 μmol/L in a few months and AKI was diagnosed. Laboratory work-up results indicated the presence of tubular proteinuria and nonspecific inflammatory syndrome. Histological analysis found granulomatous interstitial nephropathy without necrosis in 20% of the kidney biopsy without immunofluorescent deposit. Nifedipine was stopped and corticosteroid treatment was started with a rapid but incomplete reduction of serum creatininemia level to 106 μmol/L. Conclusion. This is the first case of AIN caused by nifedipine. Léonard Golbin, Thibault Dolley-Hitze, Nolwenn Lorcy, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, and Cécile Vigneau Copyright © 2016 Léonard Golbin et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Undergraduate Physiotherapy Students in Nigeria Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:11:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/prt/2016/1230384/ Background. Low back pain (LBP) is a major cause of disability and the most common work-related musculoskeletal disorder among physiotherapists. This study examined the prevalence of low back pain among students undergoing training to become physiotherapists. Methods. Participants were 207 undergraduate clinical physiotherapy students at three universities in Nigeria. A modified version of a questionnaire used in a previous study was utilized to obtain demographic, educational activities, and LBP data. Prevalence of LBP was examined with descriptive statistics while factors associated with prevalence were explored using chi-square statistics. Results. More male students (53.1%) and those in the penultimate year of study (53.1%) participated in the study. Lifetime, 12-month, 1-month, and 7-day prevalence of LBP were 45.5%, 32.5%, 17.7%, and 11.5%, respectively. Prevalence of LBP was not significantly associated with any of the demographic variables. Educational activities, namely, “having techniques practiced on self for ≤10 hours” and “treating patients for ≥30 hours,” a month prior to the study were significantly () associated with higher 1-month and 7-day LBP prevalence, respectively. Conclusions. Although the prevalence of LBP was comparatively low, its association with educational activities emphasizes the need to incorporate effective LBP preventive strategies in the training of physiotherapy students. Grace O. Vincent-Onabajo, Ejiofor Nweze, Fatima Kachalla Gujba, Mamman Ali Masta, Mohammad Usman Ali, Ali Alhaji Modu, and Chuka Umeonwuka Copyright © 2016 Grace O. Vincent-Onabajo et al. All rights reserved. On a Kantorovich Variant of -Szász-Mirakjan Operators Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:10:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2016/1035253/ We propose a Kantorovich variant of -analogue of Szász-Mirakjan operators. We establish the moments of the operators with the help of a recurrence relation that we have derived and then prove the basic convergence theorem. Next, the local approximation and weighted approximation properties of these new operators in terms of modulus of continuity are studied. M. Mursaleen, Abdullah Alotaibi, and Khursheed J. Ansari Copyright © 2016 M. Mursaleen et al. All rights reserved. Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid with Tracheal Involvement Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:03:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/5749784/ 34-year-old African American female with history of pemphigoid presented with hemoptysis. Patient was found to have mucous membrane pemphigoid involving the oropharynx and extending to trachea, till just above main stem carina. Four other cases described mucosal pemphigoid involving the trachea. We hereby present a brief review of current consensus on management of mucous membrane pemphigoid with airway involvement. Arash Minaie and Salim R. Surani Copyright © 2016 Arash Minaie and Salim R. Surani. All rights reserved. Fetal MRI Characteristics of Exencephaly: A Case Report and Literature Review Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:59:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crira/2016/9801267/ We present the fetal MRI characteristics of exencephaly, a rare malformation of the cranium. The fetus was initially misdiagnosed as anencephaly at 14 weeks of estimated gestational age (EGA) and later mislabeled as acrania at 20 weeks of EGA by ultrasound. A confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 29 weeks of EGA demonstrated findings consistent with exencephaly, which was confirmed after birth. To our knowledge, no full fetal MRI characteristics have been described. We hope to use this case to review the key MRI findings in differentiating exencephaly from other cranial vault defects and to help early diagnosis of exencephaly as the appropriate use of correct nomenclature allows better research while giving parents the most accurate and appropriate counseling. Ali Sharif and Yihua Zhou Copyright © 2016 Ali Sharif and Yihua Zhou. All rights reserved. A Trusted Real-Time Scheduling Model for Wireless Sensor Networks Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:43:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/8958170/ Heterogeneous multicore and multiprocessor systems have been widely used for wireless sensor information processing, but system energy consumption has become an increasingly important issue. To ensure the reliable and safe operation of sensor systems, the task scheduling success rate of heterogeneous platforms should be improved, and energy consumption should be reduced. This work establishes a trusted task scheduling model for wireless sensor networks, proposes an energy consumption model, and adopts the ant colony algorithm and bee colony algorithm for the task scheduling of a real-time sensor node. Experimental result shows that the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm can efficiently solve the energy consumption problem in the trusted task scheduling of a wireless sensor and that the performance of the bee colony algorithm is slightly inferior to that of the first two methods. Weizhe Zhang, Boyu Song, and Enci Bai Copyright © 2016 Weizhe Zhang et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of Root Phytochemicals Derived from Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus as Potential Natural Components of UV Protecting Dermatological Formulations Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:41:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/7053897/ As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations. Alison Curnow and Sara J. Owen Copyright © 2016 Alison Curnow and Sara J. Owen. All rights reserved. A Simple HPLC-ELSD Method for Sugar Analysis in Goji Berry Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:41:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/6271808/ Fructose, glucose, and sucrose were identified and quantified in commercial samples of Lycium barbarum L. fruits (goji berries) by high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method. This study described a rapid, simple, sensitive, selective, and reliable HPLC method suitable for the profiling of major sugars in berries, the evaluation of the nutritional/energetic properties, and assessment of the maturation stage. The proposed analytical method was validated and the results showed good precision, accuracy, and linearity. In all analyzed goji fruits, glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars, while sucrose content was about ten times lower than each monose. It was observed that glucose and fructose were detected in comparable quantities in all considered samples. Quantitative analysis showed that fructose, glucose, and sucrose content ranged from 154.20 to 259.13 mg g−1, from 152.92 to 284.60 mg g−1, and from 13.75 to 36.43 mg g−1, respectively. D. Montesano, L. Cossignani, L. Giua, E. Urbani, M. S. Simonetti, and F. Blasi Copyright © 2016 D. Montesano et al. All rights reserved. Biosensors Used for Quantification of Nitrates in Plants Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:38:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2016/1630695/ Nitrogen is essential for the plant because it is used for the production of chlorophyll, proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, and other cellular compounds; nitrogen is available in two forms: ammonium and nitrate. Several tools have been used to quantify nitrates in plants such as the Kjeldahl method and Dumas combustion digestion; however, they are destructive and long time-consuming methods. To solve these disadvantages, methods such as selective electrodes, optical sensors, reflectometers, and images based sensors have been developed; nonetheless, all these techniques show interference when carrying out measurements. Currently, biosensors based on genetic constructions, based on the response of promoter gene fused to Gene Fluorescent Protein (GFP), are gaining popularity, because they improve the accuracy of measurements of nitrate by avoiding the interference of carriers ion, high salt conditions, and other factors. The present review shows the different methods to quantify the nitrogen in plants; later, a biosensors perspective is presented, mainly focused on biosensors based on organism genetically modified. The review presents a list of promoter and reporter genes that could be used to develop different kind of sensors, and a perspective of sensors to measure quantitatively the nitrogen is presented. Romero-Galindo Raul, Torres-Pacheco Irineo, Guevara-Gonzalez Ramon Gerardo, and Contreras-Medina Luis Miguel Copyright © 2016 Romero-Galindo Raul et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of Some Derivatives of 2-Methylbenzimidazole Containing 1,3,4-Oxadiazole or 1,2,4-Triazole Heterocycle Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:36:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2016/1507049/ 5-[(2-Methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiol or 5-[(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-(4-methylphenyl)-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiol which were prepared starting from 2-methylbenzimidazole in the reaction with appropriate N-aryl-2-chloroacetamides afforded two series of N-aryl-2-5-[(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylsulfanylacetamides and N-aryl-2-5-[(2-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-(4-methylphenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetamides, respectively. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of IR, MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectral data. The compounds containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole or 1,2,4-triazole heterocycle also were tested for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria, mold, and yeast. Cong Nguyen Tien, Duc Tran Thi Cam, Ha Bui Manh, and Dat Nguyen Dang Copyright © 2016 Cong Nguyen Tien et al. All rights reserved. Variation of Wheat Cultivars in Their Response to Elevated Temperature on Starch and Dry Matter Accumulation in Grain Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:28:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2016/9827863/ Three wheat cultivars, namely, BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 26, and Pavon 76, were sown in experimental field of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, in Bangladesh, on 18 November, 2013. Two temperature regimes, namely, normal (23°C in open field) and elevated (6 ± 1°C higher compared to open field mean air temperature in polythene chamber) temperature, were created immediately after anthesis to investigate the response of wheat cultivars to heat stress. Elevated temperature cuts back the duration of grain filling by 5 days in BARI Gom 25 and BARI Gom 26 and 10 days in Pavon 76. Starch synthesis was also cut back by the same duration in respective cultivars under elevated temperature condition. Results indicate that failure of conversion of sugar to starch rather than limited supply of sugar under high temperature condition was responsible for shortening of grain filling duration in all wheat cultivars. However, the response of elevated temperature on grain starch and main stem grain dry matter was less profound in BARI Gom 25 and BARI Gom 26 compared to Pavon 76 indicating their better tolerance to elevated temperature. Soyema Khatun, Jalal Uddin Ahmed, Tofazzal Hossain, M. Rafiqul Islam, and Mohammed Mohi-Ud-Din Copyright © 2016 Soyema Khatun et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Studies in Clinical and Experimental Research in Gastroenterology Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:18:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/4253143/ Ilja Tacheci, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth Varayil, Zuzana Zelinkova, Marcela Kopacova, and Miroslav Zavoral Copyright © 2016 Ilja Tacheci et al. All rights reserved. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced and Borderline Resectable Nonsquamous Sinonasal Tumors (Esthesioneuroblastoma and Sinonasal Tumor with Neuroendocrine Differentiation) Wed, 03 Feb 2016 10:58:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijso/2016/6923730/ Introduction. Sinonasal tumors are chemotherapy responsive which frequently present in advanced stages making NACT a promising option for improving resection and local control in borderline resectable and locally advanced tumours. Here we reviewed the results of 25 such cases treated with NACT. Materials and Methods. Sinonasal tumor patients treated with NACT were selected for this analysis. These patients received NACT with platinum and etoposide for 2 cycles. Patients who responded and were amenable for gross total resection underwent surgical resection and adjuvant CTRT. Those who responded but were not amenable for resection received radical CTRT. Patients who progressed on NACT received either radical CTRT or palliative radiotherapy. Results. The median age of the cohort was 42 years (IQR 37–47 years). Grades 3-4 toxicity with NACT were seen in 19 patients (76%). The response rate to NACT was 80%. Post-NACT surgery was done in 12 (48%) patients and radical chemoradiation in 9 (36%) patients. The 2-year progression free survival and overall survival were 75% and 78.5%, respectively. Conclusion. NACT in sinonasal tumours has a response rate of 80%. The protocol of NACT followed by local treatment is associated with improvement in outcomes as compared to our historical cohort. Vijay M. Patil, Amit Joshi, Vanita Noronha, Vibhor Sharma, Saurabh Zanwar, Sachin Dhumal, Shubhada Kane, Prathamesh Pai, Anil D’Cruz, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Atanu Bhattacharjee, and Kumar Prabhash Copyright © 2016 Vijay M. Patil et al. All rights reserved. Increased Fracture Collapse after Intertrochanteric Fractures Treated by the Dynamic Hip Screw Adversely Affects Walking Ability but Not Survival Wed, 03 Feb 2016 10:49:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/4175092/ In osteoporotic hip fractures, fracture collapse is deliberately allowed by commonly used implants to improve dynamic contact and healing. The muscle lever arm is, however, compromised by shortening. We evaluated a cohort of 361 patients with AO/OTA 31.A1 or 31.A2 intertrochanteric fracture treated by the dynamic hip screw (DHS) who had a minimal follow-up of 3 months and an average follow-up of 14.6 months and long term survival data. The amount of fracture collapse and shortening due to sliding of the DHS was determined at the latest follow-up and graded as minimal (<1 cm), moderate (1-2 cm), or severe (>2 cm). With increased severity of collapse, more patients were unable to maintain their premorbid walking function (minimal collapse = 34.2%, moderate = 33.3%, severe = 62.8%, and ). Based on ordinal regression of risk factors, increased fracture collapse was significantly and independently related to increasing age (), female sex (), A2 fracture class (), increased operative duration (), poor reduction quality (), and suboptimal tip-apex distance of >25 mm (). Patients who had better outcome in terms of walking function were independently predicted by younger age (), higher MMSE marks (), higher MBI marks (), better premorbid walking status (), less fracture collapse (), and optimal lag screw position in centre-centre or centre-inferior position (). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, fracture collapse had no association with mortality from 2.4 to 7.6 years after surgery. In conclusion, increased fracture collapse after fixation of geriatric intertrochanteric fractures adversely affected walking but not survival. Christian Fang, Paata Gudushauri, Tak-Man Wong, Tak-Wing Lau, Terence Pun, and Frankie Leung Copyright © 2016 Christian Fang et al. All rights reserved.