Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Vaccination Control in a Stochastic SVIR Epidemic Model Sun, 24 May 2015 14:34:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/271654/ For a stochastic differential equation SVIR epidemic model with vaccination, we prove almost sure exponential stability of the disease-free equilibrium for , where denotes the basic reproduction number of the underlying deterministic model. We study an optimal control problem for the stochastic model as well as for the underlying deterministic model. In order to solve the stochastic problem numerically, we use an approximation based on the solution of the deterministic model. Peter J. Witbooi, Grant E. Muller, and Garth J. Van Schalkwyk Copyright © 2015 Peter J. Witbooi et al. All rights reserved. Electronic Voting Protocol Using Identity-Based Cryptography Sun, 24 May 2015 14:30:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/741031/ Electronic voting protocols proposed to date meet their properties based on Public Key Cryptography (PKC), which offers high flexibility through key agreement protocols and authentication mechanisms. However, when PKC is used, it is necessary to implement Certification Authority (CA) to provide certificates which bind public keys to entities and enable verification of such public key bindings. Consequently, the components of the protocol increase notably. An alternative is to use Identity-Based Encryption (IBE). With this kind of cryptography, it is possible to have all the benefits offered by PKC, without neither the need of certificates nor all the core components of a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). Considering the aforementioned, in this paper we propose an electronic voting protocol, which meets the privacy and robustness properties by using bilinear maps. Gina Gallegos-Garcia and Horacio Tapia-Recillas Copyright © 2015 Gina Gallegos-Garcia and Horacio Tapia-Recillas. All rights reserved. Gas-Forming Pyogenic Liver Abscess with Septic Shock Sun, 24 May 2015 14:23:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2015/632873/ The pyogenic liver abscess caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a rare but rapidly fatal infection. The main virulence factor of this pathogen is its α-toxin (lecithinase), which decomposes the phospholipid in cell membranes leading to cell lysis. Once the bacteria are in blood stream, massive intravascular hemolysis occurs. This can present as anemia on admission with evidence of hemolysis as indicated by low serum haptoglobin, high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elevated indirect bilirubin, and spherocytosis. The clinical course of C. perfringens septicemia is marked by rapidly deteriorating course with a mortality rate ranging from 70 to 100%. The very rapid clinical course makes it difficult to diagnose on time, and most cases are diagnosed at autopsy. Therefore it is important to consider C. perfringens infection in any severely ill patient with fever and evidence of hemolysis. We present a case of seventy-seven-year-old male with septic shock secondary to pyogenic liver abscess with a brief review of existing literature on C. perfringens. Muhammad S. Khan, Muhammad K. Ishaq, and Kellie R. Jones Copyright © 2015 Muhammad S. Khan et al. All rights reserved. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae Sun, 24 May 2015 14:07:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ari/2015/279814/ The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. Parisa Saboori and Ali Sadegh Copyright © 2015 Parisa Saboori and Ali Sadegh. All rights reserved. Temporal Unmixing of Dynamic Fluorescent Images by Blind Source Separation Method with a Convex Framework Sun, 24 May 2015 13:59:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/713424/ By recording a time series of tomographic images, dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) allows exploring perfusion, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of labeled substances in vivo. Usually, dynamic tomographic images are first reconstructed frame by frame, and then unmixing based on principle component analysis (PCA) or independent component analysis (ICA) is performed to detect and visualize functional structures with different kinetic patterns. PCA and ICA assume sources are statistically uncorrelated or independent and don’t perform well when correlated sources are present. In this paper, we deduce the relationship between the measured imaging data and the kinetic patterns and present a temporal unmixing approach, which is based on nonnegative blind source separation (BSS) method with a convex analysis framework to separate the measured data. The presented method requires no assumption on source independence or zero correlations. Several numerical simulations and phantom experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed temporal unmixing method. The results indicate that it is feasible to unmix the measured data before the tomographic reconstruction and the BSS based method provides better unmixing quality compared with PCA and ICA. Duofang Chen, Jimin Liang, and Kui Guo Copyright © 2015 Duofang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Discrepancies in Different Precipitation Data Products in the Bay of Bengal during Summer Monsoon Season Sun, 24 May 2015 13:55:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2015/806845/ In the east Bay of Bengal (BoB), the precipitation maximum always lies near the eastern coast on the windward side of Mountain Araka Yoma in the summer monsoon season. In this study, different precipitation products are compared in terms of their representation of the offshore rainfall maximum feature in this region. Climatologically, all products examined present similar rainfall distribution except for the CMAP. Significant discrepancies among different products are found in the interannual variation, as illustrated by the contrast features between 2002 and 2005. Based on the TRMM products (except for 3B42RT) and GPCP V1.2, the precipitation maximum occurred near the coast in 2002, while it was about 100–200 km offshore in 2005. However, this difference is not obvious in the GPCP V2.2 and TRMM 3B42RT products. Larger easterly vertical wind shear and warmer SST were present in 2005. Both favor stronger orographically-forced convective systems to propagate offshore, leading to the offshore rainfall maximum in 2005. Therefore, it is suggested that the TRMM 3B40RT, which is mainly based on passive microwave estimates, may be more reliable among different precipitation products in reflecting the precipitation feature in the coastal region of the east BoB. Li Qi and Yuqing Wang Copyright © 2015 Li Qi and Yuqing Wang. All rights reserved. Drive Current Enhancement in TFET by Dual Source Region Sun, 24 May 2015 13:38:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jece/2015/905718/ This paper presents tunneling field-effect transistor (TFET) with dual source regions. It explores the physics of drive current enhancement. The novel approach of dual source provides an effective technique for enhancing the drive current. It is found that this structure can offer four tunneling junctions by increasing a source region. Meanwhile, the dual source structure does not influence the excellent features of threshold slope (SS) of TFET. The number of the electrons and holes would be doubled by going through the tunneling junctions on the original basis. The overlap length of gate-source is also studied. The dependence of gate-drain capacitance and gate-source capacitance on gate-to-source voltage and drain-to-source voltage was further investigated. There are simulation setups and methodology used for the dual source TFET (DS-TFET) assessment, including delay time, total energy per operation, and energy-delay product. It is confirmed that the proposed TFET has strong potentials for VLSI. Zhi Jiang, Yiqi Zhuang, Cong Li, Ping Wang, and Yuqi Liu Copyright © 2015 Zhi Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Total Antioxidant Status in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Palestine Sun, 24 May 2015 13:35:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jdr/2015/461271/ The objective of this study was to compare the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in type 2 diabetic and normal Palestinian subjects as well as the major factors influencing TAS levels. A sample of convenience composed of 212 type 2 diabetic and 208 normal subjects above the age of 40 were recruited. Only 9.8% of the subjects had normal body mass index (BMI) levels (<25), 29% were overweight (≥25 to <30), and 61.2% were obese (≥30). The mean levels of TAS were significantly higher in diabetic compared to control subjects (2.18 versus 1.84 mM Trolox, P = 0.001) and in hypertensive subjects compared to subjects with normal blood pressure (BP). Mean TAS levels were higher in obese compared to nonobese subjects (2.12 versus 1.85 mM Trolox, P = 0.001). Mean TAS levels were similarly higher in subjects with high fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to normal FPG (2.19 versus 1.90 mM Trolox) and high HbA1c (≥6.5%) compared to HbA1c < 6.5% (2.14 versus 1.91 mM Trolox). Multivariate analysis revealed that only diabetic status (P = 0.032) and the level of education (P = 0.036) were significantly associated with TAS. In conclusion diabetic patients had 18.5% increase in TAS levels compared to control subjects. Akram T. Kharroubi, Hisham M. Darwish, Mutaz A. Akkawi, Abdelkareem A. Ashareef, Zaher A. Almasri, Khaldoun A. Bader, and Umaiyeh M. Khammash Copyright © 2015 Akram T. Kharroubi et al. All rights reserved. Trans-Species Polymorphism in Immune Genes: General Pattern or MHC-Restricted Phenomenon? Sun, 24 May 2015 13:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/838035/ Immunity exhibits extraordinarily high levels of variation. Evolution of the immune system in response to host-pathogen interactions in particular ecological contexts appears to be frequently associated with diversifying selection increasing the genetic variability. Many studies have documented that immunologically relevant polymorphism observed today may be tens of millions years old and may predate the emergence of present species. This pattern can be explained by the concept of trans-species polymorphism (TSP) predicting the maintenance and sharing of favourable functionally important alleles of immune-related genes between species due to ongoing balancing selection. Despite the generality of this concept explaining the long-lasting adaptive variation inherited from ancestors, current research in TSP has vastly focused only on major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In this review we summarise the evidence available on TSP in human and animal immune genes to reveal that TSP is not a MHC-specific evolutionary pattern. Further research should clearly pay more attention to the investigation of TSP in innate immune genes and especially pattern recognition receptors which are promising candidates for this type of evolution. More effort should also be made to distinguish TSP from convergent evolution and adaptive introgression. Identification of balanced TSP variants may represent an accurate approach in evolutionary medicine to recognise disease-resistance alleles. Martin Těšický and Michal Vinkler Copyright © 2015 Martin Těšický and Michal Vinkler. All rights reserved. Autoserum: An Optimal Supplement for Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Liver-Injured Rats Sun, 24 May 2015 12:56:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/459580/ Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive source for the clinical cell therapy of liver injury. Although the use of adult serum, platelet lysate, or cord blood serum solves some of the problems caused by fetal bovine serum (FBS), the allogeneic immune response, contamination, and donor-to-donor and donor-to-receptor differences still obstruct the application of MSCs. In this study, the influences of autoserum from liver-injured rats (LIRs) and allogeneic serum from healthy rats on the isolation and culture of bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs) were examined and compared to FBS. The results showed that BMSCs cultured with autoserum or allogeneic serum exhibited better MSC-specific morphology, lower rate of cell senescent, and higher proliferation kinetics than those with FBS. In addition, autoserum promoted the osteogenic differentiation potential of BMSCs as allogeneic serum did. Although there were no significant differences in proliferation activity, immunophenotypic characterization, and differentiation potential between BMSCs cultured with autoserum and those with allogeneic serum, the potential adverse immunological reactions in patients with allogeneic material transplantation must be considered. We therefore believe that the autoserum from liver-injured patients may be a better choice for MSC expansion to meet the needs of liver injury therapy. Qinglin Zhang, Xun Sun, Jianxun Ding, Ping He, Yujia Liu, Hongjing Cheng, Changlin Zhou, and Xiangwei Meng Copyright © 2015 Qinglin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Atlantoaxial Subluxation after Pyogenic Spondylitis around the Odontoid Process Sun, 24 May 2015 12:40:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/861403/ Study Design. A case report and review of the literature. Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the conservative management of pyogenic spondylitis around the odontoid process. Summary of Background Data. Atlantoaxial subluxation after pyogenic spondylitis is rare. The therapeutic approach to infection of the upper cervical spine is controversial. Methods. Medical chart and radiological images of a 76-year-old male patient were retrospectively reviewed. Radiography revealed atlantoaxial subluxation, and an abscess was seen around the odontoid process on magnetic resonance images. Intravenous antibiotics and a halo vest were used to treat the patient. We then observed the patient’s conservative treatment course. Results. C-reactive protein levels returned to normal 4 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. The patient’s muscle weakness also completely recovered 8 weeks after administration of the intravenous antibiotics. Because the patient was able to walk without any support, surgical treatment was not necessary. Conclusions. Pyogenic spondylitis of the upper cervical spine is a rare manifestation. Surgical or conservative treatment must be selected carefully based on the patient’s symptoms. If early diagnosis and treatment can be provided to the patients, conservative treatment can be achieved. Atsushi Hasegawa, Mitsuru Yagi, Masakazu Takemitsu, Masafumi Machida, Takashi Asazuma, and Shoichi Ichimura Copyright © 2015 Atsushi Hasegawa et al. All rights reserved. Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation for Uniform Rectangular Array Using Reduced-Dimension Propagator Method Sun, 24 May 2015 12:27:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/485351/ A novel algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA) estimation with uniform rectangular array using reduced-dimension propagator method (RD-PM). The proposed algorithm requires no eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix of the receive data and simplifies two-dimensional global searching in two-dimensional PM (2D-PM) to one-dimensional local searching. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is much lower than that of 2D-PM. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm and conventional PM algorithms, also very close to 2D-PM. The angle estimation error and Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) are derived in this paper. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can achieve automatically paired 2D-DOA estimation. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. Ming Zhou, Xiaofei Zhang, Xiaofeng Qiu, and Chenghua Wang Copyright © 2015 Ming Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Positivity, Betweenness, and Strictness of Operator Means Sun, 24 May 2015 12:14:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2015/851568/ An operator mean is a binary operation assigned to each pair of positive operators satisfying monotonicity, continuity from above, the transformer inequality, and the fixed-point property. It is well known that there are one-to-one correspondences between operator means, operator monotone functions, and Borel measures. In this paper, we provide various characterizations for the concepts of positivity, betweenness, and strictness of operator means in terms of operator inequalities, operator monotone functions, Borel measures, and certain operator equations. Pattrawut Chansangiam Copyright © 2015 Pattrawut Chansangiam. All rights reserved. Cyclophilin A Interacts with Viral VP4 and Inhibits the Replication of Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Sun, 24 May 2015 12:14:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/719454/ Nonstructural protein VP4, a serine protease of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of polyprotein pVP2-VP4-VP3 to form the viral proteins VP2, VP4, and VP3, is essential to the replication of IBDV. However, the interacting partners of VP4 in host cells and the effects of the interaction on the IBDV lifecycle remain incompletely elucidated. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid system, the putative VP4-interacting partner cyclophilin A (CypA) was obtained from a chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) expression library. CypA was further confirmed to interact with VP4 of IBDV using co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP), GST pull-down, and confocal microscopy assays. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of CypA suppressed IBDV replication, whereas the knock-down of CypA by small interfering RNAs promoted the replication of IBDV. Taken together, our findings indicate that the host cell protein CypA interacts with viral VP4 and inhibits the replication of IBDV. Nian Wang, Lizhou Zhang, Yuming Chen, Zhen Lu, Li Gao, Yongqiang Wang, Yulong Gao, Honglei Gao, Hongyu Cui, Kai Li, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Xiaole Qi, and Xiaomei Wang Copyright © 2015 Nian Wang et al. All rights reserved. Algorithm Development for the Optimum Rainfall Estimation Using Polarimetric Variables in Korea Sun, 24 May 2015 12:13:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2015/395937/ In this study, to get an optimum rainfall estimation using polarimetric variables observed from Bislsan radar which is the first polarimetric radar in Korea, rainfall cases for 84 hours caused by different conditions, which are Changma front and typhoon, Changma front only, and typhoon only, occurred in 2011, were analyzed. And rainfall algorithms were developed by using long period drop size distributions with six different raindrop axis ratio relations. The combination of the relations between and , , and , , and and with different rainfall intensity would be an optimum rainfall algorithm if the reference of rainfall would be defined correctly. In the case the reference is not defined adequately, the relation between and , , , and and , , can be used as a representative rainfall relation. Particularly if the qualified is not available, the relation between and , , can be used as an optimum rainfall relation in Korea. Cheol-Hwan You and Dong-In Lee Copyright © 2015 Cheol-Hwan You and Dong-In Lee. All rights reserved. Modulation of Insulin Sensitivity of Hepatocytes by the Pharmacological Downregulation of Phospholipase D Sun, 24 May 2015 12:05:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/794838/ Background. The role of phospholipase D (PLD) as a positive modulator of glucose uptake activation by insulin in muscle and adipose cells has been demonstrated. The role of PLD in the regulation of glucose metabolism by insulin in the primary hepatocytes has been determined in this study. Methods. For this purpose, we studied effects of inhibitors of PLD on glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis stimulation by insulin. To determine the PLD activity, the method based on determination of products of transphosphatidylation reaction, phosphatidylethanol or phosphatidylbutanol, was used. Results. Inhibition of PLD by a general antagonist (1-butanol) or specific inhibitor, halopemide, or N-hexanoylsphingosine, or by cellular ceramides accumulated in doxorubicin-treated hepatocytes decreased insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism. Doxorubicin-induced hepatocytes resistance to insulin action could be abolished by inhibition of ceramide production. Halopemide could nullify this effect. Addition of propranolol, as well as inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) (wortmannin, LY294002) or suppressors of Akt phosphorylation/activity, luteolin-7-O-glucoside or apigenin-7-O-glucoside, to the culture media could block cell response to insulin action. Conclusion. PLD plays an important role in the insulin signaling in the hepatocytes. PLD is activated downstream of PI3-kinase and Akt and is highly sensitive to ceramide content in the liver cells. Nataliya A. Babenko and Vitalina S. Kharchenko Copyright © 2015 Nataliya A. Babenko and Vitalina S. Kharchenko. All rights reserved. Discrete Multiwavelet Critical-Sampling Transform-Based OFDM System over Rayleigh Fading Channels Sun, 24 May 2015 12:01:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/676217/ Discrete multiwavelet critical-sampling transform (DMWCST) has been proposed instead of fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the realization of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. The proposed structure further reduces the level of interference and improves the bandwidth efficiency through the elimination of the cyclic prefix due to the good orthogonality and time-frequency localization properties of the multiwavelet transform. The proposed system was simulated using MATLAB to allow various parameters of the system to be varied and tested. The performance of DMWCST-based OFDM (DMWCST-OFDM) was compared with that of the discrete wavelet transform-based OFDM (DWT-OFDM) and the traditional FFT-based OFDM (FFT-OFDM) over flat fading and frequency-selective fading channels. Results obtained indicate that the performance of the proposed DMWCST-OFDM system achieves significant improvement compared to those of DWT-OFDM and FFT-OFDM systems. DMWCST improves the performance of the OFDM system by a factor of 1.5–2.5 dB and 13–15.5 dB compared with the DWT and FFT, respectively. Therefore the proposed system offers higher data rate in wireless mobile communications. Sameer A. Dawood, F. Malek, M. S. Anuar, and Suha Q. Hadi Copyright © 2015 Sameer A. Dawood et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of 3D Adaptive Remeshing Strategies for Finite Element Simulations of Electromagnetic Heating of Gold Nanoparticles Sun, 24 May 2015 11:54:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2015/469310/ The optical properties of metallic nanoparticles are well known, but the study of their thermal behavior is in its infancy. However the local heating of surrounding medium, induced by illuminated nanostructures, opens the way to new sensors and devices. Consequently the accurate calculation of the electromagnetically induced heating of nanostructures is of interest. The proposed multiphysics problem cannot be directly solved with the classical refinement method of Comsol Multiphysics and a 3D adaptive remeshing process based on an a posteriori error estimator is used. In this paper the efficiency of three remeshing strategies for solving the multiphysics problem is compared. The first strategy uses independent remeshing for each physical quantity to reach a given accuracy. The second strategy only controls the accuracy on temperature. The third strategy uses a linear combination of the two normalized targets (the electric field intensity and the temperature). The analysis of the performance of each strategy is based on the convergence of the remeshing process in terms of number of elements. The efficiency of each strategy is also characterized by the number of computation iterations, the number of elements, the CPU time, and the RAM required to achieve a given target accuracy. Fadhil Mezghani, Dominique Barchiesi, Abel Cherouat, Thomas Grosges, and Houman Borouchaki Copyright © 2015 Fadhil Mezghani et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Finite Element Method 2014 Sun, 24 May 2015 11:53:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/572648/ Song Cen, Chenfeng Li, Sellakkutti Rajendran, and Zhiqiang Hu Copyright © 2015 Song Cen et al. All rights reserved. Parkinson’s Disease and Home Healthcare Use and Expenditures among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries Sun, 24 May 2015 11:41:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/606810/ This study estimated excess home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries (age ≥ 65 years) with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared to those without PD and analyzed the extent to which predisposing, enabling, need factors, personal health choice, and external environment contribute to the excess home healthcare use and expenditures among individuals with PD. A retrospective, observational, cohort study design using Medicare 5% sample claims for years 2006-2007 was used for this study. Logistic regressions and Ordinary Least Squares regressions were used to assess the association of PD with home health use and expenditures, respectively. Postregression nonlinear and linear decomposition techniques were used to understand the extent to which differences in home healthcare use and expenditures among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with and without PD can be explained by individual-level factors. Elderly Medicare beneficiaries with PD had higher home health use and expenditures compared to those without PD. 27.5% and 18% of the gap in home health use and expenditures, respectively, were explained by differences in characteristics between the PD and no PD groups. A large portion of the differences in home healthcare use and expenditures remained unexplained. Sandipan Bhattacharjee, Aaron Metzger, Cindy Tworek, Wenhui Wei, Xiaoyun Pan, and Usha Sambamoorthi Copyright © 2015 Sandipan Bhattacharjee et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacological Isolation of Cognitive Components Influencing the Pupillary Light Reflex Sun, 24 May 2015 11:36:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/179542/ Cognitive operations can be detected by reduction of the pupillary light response. Neurophysiological pathways mediating this reduction have not been distinguished. We utilized selective blockade of pupillary sphincter or dilator muscles to isolate parasympathetic or sympathetic activity during cognition, without modifying central processes. Pupil diameter was measured during the light reaction in 29 normal adults under three processing levels: No Task, during an easy task (Add 1), or a difficult task (Subtract 7). At three separate sessions, the pupil was treated with placebo, tropicamide (blocking the muscarinic sphincter receptor), or dapiprazole (blocking the adrenergic dilator receptor). With placebo, pupil diameter increased with increasing task difficulty. The light reaction was reduced only in the Subtract 7 condition. Dapiprazole (which decreased overall diameter) showed similar task-related changes in diameter and light reflex as for placebo. Following tropicamide (which increased overall diameter), there was a further increase in diameter only in the difficult task. Findings suggest two separate inhibitory components at the parasympathetic oculomotor center. Changes in baseline diameter are likely related to reticular activation. Inhibition of the light reaction in the difficult task is likely associated with cortical afferents. Sustained sympathetic activity also was present during the difficult task. Stuart R. Steinhauer, Ruth Condray, and Misha L. Pless Copyright © 2015 Stuart R. Steinhauer et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Surveillance Robot with Obstacle Avoidance Capabilities Using Neural Network Sun, 24 May 2015 11:36:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2015/745823/ For specific purpose, vision-based surveillance robot that can be run autonomously and able to acquire images from its dynamic environment is very important, for example, in rescuing disaster victims in Indonesia. In this paper, we propose architecture for intelligent surveillance robot that is able to avoid obstacles using 3 ultrasonic distance sensors based on backpropagation neural network and a camera for face recognition. 2.4 GHz transmitter for transmitting video is used by the operator/user to direct the robot to the desired area. Results show the effectiveness of our method and we evaluate the performance of the system. Widodo Budiharto Copyright © 2015 Widodo Budiharto. All rights reserved. Finite-Time Consensus Algorithm for Multiple Nonholonomic Disturbed Systems with Its Application Sun, 24 May 2015 11:35:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/358161/ This paper deals with the problem of finite-time consensus of multiple nonholonomic disturbed systems. To accomplish this problem, the multiple nonholonomic systems are transformed into two multiple subsystems, and these two multiple subsystems are studied, respectively. For these two multiple subsystems, the terminal sliding mode (TSM) algorithms are designed, respectively, which achieve the finite-time reaching of sliding surface. Next, a switching control strategy is proposed to guarantee the finite-time consensus of all the states for multiple nonholonomic systems with disturbances. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed consensus algorithms with application to multiple nonholonomic mobile robots. Shang Shi, Xin Yu, and Guohai Liu Copyright © 2015 Shang Shi et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Efficacy Observation of Acupuncture Treatment for Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Sun, 24 May 2015 11:33:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/713218/ Objective. To determine whether acupuncture treatment impacts the clinical efficacy of degenerative damage of the optic nerve caused by nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Methods. 69 patients (93 eyes) with NAION who had been treated by acupuncture which is performed on different acupoints related to eyes by vertical insertion or Fingernail-pressure needle insertion. The best corrected visual acuity, mean defect (MD) and mean light sensitivity (MS) of the visual field, and latency and amplitude of pattern visual evoked potential (P-VEP) were compared before and after treatment. Results. After 2, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment, the total effective rates of visual acuity improvement were 74.19%, 78.89%, and 81.71%, respectively, and the decreased MD and increased MS were both statistically significant (P < 0.01). When compared with the situation before treatment, the average latency of the P100 wave was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and the average amplitude was improved with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Acupuncture treatment could obviously improve the visual function of patients with NAION and be used as complementary and alternative therapy in clinic. Yali Qin, Wei Yuan, Hui Deng, Zhanmei Xiang, Chao Yang, Xinyun Kou, Shufei Yang, Zhijun Wang, and Ming Jin Copyright © 2015 Yali Qin et al. All rights reserved. Block-Matching Based Multifocus Image Fusion Sun, 24 May 2015 11:32:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/405919/ A new multifocus image fusion method is proposed. Two image blocks are selected by sliding the window from the two source images at the same position, discrete cosine transform (DCT) is implemented, respectively, on these two blocks, and the alternating component (AC) energy of these blocks is then calculated to decide which is the well-focused one. In addition, block matching is used to determine a group of image blocks that are all similar to the well-focused reference block. Finally, all the blocks are returned to their original positions through weighted average. The weight is decided with the AC energy of the well-focused block. Experimental results demonstrate that, unlike other spatial methods, the proposed method effectively avoids block artifacts. The proposed method also significantly improves the objective evaluation results, which are obtained by some transform domain methods. Feng Zhu, Yingkun Hou, and Jingyu Yang Copyright © 2015 Feng Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Impulse Force Balance for Ultrashort Duration Hypersonic Test Facilities Sun, 24 May 2015 11:31:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/803253/ This paper presents the measurement of side force, pitching, and yawing moments on a model, using an accelerometer force balance, in a short duration hypersonic shock tunnel. The test model is a blunt-nosed, flapped delta wing, mounted on a support sting through a force balance. The flexible rubber bushes constituting the balance allow the model to float freely on the sting during the test. The accelerometers were located in the model to record accelerations in the directions of interest. The model was tested in shock tunnel at Mach 8 at different angles of incidence with the freestream. Dynamic calibration of the test assembly was carried out for the acquisition of impulse response functions for the above components of force and moments, using an impulse hammer. The convolution technique was applied to derive the impulse response functions. The accelerometer outputs from the model in the hypersonic freestream were processed using the respective impulse response functions to derive the unknown aerodynamic force and moments. The newly adopted convolution technique has been found very effective for data reduction from accelerometer force balances developed for shock tunnel applications. P. Singh, V. Menezes, K. J. Irimpan, and H. Hosseini Copyright © 2015 P. Singh et al. All rights reserved. Intramuscular Olanzapine in the Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Hospitalized Older Adults: A Retrospective Descriptive Study Sun, 24 May 2015 11:30:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jar/2015/570410/ Background. While behavioral and psychological symptoms are frequent in hospitalized older adults with dementia or delirium, data supporting the off-label use of intramuscular atypical antipsychotics remain scarce. We examined the use of short-acting intramuscular (IM) olanzapine in hospitalized older adults to manage behavioral and psychological symptoms. Methods. A retrospective observational study of inpatients 65 years or older with at least one order for olanzapine IM during admission in urban Ontario Canada was conducted. Patient demographics, prescriptions for olanzapine IM, reason for administration, perceived effectiveness, adverse events, concurrently prescribed psychotropics, comorbidities, and patient discharge destination were recorded. Results. Among 82 patients aged 65–96 years (mean ± SD 79.3 ± 7.7) 85 cases were identified. Cognitive impairment or dementia affected 63.5% and 50.6% had comorbidities. Olanzapine IM was ordered 102 times and 34 patients (41%) received at least one dose. The intended efficacy was achieved in 79.4% of 78 cases of 124 doses given (62.9%). Fourteen (41%) patients who received doses experienced adverse events, with sedation and hypotension being the most common. Conclusions. Olanzapine IM appears effective in hospitalized older adults but is associated with potential adverse events. Structured monitoring and documentation are needed to ensure safe use in this high-risk population. Silvia Duong, Kam-Tong Yeung, and Feng Chang Copyright © 2015 Silvia Duong et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Tests on Failure Process of Rock Particle under Impact Loading Sun, 24 May 2015 11:30:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/678573/ By using numerical code RFP (dynamic version), numerical model is built to investigate the failure process of rock particle under impact loading, and the influence of different impact loading on crushing effect and consumed energy of rock particle sample is analyzed. Numerical results indicate that crushing effect is good when the stress wave amplitude is close to the dynamic strength of rock; it is difficult for rock particle to be broken under too low stress wave amplitude; on the other hand, when stress wave amplitude is too high, excessive fine particle is produced, and crushing effect is not very good on the whole, and more crushing energy is consumed. Secondly, in order to obtain good crushing effect, it should be avoided that wavelength of impact load be too short. Therefore, it is inappropriate to choose impact rusher with too high power and too fast impact frequency for ore particle. Yu-Jun Zuo, Qin Zhang, Tao Xu, Zhi-Hong Liu, Yue-Qin Qiu, and Wan-Cheng Zhu Copyright © 2015 Yu-Jun Zuo et al. All rights reserved. Fecal Lactoferrin: Reliable Biomarker for Intestinal Inflammation in Pediatric IBD Sun, 24 May 2015 11:30:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/578527/ Background. Optimal management of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) requires early diagnosis. Aim of the study is to compare fecal lactoferrin (FL) as biomarker of intestinal inflammation to CRP in pediatric patients with new-onset IBD. Methods. FL was measured by ELISA in stool specimens collected prior to endoscopy for IBD (IBD-SCAN; TechLab, Blacksburg; normal < 7.3 µg/g feces). CRP was detected in serum (normal < 5 mg/L). Three patient groups were determined: (mean age 13.2) with Crohn’s disease (CD), (mean age 10.9) with ulcerative colitis (UC), and (mean age 11.9) in whom IBD was ruled out. In CD patients the endoscopic severity score SES-CD was correlated with the FL levels. Results. (Mean ± SEM). CRP levels were 27.18 ± 4.2 for CD-cases, 20.8 ± 9.5 for UC, and 0.24 ± 0.06 for non-IBD patients. FL levels were 313.6 ± 46.4 in CD, 370.7 ± 46.9 in UC, and 1.3 ± 0.5 in non-IBD patients. Sensitivity of CRP to detect IBD was 75% with specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 69%. Sensitivity of FL was 100% with specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 97.3%, and negative predictive value of 100%. In CD, FL levels correlated positively () with disease severity as judged by the SES-CD. Conclusions. Elevated FL corresponds to intestinal inflammation, even in patients with normal CRP. With high probability, normal FL excludes intestinal inflammation. Stephan Buderus, James H. Boone, and Michael J. Lentze Copyright © 2015 Stephan Buderus et al. All rights reserved. Ceramides in Alzheimer’s Disease: Key Mediators of Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress and Aβ Accumulation Sun, 24 May 2015 11:26:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/346783/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) and intracellular deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau (phospho-tau) protein. Ceramides, the major molecules of sphingolipid metabolism and lipid second messengers, have been associated with AD progression and pathology via Aβ generation. Enhanced levels of ceramides directly increase Aβ through stabilization of β-secretase, the key enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of Aβ precursor protein (APP). As a positive feedback loop, the generated oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ induces a further increase in ceramide levels by activating sphingomyelinases that catalyze the catabolic breakdown of sphingomyelin to ceramide. Evidence also supports important role of ceramides in neuronal apoptosis. Ceramides may initiate a cascade of biochemical alterations, which ultimately leads to neuronal death by diverse mechanisms, including depolarization and permeabilization of mitochondria, increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytochrome c release, Bcl-2 depletion, and caspase-3 activation, mainly by modulating intracellular signalling, particularly along the pathways related to Akt/PKB kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). This review summarizes recent findings related to the role of ceramides in oxidative stress-driven neuronal apoptosis and interplay with Aβ in the cascade of events ending in neuronal degeneration. Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek, Patrick R. Hof, and Goran Šimić Copyright © 2015 Maja Jazvinšćak Jembrek et al. All rights reserved. The Role of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Phasic Alertness: Evidence from a Contingent Negative Variation and Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study Sun, 24 May 2015 11:26:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/410785/ Phasic alertness represents the ability to increase response readiness to a target following an external warning stimulus. Specific networks in the frontal and parietal regions appear to be involved in the alert state. In this study, we examined the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the attentional processing of a stimulus using a cued double-choice reaction time task. The evaluation of these processes was conducted by means of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs), in particular by using the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV), and repetitive 1-Hz Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Transient virtual inhibition of the right DLPFC induced by real 1-Hz rTMS stimulation led to a significant decrease in total CNV and W1-CNV areas if compared with the basal and post-sham rTMS conditions. Reaction times (RTs) did not decrease after inhibitory rTMS, but they did improve after sham stimulation. These results suggest that the right DLPFC plays a crucial role in the genesis and maintenance of the alerting state and learning processes. Daniela Mannarelli, Caterina Pauletti, Antonello Grippo, Aldo Amantini, Vito Augugliaro, Antonio Currà, Paolo Missori, Nicoletta Locuratolo, Maria C. De Lucia, Steno Rinalduzzi, and Francesco Fattapposta Copyright © 2015 Daniela Mannarelli et al. All rights reserved. Ultrastructural Comparison of Processing of Protein and Pigment in the Ink Gland of Four Species of Sea Hares Sun, 24 May 2015 11:25:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmb/2015/847961/ The ink glands of four sea hare species (Aplysia californica, A. parvula, A. juliana, and Dolabrifera dolabrifera) were compared to determine where ink protein is synthesized, how it is incorporated into protein storage vesicles, and the degree of variation in the structure of the ink gland. Ink protein was synthesized in RER cells and stored in amber and white vesicles. Lack of competent RER cells in the ink gland of D. dolabrifera was correlated with the absence of ink protein. Ink protein had similar characteristics in all three Aplysia species but, again, it was absent in D. dolabrifera. Its uptake involved pinocytosis by protein vesicle cell membranes. Granulate cells showed little variation in structure among the four species, the opposite was the case for RER cells. The conversion of the red algal pigment, phycoerythrin, to phycoerythrobilin (PEB) occurs in the digestive gland but the change of PEB to aplysioviolin (APV), the form of pigment released by the ink gland, occurs in the ink gland itself by both granulate cells and pigment vesicles. The literature describes five types of vesicles based upon color and contents in the ink gland of these four species. We report only three types of vesicle: colored (purple), protein (white and amber), and transparent (includes clear vesicles). Jeffrey S. Prince and Paul Micah Johnson Copyright © 2015 Jeffrey S. Prince and Paul Micah Johnson. All rights reserved. Involvement of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Immunological Modulation of Inflammatory Cascade in Preeclampsia Sun, 24 May 2015 11:11:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/325932/ Objectives. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is characterized by abnormal placentation, an exaggerated inflammatory response, and generalized dysfunction of the maternal endothelium. We investigated the effects of preeclampsia serum on the expression of inflammation-related genes by adipose tissue. Materials and Methods. Visceral adipose tissue was obtained from the omentum of patients with early ovarian cancer without metastasis. Adipose tissue was incubated with sera obtained from either five women affected with severe preeclampsia or five women from control pregnant women at 37°C in a humidified incubator at 5% CO2 for 24 hours. 370 genes in total mRNA were analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR (Inflammatory Response & Autoimmunity gene set). Results. Gene expression analysis revealed changes in the expression levels of 30 genes in adipose tissue treated with preeclampsia sera. Some genes are related to immune response, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and adipogenesis, which plays a central role in excessive systemic inflammatory response of preeclampsia. In contrast, other genes have shown beneficial effects in the regulation of Th2 predominance, antioxidative stress, and insulin sensitivity. Conclusion. In conclusion, visceral adipose tissue offers protection against inflammation, oxidative insults, and other forms of cellular stress that are central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Katsuhiko Naruse, Juria Akasaka, Aiko Shigemitsu, Taihei Tsunemi, Natsuki Koike, Chiharu Yoshimoto, and Hiroshi Kobayashi Copyright © 2015 Katsuhiko Naruse et al. All rights reserved. Adaptively Tuned Iterative Low Dose CT Image Denoising Sun, 24 May 2015 10:54:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/638568/ Improving image quality is a critical objective in low dose computed tomography (CT) imaging and is the primary focus of CT image denoising. State-of-the-art CT denoising algorithms are mainly based on iterative minimization of an objective function, in which the performance is controlled by regularization parameters. To achieve the best results, these should be chosen carefully. However, the parameter selection is typically performed in an ad hoc manner, which can cause the algorithms to converge slowly or become trapped in a local minimum. To overcome these issues a noise confidence region evaluation (NCRE) method is used, which evaluates the denoising residuals iteratively and compares their statistics with those produced by additive noise. It then updates the parameters at the end of each iteration to achieve a better match to the noise statistics. By combining NCRE with the fundamentals of block matching and 3D filtering (BM3D) approach, a new iterative CT image denoising method is proposed. It is shown that this new denoising method improves the BM3D performance in terms of both the mean square error and a structural similarity index. Moreover, simulations and patient results show that this method preserves the clinically important details of low dose CT images together with a substantial noise reduction. SayedMasoud Hashemi, Narinder S. Paul, Soosan Beheshti, and Richard S. C. Cobbold Copyright © 2015 SayedMasoud Hashemi et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of College Classes Based on U-CLASS System Using Personal Mobile Nodes Sun, 24 May 2015 10:32:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/493407/ The increase in mobile communications has led to advanced educational methods and technologies through accepting new technologies. A lot of studies have tried to overcome temporal and spatial limits on using personal mobile devices and have tried to increase learning effectiveness using various efficient educational methods. In this paper, U-CLASS, an interactive learning management system that provides interactive communications between a professor and students, is proposed and implemented. Monitoring of academic achievement after a real experiment with the proposed system and analysis of educational activities during the experimental class are important points. In order to achieve that, the proposed system was used in a practical class at a university, and educational activities from the classroom were gathered and analyzed. The data on the educational activities include frequency of questions, attendance rate, and seat positions of the students. Analysis results show that the average distance between professor and student in the classroom is strongly related to the grade of the student. Students who have a higher attendance rate and who ask more questions commonly show higher achievement. Chonggun Kim, Jeongmi Kim, Hohwan Park, and Ilkyu Ha Copyright © 2015 Chonggun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Development of Activity-Related Muscle Fatigue during Robot-Mediated Upper Limb Rehabilitation Training in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Trial Sun, 24 May 2015 10:13:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/msi/2015/650431/ Robot-assisted rehabilitation facilitates high-intensity training of the impaired upper limb in neurological rehabilitation. It has been clinically observed that persons with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) have difficulties in sustaining the training intensity during a session due to the development of activity-related muscle fatigue. An experimental observational pilot study was conducted to examine whether or not the muscle fatigue develops in MS patients during one session of robot-assisted training within a virtual learning environment. Six MS patients with upper limb impairment (motricity index ranging from 50 to 91/100) and six healthy persons completed five training bouts of three minutes each performing lifting tasks, while EMG signals of anterior deltoid and lower trapezius muscles were measured and their subjective perceptions on muscle fatigue were registered. Decreased performance and higher subjective fatigue perception were present in the MS group. Increased mean EMG amplitudes and subjective perception levels on muscle fatigue were observed in both groups. Muscle fatigue development during 15′ training has been demonstrated in the arm of MS patients, which influences the sustainability of training intensity in MS patients. To optimize the training performance, adaptivity based on the detection of MS patient’s muscle fatigue could be provided by means of training program adjustment. Johanna Renny Octavia, Peter Feys, and Karin Coninx Copyright © 2015 Johanna Renny Octavia et al. All rights reserved. The Protective Effect of Resveratrol on Concanavalin-A-Induced Acute Hepatic Injury in Mice Sun, 24 May 2015 10:11:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/506390/ Pharmacologic Relevance. Resveratrol, an antioxidant derived from grapes, has been reported to modulate the inflammatory process. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol and its mechanism of protection on concanavalin-A- (ConA-) induced liver injury in mice. Materials and Methods. Acute autoimmune hepatitis was induced by ConA (20 mg/kg) in Balb/C mice; mice were treated with resveratrol (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) daily by oral gavage for fourteen days prior to a single intravenous injection of ConA. Eight hours after injection, histologic grading, proinflammatory cytokine levels, and hedgehog pathway activity were determined. Results. After ConA injection, the cytokines IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were increased, and Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Glioblastoma- (Gli-) 1, and Patched (Ptc) levels significantly increased. Pretreatment with resveratrol ameliorated the pathologic effects of ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis and significantly inhibited IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, Shh, Gli-1, and Ptc. The effects of resveratrol on the hedgehog pathway were studied by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Resveratrol decreased Shh expression, possibly by inhibiting Shh expression in order to reduce Gli-1 and Ptc expression. Conclusion. Resveratrol protects against ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis by decreasing cytokines expression in mice. The decreases seen in Gli-1 and Ptc may correlate with the amelioration of hedgehog pathway activity. Yingqun Zhou, Kan Chen, Lei He, Yujing Xia, Weiqi Dai, Fan Wang, Jingjing Li, Sainan Li, Tong Liu, Yuanyuan Zheng, Jianrong Wang, Wenxia Lu, Qin Yin, Yuqing Zhou, Jie Lu, Hongfei Teng, and Chuanyong Guo Copyright © 2015 Yingqun Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between Electrical Properties and Potentiometric Response of CS-Clay Nanocomposite Membranes Sun, 24 May 2015 09:52:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/710425/ The aim of this work is to study the relationship between electrical, structure, and potentiometric response to nitrate anions using Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE). These ISE are based on chitosan-montmorillonite nanocomposite membranes with different content of montmorillonite. Membrane properties have been studied using SEM, FTIR, and impedance spectroscopy measurements. With the advent of impedance spectroscopy one is allowed to obtain the DC conductivity dependence on montmorillonite concentration and the percolation threshold. Additionally, the potentiometric response to nitrate anions of ISE based on chitosan-clay nanocomposite has been investigated. It is shown that the properties and performance of these membrane electrodes depend upon the clay wt% and that the best sensitivity to nitrate ions (with detection limit 7 10−5 M) is obtained near the percolation concentration ca. 8 ± 2.5 wt% of clay. This observation is traceable to higher clay content (higher agglomeration) that tends to decrease the intercalation and absorption of the number of chitosan chains in the interlayer space of montmorillonite. M. Oviedo Mendoza, O. Arias de Fuentes, E. Prokhorov, G. Luna Barcenas, and E. Padilla Ortega Copyright © 2015 M. Oviedo Mendoza et al. All rights reserved. Metastatic Uterine Leiomyosarcoma Involving Bilateral Ovarian Stroma without Capsular Involvement Implies a Local Route of Hematogenous Dissemination Sun, 24 May 2015 09:52:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/950373/ Uterine sarcomas spread via lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination, direct extension, or transtubal transport. Distant metastasis often involves the lungs. Ovarian metastasis is uncommon. Here we present an unusual case of a large, high-grade uLMS with metastatic disease internal to both ovaries without capsular involvement or other abdominal diseases, and discovered in a patient with distant metastases to the lungs, suggesting likely hematogenous dissemination of uLMS to the ovaries in this case. Knowledge of usual uLMS metastases may influence surgical management in select cases. Monica Dandapani, Brandon-Luke L. Seagle, Amer Abdullah, Bryce Hatfield, Robert Samuelson, and Shohreh Shahabi Copyright © 2015 Monica Dandapani et al. All rights reserved. Design of a RSSI Location System for Greenhouse Environment Sun, 24 May 2015 09:16:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/525861/ In order to improve the location accuracy in the complicated greenhouse environment, a positioning system is designed in this paper. According to RSSI data in the greenhouse, the parameters of the path-loss model are modified. Besides, least square estimation is used to filter RSSI data to eliminate random disturbance. Based on RSSI, the blind node is positioned by triangle centroid location method. Finally, to lessen the negative influence of steel pillars in the greenhouse, a region segmentation mechanism is introduced to the system. Experiments prove that our positioning system has higher accuracy in the greenhouse. Lihong Xu Copyright © 2015 Lihong Xu. All rights reserved. Quality of Care for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Dubai: A HEDIS-Like Assessment Sun, 24 May 2015 09:12:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/413276/ Objective. As little data are available on the quality of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) care in the Arabian Gulf States, we estimated the proportion of patients receiving recommended monitoring at the Dubai Hospital for T2DM over one year. Methods. Charts from 150 adults with T2DM were systematically sampled and quality of care was assessed during one calendar year, using a Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set- (HEDIS-) like assessment. Screening for glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), blood pressure, retinopathy, and nephropathy was considered. Patients were classified based on their most recent test in the period, and predictors of receiving quality care were examined. Results. Mean age was 58 years (standard deviation (SD): 12.4 years) and 33% were males. Over the year, 98% underwent HbA1c screening (50% had control and 28% displayed poor control); 91% underwent LDL screening (65% had control); 55% had blood pressure control; 30% had retinopathy screening; and 22% received attention for nephropathy. No individual characteristics examined predicted receiving quality care. Conclusion. Some guideline monitoring was conducted for most patients; and rates of monitoring for selected measures were comparable to benchmarks from the United States. Greater understanding of factors leading to high adherence would be useful for other areas of preventive care and other jurisdictions. Shelagh M. Szabo, Katherine M. Osenenko, Lara Qatami, Bonnie M. Korenblat Donato, Ellen E. Korol, Abdulrazzaq A. Al Madani, Fatheya F. Al Awadi, Jaber Al-Ansari, Ross Maclean, and Adrian R. Levy Copyright © 2015 Shelagh M. Szabo et al. All rights reserved. A Rare and Serious Syndrome That Requires Attention in Emergency Service: Traumatic Asphyxia Sun, 24 May 2015 08:48:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2015/359814/ Traumatic asphyxia is a rare syndrome caused by blunt thoracoabdominal trauma and characterized by cyanosis, edema, and subconjunctival and petechial hemorrhage on the face, neck, upper extremities, and the upper parts of the thorax. Traumatic asphyxia is usually diagnosed by history and inspection; however, the patient should be monitored more closely due to probable complications of thoracoabdominal injuries. Treatment is conservative, but the prognosis depends on the severity of the associated injuries. Herein we present a traumatic asphyxia due to an elevator accident in a 32-year-old male patient and discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis by reviewing the relevant literature. Gultekin Gulbahar, Tevfik Kaplan, Ahmet Gokhan Gundogdu, Hatice Nurdan Baran, Burak Kazanci, Bulent Kocer, and Serdar Han Copyright © 2015 Gultekin Gulbahar et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Autoimmune Diseases 2014 Sun, 24 May 2015 07:34:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/183591/ Guixiu Shi, Jianying Zhang, Zhixin (Jason) Zhang, and Xuan Zhang Copyright © 2015 Guixiu Shi et al. All rights reserved. Study on Dynamic Disaster in Steeply Deep Rock Mass Condition in Urumchi Coalfield Sun, 24 May 2015 07:31:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/465017/ The possible mining seismicity (MS) and its prediction are important for safety and recovery optimization of mining in steep-heavy-thick rock mass condition. The stress-lever-rotation-effect (SLRE) model of fault-like mobilization was proposed preliminarily. Some innovation monitoring technique approaches for mining seismicity assessment were successfully fulfilled at Wudong Mine of Urumchi Coalfield, China. The characteristics on acoustic-seismic-wave index indicated the spatial-temporal-strength and stress redistribution of steeply deeper-heavy thick coal and rock masses. Applications in field investigations showed that the innovation monitoring (in time and space) of these instruments could provide important information about the performance of mining disturbed structures (heading and steep pillar) during caving of competent overlying roof strata. The prediction and evaluation for mining seismicity were applicable and valid. Operating practice showed that mining efficiency was raised and conspicuous economic benefit was obtained. This approach provides essential data for assessing mining seismicity, coal burst, dynamic hazard prevention, and deep mining potential. Xing-Ping Lai, Mei-Feng Cai, Fen-Hua Ren, Peng-Fei Shan, Feng Cui, and Jian-Tao Cao Copyright © 2015 Xing-Ping Lai et al. All rights reserved. A Low-Power and Low-Voltage Power Management Strategy for On-Chip Micro Solar Cells Sun, 24 May 2015 07:19:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2015/739871/ Fundamental characteristics of on-chip micro solar cell (MSC) structures were investigated in this study. Several MSC structures using different layers in three different CMOS processes were designed and fabricated. Effects of PN junction structure and process technology on solar cell performance were measured. Parameters for low-power and low-voltage implementation of power management strategy and boost converter based circuits utilizing fractional voltage maximum power point tracking (FVMPPT) algorithm were determined. The FVMPPT algorithm works based on the fraction between the maximum power point operation voltage and the open circuit voltage of the solar cell structure. This ratio is typically between 0.72 and 0.78 for commercially available poly crystalline silicon solar cells that produce several watts of power under typical daylight illumination. Measurements showed that the fractional voltage ratio is much higher and fairly constant between 0.82 and 0.85 for on-chip mono crystalline silicon micro solar cell structures that produce micro watts of power. Mono crystalline silicon solar cell structures were observed to result in better power fill factor (PFF) that is higher than 74% indicating a higher energy harvesting efficiency. Ismail Cevik and Suat U. Ay Copyright © 2015 Ismail Cevik and Suat U. Ay. All rights reserved. Effects of Age and Gender on Hand Motion Tasks Sun, 24 May 2015 07:12:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/pd/2015/862427/ Objective. Wearable and wireless motion sensor devices have facilitated the automated computation of speed, amplitude, and rhythm of hand motion tasks. The aim of this study is to determine if there are any biological influences on these kinematic parameters. Methods. 80 healthy subjects performed hand motion tasks twice for each hand, with movements measured using a wireless motion sensor device (Kinesia, Cleveland Medical Devices Inc., Cleveland, OH). Multivariate analyses were performed with age, gender, and height added into the model. Results. Older subjects performed poorer in finger tapping (FT) speed (, ), hand-grasp (HG) speed (, ), and pronation-supination (PS) speed (, ). Men performed better in FT rhythm , HG speed , HG amplitude , and HG rhythm . Taller subjects performed better in the speed and amplitude components of FT and HG tasks . After multivariate analyses, only age and gender emerged as significant independent factors influencing the speed but not the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. Gender exerted an independent influence only on HG speed, with better performance in men . Conclusions. Age, gender, and height are not independent factors influencing the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. The speed component is affected by age and gender differences. Wing Lok Au, Irene Soo Hoon Seah, Wei Li, and Louis Chew Seng Tan Copyright © 2015 Wing Lok Au et al. All rights reserved. In-Flight Self-Alignment Method Aided by Geomagnetism for Moving Basement of Guided Munitions Sun, 24 May 2015 07:11:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2015/425698/ Due to power-after-launch mode of guided munitions of high rolling speed, initial attitude of munitions cannot be determined accurately, and this makes it difficult for navigation and control system to work effectively and validly. An in-flight self-alignment method aided by geomagnetism that includes a fast in-flight coarse alignment method and an in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory is proposed in this paper. Firstly a fast in-flight coarse alignment method is developed by using gyros, magnetic sensors, and trajectory angles. Then, an in-flight alignment model is derived by investigation of the measurement errors and attitude errors, which regards attitude errors as state variables and geomagnetic components in navigation frame as observed variables. Finally, fight data of a spinning projectile is used to verify the performance of the in-flight self-alignment method. The satisfying results show that (1) the precision of coarse alignment can attain below 5°; (2) the attitude errors by in-flight alignment model converge to 24′ at early of the latter half of the flight; (3) the in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory has better adaptability, and show satisfying performance. Shuang-biao Zhang, Xing-cheng Li, and Zhong Su Copyright © 2015 Shuang-biao Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Incidence, Severity, and Outcomes of Acute Kidney Injury in Octogenarians following Heart Valve Replacement Surgery Sun, 24 May 2015 07:09:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2015/237951/ Background. The study investigates the occurrence, severity, and outcomes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in octogenarians following heart valve surgery. Methods. All patients, age 80 years, not on dialysis and without kidney transplant, undergoing heart valve replacement at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, in the years 2002-2003 were enrolled. AKI was diagnosed based on AKIN criteria. Results. 209 octogenarians (88.0% aortic valve, 6.2% mitral valve, 1.0% tricuspid valve, and 4.8% multivalve) with (58.4%) and without CABG were studied. 34 (16.3%) had preexisting CKD. After surgery, 98 (46.8%) developed AKI. 76.5% of the AKI were in Stage 1, 9.2% in Stage 2, and 14.3% in Stage 3. 76.5% CKD patients developed AKI. Length of hospital stay was longer for AKI patients. More AKI patients were discharged to care facilities. Patient survival at 30 days and 1 year for AKI versus non-AKI was 88.8 versus 98.7%, , and 76.5 versus 88.3%, , respectively. With follow-up of years, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a reduced survival for AKI octogenarians. Preexisting CKD and large volume intraoperative fluid administration were independent AKI predictors. Conclusions. Nearly half of the octogenarians developed AKI after valve replacement surgery. AKI was associated with significant functional impairment and reduced survival. Michael A. Mao, Charat Thongprayoon, YiFan Wu, Vickram Tejwani, Myriam Vela-Ortiz, Joseph Dearani, and Qi Qian Copyright © 2015 Michael A. Mao et al. All rights reserved. Numerical and Experimental Verification of a 3D Quasi-Optical System Sun, 24 May 2015 06:54:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/595023/ A modular and efficient Gaussian beam (GB) analysis method, incorporating frame-based Gabor transformation, GB reflection, and a 3D GB diffraction technique, was developed to analyze both the reflectors and frequency selective surface (FSS) in quasi-optical (QO) system. To validate this analysis method, a 3D dual-channel QO system operating at 183 and 325 GHz was designed and tested. The proposed QO system employs two-layer structure with a FSS of perforated hexagonal array transmitting the 325 GHz signal on the top layer while diverting the 183 GHz signal to the bottom layer. Measured results of the system demonstrate that the agreement can be achieved down to −30 dB signal level for both channels in the far field pattern. The discrepancy between the calculation and measurement is within 2 dB in the main beam region (2.5 times −3 dB beamwidth), verifying the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. Zejian Lu, Xiaoming Liu, Hai Wang, Xiaodong Chen, Yuan Yao, and Junsheng Yu Copyright © 2015 Zejian Lu et al. All rights reserved. Smoothing Algorithm for Planar and Surface Mesh Based on Element Geometric Deformation Sun, 24 May 2015 06:42:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/435648/ Smoothing is one of the basic procedures for improvement of mesh quality. In this paper, a novel and efficient smoothing approach for planar and surface mesh based on element geometric deformation is developed. The presented approach involves two main stages. The first stage is geometric deformation of all the individual elements through a specially designed two-step stretching-shrinking operation (SSO), which is performed by moving the vertices of each element according to a certain rule in order to get better shape of the element. The second stage is to determine the position of each node of the mesh by a weighted average strategy according to quality changes of its adjacent elements. The suggested SSO-based smoothing algorithm works efficiently for triangular mesh and can be naturally expanded to quadrilateral mesh, arbitrary polygonal mesh, and mixed mesh. Combined with quadratic error metric (QEM), this approach may be also applied to improve the quality of surface mesh. The proposed method is simple to program and inherently very suitable for parallelization, especially on graphic processing unit (GPU). Results of numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and potential of this method. Shuli Sun, Minglei Zhang, and Zhihong Gou Copyright © 2015 Shuli Sun et al. All rights reserved. Association of PRPS1 Mutations with Disease Phenotypes Sun, 24 May 2015 06:37:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/127013/ Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRPS1) codes for PRS-I enzyme that catalyzes the first step of nucleotide synthesis. PRPS1 gene mutations have been implicated in a number of human diseases. Recently, new mutations in PRPS1 have been identified that have been associated with novel phenotypes like diabetes insipidus expanding the spectrum of PRPS1-related diseases. The purpose of this review is to evaluate current literature on PRPS1-related syndromes and summarize potential therapies. The overexpression of PRPS1 results in PRS-I superactivity resulting in purine overproduction. Patients with PRS-I superactivity demonstrate uric acid overproduction, hypotonia, ataxia, neurodevelopment abnormalities, and postlingual hearing impairment. On the other hand, decreased activity leads to X-linked nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness (DFNX-2), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5 (CMTX5), and Arts syndrome depending on the residual activity of PRS-I. Mild PRS-I deficiency (DFNX-2) results in non-syndromic progressive hearing loss whereas moderate PRS-I deficiency (CMTX5) and severe PRS-I deficiency (Arts syndrome) present with peripheral or optic neuropathy, prelingual progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and central nervous system impairment. Currently, purine replacement via S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) supplementation in patients with Arts syndrome appears to improve their condition. This suggests that SAM supplementation can alleviate symptoms of PRPS1 deficient patients and open new avenues of therapeutic intervention. Rahul Mittal, Kunal Patel, Jeenu Mittal, Brandon Chan, Denise Yan, M’hamed Grati, and Xue Zhong Liu Copyright © 2015 Rahul Mittal et al. All rights reserved. Anesthetic Management for Laser Excision of Ball-Valving Laryngeal Masses Sun, 24 May 2015 06:25:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cria/2015/875053/ A 47-year-old obese woman with GERD and COPD presents for CO2-laser excision of bilateral vocal fold masses. She had a history of progressive hoarseness and difficulty in breathing. Nasopharyngeal laryngoscopy revealed large, mobile, bilateral vocal cord polyps that demonstrated dynamic occlusion of the glottis. We describe the airway and anesthetic management of this patient with a topicalized C-MAC video laryngoscopic intubation using a 4.5 mm Xomed Laser Shield II endotracheal tube. We examine the challenges of anesthetic management unique to the combined circumstances of a ball-valve lesion and the need for a narrow-bore laser compatible endotracheal tube. Benjamin B. Bruins, Natasha Mirza, Ernest Gomez, and Joshua H. Atkins Copyright © 2015 Benjamin B. Bruins et al. All rights reserved. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease Sun, 24 May 2015 06:24:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/156584/ The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (), reduced remnant kidney weight (), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (), reduced plasma LDL (), triglycerides (), and total cholesterol (), increased plasma albumin (), reduced remnant kidney weight (), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD. Patrick S. Tucker, Aaron T. Scanlan, and Vincent J. Dalbo Copyright © 2015 Patrick S. Tucker et al. All rights reserved. A Proteomic Characterization of Bordetella pertussis Clinical Isolates Associated with a California State Pertussis Outbreak Sun, 24 May 2015 06:20:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpro/2015/536537/ Bordetella pertussis (Bp) is the etiologic agent of pertussis (whooping cough), a highly communicable infection. Although pertussis is vaccine preventable, in recent years there has been increased incidence, despite high vaccine coverage. Possible reasons for the rise in cases include the following: Bp strain adaptation, waning vaccine immunity, increased surveillance, and improved clinical diagnostics. A pertussis outbreak impacted California (USA) in 2010; children and preadolescents were the most affected but the burden of disease fell mainly on infants. To identify protein biomarkers associated with this pertussis outbreak, we report a whole cellular protein characterization of six Bp isolates plus the pertussis acellular vaccine strain Bp Tohama I (T), utilizing gel-free proteomics-based mass spectrometry (MS). MS/MS tryptic peptide detection and protein database searching combined with western blot analysis revealed three Bp isolates in this study had markedly reduced detection of pertactin (Prn), a subunit of pertussis acellular vaccines. Additionally, antibody affinity capture technologies were implemented using anti-Bp T rabbit polyclonal antisera and whole cellular proteins to identify putative immunogens. Proteome profiling could shed light on pathogenesis and potentially lay the foundation for reduced infection transmission strategies and improved clinical diagnostics. Yulanda M. Williamson, Hercules Moura, Jennifer Whitmon, Adrian R. Woolfitt, David M. Schieltz, Jon C. Rees, Stephanie Guo, Heather Kirkham, Daniel Bouck, Edwin W. Ades, Maria Lucia Tondella, George M. Carlone, Jacquelyn S. Sampson, and John R. Barr Copyright © 2015 Yulanda M. Williamson et al. All rights reserved. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer Sun, 24 May 2015 06:16:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/645645/ Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD) patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity. Edimar Pedrosa Gomes, Maycon Moura Reboredo, Erich Vidal Carvalho, Daniel Rodrigues Teixeira, Laís Fernanda Caldi d’Ornellas Carvalho, Gilberto Francisco Ferreira Filho, Julio César Abreu de Oliveira, Helady Sanders-Pinheiro, Júlio Maria Fonseca Chebli, Rogério Baumgratz de Paula, and Bruno do Valle Pinheiro Copyright © 2015 Edimar Pedrosa Gomes et al. All rights reserved. Orthosis Effects on the Gait of a Child with Infantile Tibia Vara Thu, 21 May 2015 16:03:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/406359/ Infantile tibia vara (ITV) is an acquired form of tibial deformity associated with tibial varus and internal torsion. As there is currently insufficient data available on the effects of orthotics on gait parameters, this study aimed to document the influence of orthosis on walking. A male infant with bilateral tibia vara used orthoses for five months. Gait evaluations were performed pre- and posttreatment for both legs. The kinematic parameters were collected by using a motion analysis system. The orthotic design principle was used to correct the femur and tibia. Posttreatment gait parameters were improved compared to pretreatment parameters. After 5 months, there was remarkable change in the stance-phase degrees of frontal plane hip joint abduction and knee joint varus. We found that orthoses were an effective treatment for the infantile tibia vara gait characteristics in this patient. Full-time use of single, upright knee-ankle-foot orthosis with a drop lock knee joint and application of corrective forces at five points along the full length of the limb were effective. Serap Alsancak and Senem Guner Copyright © 2015 Serap Alsancak and Senem Guner. All rights reserved. Nonsecretory Multiple Myeloma and AL Amyloidosis Presenting with Nephrotic Range Proteinuria Thu, 21 May 2015 16:03:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2015/635974/ Nonsecretory multiple myeloma (NSMM) is the absence of a detectable monoclonal protein in serum and urine of a multiple myeloma (MM) patient and immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a significantly rare complication. A case of NSMM with AL amyloidosis and nephrotic range proteinuria is presented. Sharing clinical, therapeutic, and prognostic characteristics with MM, real challenge may be during initial diagnosis of NSMM and assessment of treatment response. In elderly patients with unexplained renal dysfunction, MM should be in the differential diagnosis and the absence of a monoclonal protein should not rule out MM but should remind us of the possibility of NSMM. Ozlem Beyler Kilic, Ali Kemal Oguz, Ihsan Ergun, Dilek Ertoy Baydar, and Meltem Ayli Copyright © 2015 Ozlem Beyler Kilic et al. All rights reserved. Unusual Bilateral Paramolars Associated with Clinical Complications Thu, 21 May 2015 16:01:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2015/851765/ Paramolars are rare supernumerary structures of maxillofacial complex that occur buccally or lingually near the molar row. Predominantly these occur singly; bilateral presentation is very rare. This paper reports two unusual bilateral presentations of paramolars with clinical complication and its management. One of the cases in the present paper also documents the cooccurrence of bilateral paramolars and microdontia of single tooth and one of its paramolars presented with multilobed crown with an anomalous buccal tubercle. A. N. Sulabha and C. Sameer Copyright © 2015 A. N. Sulabha and C. Sameer. All rights reserved. Superrotation of Earth’s Inner Core, Extraterrestrial Impacts, and the Effective Viscosity of Outer Core Thu, 21 May 2015 16:00:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/763716/ The recently verified superrotation of Earth’s inner core is examined and a new model is presented which is based on the tidal despinning of the mantle and the viscosity of the outer core. The model also takes into account other damping mechanisms arising from the inner core superrotation such as magnetic and gravitational coupling as well as contribution from eddy viscosity in the outer core. The effective viscosity obtained in this model confirms a previously well constrained value of about 103 Pa s. In addition, the model shows that the currently measured superrotation of the inner core must be almost exactly equal to its asymptotic or steady-state value. The effect of extraterrestrial impacts is also investigated, and it is shown that perturbations due to such impacts can only persist over a short geological time. Pirooz Mohazzabi and John D. Skalbeck Copyright © 2015 Pirooz Mohazzabi and John D. Skalbeck. All rights reserved. Mechanisms of Thymoquinone Hepatorenal Protection in Methotrexate-Induced Toxicity in Rats Thu, 21 May 2015 16:00:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/859383/ To investigate mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ) can prevent methotrexate- (MTX-) induced hepatorenal toxicity, TQ (10 mg/kg) was administered orally for 10 days. In independent rat groups, MTX hepatorenal toxicity was induced via 20 mg/kg i.p. at the end of day 3 of experiment, with or without TQ. MTX caused deterioration in kidney and liver function, namely, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. MTX also caused distortion in renal and hepatic histology, with significant oxidative stress, manifested by decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase, as well as increase in malondialdehyde levels. In addition, MTX caused nitrosative stress manifested by increased nitric oxide, with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, MTX caused hepatorenal inflammatory effects as shown by increased tumor necrosis factor-α, besides upregulation of necrosis factor-κB and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions. MTX also caused apoptotic effect, as it upregulated caspase 3 in liver and kidney. Using TQ concurrently with MTX restored kidney and liver functions, as well as their normal histology. TQ also reversed oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as inflammatory and apoptotic signs caused by MTX alone. Thus, TQ may be beneficial adjuvant that confers hepatorenal protection to MTX toxicity via antioxidant, antinitrosative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic mechanisms. Azza A. K. El-Sheikh, Mohamed A. Morsy, Ahlam M. Abdalla, Azza H. Hamouda, and Ibrahim A. Alhaider Copyright © 2015 Azza A. K. El-Sheikh et al. All rights reserved. Precursor Amino Acids Inhibit Polymyxin E Biosynthesis in Paenibacillus polymyxa, Probably by Affecting the Expression of Polymyxin E Biosynthesis-Associated Genes Thu, 21 May 2015 15:59:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/690830/ Polymyxin E belongs to cationic polypeptide antibiotic bearing four types of direct precursor amino acids including L-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (L-Dab), L-Leu, D-Leu, and L-Thr. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of addition of precursor amino acids during fermentation on polymyxin E biosynthesis in Paenibacillus polymyxa. The results showed that, after 35 h fermentation, addition of direct precursor amino acids to certain concentration significantly inhibited polymyxin E production and affected the expression of genes involved in its biosynthesis. L-Dab repressed the expression of polymyxin synthetase genes pmxA and pmxE, as well as 2,4-diaminobutyrate aminotransferase gene ectB; both L-Leu and D-Leu repressed the pmxA expression. In addition, L-Thr affected the expression of not only pmxA, but also regulatory genes spo0A and abrB. As L-Dab precursor, L-Asp repressed the expression of ectB, pmxA, and pmxE. Moreover, it affected the expression of spo0A and abrB. In contrast, L-Phe, a nonprecursor amino acid, had no obvious effect on polymyxin E biosynthesis and those biosynthesis-related genes expression. Taken together, our data demonstrated that addition of precursor amino acids during fermentation will inhibit polymyxin E production probably by affecting the expression of its biosynthesis-related genes. Zhiliang Yu, Chenglin Guo, and Juanping Qiu Copyright © 2015 Zhiliang Yu et al. All rights reserved. The Long Noncoding RNA MEG3 Is Downregulated and Inversely Associated with VEGF Levels in Osteoarthritis Thu, 21 May 2015 15:58:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/356893/ Osteoarthritis (OA) is becoming a major public health problem in China, especially considering the increase in average life expectancy of the population. Thus, enhanced understanding of the molecular changes associated with OA is urgently needed to develop more effective strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of this debilitating disease. LncRNAs play an important role in the processes of bone and cartilage development. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is a maternally expressed lncRNA and may function as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting angiogenesis. OA is closely associated with angiogenesis and the inhibition of angiogenesis presents a novel therapeutic approach to reduce inflammation and pain in OA. In this study, we detected the mRNA expression of MEG3 and VEGF in articular cartilage samples from 20 OA patients and 10 healthy volunteers by real-time RT-PCR. VEGF protein is detected by ELISA in cartilage samples. The results show that human MEG3 is significantly downregulated in OA patients compared to normal cartilage samples. However, higher levels of VEGF mRNA and protein are found in OA compared to the control. Moreover, MEG3 levels are inversely associated with VEGF levels, suggesting that MEG3 may be involved in OA development through the regulation of angiogenesis. Wei Su, Wen Xie, Qingkun Shang, and Bing Su Copyright © 2015 Wei Su et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Treatment of Renal Fibromuscular Dysplasia in a Young Child Thu, 21 May 2015 15:57:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/180393/ During a routine checkup in a 10-year-old male with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, blood pressure of 180/120 mmHg was found. Physical examination was completely normal. Ultrasound examination showed poststenotic dilatation of the left renal artery which was confirmed by CT-angiography showing a short, high grade stenosis of the left renal artery. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty of the stenosis was not successful and therefore the stenosis was excised with reimplantation of the renal artery in the aorta. Pathological examination of the excised segment showed media-type Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD). Six years after surgery, the kidney is completely normal regarding size and function. There are no signs of restenosis of the left renal artery. Nevertheless, the hypertension remained although less severe and requiring less medication. Arjan W. J. Hoksbergen, Lennaert Renwarin, and Willem Wisselink Copyright © 2015 Arjan W. J. Hoksbergen et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Coupling Characteristics Analysis of Integrated System of Electromagnetic Brake and Frictional Brake of Car Thu, 21 May 2015 15:11:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/928152/ Since theoretical guidance is lacking in the design and control of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake, this paper aims to solve this problem and explores the nonlinear coupling characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake. This paper uses the power bond graph method to establish nonlinear coupling mathematical model of the integrated system of electromagnetic brake and frictional brake and conducts the contrastive analysis on the dynamic characteristics based on this mathematical model. Meanwhile, the accuracy of the nonlinear coupling mathematical model proposed above is verified on the hardware in the loop simulation platform, and nonlinear coupling characteristics of the integrated system are also analyzed through experiments. Ren He and Donghai Hu Copyright © 2015 Ren He and Donghai Hu. All rights reserved. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Thu, 21 May 2015 14:40:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/438329/ Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression. Per G. Farup and Knut Hestad Copyright © 2015 Per G. Farup and Knut Hestad. All rights reserved. Antiedematogenic Evaluation of Copaifera langsdorffii Leaves Hydroethanolic Extract and Its Major Compounds Thu, 21 May 2015 14:33:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/913152/ Inflammatory disorders affect many people worldwide, and medicinal plants are used to ameliorate these health problems. This paper reports the antiedematogenic and analgesic evaluation of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. leaves hydroethanolic extract (Cop) and two of its isolated compounds: quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (quercitrin) and kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (afzelin). For that, the following experimental protocols were undertaken locomotor performance, writhing induced by acetic acid, antinociceptivity induced by formalin, hot plate latency, paw oedema induced by carrageenan and dextran, and cell migration induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as well as the measurement of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in macrophages. Neither the extract nor the isolated compounds displayed analgesic activity. The obtained results showed that C. langsdorffii extract possesses antiedematogenic properties acting on peripheral sites, whereas quercitrin and afzelin are not involved. Moreover, these properties are not associated with cell migration inhibition, TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-10 regulation. Ricardo Andrade Furtado, Cristiane Teixeira Vilhena Bernardes, Mauro Nogueira da Silva, Karina Furlani Zoccal, Lúcia Helena Faccioli, and Jairo Kenupp Bastos Copyright © 2015 Ricardo Andrade Furtado et al. All rights reserved. Periodic Wave Solutions and Their Limit Forms of the Modified Novikov Equation Thu, 21 May 2015 14:30:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/627269/ The modified Novikov equation is studied by using the bifurcation theory of dynamical system and the method of phase portraits analysis. The existences, dynamic properties, and limit forms of periodic wave solutions for being a negative even are investigated. All possible exact parametric representations of the different kinds of nonlinear waves also are presented. Qing Meng and Bin He Copyright © 2015 Qing Meng and Bin He. All rights reserved. Stepped Cylindrical Antenna with a Higher-Order Mode Ring Patch for Wideband Conical Radiation Pattern Thu, 21 May 2015 14:19:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/394621/ A stepped cylindrical antenna with a higher-order mode ring patch for wideband conical radiation pattern is proposed. To accomplish a low profile with wideband conical radiation characteristics, a stepped cylindrical monopole and a TM41 higher-order mode ring patch with four shorting pins are utilized. The proposed antenna has a monopole-like radiation pattern with a wide 10-dB return loss bandwidth of 11 GHz (2 GHz–13 GHz). It can cover various wireless services, such as wireless broadband (WiBro; 2.3 GHz–2.39 GHz), wireless local area networks (WLAN; 2.4 GHz–2.484 GHz, 5.15 GHz–5.35 GHz, and 5.725 GHz–5.875 GHz), digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB; 2.63 GHz–2.655 GHz), and ultra wideband (UWB; 3.1 GHz–10.6 GHz). The antenna has a height of only 0.12λ0 at 2 GHz. Jinpil Tak, Do-Gu Kang, and Jaehoon Choi Copyright © 2015 Jinpil Tak et al. All rights reserved. Prevention of Polyglycolic Acid-Induced Peritoneal Adhesions Using Alginate in a Rat Model Thu, 21 May 2015 14:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/403413/ Postoperative intra-abdominal or intrathoracic adhesions sometimes cause significant morbidity. We have designed three types of alginate-based treatments using strongly cross-linked (SL), weakly cross-linked (WL), and non-cross-linked (NL) alginate with calcium gluconate. In rat experiments, we compared the antiadhesive effects of the three types of alginate-based treatments, fibrin glue treatment (a standard treatment), and no treatment against adhesions caused by polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh (PGA-induced adhesions). The antiadhesive materials were set on the PGA sheet fixed on the parietal peritoneum of the abdomen. Fifty-six days later, the adhesions were evaluated macroscopically by the adhesion scores and microscopically by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostaining. We also tested the fibroblast growth on the surface of the antiadhesive materials in vitro. The antiadhesive effects of WL and NL were superior to the no treatment and fibrin glue treatment. A microscopic evaluation confirmed that the PGA sheet was covered by a peritoneal layer constructed of well-differentiated mesothelial cells, and the inflammation was most improved in the NL and WL. The fibroblast growth was inhibited most on the surfaces of the NL and WL. These results suggest that either the WL or NL treatments are suitable for preventing PGA-induced adhesions compared to SL or the conventional treatment. Mari Matoba, Ayumi Hashimoto, Ayumi Tanzawa, Taichi Orikasa, Junki Ikeda, Yoshizumi Iwame, Yuki Ozamoto, Rie Abe, Hiroe Miyamoto, Chiko Yoshida, Toru Hashimoto, Hiroko Torii, Hideki Takamori, Shinichiro Morita, Hiroyuki Tsujimoto, and Akeo Hagiwara Copyright © 2015 Mari Matoba et al. All rights reserved. An Improved Optimal Capacity Ratio Design Method for WSB/HPS System Based on Complementary Characteristics of Wind and Solar Thu, 21 May 2015 14:17:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/703623/ The reliability and economic value of wind and solar power generation system with energy storage are decided by the balance of capacity distribution. The improved capacity balance matching method is proposed in this paper, which not only utilizes the complementary characteristics of the wind and solar power generation system sufficiently but also reduces the charge and discharge times of the battery. Therefore, the generation reliability is improved and the working lifetime of the whole system is lengthened. Consequently, the investment of the battery energy storage is reduced as well as the whole cost is decreased. The experimental result was presented to verify the effectiveness of the improved optimal capacity ratio design method. Xiaoju Yin, Fengge Zhang, Zhenhe Ju, and Yonggang Jiao Copyright © 2015 Xiaoju Yin et al. All rights reserved. An Experiment Monitoring Signals of Coal Bed Simulation under Forced Vibration Conditions Thu, 21 May 2015 14:13:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/693612/ An experiment simulating coal seam under forced vibration conditions was conducted. Acceleration response and microseism signal during the experiment were collected and analyzed. It is found that, with an increasing amount of vibration, the natural frequency of the specimen decreases, and this phenomenon reflects fractures appearing in the specimen. Acceleration response signals show that peaks in shock excitation frequency and shock excitation acceleration affect the acceleration response, which reflects damage to the specimen. When shock excitation frequency nears natural frequency, the acceleration response first decreases and then increases. When resonance occurs, it reaches its maximum value. As shock excitation acceleration peaks increase, the acceleration response peak of the specimen also increases. We conclude that destruction is mainly concentrated in the coal seam evidenced by specimen destruction situation. Then shock excitation frequency and shock excitation acceleration influence on microseism signals were analyzed by Hilbert-Huang transform. By receiving these signals and analyzing their characteristics, it is beneficial to develop new methods to predict disasters underground dynamically in the future. Chengwu Li, Po Hu, Tianbao Gao, Yingfeng Sun, Shengyang Shao, and Qifei Wang Copyright © 2015 Chengwu Li et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of the Load Evolution of an Anchoring System under a Blasting Impulse Load Using FLAC3D Thu, 21 May 2015 14:11:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/972720/ A limitation in research on bolt anchoring is the unknown relationship between dynamic perturbation and mechanical characteristics. This paper divides dynamic impulse loads into engineering loads and blasting loads and then employs numerical calculation software FLAC3D to analyze the stability of an anchoring system perturbed by an impulse load. The evolution of the dynamic response of the axial force/shear stress in the anchoring system is thus obtained. It is revealed that the corners and middle of the anchoring system are strongly affected by the dynamic load, and the dynamic response of shear stress is distinctly stronger than that of the axial force in the anchoring system. Additionally, the perturbation of the impulse load reduces stress in the anchored rock mass and induces repeated tension and loosening of the rods in the anchoring system, thus reducing the stability of the anchoring system. The oscillation amplitude of the axial force in the anchored segment is mitigated far more than that in the free segment, demonstrating that extended/full-length anchoring is extremely stable and surpasses simple anchors with free ends. Xigui Zheng, Jinbo Hua, Nong Zhang, Xiaowei Feng, and Lei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xigui Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Compositions of Dew and Scavenging of Particles in Changchun, China Thu, 21 May 2015 14:08:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2015/104048/ Dew and rain water were collected during 2013 and 2014 in Changchun, China. The dew was analyzed and the following parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, major anions (F−, Cl−, , and ), and major cations (, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+). The mean pH, EC, and TDS values of dew were comparable with the values for rainwater. The pH values of dew and rain were 6.72 and 6.16, respectively. Both EC (308 μS/cm) and TDS (154 mg/L) of dew were higher than those in rain samples. The concentration of main ions in dew was 1.5–5.7 times higher than levels in rainwater. The near-neutral pH values in dew were caused by the neutralization of acidity and buffering by the alkaline elements of soil origin (Ca2+). This neutralization was confirmed by a strong correlation between the acidic ions ( and ) and the major cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+). Natural dust made an important contribution to the ions present in dews, but the presence of sulfate concentrations that are notably higher than rain water (up to 1584.5 μeq/L) indicated a significant contribution of anthropogenic sources. Dew has the ability to capture particulates, and the purifying effect on the underlying surface was obvious. Yingying Xu, Hui Zhu, Jie Tang, and Yingzi Lin Copyright © 2015 Yingying Xu et al. All rights reserved. High OCT4 and Low Expressions Determine In Vitro Lifespan of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Thu, 21 May 2015 13:57:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/369828/ After long-term culture, mesenchymal stem cells alter their biological properties and enter into a state of replicative senescence. Although several classical biomarkers have been used for quantitative assessment of cellular senescence, no hallmark has been proven completely unique to the senescent state in cells. We used bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from different healthy young donors and an in vitro model with well-defined senescence end points to identify a set of robust markers that could potentially predict the expansion capacity of MSCs preparations before reaching senescence. For each early passage BM-MSC sample (5th or 6th passages), the normalized protein expression levels of senescence-associated markers , , SOD2, and ; the concentration of IL6 and IL8 in cell culture supernatants; and the normalized gene expression levels of pluripotency markers OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2 were correlated with final population doubling (PD) number. We revealed that the low expression of protein and a high OCT4 gene expression, rather than other evaluated markers, might be potential hallmarks and predictors of greater in vitro lifespan and growth potential, factors that can impact the successful therapeutic use of MSCs preparations. Carla A. Piccinato, Andrea L. Sertie, Natália Torres, Mario Ferretti, and Eliane Antonioli Copyright © 2015 Carla A. Piccinato et al. All rights reserved. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells Thu, 21 May 2015 13:55:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/864852/ Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, ; 2.39 times, ; 1.58 times, ; and 1.87 times, . In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, ; 1.75 times, ; and 1.95 times, , and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, ). These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth. Ana Paula Santin Bertoni, Ilma Simoni Brum, Ana Caroline Hillebrand, and Tania Weber Furlanetto Copyright © 2015 Ana Paula Santin Bertoni et al. All rights reserved. CF750-A33scFv-Fc-Based Optical Imaging of Subcutaneous and Orthotopic Xenografts of GPA33-Positive Colorectal Cancer in Mice Thu, 21 May 2015 13:46:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/505183/ Antibody-based imaging agents are attractive as adjuvant diagnostic tools for solid tumors. GPA33 is highly expressed in most human colorectal cancers and has been verified as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. Here, we built an A33scFv-Fc antibody against GPA33 by fusing A33scFv to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 antibodies. The A33scFv-Fc specifically binds GPA33-positive colorectal cancer cells and tumor tissues. After the intravenous injection of mice bearing subcutaneous GPA33-positive LS174T tumor grafts with near-infrared fluorescence probe CF750-labeled A33scFv-Fc (CF750-A33scFv-Fc), high contrast images of the tumor grafts could be kinetically documented within 24 h using an optical imaging system. However, GPA33-negative SMMC7721 tumor grafts could not be visualized by injecting the same amount of CF750-A33scFv-Fc. Moreover, in subcutaneous LS174T tumor-bearing mice, tissue scanning revealed that the CF750-A33scFv-Fc accumulated in the tumor grafts, other than the kidney and liver. In mice with orthotopic tumor transplantations, excrescent LS174T tumor tissues in the colon were successfully removed under guidance by CF750-A33scFv-Fc-based optical imaging. These results indicate that CF750-A33scFv-Fc can target GPA33, suggesting the potential of CF750-A33scFv-Fc as an imaging agent for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Danfeng Wei, Qing Fan, Huawei Cai, Hao Yang, Lin Wan, Lin Li, and Xiaofeng Lu Copyright © 2015 Danfeng Wei et al. All rights reserved. Impact Analysis of Window-Wall Ratio on Heating and Cooling Energy Consumption of Residential Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China Thu, 21 May 2015 13:43:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2015/538254/ In order to assess the optimal window-wall ratio and the proper glazing type in different air conditioning system operation modes of residential buildings for each orientation in three typical cities in hot summer and cold winter zone: Chongqing, Shanghai, and Wuhan simulation models were built and analyzed using Designer’s Simulation Toolkit (DeST). The study analyzed the variation of annual heating energy demand, annual cooling energy demand, and the annual total energy consumption in different conditions, including different orientations, patterns of utilization of air conditioning system, window-wall ratio, and types of windows. The results show that the total energy consumption increased when the window-wall ratio is also increased. It appears more obvious when the window orientation is east or west. Furthermore, in terms of energy efficiency, low-emissivity (Low-E) glass performs better than hollow glass. From this study, it can be concluded that the influence and sensitivity of window-wall ratio on the total energy consumption are related to the operation mode of air conditioning system, the orientation of outside window, and the glazing types of window. The influence of the factors can be regarded as reference mode for the window-wall ratio when designing residential buildings. Qiaoxia Yang, Meng Liu, Chang Shu, Daniel Mmereki, Md. Uzzal Hossain, and Xiang Zhan Copyright © 2015 Qiaoxia Yang et al. All rights reserved. A Case Report and Review of the Literature of Adult Gastric Duplication Cyst Thu, 21 May 2015 13:41:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2015/240891/ Gastrointestinal (GI) duplication cysts are a rare congenital disease. They may involve any level of the alimentary tract, but they most commonly involve the ileum, esophagus, and jejunum. Gastric duplication cysts represent approximately 4–8% of GI duplication cysts, the majority of which present in early childhood. We present a rare case of adult gastric duplication cyst in a 25-year-old female found to have abdominal mass on computed tomography imaging. There are several potential methods to diagnose gastric duplication cyst and treatment of choice is complete surgical resection. Scott Samona and Richard Berri Copyright © 2015 Scott Samona and Richard Berri. All rights reserved. Neural Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for Nontherapeutic Applications: Toxicology, Pharmacology, and In Vitro Disease Modeling Thu, 21 May 2015 13:37:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/105172/ Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) derived from either embryos somatic cells (hESCs) or reprogrammed somatic cells (iPSCs) can provide an abundant source of human neuronal lineages that were previously sourced from human cadavers, abortuses, and discarded surgical waste. In addition to the well-known potential therapeutic application of these cells in regenerative medicine, these are also various promising nontherapeutic applications in toxicological and pharmacological screening of neuroactive compounds, as well as for in vitro modeling of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders. Compared to alternative research models based on laboratory animals and immortalized cancer-derived human neural cell lines, neuronal cells differentiated from hPSCs possess the advantages of species specificity together with genetic and physiological normality, which could more closely recapitulate in vivo conditions within the human central nervous system. This review critically examines the various potential nontherapeutic applications of hPSC-derived neuronal lineages and gives a brief overview of differentiation protocols utilized to generate these cells from hESCs and iPSCs. May Shin Yap, Kavitha R. Nathan, Yin Yeo, Lee Wei Lim, Chit Laa Poh, Mark Richards, Wei Ling Lim, Iekhsan Othman, and Boon Chin Heng Copyright © 2015 May Shin Yap et al. All rights reserved. Parameter Modeling Analysis and Experimental Verification on Magnetic Shielding Cylinder of All-Optical Atomic Spin Magnetometer Thu, 21 May 2015 13:33:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2015/491746/ The ultrahigh sensitivity atomic spin magnetometer as the magnetic measurement sensor has received much concern. The performance of the magnetic shielding cylinder is one of the key factors constraining the atomic spin magnetometer’s sensitivity. In order to effectively improve the performances of the magnetic shielding, the parameter optimization models of the magnetic shielding cylinder were established in this paper. Under the condition of changing only one parameter while the others keeping constant, the effects of various parameters influencing the axial shielding coefficient were comprehensively analyzed, and the results showed that the smaller the innermost length, the innermost radius, and the radial spacing were, and the greater the axial spacing was, the better the shielding performance could be obtained. According to these results and the actual needs, the magnetic shielding cylinder was optimally designed, and then the shielding effects were simulated via the software Ansoft. The simulation results showed that the optimized magnetic shielding cylinder had the advantages of small size, high shielding performance, and lager uniformity than that of the nonoptimized one. The actual measurement results showed that the residual magnetism in the optimized magnetic shielding cylinder was below 0.1 nT, which was 2~4 times lower than the nonoptimized one. Hong Zhang, Sheng Zou, Xi-Yuan Chen, and Wei Quan Copyright © 2015 Hong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Stability Analysis of a Composite Girder Cable-Stayed Bridge with Three Pylons during Construction Thu, 21 May 2015 13:21:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/978514/ Based on the nonlinear stability analysis method, the 3D nonlinear finite element model of a composite girder cable-stayed bridge with three pylons is established to research the effect of factors including geometric nonlinearity, material nonlinearity, static wind load, and unbalanced construction load on the structural stability during construction. Besides, the structural nonlinear stability in different construction schemes and the determination of temporary pier position are also studied. The nonlinear stability safety factors are calculated to demonstrate the rationality and safety of construction schemes. The results show that the nonlinear stability safety factors of this bridge during construction meet the design requirement and the minimum value occurs in the maximum double cantilever stage. Besides, the nonlinear stability of the structure in the side of edge-pylon meets the design requirement in the two construction schemes. Furthermore, the temporary pier can improve the structure stability, effectively, and the actual position is reasonable. In addition, the local buckling of steel girder occurs earlier than overall instability under load in some cable tension stages. Finally, static wind load and the unbalanced construction load should be considered in the stability analysis for the adverse impact. Xiaoguang Deng and Muyu Liu Copyright © 2015 Xiaoguang Deng and Muyu Liu. All rights reserved. Mechanism of Roof Shock in Longwall Coal Mining under Surface Gully Thu, 21 May 2015 13:08:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/803071/ The paper presents an interpretation on the abnormal roof shock in longwall coal mining under gullies using physical modeling, numerical modeling, and mechanical analysis. The modeling results show that the roof movement causes the shock load onto the stope in longwall coal mining under surface gully. The triggering mechanism of shock load depends on the direction of the face retreat with respect to the bottom of the surface gully. The slope tends to slide along the interface plane with a long periodical weighting intervals when mining towards the bottom of the gully (downslope direction), while the overburden strata may be split into blocks and tend to topple towards the free face of gully when mining away from the bottom of the gully (upslope direction). The mechanical models showed that, during the period of mining in downslope direction, planar sliding and key fragmental blocks cause a sudden roof shearing off which could result in shock load and, during the period of mining in upslope direction, the overburden blocks may become unstable due to shearing off which could resulted in large shock pressure onto the stope. Gangwei Fan, Dongsheng Zhang, and Xufeng Wang Copyright © 2015 Gangwei Fan et al. All rights reserved. A Case Study of Damage Energy Analysis and an Early Warning by Microseismic Monitoring for Large Area Roof Caving in Shallow Depth Seams Thu, 21 May 2015 13:03:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/709459/ Shallow depth coal seams are widely spread in Shendong mining area, which is located in the Northwestern region of China. When working face is advanced out of concentrated coal pillar in upper room and pillar goaf, strong strata behaviors often cause support crushing accidents, and potentially induce large area residual pillars instability and even wind blast disaster. In order to predict the precise time when the accident happens, guaranteeing life-safety of miner, microseismic monitoring system was for the first time applied in shallow coal seam. Based on damage mechanics correlation theory, the damage energy model is established to describe relationship between damage level and cumulative energy of microseismic events. According to microseismic monitoring data of two support crushing accidents, the damage energy model is verified and an effective early warning method of these accidents is proposed. The field application showed that the early warning method had avoided miners suffering from all support crushing accidents in Shigetai coal mine. Like Wei, Qingxin Qi, Hongyan Li, Bin Zhang, Yongren Wang, and Linghai Kong Copyright © 2015 Like Wei et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Fe3O4 Nanoparticles on Skin Tumor Cells and Dermal Fibroblasts Thu, 21 May 2015 13:03:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/530957/ Iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been used in many biomedical approaches. The toxicity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on mammalian cells was published recently. Though, little is known about the viability of human cells after treatment with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Herein, we examined the toxicity, production of reactive oxygen species, and invasive capacity after treatment of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and cells of the squamous tumor cell line (SCL-1) with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. These nanoparticles had an average size of 65 nm. Fe3O4 nanoparticles induced oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent initiation of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, the question was addressed of whether Fe3O4 nanoparticles affect myofibroblast formation, known to be involved in tumor invasion. Herein, Fe3O4 nanoparticles prevent the expression alpha-smooth muscle actin and therefore decrease the number of myofibroblastic cells. Moreover, our data show in vitro that concentrations of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which are nontoxic for normal cells, partially reveal a ROS-triggered cytotoxic but also a pro-invasive effect on the fraction of squamous cancer cells surviving the treatment with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The data herein show that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles appear not to be adequate for use in therapeutic approaches against cancer cells, in contrast to recently published data with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Lirija Alili, Swetlana Chapiro, Gernot U. Marten, Annette M. Schmidt, Klaus Zanger, and Peter Brenneisen Copyright © 2015 Lirija Alili et al. All rights reserved. Research on Polarization Cancellation of Nonstationary Ionosphere Clutter in HF Radar System Thu, 21 May 2015 13:02:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/631217/ Oblique projection polarization filter (OPPF) can be applied as an effective approach for interference cancellation in high-frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) and other systems. In order to suppress the nonstationary ionosphere clutter further, a novel OPPF based clutter suppressing scheme is proposed in this paper. The polarization and nonstationary characteristic of the clutter are taken into account in the algorithms referred to as range-Doppler domain polarization suppression (RDDPS) and the range-time domain polarization suppression (RTDPS) method, respectively. The RDDPS is designed for weak ionosphere clutter and implemented in the range-Doppler domain directly, whereas the RTDPS algorithm is designed to suppress the powerful ionosphere clutter with a multisegment estimation and suppression scheme. About 15–23 dB signal to interference ratio (SIR) improvement can be excepted when using the proposed method, whereas the targets can be more easily detected in the range-Doppler map. Experimental results demonstrate that the scheme proposed is effective for nonstationary ionosphere clutter and is proven to be a practical interference cancellation technique for HFSWR. Xingpeng Mao, Hong Hong, Weibo Deng, and Yongtan Liu Copyright © 2015 Xingpeng Mao et al. All rights reserved. Clinical and Imaging Features of a Congenital Midline Cervical Cleft in a Neonate: A Rare Anomaly Thu, 21 May 2015 13:01:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/439596/ Congenital midline cervical cleft (CMCC) is a rare congenital anomaly. CMCC and its complications and treatment have been well described in ENT, dermatology, and pediatric surgery literature. However, to our knowledge, the imaging work-up has not been reported in the literature thus far. We present a case of CMCC in a neonate with description of clinical presentation and imaging features. Rachelle Goldfisher, Pritish Bawa, Zachary Ibrahim, and John Amodio Copyright © 2015 Rachelle Goldfisher et al. All rights reserved. Propagation Analysis for Automated Switching of Embedded RFID with GPS in Wireless Sensor Network Platform Thu, 21 May 2015 13:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/392385/ A 2.45 GHz active integrated ZigBee RFID system embedded with GPS is developed with an automated switching protocol algorithm utilizing wireless sensor network (WSN) platform to track the physical belongings or people in indoor and outdoor environments within a control area. In addition, to make the system contactless when the tag is not joining the network, the function of global system for mobile (GSM) communication is added to the integration. The communication between RFID reader and RFID tags is via WSN platform that supports mesh network and self-healing mechanism. Energy efficiency, robustness, and reliability are key factors in the design algorithm of the system. Comparisons are made between the existing active RFID system and the proposed active RFID system to study the performance of the proposed RFID system with an automated switching algorithm implemented on it. Based on the experimental study and statistical analysis done for all situations, a conclusion has been made where the proposed embedded RFID tag provided better signal propagation compared to the existing RFID tag and the battery lifetime for embedded RFID tag with switching mechanism is better than without switching mechanism. F. A. Poad and W. Ismail Copyright © 2015 F. A. Poad and W. Ismail. All rights reserved. Adaptive Output Tracking Control for Nonlinear Systems with Failed Actuators and Aircraft Flight System Applications Thu, 21 May 2015 12:59:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/357078/ An adaptive failure compensation scheme using output feedback is proposed for a class of nonlinear systems with nonlinearities depending on the unmeasured states of systems. Adaptive high-gain K-filters are presented to suppress the nonlinearities while the proposed backstepping adaptive high-gain controller guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system and small tracking errors. Simulation results verify that the adaptive failure compensation scheme is effective. Chuanjing Hou, Lisheng Hu, and Yingwei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Chuanjing Hou et al. All rights reserved. A Butterfly-Shaped Wideband Microstrip Patch Antenna for Wireless Communication Thu, 21 May 2015 12:58:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2015/328208/ A novel butterfly-shaped patch antenna for wireless communication is introduced in this paper. The antenna is designed for wideband wireless communications and radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems. Two symmetrical quasi-circular arms and two symmetrical round holes are incorporated into the patch of a microstrip antenna to expand its bandwidth. The diameter and position of the circular slots are optimized to achieve a wide bandwidth. The validity of the design concept is demonstrated by means of a prototype having a bandwidth of about 40.1%. The return loss of the butterfly-shaped antenna is greater than 10 dB between 4.15 and 6.36 GHz. The antenna can serve simultaneously most of the modern wireless communication standards. Liling Sun, Maowei He, Jingtao Hu, Yunlong Zhu, and Hanning Chen Copyright © 2015 Liling Sun et al. All rights reserved. Second-Order Super-Twisting Sliding Mode Control for Finite-Time Leader-Follower Consensus with Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems Thu, 21 May 2015 12:57:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/292437/ Consensus tracking problem of the leader-follower multiagent systems is resolved via second-order super-twisting sliding mode control approach. The followers’ states can keep consistent with the leader’s states on sliding surfaces. The proposed approach can ensure the finite-time consensus if the directed graph of the nonlinear system has a directed path under the condition that leader’s control input is unavailable to any followers. It is proved by using the finite-time Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results verify availability of the proposed approach. Nan Liu, Rui Ling, Qin Huang, and Zheren Zhu Copyright © 2015 Nan Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Case Report of Implant Fracture of Extensively Porous-Coated, Distally Fixated Cementless Long Stem: Detailed Course of Stem Bending Development Thu, 21 May 2015 12:54:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2015/895214/ We report the fracture of a cementless long stem in a distally fixated, extensively porous-coated femoral prosthesis used for revisional total hip arthroplasty (THA) 9 years previously in a 48-year-old woman, measuring 58 kg in weight and 155 cm in height. Following resolution of an infection 7 years after the revisional THA, a series of posterior dislocations occurred up until 7 months before sudden stem fracture. Extensive radiographic imaging evidence indicated a gradual progression of bending in the stem, and scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed oxygen in the medial and lateral sections, suspecting in vivo corrosion. We retrospectively examined the detailed course of stem bending development prior to stem fracture. The stem bending immediately after the revisional THA, at the first dislocation, and immediately before the stem fracture was 0°, 1.9°, and 5.2°, respectively. We consider that the cyclic loading with poor proximal bone support, distal fixation, and small diameter were the potential risk of this implant fracture. However, the course of stem bending development suggested that repeated operations and several dislocations might have aggravated the implant fatigue in the present case. Tomohiro Mimura Copyright © 2015 Tomohiro Mimura. All rights reserved. A Local Estimate for the Maximal Function in Lebesgue Spaces with EXP-Type Exponents Thu, 21 May 2015 12:51:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/581064/ It is proven that if in a bounded domain and if for some , then given , the Hardy-Littlewood maximal function of , , is such that . Because , the thesis is slightly weaker than for some . The assumption that for some is proven to be optimal in the framework of the Orlicz spaces to obtain in the same class of spaces. Alberto Fiorenza Copyright © 2015 Alberto Fiorenza. All rights reserved. Study on Real-Time Simulation Analysis and Inverse Analysis System for Temperature and Stress of Concrete Dam Thu, 21 May 2015 12:43:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/306165/ In the concrete dam construction, it is very necessary to strengthen the real-time monitoring and scientific management of concrete temperature control. This paper constructs the analysis and inverse analysis system of temperature stress simulation, which is based on various useful data collected in real time in the process of concrete construction. The system can produce automatically data file of temperature and stress calculation and then achieve the remote real-time simulation calculation of temperature stress by using high performance computing techniques, so the inverse analysis can be carried out based on a basis of monitoring data in the database; it fulfills the automatic feedback calculation according to the error requirement and generates the corresponding curve and chart after the automatic processing and analysis of corresponding results. The system realizes the automation and intellectualization of complex data analysis and preparation work in simulation process and complex data adjustment in the inverse analysis process, which can facilitate the real-time tracking simulation and feedback analysis of concrete temperature stress in construction process and enable you to discover problems timely, take measures timely, and adjust construction scheme and can well instruct you how to ensure project quality. Lei Zhang, Yi Liu, Bingqi Li, Guoxin Zhang, and Songtao Zhang Copyright © 2015 Lei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Constrictive Pericarditis in the Presence of Remaining Remnants of a Left Ventricular Assist Device in a Heart Transplanted Patient Thu, 21 May 2015 12:31:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crit/2015/372698/ Constrictive pericarditis (CP) is a severe subform of pericarditis with various causes and clinical findings. Here, we present the unique case of CP in the presence of remaining remnants of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in a heart transplanted patient. A 63-year-old man presented at the Heidelberg Heart Center outpatient clinic with progressive dyspnea, fatigue, and loss of physical capacity. Heart transplantation (HTX) was performed at another heart center four years ago and postoperative clinical course was unremarkable so far. Pharmacological cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stress test was performed to exclude coronary ischemia. The test was negative but, accidentally, a foreign body located in the epicardial adipose tissue was found. The foreign body was identified as the inflow pump connection of an LVAD which was left behind after HTX. Echocardiography and cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis of CP. Surgical removal was performed and the epicardial tubular structure with a diameter of 30 mm was carefully removed accompanied by pericardiectomy. No postoperative complications occurred and the patient recovered uneventfully with a rapid improvement of symptoms. On follow-up 3 and 6 months later, the patient reported about a stable clinical course with improved physical capacity and absence of dyspnea. R. Rivinius, M. Helmschrott, V. Koch, F. Sedaghat-Hamedani, P. Fortner, F. F. Darche, D. Thomas, A. Ruhparwar, B. Schmack, M. Karck, M. Akhavanpoor, C. Erbel, C. A. Gleissner, S. J. Buss, D. Mereles, P. Ehlermann, H. A. Katus, and A. O. Doesch Copyright © 2015 R. Rivinius et al. All rights reserved. Synchronization of Lorenz System Based on Fast Stabilization Sliding Mode Control Thu, 21 May 2015 12:07:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/282919/ A sliding mode control approach is achieved for Lorenz system based on optimal finite time convergent and integral sliding mode surface. The system perturbation is divided into two parts: the unmatched and the matched parts. Firstly, we design a discontinuous control for the unmatched part which will not be amplified. Secondly, we design a continuous control, that is, the ideal control to stabilize the Lorenz system error states in finite time stabilization. Then the controller based on integral sliding mode is constructed to ensure the robustness. The proposed method is proven to guarantee the stability and the robustness using the Lyapunov theory in the system uncertainties and external perturbation. Finally, the numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed controller is effective and robust with respect to the perturbation. Xu Guowei, Wan Zhenkai, and Li Chunqing Copyright © 2015 Xu Guowei et al. All rights reserved. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia with Hepatic Vascular Malformations Thu, 21 May 2015 12:05:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/917818/ Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease. Early diagnosis is important to avoid complications from vascular lesions, but diagnosis is difficult in asymptomatic patients. A 69-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our hospital for evaluation of hepatic vascular malformations. He had mild anemia with iron deficiency, and dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed significant arteriovenous and arterioportal shunts throughout the liver. Telangiectasia from the pharynx to the duodenum was confirmed by gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient history revealed episodes of epistaxis as well as a family history of epistaxis. He was diagnosed with HHT, although no other family member had been diagnosed with definite HHT. A diagnosis of HHT must be considered in patients with hepatic vascular malformations. Yujiro Nishioka, Nobuhisa Akamatsu, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Junichi Kaneko, Junichi Arita, Yoshihiro Sakamoto, Kiyoshi Hasegawa, and Norihiro Kokudo Copyright © 2015 Yujiro Nishioka et al. All rights reserved. Hadoop-Based Healthcare Information System Design and Wireless Security Communication Implementation Thu, 21 May 2015 12:03:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/misy/2015/852173/ Human health information from healthcare system can provide important diagnosis data and reference to doctors. However, continuous monitoring and security storage of human health data are challenging personal privacy and big data storage. To build secure and efficient healthcare application, Hadoop-based healthcare security communication system is proposed. In wireless biosensor network, authentication and key transfer should be lightweight. An ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) based lightweight digital signature and key transmission method are proposed to provide wireless secure communication in healthcare information system. Sunspot wireless sensor nodes are used to build healthcare secure communication network; wireless nodes and base station are assigned different tasks to achieve secure communication goal in healthcare information system. Mysql database is used to store Sunspot security entity table and measure entity table. Hadoop is used to backup and audit the Sunspot security entity table. Sqoop tool is used to import/export data between Mysql database and HDFS (Hadoop distributed file system). Ganglia is used to monitor and measure the performance of Hadoop cluster. Simulation results show that the Hadoop-based healthcare architecture and wireless security communication method are highly effective to build a wireless healthcare information system. Hongsong Chen and Zhongchuan Fu Copyright © 2015 Hongsong Chen and Zhongchuan Fu. All rights reserved. Inhibition of G9a Histone Methyltransferase Converts Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Cardiac Competent Progenitors Thu, 21 May 2015 12:01:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/270428/ The G9a histone methyltransferase inhibitor BIX01294 was examined for its ability to expand the cardiac capacity of bone marrow cells. Inhibition of G9a histone methyltransferase by gene specific knockdown or BIX01294 treatment was sufficient to induce expression of precardiac markers Mesp1 and brachyury in bone marrow cells. BIX01294 treatment also allowed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to express the cardiac transcription factors Nkx2.5, GATA4, and myocardin when subsequently exposed to the cardiogenic stimulating factor Wnt11. Incubation of BIX01294-treated MSCs with cardiac conditioned media provoked formation of phase bright cells that exhibited a morphology and molecular profile resembling similar cells that normally form from cultured atrial tissue. Subsequent aggregation and differentiation of BIX01294-induced, MSC-derived phase bright cells provoked their cardiomyogenesis. This latter outcome was indicated by their widespread expression of the primary sarcomeric proteins muscle α-actinin and titin. MSC-derived cultures that were not initially treated with BIX01294 exhibited neither a commensurate burst of phase bright cells nor stimulation of sarcomeric protein expression. Collectively, these data indicate that BIX01294 has utility as a pharmacological agent that could enhance the ability of an abundant and accessible stem cell population to regenerate new myocytes for cardiac repair. Jinpu Yang, Keerat Kaur, Li Lin Ong, Carol A. Eisenberg, and Leonard M. Eisenberg Copyright © 2015 Jinpu Yang et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Lipoid Pneumonia in a 9-Year-Old Child Revealed by Recurrent Chest Pain Thu, 21 May 2015 11:56:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2015/402926/ Lipoid pneumonia in children is a rare disorder due to accumulation of fatty oily material in the alveoli and usually associated with an underlying condition. In absence of obvious context, diagnosis remains difficult with nonspecific clinical and radiological features. We report the first case of voluntary chronic aspiration of olive oil responsible for exogenous lipoid pneumonia, in a previously healthy 9-year-old boy. Clinical presentation was atypical; LP was revealed by isolated chest pain. We discuss radiological and bronchial alveolar lavage characteristics suggestive of lipoid pneumonia. Conclusion. Lipoid pneumonia is a disease to be reminded of in children, which can occur with original findings in terms of etiology and clinical presentation. A. Hochart, C. Thumerelle, L. Petyt, C. Mordacq, and A. Deschildre Copyright © 2015 A. Hochart et al. All rights reserved. The Flavonoid Apigenin Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity through Reduction of p53 Activation and Promotion of PI3K/Akt Pathway in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells Thu, 21 May 2015 11:55:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/186436/ Apigenin is a member of the flavone subclass of flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. Apigenin has long been considered to have various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumorigenic properties, in various cell types. Cisplatin was known to exhibit cytotoxic effect to renal cells by inducing apoptosis through activation of p53. The present study investigated the antiapoptotic effects of apigenin on the cisplatin-treated human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. HK-2 cells were pretreated with apigenin (5, 10, 20 μM) for 1 h and then treated with 40 μM cisplatin for various times. Apigenin inhibited the cisplatin-induced apoptosis of HK-2 cells. Interestingly, apigenin itself exerted cytostatic activity because of its ability to induce cell cycle arrest. Apigenin inhibited caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage in cisplatin-treated cells. Apigenin reduced cisplatin-induced phosphorylation and expression of p53, with no significant influence on production of ROS that is known to induce p53 activation. Furthermore, apigenin promoted cisplatin-induced Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that enhanced Akt activation may be involved in cytoprotection. Taken together, these results suggest that apigenin ameliorates cisplatin-induced apoptosis through reduction of p53 activation and promotion of PI3K/Akt pathway in HK-2 cells. Sung Min Ju, Jun Gue Kang, Jun Sang Bae, Hyun Ock Pae, Yeoung Su Lyu, and Byung Hun Jeon Copyright © 2015 Sung Min Ju et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Significance of Microvessel Density Determining by Endoglin in Stage II Rectal Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis Thu, 21 May 2015 11:49:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/504179/ Background. The role of endoglin in the Dukes B rectal cancer is still unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of endoglin (CD105) in resected rectal cancer and to evaluate the relationship between microvessels density (MVD), clinicopathological factors, and survival rates. Methods. The study included 95 primary rectal adenocarcinomas, corresponding to 67 adjacent and 73 distant normal mucosa specimens from surgical resection samples. Tumor specimens were paraffin-embedded and immunohistochemical staining for the CD105 endothelial antigen was performed to count CD105-MVD. For exact measurement of the CD105-MVD used a computer-integrated system Alphelys Spot Browser 2 was used. Results. The intratumoral CD105-MVD was significantly higher compared with corresponding adjacent mucosa () and distant mucosa specimens (). There was no significant difference in the CD105-MVD according to patients age, gender, tumor location, grade of differentiation, histological type, depth of tumor invasion, and tumor size. The overall survival rate was significantly higher in the low CD105-MVD group of patients than in the high CD105-MVD group of patients (log-rank test, ). Conclusion. CD105-assessed MVD could help to identify patients with possibility of poor survival in the group of stage II RC. Zeljko Martinovic, Drazen Kovac, and Mia Martinovic Copyright © 2015 Zeljko Martinovic et al. All rights reserved. Primary Breast Burkitt’s Lymphoma in an HIV-Infected Woman Thu, 21 May 2015 11:47:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2015/792041/ A 30-year-old HIV positive woman presented with a multifocal mass tumour associated with axillary and lateral-cervical lymphadenopathy in the right breast. Laboratory examination of the biopsy confirmed a case of mammary Burkitt’s lymphoma with a nodular infiltration of the breast. Antiretroviral treatment and chemotherapy were effective to control the tumour. Although Burkitt’s lymphoma rarely involves the breasts, it should be considered during routine breast examination of African woman. Bangaly Traoré, Marie-Eve Fondrevelle, Mamoudou Condé, Catherine Chassagne-Clément, Tidiane Kourouma, Ahmed Monzomba Keita, Moussa Koulibaly, and Bakary Sidiki Sylla Copyright © 2015 Bangaly Traoré et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Variant of C-5434T REN Enhancer on Serum Renin Levels and Binding Pattern of Signal Transducers and Activators Transcription 3 Thu, 21 May 2015 11:42:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijhy/2015/486961/ The human renin gene has been widely known to be involved in essential hypertension (EH) pathogenesis. Genetic variant C-5434T of REN enhancer contributed to renin gene transcription and serum renin regulation. However, the mechanism associated with the transcription level changes remains unknown, and only a few reports exist that discussed serum renin levels on C-5434T of REN. Thus, this study aims to investigate the relationship between genetic variant C-5434T of REN enhancer and serum renin levels in Indonesian hypertensive patients. SNP of C-5434T was genotyped in 56 hypertensive patients by using RFLP. The data showed that serum renin is slightly higher in hypertensive patients with the TT genotype (39 ± 10.3) than patients with the CC genotype (33 ± 10.6) but the difference was not statistically significant (). Here, we also present a docking approach for predicting interaction between genetic variant -5434C/T and STAT3 (Signal Transducers and Activators Transcription 3), the predicted transcription factor that regulates renin gene enhancer. The results showed that STAT3-DNA allele T more favorably binds to DNA than STAT3-DNA allele C. These data suggest that the presence of genetic variant C-5434T has changed the binding pattern of STAT3 to REN enhancer. This is likely to influence STAT3 activity to stimulate the expression of renin gene in producing renin. Imama Maslahah, Mohammad Saifur Rohman, Nashi Widodo, Agustina Tri Endharti, and Didik Utomo Copyright © 2015 Imama Maslahah et al. All rights reserved. The MicroRNA3686 Inhibits the Proliferation of Pancreas Carcinoma Cell Line by Targeting the Polo-Like Kinase 1 Thu, 21 May 2015 11:39:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/954870/ The Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is one member of the so-called Polo-like kinase family which plays an important role in tumorigenesis. By analyzing the potential complementary microRNA (miRNA) targeting sequence of PLK1, we identified that miRNA-3686 (hereby and thereafter mir3696) could be the potential regulator for PLK1. Real-time PCR demonstrated that the mir3686 has a relatively higher expression in the immortalized pancreas cell HPDE6C7 than pancreas carcinoma derived cell line PANC1. The upregulation of mir3686 in HPDE6C7 cell corresponded with the low expression of PLK1 as well. Both luciferase based reporter assay and evaluation of endogenous PLK1 expression demonstrated that mir3686 regulated PLK1, which confirms our speculation. Moreover, we found that transfection of mir3686 in PANC1 cell could lead to proliferation inhibition and promote apoptosis. Further analysis demonstrated that mir3686 transfection in PANC1 cell also inhibited cell invasion, and clone formation in cell invasion assay and clonogenic cell survival assay, respectively. In contrast, inhibition of mir3686 expression in HPDE6C7 cell enhanced the capability of proliferation, cell invasion and clone formation. Taken together, our results indicated that mir3686 could target PLK1 to inhibit the cell proliferation in pancreas cancer derived cell line and mir3686 could be a new therapeutic target for pancreas cancer treatment. Hong-Yi Jin, Xin-Guang Qiu, and Bo Yang Copyright © 2015 Hong-Yi Jin et al. All rights reserved. Chemotherapy in the Setting of Severe Liver Dysfunction in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Thu, 21 May 2015 11:39:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/420159/ The liver is the dominant site of metastases for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Depending on the timing of diagnosis and the biology of the disease, it is not uncommon for these patients to present with visceral crisis in the form of severe liver dysfunction. Treatment of these individuals is, however, difficult and challenging. The decision to consider chemotherapy in these dire circumstances entails consideration of numerous factors. If we were to focus on just the metabolism of the different drugs and biologic agents available to treat mCRC, both 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin alone or in combination with a monoclonal antibody are reasonable choices. Specifically, FOLFOX is a feasible and safe option in patients with mCRC with severe liver dysfunction. Choice of the biologic agent to add to the doublet chemotherapy could be individualized based on the RAS status and the clinical scenario. Based on the divergent experience of treating 2 cases and other prior reports, a summary of recommendations with a model in the form of a “therapeutic triad” is presented. The paper highlights the therapeutic challenges in patients with mCRC and severe liver dysfunction. The choice of chemotherapeutic agents and reports of other cases/series is also presented. Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi, Gita Thanarajasingam, Heidi D. Finnes, Jose C. Villasboas Bisneto, Joleen M. Hubbard, and Axel Grothey Copyright © 2015 Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi et al. All rights reserved. Characterization and Optimization of a Single-Transistor Active Pixel Image Sensor with Floating Junction Connected to Floating Gate Thu, 21 May 2015 11:38:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2015/167145/ The application of semifloating gate transistor (SFGT) as the single-transistor active pixel image sensor (APS) is investigated in this paper. This single-transistor (1T) APS can realize the functions of the conventional 3T CMOS image sensor. The device operation mechanism, optimization methods, and transient behavior measurements will be discussed. Because the floating junction of this device is connected to the floating gate, special behaviors such as floating gate voltage pinning effects were observed. The transient time measurement emulating the exposure procedure also confirmed the light sensing function as a single-transistor image sensor. Xin-Yan Liu, Jun Wu, Xiao-Yong Liu, Shuai Zhang, Xi Lin, Chun-Min Zhang, Peng-Fei Wang, and David Wei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xin-Yan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Absence of Clinical and Hemodynamic Consequences due to Posterior Tibial Artery Congenital Aplasia Thu, 21 May 2015 11:38:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2015/821094/ The exact knowledge of popliteal artery and its branches’ anatomic variations is important for the clinical practice of angiology, vascular surgery, and interventional procedures. Congenital absence of the artery leads, in some cases, to early malformations of the extremity in the childhood; however, it may also remain asymptomatic. We present an unusual case of a 76-year-old male patient complaining of paraesthesia in both limbs and bilateral aplasia of posterior tibial artery (PTA). Physical examination, ankle-brachial indexes, before and after exercise, arterial duplex scan, and magnetic resonance arteriography were performed. Arterial pulses for PTA at the level of the ankle were normal; arterial duplex study showed biphasic arterial flow at the level of the ankle. Color duplex ultrasound as well as magnetic resonance arteriography revealed the absence of the PTA in both limbs. The vascularization of the fibula was bilaterally normal. The patient underwent also neurological examination and electromyography, which were normal. The evaluation of the possible clinical signs and symptoms and the hemodynamic consequences of this condition are further discussed. Georgios Karaolanis, George Galyfos, Evridiki Karanikola, Viktoria Varvara Palla, and Konstantinos Filis Copyright © 2015 Georgios Karaolanis et al. All rights reserved. Malakoplakia of the Pancreas with Simultaneous Colon Involvement: Case Report and Review of the Literature Thu, 21 May 2015 11:37:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripa/2015/649136/ Although malakoplakia has been reported to occur at various body sites, pancreatic malakoplakia with simultaneous colonic involvement is very rare. Lesions of malakoplakia can masquerade as tumor masses leading to unwanted resections. Nevertheless, malakoplakia can occur in association with frank carcinomas, especially in the colon. By reporting a case of pancreatic malakoplakia diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology, this paper aims to describe cytologic features of malakoplakia and to further review findings from previous reported cases of pancreatic malakoplakia in the literature. With advances in minimally invasive, image-guided aspiration technologies, cytomorphological analyses can diagnose lesions of malakoplakia. This may help avoid surgeries that would have otherwise been carried out due to a misleading impression of tumor. However challenges remain as to the further management of patients diagnosed with this condition. More studies are necessary to determine the probability of malignancies arising in association with malakoplakia, in order to devise appropriate treatment protocols. Surya Guha and Haiyan Liu Copyright © 2015 Surya Guha and Haiyan Liu. All rights reserved. Analysis of Linkage Effects among Currency Networks Using REER Data Thu, 21 May 2015 11:31:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/641907/ We modeled the currency networks through the use of REER (real effective exchange rate) instead of a bilateral exchange rate in order to overcome the confusion in selecting base currencies. Based on the MST (minimum spanning tree) approach and the rolling-window method, we constructed time-varying and correlation-based networks with which we investigate the linkage effects among different currencies. In particular, and as the source of empirical data, we chose the monthly REER data for a set of 61 major currencies during the period from 1994 to 2014. The study demonstrated that obvious linkage effects existed among currency networks and the euro (EUR) was confirmed as the predominant world currency. Additionally, we used the rolling-window method to investigate the stability of linkage effects, doing so by calculating the mean correlations and mean distances as well as the normalized tree length and degrees of those currencies. The results showed that financial crises during the study period had a great effect on the currency network’s topology structure and led to more clustered currency networks. Our results suggested that it is more appropriate to estimate the linkage effects among currency networks through the use of REER data. Haishu Qiao, Ying Li, and Yue Xia Copyright © 2015 Haishu Qiao et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Antiproliferative Effect of the Acetone Extract of Rubus fairholmianus Gard. Root on Human Colorectal Cancer Cells Thu, 21 May 2015 11:30:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/165037/ Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway. Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil George, Ivan Mfouo Tynga, and Heidi Abrahamse Copyright © 2015 Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil George et al. All rights reserved. Polypeptide Fraction from Arca subcrenata Induces Apoptosis and G2/M Phase Arrest in HeLa Cells via ROS-Mediated MAPKs Pathways Thu, 21 May 2015 11:29:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/930249/ Arca subcrenata is documented in the literature of marine Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polypeptide fraction from A. subcrenata, coded as P2, was demonstrated to possess significant antitumor activity in our previous study. However, the underlying mechanism remains undefined. The present study was carried out to investigate the underlying antitumor mechanism of P2 in human cervical cancer HeLa cells by MTT, FCM, LSCM, and western blot assays. The results revealed that P2 significantly induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. High level of ROS was provoked by P2, which was in turn responsible for induction of apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and JNK1/2, p38 MAPK pathways, as well as inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway, as evidenced by the abrogation of P2’s effect on HeLa cells preincubated with the ROS scavenger NAC. P2 also was observed to display significant effect on G2/M phase arrest by downregulating the expression of cyclin B1/cdc2 complex and upregulating the expression of p21. These findings demonstrate that P2 induces apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest in HeLa cells through ROS-mediated MAPKs pathways, suggesting that P2 would be worth investigating as a promising agent within the scope of marine drugs for treatment of cervical cancer. Xianjing Hu, Zhang Zhang, Ting Liu, Liyan Song, Jianhua Zhu, Zhongyi Guo, Jinghua Cai, and Rongmin Yu Copyright © 2015 Xianjing Hu et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline on Rats with Smoke Inhalation Injury Thu, 21 May 2015 11:29:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/106836/ Objective. To explore the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on rats with smoke inhalation injury. Methods. 36 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups ( per group): sham group (S), inhalation injury plus normal saline treatment group (I+NS), and inhalation injury plus hydrogen-rich saline treatment group (I+HS). 30 min after injury, normal saline and hydrogen-rich saline were injected intraperitoneally (5 mL/kg) in I+NS group and I+HS group, respectively. All rats were euthanized and blood and organ specimens were collected for determination 24 h after inhalation injury. Results. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 expression, and apoptosis index (AI) in I+HS group were significantly decreased (), while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased compared with those in I+NS group; and a marked improvement in alveolar structure was also found after hydrogen-rich saline treatment. Conclusions. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment exerts protective effects in acute lung injury induced by inhalation injury, at least in part through the activation of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways and inhibition of apoptosis. Xing Chen, Qi Liu, Dawei Wang, Shihai Feng, Yongjian Zhao, Yun Shi, and Qun Liu Copyright © 2015 Xing Chen et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing the Care and Health of Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Thu, 21 May 2015 11:24:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/435820/ Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is increasing worldwide. Although diagnosis is equally found in men and women, the chronicity of IBD poses a unique impact on the milestones of a woman’s life. As the gastroenterologist becomes increasingly important in the health maintenance of patients with IBD, this review stresses the unique gender issues in women with IBD related to menstruation, cervical cancer, sexual health, contraception, and menopause that may affect the course of disease, treatment decisions, and quality of life. Judy Nee and Joseph D. Feuerstein Copyright © 2015 Judy Nee and Joseph D. Feuerstein. All rights reserved. Inflammatory Joint Diseases Thu, 21 May 2015 11:21:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/973510/ Guixiu Shi, Julian L. Ambrus, Shuang Ye, and Long Shen Copyright © 2015 Guixiu Shi et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Lower Punctum Parameters and Morphology Using Spectral Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Thu, 21 May 2015 11:20:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2015/591845/ Purpose. To study features of the lower punctum in normal subjects using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SD AS-OCT). Methods. Observational cross-sectional study that included 147 punctae (76 subjects). Punctae were evaluated clinically for appearance, position, and size. AS-OCT was used to evaluate the punctal shape, contents, and junction with the vertical canaliculus. Inner and outer diameters as well as depth were measured. Results. 24 males and 52 females (mean age  y) were included. Lower punctum was perceived by OCT to be an area with an outer diameter (mean  μm), inner diameter (mean  μm), and depth (mean  μm). The OCT measured outer punctum diameter was significantly less than that measured clinically (: 0.000). Seven major shapes were identified. The junction with the vertical canaliculus was detectable in 44%. Fluid was detected in 34%, one of which had an air bubble; however, 63% of punctae showed no contents and 4% had debris. Conclusions. AS-OCT can be a useful tool in understanding the anatomy of the punctum and distal lacrimal system as well as tear drainage physiology. Measuring the punctum size may play a role in plugs fitting. Riham S. H. M. Allam and Rania A. Ahmed Copyright © 2015 Riham S. H. M. Allam and Rania A. Ahmed. All rights reserved. Liver Failure Impairs the Intrahepatic Elimination of Interleukin-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, and Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Thu, 21 May 2015 11:20:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/934065/ The strategic location of the liver and its metabolic activity make it a key organ regulating homeostasis. Our purpose was to examine its participation in removal of cytokines: interleukin-6 (Il-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) from the portal circulation in human. 20 liver donors and 20 patients with end-stage liver failure were included in the study. Their blood was collected during liver transplantation from the portal, hepatic, and peripheral vein, and the hepatic artery and cytokines’ concentrations were determined. Using the results the mathematical model of cytokine elimination by the liver was developed. In donors significantly lower levels of IL-6, TNF-α, HGF, and TGF-β were detected in portal blood compared to hepatic vein. In patients with cirrhosis there were no significant differences of IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β levels between portal and hepatic veins. Significantly higher level of HGF in hepatic compared to portal vein was observed. In healthy liver elimination of the cytokines prevailed over their synthesis, as reflected by the positive values of the elimination ratios. In the cirrhotic liver elimination ratios of Il-6, HGF, and TGF-β were negative indicating the prevalence of intrahepatic synthesis of cytokines over their removal. Dawid Porowski, Agnieszka Wirkowska, Ewa Hryniewiecka, Janusz Wyzgał, Marek Pacholczyk, and Leszek Pączek Copyright © 2015 Dawid Porowski et al. All rights reserved. Exosomes for Intramyocardial Intercellular Communication Thu, 21 May 2015 11:14:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/482171/ Cross-talk between different cell types plays central roles both in cardiac homeostasis and in adaptive responses of the heart to stress. Cardiomyocytes (CMs) send biological messages to the other cell types present in the heart including endothelial cells (ECs) and fibroblasts. In turn, CMs receive messages from these cells. Recent evidence has now established that exosomes, nanosized secreted extracellular vesicles, are crucial mediators of such messages. CMs, ECs, cardiac fibroblasts, and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) release exosomes carrying nonrandom subsets of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids present in their cells of origin. Exosomes secreted from CMs are internalized by fibroblasts and regulate gene expression in these cells as well as in ECs. CPC-derived exosomes protect CMs against apoptosis while also stimulating angiogenesis. They are rich in cardioprotective and proangiogenic microRNAs such as miR-146, miR-210, and miR-132. When injected into infracted hearts in vivo, CPC-derived exosomes reduce infarct size and improve cardiac function. Thus, exosomes are emerging both as key mediators of intercellular communication in the heart and as therapeutic candidates for heart disease. Elisabetta Cervio, Lucio Barile, Tiziano Moccetti, and Giuseppe Vassalli Copyright © 2015 Elisabetta Cervio et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of a Centrifugal Pump by Using the Harmonic Balance Method Thu, 21 May 2015 11:08:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrm/2015/729140/ The harmonic balance method was used for the flow simulation in a centrifugal pump. Independence studies have been done to choose proper number of harmonic modes and inlet eddy viscosity ratio value. The results from harmonic balance method show good agreements with PIV experiments and unsteady calculation results (which is based on the dual time stepping method) for the predicted head and the phase-averaged velocity. A detailed analysis of the flow fields at different flow rates shows that the flow rate has an evident influence on the flow fields. At 0.6, some vortices begin to appear in the impeller, and at 0.4 some vortices have blocked the flow passage. The flow fields at different positions at 0.6 and 0.4 show how the complicated flow phenomena are forming, developing, and even disappearing. The harmonic balance method can be used for the flow simulation in pumps, showing the same accuracy as unsteady methods, but is considerably faster. Franco Magagnato and Jinfeng Zhang Copyright © 2015 Franco Magagnato and Jinfeng Zhang. All rights reserved. A Numerical Study of the Beijing Extreme Rainfall of 21 July 2012 and the Impact of Topography Thu, 21 May 2015 10:59:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2015/980747/ The extreme rainfall on 21 July 2012 is the heaviest rainfall that has occurred in Beijing since 1961. Observations and WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model are used to study the effect of MCS (mesoscale convective system) and topography on the rainfall. In this high-impact event, a quasi-stationary MCS developed in a favorable moist environment. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the amount, location, and time evolution of the rainfall despite 4–6 h delay. In particular, the model reproduced the repeat passage of convective cells at the leading convergence line region along Taihang Mountains and the trailing stratiform region, producing the rainfall at nearly the right position. Results indicate the important roles of mesolow and low-level jet in maintaining the conditional instability that lifted the moist air to trigger deep convection and the repeated initiation and movement of the line shaped convective cells that produced the rainfall. The sensitive experiment was then further carried out to examine the effect of topography on this heavy rainfall. The reduction in model elevation field significantly influenced the above mesoscale systems, which lead to convective cells becoming less organized, and the peak rainfall amount in Beijing decreased by roughly 50%. Hongxiong Xu and Wenqing Yao Copyright © 2015 Hongxiong Xu and Wenqing Yao. All rights reserved. The Microphone Feedback Analogy for Chatter in Machining Thu, 21 May 2015 09:57:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/976819/ This paper provides experimental evidence for the analogy between the time-delay feedback in public address systems and chatter in machining. Machining stability theory derived using the Nyquist criterion is applied to predict the squeal frequency in a microphone/speaker setup. Comparisons between predictions and measurements are presented. Tony Schmitz Copyright © 2015 Tony Schmitz. All rights reserved. Mass Spectrometry Applications in Biomedical Research Thu, 21 May 2015 09:56:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/827370/ Fa-Yun Che, Hai-Teng Deng, and Shi-Jian Ding Copyright © 2015 Fa-Yun Che et al. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Mine Seismic Discriminators Based on Features of Source Parameters to Waveform Characteristics Thu, 21 May 2015 09:55:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/919143/ To find efficient methods for classifying mine seismic events, two features extraction approaches were proposed. Features of source parameters including the seismic moment, the seismic energy, the energy ratio of S- to P-wave, the static stress drop, time of occurrence, and the number of triggers were selected, counted, and analyzed in approach I. Waveform characteristics consisting of two slope values and the coordinates of the first peak and the maximum peak were extracted as the discriminating parameters in approach II. The discriminating performance of the two approaches was compared and discussed by applying the Bayes discriminant analysis to the characteristic parameters extracted. Classification results show that 83.5% of the original grouped cases are correctly classified by approach I, and 97.1% of original grouped cases are correctly classified by approach II. The advantages and limitations pertaining to each classifier were discussed by plotting the event magnitude versus sample number. Comparative analysis shows that the proposed method of approach II not only has a low misjudgment rate but also displays relative constancy when the testing samples fluctuate with seismic magnitude and energy. Ju Ma, Guoyan Zhao, Longjun Dong, Guanghui Chen, and Chuxuan Zhang Copyright © 2015 Ju Ma et al. All rights reserved. The Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Antithrombosis Thu, 21 May 2015 09:49:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/791503/ Feng-Qing Yang, Chun-Su Yuan, Swee Ngin Tan, and Jian-Li Gao Copyright © 2015 Feng-Qing Yang et al. All rights reserved. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Auxotrophic Mutants to Develop a Genetic Manipulation System for the Haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. J7-2 Thu, 21 May 2015 09:49:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/archaea/2015/483194/ Our understanding of the genus Natrinema is presently limited due to the lack of available genetic tools. Auxotrophic markers have been widely used to construct genetic systems in bacteria and eukaryotes and in some archaeal species. Here, we isolated four auxotrophic mutants of Natrinema sp. J7-2, via 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitroso-guanidin mutagenesis, and designated them as J7-2-1, J7-2-22, J7-2-26, and J7-2-52, respectively. The mutant phenotypes were determined to be auxotrophic for leucine (J7-2-1), arginine (J7-2-22 and J7-2-52), and lysine (J7-2-26). The complete genome and the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in J7-2 identified that the auxotrophic phenotype of three mutants was due to gene mutations in leuB (J7-2-1), dapD (J7-2-26), and argC (J7-2-52). These auxotrophic phenotypes were employed as selectable makers to establish a transformation method. The transformation efficiencies were determined to be approximately 103 transformants per g DNA. And strains J7-2-1 and J7-2-26 were transformed into prototrophic strains with the wild type genomic DNA, amplified fragments of the corresponding genes, or the integrative plasmids carrying the corresponding genes. Additionally, exogenous genes, bgaH or amyH gene, were expressed successfully in J7-2-1. Thus, we have developed a genetic manipulation system for the Natrinema genus based on the isolated auxotrophic mutants of Natrinema sp. J7-2. Jie Lv, Shuai Wang, Yuchen Wang, Yuping Huang, and Xiangdong Chen Copyright © 2015 Jie Lv et al. All rights reserved. The Mechanism and Application of Deep-Hole Precracking Blasting on Rockburst Prevention Thu, 21 May 2015 09:48:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/625691/ The mechanism of preventing rockburst through deep-hole precracking blasting was studied based on experimental test, numerical simulation, and field testing. The study results indicate that the deep-hole precracking could change the bursting proneness and stress state of coal-rock mass, thereby preventing the occurrence of rockburst. The bursting proneness of the whole composite structure could be weakened by the deep-hole precracking blasting. The change of stress state in the process of precracking blasting is achieved in two ways: (1) artificially break the roof apart, thus weakening the continuity of the roof strata, effectively inducing the roof caving while reducing its impact strength; and (2) the dynamic shattering and air pressure generated by the blasting can structurally change the properties of the coal-rock mass by mitigating the high stress generation and high elastic energy accumulation, thus breaking the conditions of energy transfer and rock burst occurrence. Zhenhua Ouyang, Qingxin Qi, Shankun Zhao, Baoyang Wu, and Ningbo Zhang Copyright © 2015 Zhenhua Ouyang et al. All rights reserved. Damage Characteristics of Surrounding Rock Subjected to VCR Mining Blasting Shock Thu, 21 May 2015 09:45:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/373021/ For limiting the damage range caused by explosive shock loads in vertical crater retreat (VCR) mining, the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were studied by two methods: numerical simulation and ultrasonic testing. Combined with the mining blasting in Dongguashan Copper Mine of China, the VCR blasting shock characteristics under different conditions are obtained by using LSDYNA. Based on statistical fracture mechanics and damage mechanics theories, a damage constitutive model for rock mass subjected to blasting shock load was established. Then by using the fast Lagrange analysis codes (FLAC3D), the blasting damage characteristics of surrounding rock were analyzed by applying the blasting shock loads obtained from the VCR mining and the damage zone is obtained. At last, the relationship between the amount of explosives and the radius of damaged surrounding rock mass was discussed, and its formula was also derived. The research provides a theoretical basis for rationally controlling stope boundaries and optimizing mining blasting parameters. Nan Jiang, Chuanbo Zhou, Xuedong Luo, and Shiwei Lu Copyright © 2015 Nan Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Design Method of Active Disturbance Rejection Variable Structure Control System Thu, 21 May 2015 09:44:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/195720/ Based on lines cluster approaching theory and inspired by the traditional exponent reaching law method, a new control method, lines cluster approaching mode control (LCAMC) method, is designed to improve the parameter simplicity and structure optimization of the control system. The design guidelines and mathematical proofs are also given. To further improve the tracking performance and the inhibition of the white noise, connect the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method with the LCAMC method and create the extended state observer based lines cluster approaching mode control (ESO-LCAMC) method. Taking traditional servo control system as example, two control schemes are constructed and two kinds of comparison are carried out. Computer simulation results show that LCAMC method, having better tracking performance than the traditional sliding mode control (SMC) system, makes the servo system track command signal quickly and accurately in spite of the persistent equivalent disturbances and ESO-LCAMC method further reduces the tracking error and filters the white noise added on the system states. Simulation results verify the robust property and comprehensive performance of control schemes. Yun-jie Wu, Yue-yang Hua, and Xiao-dong Liu Copyright © 2015 Yun-jie Wu et al. All rights reserved. Unknown Disturbance Estimation for a PMSM with a Hybrid Sliding Mode Observer Thu, 21 May 2015 09:41:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/316360/ A hybrid sliding mode observer that combines high gain feedback and a high-order sliding mode term is developed to identify the time-varying disturbance for a permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Based on the measurable current and the position, the unknown disturbance can be identified from the sliding mode term without digital filter effect. It is then used to enhance the robustness of the speed control dynamics. For ease of implementation in real applications, such as DSP and FPGA, the proposed observer is properly designed to avoid complex mathematical operators. Simulation results are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed observer. Gang Chen, Yong Zhou, TingTing Gao, and Qicai Zhou Copyright © 2015 Gang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Genome-Wide Gene Expression in relation to Age in Large Laboratory Cohorts of Drosophila melanogaster Thu, 21 May 2015 09:08:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/gri/2015/835624/ Aging is a complex process characterized by a steady decline in an organism’s ability to perform life-sustaining tasks. In the present study, two cages of approximately 12,000 mated Drosophila melanogaster females were used as a source of RNA from individuals sampled frequently as a function of age. A linear model for microarray data method was used for the microarray analysis to adjust for the box effect; it identified 1,581 candidate aging genes. Cluster analyses using a self-organizing map algorithm on the 1,581 significant genes identified gene expression patterns across different ages. Genes involved in immune system function and regulation, chorion assembly and function, and metabolism were all significantly differentially expressed as a function of age. The temporal pattern of data indicated that gene expression related to aging is affected relatively early in life span. In addition, the temporal variance in gene expression in immune function genes was compared to a random set of genes. There was an increase in the variance of gene expression within each cohort, which was not observed in the set of random genes. This observation is compatible with the hypothesis that D. melanogaster immune function genes lose control of gene expression as flies age. Kimberly A. Carlson, Kylee Gardner, Anjeza Pashaj, Darby J. Carlson, Fang Yu, James D. Eudy, Chi Zhang, and Lawrence G. Harshman Copyright © 2015 Kimberly A. Carlson et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Disturbance-Observer-Based Sliding Mode Control for Flexible Air-Breathing Hypersonic Vehicles Thu, 21 May 2015 09:00:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/675659/ This paper investigates a tracking problem for flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles (FAHVs) with composite disturbance. The composite disturbance produced by flexible effects, parameter uncertainties, and external interferences is modeled as a kind of unknown derivative-bounded disturbance in this paper. Then a novel composite control strategy is presented for the nonlinear FAHV model with the composite disturbance, which combines a nonlinear disturbance-observer-based compensator (NDOBC) and a dynamic-inversion-based sliding mode controller (DIBSMC). Specifically, the NDOBC is constructed to estimate and compensate for the composite disturbance, and the DIBSMC is designed to track desired trajectories of velocity and flight path angle. Moreover, the uniformly ultimate boundedness of the composite system can be guaranteed by using Lyapunov theory. Finally, simulation results on a full nonlinear model of FAHVs demonstrate that the proposed nonlinear disturbance-observer-based sliding mode controller is more effective than the traditional DIBSMC. Specifically, it is shown that the chattering of traditional DIBSMC in presence of composite disturbances can be attenuated with the NDOBC. Na Wang, Xiu-Ming Yao, and Wen-Shuo Li Copyright © 2015 Na Wang et al. All rights reserved. Mcl-1 Is a Novel Target of miR-26b That Is Associated with the Apoptosis Induced by TRAIL in HCC Cells Thu, 21 May 2015 08:50:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/572738/ Aim. To investigate the role of miR-26b and Mcl-1 in TRAIL-inducing cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods. The expression of miR-26b and Mcl-1 in HCC was detected by RT-qPCR and western blot. The regulation of Mcl-1 by miR-26b was determined by luciferase reporter assay. MTT and flow cytometry were employed to detect the cell viability and apoptosis. Results. miR-26b is commonly downregulated in HCC cell lines compared with the LO2 cell line. In contrast, the Mcl-1 expression is upregulated in HCC cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis identified a putative target site in the Mcl-1 mRNA for miR-26b and luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-26b directly targeted the 3′-UTR (3′-Untranslated Regions) of Mcl-1 mRNA. Transfection of miR-26b mimics suppressed Mcl-1 expression in HCC cells and sensitized the cancer cells to TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) cytotoxicity. In addition, transfection of HCC cells with Mcl-1 expression plasmid abolished the sensitization effect of miR-26b to TRAIL-inducing apoptosis. Conclusions. Our study showed that miR-26b was a negative regulator of Mcl-1 gene and sensitized TRAIL-inducing apoptosis in HCC cells, suggesting that the miR-26b-Mcl-1 pathway might be a novel target for the treatment of HCC. Chunlin Jiang, Jianting Long, Baoxian Liu, Xiaoyan Xie, and Ming Kuang Copyright © 2015 Chunlin Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Endarterectomy in a Patient with Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Thu, 21 May 2015 08:43:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2015/898371/ Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients are at high risk for bleeding complications regarding surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass. We report an ITP patient with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent uncomplicated pulmonary endarterectomy with receiving postoperative intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. The positive outcome of this case may suggest that pulmonary endarterectomy surgery is performed safely for ITP patients. Bedrettin Yıldızeli, Mehmed Yanartaş, Sibel Keskin, Işık Atagündüz, and Ece Altınay Copyright © 2015 Bedrettin Yıldızeli et al. All rights reserved. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis Associated with Hepatic Dysfunction in Pregnancy Thu, 21 May 2015 08:41:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2015/936262/ Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare disease characterised by the replacement of normal renal parenchyma by foamy macrophages. The only treatment for this type of pyelonephritis is of a surgical nature with partial or total nephrectomy. The occurrence of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis during pregnancy is a rare event (with only 6 cases described in the literature). We report a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a 32-week pregnant woman associated with hepatic dysfunction. L. Ferreira, C. Oliveira, C. Cruz, and A. Pacheco Copyright © 2015 L. Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Psychometric Properties of the Serbian Version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey: A Validation Study among Anesthesiologists from Belgrade Teaching Hospitals Thu, 21 May 2015 08:34:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/903597/ We report findings from a validation study of the translated and culturally adapted Serbian version of Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS), for a sample of anesthesiologists working in the tertiary healthcare. The results showed the sufficient overall reliability (Cronbach’s = 0.72) of the scores (items 1–22). The results of Bartlett’s test of sphericity ( = 1983.75, df = 231, ) and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (0.866) provided solid justification for factor analysis. In order to increase sensitivity of this questionnaire, we performed unfitted factor analysis model (eigenvalue greater than 1) which enabled us to extract the most suitable factor structure for our study instrument. The exploratory factor analysis model revealed five factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0, explaining 62.0% of cumulative variance. Velicer’s MAP test has supported five-factor model with the smallest average squared correlation of 0,184. This study indicated that Serbian version of the MBI-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure burnout among a population of anesthesiologists. Results confirmed strong psychometric characteristics of the study instrument, with recommendations for interpretation of two new factors that may be unique to the Serbian version of the MBI-HSS. Bojana Matejić, Miodrag Milenović, Darija Kisić Tepavčević, Dušica Simić, Tatjana Pekmezović, and Jody A. Worley Copyright © 2015 Bojana Matejić et al. All rights reserved. Nature of the Interstitials in Titanium Dioxide and Their Impact on Transmission Coefficient: Ab Initio Calculations Thu, 21 May 2015 08:33:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/574752/ The ab initio calculations about the properties of the interstitials doping in the rutile TiO2 and their impact on the transport coefficients are reported. As the doping of the Zr or Ti interstitials in the TiO2, the lattice Ti4+ ions acquire the excess electrons so reduced to the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. However, the Cu interstitials could not lose enough electrons to reduce the lattice Ti4+ ions. Furthermore, the Ti or Cu interstitials in the ZrO2 also are unable to promote the lattice Zr4+ ions to form the lattice Zr3+ or Zr2+ ions. The high transport coefficients are observed in the defected TiO2 with the Ti or Zr interstitials as the high concentration of the Ti3+ or Ti2+ ions. So, the Zr interstitials are the favorable choice for the extra-doping to improve the transport properties in the TiO2-based resistive random access memory. Lei Li, Changfu Xia, Wenshi Li, Aimin Ji, Canyan Zhu, Lijun Zhang, Ziou Wang, Jianfeng Yang, and Ling-Feng Mao Copyright © 2015 Lei Li et al. All rights reserved. Biomedical Signal and Image Processing for Clinical Decision Support Systems 2014 Thu, 21 May 2015 08:23:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/974592/ Kayvan Najarian, Kevin R. Ward, and Shahram Shirani Copyright © 2015 Kayvan Najarian et al. All rights reserved. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Anesthetic Management of a Parturient with Severe Aortic Stenosis Thu, 21 May 2015 07:52:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cria/2015/489157/ In order to optimize anesthetic management and avoid adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, a clear understanding of the changes in cardiovascular physiology that occur during pregnancy is paramount. The effects of normal gestation on the cardiovascular system are particularly significant in a parturient with cardiac valvular pathology. We present a case of a 27-year-old G2P0 at 37 weeks with a past medical history of diabetes, macrosomia, congenital bicuspid aortic valve with severe stenosis (valve area 0.7 cm2) who was scheduled for elective C-section. A multidisciplinary discussion involving cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, obstetric surgeons, neonatal intensivists, perfusion staff, anesthesiologists, and nursing staff was held to formulate a plan for the perioperative management of this parturient. Also, contingency plans were formulated and discussed with the care providers, in the event of acute decompensation of the mother and baby and possible need for emergency aortic valvuloplasty and/or aortic valve replacement. Kalpana Tyagaraj, David A. Gutman, Lynn Belliveau, Adnan Sadiq, Alok Bhutada, and Dennis E. Feierman Copyright © 2015 Kalpana Tyagaraj et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Photoreduction Activity of Carbon Dioxide over Co3O4/CeO2 Catalysts under Visible Light Irradiation Thu, 21 May 2015 07:50:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2015/230808/ A series of new two semiconductor catalysts, Co3O4/CeO2, were prepared by glycine-nitrate combustion method for photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to produce methanol and ethanol under visible light ( nm) irradiation. The catalysts were characterized by BET, UV-vis spectra, XRD, SEM, PL, and XPS and the results indicated that the catalyst with 5 wt.% of Co3O4 has the highest yield among all kinds of tests with the methanol yield of 1.52 μmol·g−1·h−1 and the ethanol yield of 4.75 μmol·g−1·h−1, which are about 2.34 and 1.71 times as large as those of CeO2. However, methanol and ethanol can hardly be detected for Co3O4 under the same condition because of its too narrow band gap. The improvement of the photoreduction activity of Co3O4 doped CeO2 was caused by the separation of electron-hole pairs of Co3O4/CeO2 and charge transfer between Co3O4 and CeO2, mimicking the Z-scheme in photosynthesis. Ying Huang, Chang-Feng Yan, Chang-Qing Guo, and Shi-Lin Huang Copyright © 2015 Ying Huang et al. All rights reserved. Semiconductor Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Storage Thu, 21 May 2015 07:45:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2015/624146/ Xiang Wu, Xijin Xu, Chuanfei Guo, and Chee Kiang Ivan Tan Copyright © 2015 Xiang Wu et al. All rights reserved. Outbreak Control and Clinical, Pathological, and Epidemiological Aspects and Molecular Characterization of a Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 on a Feedlot Farm in São Paulo State Thu, 21 May 2015 07:42:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/981230/ This paper describes the control, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of an outbreak of meningoencephalitis in calves due to bovine herpesvirus 5 at a feedlot with 540 animals in São Paulo State, Brazil. The introduction of new animals and contact between the resident animals and the introduced ones were most likely responsible for virus transmission. Bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine was used, resulting in the efficacy of the outbreak control, although two bovine herpesvirus 1 positive animals, vaccinated and revaccinated, presented meningoencephalitis, thereby characterizing vaccinal failure. Jane Megid, Acácia Ferreira Vicente, Camila Michele Appolinario, Susan Dora Allendorf, Mateus de Souza Ribeiro Mioni, Thaís Gasparini Baraldi, Adriana Cortez, Marcos Bryan Heinemann, Clovis Reinaldo Silva Fonseca, Vanessa Cristina Pelícia, Bruna Leticia Devidé Ribeiro, Liria Hiromi Okuda, and Edviges Maristela Pituco Copyright © 2015 Jane Megid et al. All rights reserved. Improved Thrombin Hemostat Using the Cross-Linked Gelatin by Microbial Transglutaminase Thu, 21 May 2015 07:28:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijps/2015/985286/ It is well known that the thrombin obtained from animal is available in clinical treatment, which plays an important role in hemostasis and the treatment of hemorrhagic diseases. However, how to achieve complete hemostasis in 2 min is still a challenge. In this report, the thrombin hemostatic has been improved using the cross-linked gelatin by microbial transglutaminase, and its efficacy was demonstrated by the vitro experiment. Compared with the traditional thrombin hemostatic the clotting time with the improved hemostat is significantly shorter. It may rapidly stop blood loss, which would provide a simple, safe, and cost-effective surgical sealant. Tengfei Yu, Yuepeng Guan, Xia Xie, Yaqin Huang, and Jie Tang Copyright © 2015 Tengfei Yu et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Investigation of Rockburst Effect of Shock Wave on Underground Roadway Thu, 21 May 2015 07:23:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/867582/ Using UDEC discrete element numerical simulation software and a cosine wave as vibration source, the whole process of rockburst failure and the propagation and attenuation characteristics of shock wave in coal-rock medium were investigated in detail based on the geological and mining conditions of 1111(1) working face at Zhuji coal mine. Simultaneously, by changing the thickness and strength of immediate roof overlying the mining coal seam, the whole process of rockburst failure of roadway and the attenuation properties of shock wave were understood clearly. The presented conclusions can provide some important references to prevent and control rockburst hazards triggered by shock wave interferences in deep coal mines. Cai-Ping Lu, Guang-Jian Liu, Hong-Yu Wang, and Jun-Hua Xue Copyright © 2015 Cai-Ping Lu et al. All rights reserved. Role of B7-H4 siRNA in Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion of LOVO Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line Thu, 21 May 2015 07:23:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/326981/ Objectives. Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Recent studies investigated that B7-H4 is highly expressed in various cancers. We aimed at exploring the effect of B7-H4 siRNA on proliferation, invasion, and migration of LOVO cells which expressed B7-H4 notably. Design and Methods. Colon adenocarcinoma dataset was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. 35 colorectal cancer patients admitted to Shanghai Tongren Hospital were enrolled in this study. Cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution were identified by CCK8 and flow cytometry, respectively. Transwell assay was performed to detect the invasion and migration of LOVO cells. CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation were determined by real-time PCR and western blot. Results. B7-H4 expressed is elevated in colorectal cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal tissues. B7-H4 siRNA effectively inhibited the proliferation at 24 h and 48 h, arrested cell cycle at G0/G1, and suppressed cell invasion and migration. Gene set enrichment analysis showed that CXCL12/CXCR4 and JAK/STAT were correlative with the B7-H4 expression. Additionally, CXCL12/CXCR4 expression and JAK2/STAT3 phosphorylation were reduced. Conclusions. B7-H4 siRNA can effectively inhibit proliferation, invasion, and migration of LOVO cells by targeting CXCL12/CXCR4 and JAK2/STAT3 signaling, which can serve as a new target for colorectal carcinoma treatment. Hai-xia Peng, Wei-qi Wu, Da-ming Yang, Rong Jing, Ji Li, Feng-li Zhou, Yun-fei Jin, Sai-yu Wang, and Yi-min Chu Copyright © 2015 Hai-xia Peng et al. All rights reserved. Warning Method of Coal Bursting Failure Danger by Electromagnetic Radiation Thu, 21 May 2015 07:19:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/583862/ Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) can reflect the stress state and deformation level of coal, yet its warning indexes correlated with coal properties and roof caving is poorly understood. The laboratory observations of EMR effects of coal samples bursting failure and in situ investigations in the process of roof caving are presented in this paper. EMR peak with increasing stress is discussed when the failure of coal samples happens, which provides an explanation to EMR signals positively correlated well with the stress loaded. The linearly increasing relation is also found between EMR intensity and the uniaxial compressive strength, and EMR maximum amplitudes and pulses behave a logarithmic accretion tendency with bursting energy indexes of coal. By in situ investigations, it is well found that EMR amplitude can effectively warn coal deformation and failure based on the critical value 120 mV proposed from experiments. Guang-Jian Liu, Cai-Ping Lu, Hong-Yu Wang, Peng-Fei Liu, and Yang Liu Copyright © 2015 Guang-Jian Liu et al. All rights reserved. Blast-Induced Damage on Millisecond Blasting Model Test with Multicircle Vertical Blastholes Thu, 21 May 2015 07:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/504043/ To investigate the blast-induced damage effect on surrounding rock in vertical shaft excavation, 4 kinds of millisecond blasting model tests with three-circle blastholes were designed and carried out with excavation blasting in vertical shaft as the background. The longitudinal wave velocity on the side of concrete model was also measured before and after blasting. Then blast damage factor was then calculated by measuring longitudinal wave velocity before and after blasting. The test results show that the blast-induced damage factor attenuated gradually with the centre of three-circle blastholes as centre. With the threshold value of 0.19 for blast-induced damage factor, blast-induced damage zones for 4 kinds of model tests are described and there is an inverted cone blast-induced damage zone in concrete model. And analyses of cutting effect and blast-induced damage zone indicate that in order to minimize the blast-induced damage effect and ensure the cutting effect the reasonable blasting scheme for three-circle blastholes is the inner two-circle blastholes initiated simultaneously and the outer third circle blastholes initiated in a 25 ms delay. Qin-yong Ma, Pu Yuan, Jing-shuang Zhang, Rui-qiu Ma, and Bo Han Copyright © 2015 Qin-yong Ma et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances on Building Information Modeling Thu, 21 May 2015 07:16:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/786598/ Yu-Shen Liu, Heng Li, Haijiang Li, Pieter Pauwels, and Jakob Beetz Copyright © 2015 Yu-Shen Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Novel ID-Based Authentication and Key Exchange Protocol Resistant to Ephemeral-Secret-Leakage Attacks for Mobile Devices Thu, 21 May 2015 07:16:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/898716/ With the rapid development in wireless communications and cloud computing technologies, clients (users) often use handheld mobile devices to access remote servers via open network channels. To provide authentication and confidentiality between clients and servers, a large number of ID-based authentication and key exchange (ID-AKE) protocols have been proposed for mobile client-server environments. However, most of the existing ID-AKE protocols adopt the precomputation technique so that they become vulnerable to the ephemeral-secret-leakage (ESL) attacks, in the sense that an adversary could use the ephemeral secrets to reveal the private keys of clients from the corresponding exchange messages. In the paper, we propose a new ESL-secure ID-AKE protocol for mobile client-server environments. We formally prove that the proposed protocol satisfies the security requirements of both mutual authentication and key exchange while resisting the ESL attacks. When compared with previously proposed ID-AKE protocols, our protocol has higher security and retains computational performance, since it requires no bilinear pairing operation for mobile clients. Finally, we mention the possibility of adopting our protocol as an authentication method of the extensible authentication protocol (EAP) for wireless networks. Yuh-Min Tseng, Sen-Shan Huang, Tung-Tso Tsai, and Li Tseng Copyright © 2015 Yuh-Min Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Signal Transduction Inhibitors as Promising Anticancer Agents Thu, 21 May 2015 07:15:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/584170/ Raj Kumar, Cedric Dos Santos, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, and Sandeep Singh Copyright © 2015 Raj Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Multi-Index Monitoring and Evaluation on Rock Burst in Yangcheng Mine Thu, 21 May 2015 07:15:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/624893/ Based on the foreboding information monitoring of the energy released in the developing process of rock burst, prediction system for rock burst can be established. By using microseismic method, electromagnetic radiation method, and drilling bits method, rock burst in Yangcheng Mine was monitored, and a system of multi-index monitoring and evaluation on rock burst was established. Microseismic monitoring and electromagnetic radiation monitoring were early warning method, and drilling bits monitoring was burst region identification method. There were three identifying indexes: silence period in microseismic monitoring, rising period of the intensity, and rising period of pulse count in electromagnetic radiation monitoring. If there is identified burst risk in the workface, drilling bits method was used to ascertain the burst region, and then pressure releasing methods were carried out to eliminate the disaster. Yunliang Tan, Yanchun Yin, Shitan Gu, and Zhiwei Tian Copyright © 2015 Yunliang Tan et al. All rights reserved. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Lanthanide Stannates Pyrochlore Nanocrystals for Catalytic Combustion of Soot Particulates Thu, 21 May 2015 07:14:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/254165/ Nanocrystalline La2Sn2O7 and La2Sn1.8Co0.2O7 with a phase-pure pyrochlore structure were synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and their catalytic activity was investigated for soot combustion. The as-synthesized catalysts presented relatively larger surface area, and pore volume, which was benefit to the gas molecule diffusion in the reaction. A uniform spherical structure with particle size of 200–500 nm was found in SEM. The samples via hydrothermal route are more active for catalytic soot combustion, ascribing to the spherical morphology, high surface area and improved oxygen mobility. After Co, the reducibility was improved and surface oxygen vacancy was produced, resulting in the enhanced activity and selectivity to CO2 formation. Xiaomin Zhang, Xuhui Liu, Peng Lu, Liguo Wang, Zhaoliang Zhang, Xiuju Wang, and Zhongpeng Wang Copyright © 2015 Xiaomin Zhang et al. All rights reserved. High-Entropy Alloys Thu, 21 May 2015 07:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2015/781303/ Yong Zhang, Jien-Wei Yeh, Jian F. Sun, Jun P. Lin, and Ke-Fu Yao Copyright © 2015 Yong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Fine Gangue on Strength, Resistivity, and Microscopic Properties of Cemented Coal Gangue Backfill for Coal Mining Thu, 21 May 2015 07:11:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/752678/ The cemented coal gangue backfill (CGB) in coal mining is normally made of gangue (particle size of 0–15 mm), fly ash, cement, and water. In this study, the effects of the weight content (ranging from 20% to 60%) of fine gangue (0–5 mm) on the microscopic characteristics, resistivity, and compressive strength of CGB were investigated at 3 d and 28 d curing times, respectively. The test results indicate that the strengths of the CGB, regardless of the curing time, increased with fine gangue content changing from 20% up to 40%. Further increase in fine gangue introduced a decrease in the strength. Another observation is that, at 3 days, a general increasing trend of CGB resistivity was noted with fine gangue content. At 28 days, the resistivity of CGB decreased with increase in the fine gangue content. Correlations between the resistivity and compression strength of CGB show a concave pattern, which attribute to the various micromechanism influenced on the resistivity and strength of CGB with different fine gangue content. It indicates that using resistivity to derive strength of CGB is not appropriate. Tingye Qi, Guorui Feng, Yanrong Li, Yuxia Guo, Jun Guo, and Yujiang Zhang Copyright © 2015 Tingye Qi et al. All rights reserved. Helicobacter pylori Infection Thu, 21 May 2015 07:11:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/278308/ Ping-I Hsu, Yoshio Yamaoka, Khean-Lee Goh, Marco Manfredi, Deng-Chyang Wu, and Varocha Mahachai Copyright © 2015 Ping-I Hsu et al. All rights reserved. A New SVM Multiclass Incremental Learning Algorithm Thu, 21 May 2015 07:10:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/745815/ A new support vector machine (SVM) multiclass incremental learning algorithm is proposed. To each class training sample, the hyperellipsoidal classifier that includes as many samples as possible and pushes the outlier samples away is trained in the feature space. When the new samples are added to the classification system, the algorithm reuses the old classifiers that have nothing to do with the new sample classes. To be classified sample, the Mahalanobis distances are used to decide the class of classified sample. If the sample point is not surrounded by any hyperellipsoidal or is surrounded by more than one hyperellipsoidal, the membership is used to confirm its class. The experimental results show that the algorithm has higher performance in classification precision and classification speed. Yuping Qin, Dan Li, and Aihua Zhang Copyright © 2015 Yuping Qin et al. All rights reserved. Prolonged Complete Response in a Patient with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma after FOLFIRINOX Chemotherapy and Maintenance with FOLFIRI Thu, 21 May 2015 07:08:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crionm/2015/659624/ Metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma confers a poor prognosis. Even with recent advances in the treatment of this disease with the introduction of two modestly effective chemotherapy regimens, complete responses are still very rare. Moreover, there are no published data on how to further manage the patients who achieve a sustained remission following treatment. Herein, we report the case of a patient with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who achieved a complete response lasting for more than three years after receiving induction chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX followed by maintenance with FOLFIRI. Christos Nikolaou, Alexios Matikas, Maria Papavasilopoulou, Dimitris Mavroudis, and Lampros Vamvakas Copyright © 2015 Christos Nikolaou et al. All rights reserved. Combining MLC and SVM Classifiers for Learning Based Decision Making: Analysis and Evaluations Thu, 21 May 2015 07:07:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2015/423581/ Maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) and support vector machines (SVM) are two commonly used approaches in machine learning. MLC is based on Bayesian theory in estimating parameters of a probabilistic model, whilst SVM is an optimization based nonparametric method in this context. Recently, it is found that SVM in some cases is equivalent to MLC in probabilistically modeling the learning process. In this paper, MLC and SVM are combined in learning and classification, which helps to yield probabilistic output for SVM and facilitate soft decision making. In total four groups of data are used for evaluations, covering sonar, vehicle, breast cancer, and DNA sequences. The data samples are characterized in terms of Gaussian/non-Gaussian distributed and balanced/unbalanced samples which are then further used for performance assessment in comparing the SVM and the combined SVM-MLC classifier. Interesting results are reported to indicate how the combined classifier may work under various conditions. Yi Zhang, Jinchang Ren, and Jianmin Jiang Copyright © 2015 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. From the Veins to the Heart: A Rare Cause of Varicose Veins Thu, 21 May 2015 07:02:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crivam/2015/849408/ The presence of pulsating varicous veins is an uncommon finding, generically attributed to right heart failure. The precise causes of this phenomenon have been poorly defined in the literature. The finding of this infrequent condition is important because it may be a sign of major diseases, often not known. Here we described a 75-year-old woman presented to the Angiology Unit for the presence of bilateral pulsatile swelling in her groin and along both lower limbs. A bedside ultrasound examination showed an arterial like pulsating flow both in the superficial and in the deep veins of the lower limbs due to a severe tricuspid regurgitation not previously known. Michele Dalla Vestra, Elisabetta Grolla, Luca Bonanni, Vittorio Dorrucci, Fabio Presotto, and Fausto Rigo Copyright © 2015 Michele Dalla Vestra et al. All rights reserved. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Retinopathy of Prematurity Thu, 21 May 2015 06:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/764159/ Objective. The goals were to isolate and study the genetic susceptibility to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), as well as the gene-environment interaction established in this disease. Methods. A retrospective study (2000–2014) was performed about the heritability of retinopathy of prematurity in 257 infants who were born at a gestational age of ≤32 weeks. The ROP was studied and treated by a single pediatric ophthalmologist. A binary logistic regression analysis was completed between the presence or absence of ROP and the predictor variables. Results. Data obtained from 38 monozygotic twins, 66 dizygotic twins, and 153 of simple birth were analyzed. The clinical features of the cohorts of monozygotic and dizygotic twins were not significantly different. Genetic factors represented 72.8% of the variability in the stage of ROP, environmental factors 23.08%, and random factors 4.12%. The environmental variables representing the highest risk of ROP were the number of days of tracheal intubation (p < 0.001), postnatal weight gain (p = 0.001), and development of sepsis (p = 0.0014). Conclusion. The heritability of ROP was found to be 0.73. The environmental factors regulate and modify the expression of the genetic code. J. M. Ortega-Molina, R. Anaya-Alaminos, J. Uberos-Fernández, A. Solans-Pérez de Larraya, M. J. Chaves-Samaniego, A. Salgado-Miranda, R. Piñar-Molina, A. Jerez-Calero, and J. L. García-Serrano Copyright © 2015 J. M. Ortega-Molina et al. All rights reserved. The Cost of Managing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Greece: A Retrospective Analysis of 10-Year Patient Level Data “The HERCULES Study” Thu, 21 May 2015 06:36:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2015/520759/ Objective. This study aimed to estimate the mean annual cost of treating type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM) including complications and comorbidities in Greece. Design. A noninterventional retrospective study was based on patient level data analysis (bottom-up approach) from medical records, with at least 10-year-follow-up data. Results. The total annual cost per patient for managing diabetes in Greece was estimated at € 7,111 and was, statistically significantly, higher for patients with inadequate glycemic control () versus patients with adequate control () (€ 7,783 versus € 6,366, resp.;   ). This was mainly attributed to difference in CV hospitalizations between groups 14/111 versus 4/100, respectively, (95% CI: 1.10–10.9) for inadequately controlled patients. The largest component of cost was management of comorbidities, accounting for 48% of costs, and pharmaceutical treatment at 35.9% while only 14.9% was attributed to diabetes treatment per se. Obese men and patients with poor education are the groups with higher treatment costs. Conclusions. This is the first study to capture all cost components and the real burden of diabetes in Greece. Comorbidities were found to account for almost half of total cost, significantly higher in nonoptimally controlled diabetes patients. Ilias Migdalis, Grigorios Rombopoulos, Magdalini Hatzikou, Christos Manes, Nikolaos Kypraios, and Nikolaos Tentolouris Copyright © 2015 Ilias Migdalis et al. All rights reserved. A Nonlinear Exact Disturbance Observer Inspired by Sliding Mode Techniques Thu, 21 May 2015 06:35:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/651601/ Inspired by sliding mode techniques, a nonlinear exact disturbance observer is proposed. The disturbance and its derivatives up to the second order are assumed to be bounded. However, the bounds of the disturbance and its derivatives are unknown, and they are adaptively estimated online during the observation of the disturbances. The exact convergence of the disturbance observer to the genuine disturbance is assured theoretically. The convergence speed of the disturbance estimation error is controlled by design parameters. The proposed method is robust to the type of disturbance and is easy to be implemented. Computer simulation results show the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed formulation. Xinkai Chen Copyright © 2015 Xinkai Chen. All rights reserved. Selenofuranoside Ameliorates Memory Loss in Alzheimer-Like Sporadic Dementia: AChE Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation Involvement Thu, 21 May 2015 06:30:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/976908/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is becoming more common due to the increase in life expectancy. This study evaluated the effect of selenofuranoside (Se) in an Alzheimer-like sporadic dementia animal model. Male mice were divided into 4 groups: control, Aβ, Se, and Aβ + Se. Single administration of Aβ peptide (fragments 25–35; 3 nmol/3 μL) or distilled water was administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. Selenofuranoside (5 mg/kg) or vehicle (canola oil) was administered orally 30 min before Aβ and for 7 subsequent days. Memory was tested through the Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive-avoidance (SDPA) tests. Antioxidant defenses along with reactive species (RS) were assessed. Inflammatory cytokines levels and AChE activity were measured. SOD activity was inhibited in the Aβ group whereas RS were increased. AChE activity, GSH, and IL-6 levels were increased in the Aβ group. These changes were reflected in impaired cognition and memory loss, observed in both behavioral tests. Se compound was able to protect against memory loss in mice in both behavioral tests. SOD and AChE activities as well as RS and IL-6 levels were also protected by Se administration. Therefore, Se is promising for further studies. Cristiano Chiapinotto Spiazzi, Melina Bucco Soares, Aryele Pinto Izaguirry, Laura Musacchio Vargas, Mariane Magalhães Zanchi, Natasha Frasson Pavin, Ricardo Ferreira Affeldt, Diogo Seibert Lüdtke, Marina Prigol, and Francielli Weber Santos Copyright © 2015 Cristiano Chiapinotto Spiazzi et al. All rights reserved. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque Thu, 21 May 2015 06:28:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/371948/ This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the analysis, a new device for testing drill pipe torque is developed and a series of experiments is performed under different conditions; the results show that drill pipe torque linearly increases with the increase of coal stress and coal strength; the faster the drilling speed, the larger the drill pipe torque, and vice versa. When monitoring rock burst by drill pipe torque method, the index of rock burst is regarded as a function in which coal stress index and coal strength index are principal variables. The results are important for the forecast of rock burst in coal mine. Zhonghua Li, Liyuan Zhu, Wanlei Yin, and Yanfang Song Copyright © 2015 Zhonghua Li et al. All rights reserved. Sustainable Utilization of TCM Resources Wed, 20 May 2015 17:27:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/613836/ Shilin Chen, Yitao Wang, Zhongzhen Zhao, Christine J. Leon, and Robert J. Henry Copyright © 2015 Shilin Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Mixed Variable Speed Reaching Law of Sliding Mode Control for Spacecraft Tracking System Wed, 20 May 2015 17:26:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/367146/ For spacecraft tracking control system, the reaching law election and controller design are two crucial and important problems. In this paper, spacecraft tracking system is considered as a discrete-time system, a mixed variable speed reaching law of SMC, and a controller for spacecraft tracking system has been investigated. Theory proves that this method can ensure the stability of spacecraft system and eliminate the chattering phenomenon. Furthermore, when spacecraft is inflicted by a certain external interference, the regulating function of neural network can ensure strong robustness of the system. Simulation results show that, compared with exponential reaching law and classical variable speed reaching law, the proposed reaching law has better suppress chattering effect and dynamic performance. Yao Zhang and Yu-Xin Zhao Copyright © 2015 Yao Zhang and Yu-Xin Zhao. All rights reserved. Instantaneous Rock Blasting Wave and Its Microscopic Characteristics during Interaction with Concrete Wed, 20 May 2015 16:48:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/318286/ This paper uses improved technology for dynamic strain measurement to investigate the dynamic strain signals of blasting wave action tested in the range of 8–16 cm from the central blast. Based on the blasting mechanism and on the analysis of signal characteristics, blasting waves are recognized and divided into three zones, namely, shock wave zone, stress wave zone, and gas-expanding zone. This paper studies the relationships between stress, strain, and time of every zone. The tensile and compressive stresses of stress wave are considered. After the blasting test, four cracks from the borehole center toward the minimum burden appear at the model surface. The relationship between blasting wave and concrete damage is analyzed. Shaoqin Huang, Lifeng Luan, Wanli Xing, and Qunyi Liu Copyright © 2015 Shaoqin Huang et al. All rights reserved. Quasi-Sliding Networked Control of Systems Subject to Unbounded Disturbance with Limited Rate of Change Wed, 20 May 2015 16:44:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/379647/ This paper concerns network based sliding mode control of linear plants with state measurement delay. The considered plants are subject to unbounded disturbance, but it is assumed that the change of disturbance value between each two subsequent sampling instants is limited. In order to combat the unpredictable disturbance in the environment with state measurement delay, a novel sliding mode controller has been introduced. It utilizes two nominal models of the plant to drive the system state along a desired trajectory and counteract the predicted effect of the past disturbance on the system. It has been proven that applying the new control strategy to the plant confines the system state to a defined band around the sliding hyperplane. Andrzej Bartoszewicz and Paweł Latosiński Copyright © 2015 Andrzej Bartoszewicz and Paweł Latosiński. All rights reserved. Distribution of Side Abutment Stress in Roadway Subjected to Dynamic Pressure and Its Engineering Application Wed, 20 May 2015 16:41:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/929836/ The borehole stress-meter was employed in this study to investigate the distribution of the side abutment stress in roadway subjected to dynamic pressure. The results demonstrate that the side abutment stress of the mining roadway reaches a peak value when the distance to the gob is 8 m and the distribution curve of the side abutment stress can be divided into three zones: stress rising zone, stress stabilizing zone, and stress decreasing zone. Further numerical investigation was carried out to study the effect of the coal mass strength, coal seam depth, immediate roof strength, and thickness on the distribution of the side abutment stress. Based on the research results, we determined the reasonable position of the mining roadway and the optimal width of the barrier pillar. The engineering application demonstrates that the retention of the barrier pillar with a width of 5 m along the gob as the haulage roadway for the next panel is feasible, which delivers favorable technological and economic benefits. Yao Qiangling, Zhou Jian, Li Yanan, Tan Yingming, and Jiang Zhigang Copyright © 2015 Yao Qiangling et al. All rights reserved. Monitoring of Serial Presurgical and Postsurgical Changes in the Serum Proteome in a Series of Patients with Calcific Aortic Stenosis Wed, 20 May 2015 16:40:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/694120/ Background. Comprehensive analysis of proteome differentially expressed in response to surgery or drug treatment is useful to understand biological responses to dispensed interventions. Here we investigated expression changes in sera of patients who suffered from calcific aortic stenosis (CAS), before and after surgery for aortic valve replacement. Materials and Methods. Sera obtained before and after surgery with depletion of highly abundant proteins were analyzed with iTRAQ labeling followed by nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Results. Fifty-one proteins shared in five patients were identified with differential levels in postsurgical and presurgical sera. Finally, 16 proteins that show statistically significant levels in patients’ sera compared with those in control sera () were identified. Most of the identified proteins were positive acute-phase proteins. Among three proteins other than acute-phase proteins, we confirmed increased levels of antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein in postsurgical sera by Western blot analysis using other CAS patients’ sera. Furthermore, antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein were not found among proteins with differential levels in postsurgical and presurgical sera of patients with aortic aneurysms that we identified in a previous study. Conclusions. The results indicated that antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein would become unique monitoring proteins for evaluating pathophysiological and biochemical processes occurring before and after surgery for CAS. Kazumi Satoh, Kazuo Yamada, Tomoko Maniwa, Teiji Oda, and Ken-ichi Matsumoto Copyright © 2015 Kazumi Satoh et al. All rights reserved. Generation of Adducts of 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal with Heat Shock 60 kDa Protein 1 in Human Promyelocytic HL-60 and Monocytic THP-1 Cell Lines Wed, 20 May 2015 16:40:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/296146/ Heat shock 60 kDa protein 1 (HSP60) is a chaperone and stress response protein responsible for protein folding and delivery of endogenous peptides to antigen-presenting cells and also a target of autoimmunity implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. By two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we found that exposure of human promyelocytic HL-60 cells to a nontoxic concentration (10 μM) of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) yielded a HSP60 modified with HNE. We also detected adducts of HNE with putative uncharacterized protein CXorf49, the product of an open reading frame identified in various cell and tissue proteomes. Moreover, exposure of human monocytic THP-1 cells differentiated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate to 10 μM HNE, and to light density lipoprotein modified with HNE (HNE-LDL) or by copper-catalyzed oxidation (oxLDL), but not to native LDL, stimulated the formation of HNE adducts with HSP60, as detected by immunoprecipitation and western blot, well over basal levels. The identification of HNE-HSP60 adducts outlines a framework of mutually reinforcing interactions between endothelial cell stressors, like oxLDL and HSP60, whose possible outcomes, such as the amplification of endothelial dysfunction, the spreading of lipoxidative damage to other proteins, such as CXorf49, the activation of antigen-presenting cells, and the breaking of tolerance to HSP60 are discussed. Alessia Arcaro, Martina Daga, Giovanni Paolo Cetrangolo, Eric Stefano Ciamporcero, Alessio Lepore, Stefania Pizzimenti, Claudia Petrella, Maria Graf, Koji Uchida, Gianfranco Mamone, Pasquale Ferranti, Paul R. J. Ames, Giuseppe Palumbo, Giuseppina Barrera, and Fabrizio Gentile Copyright © 2015 Alessia Arcaro et al. All rights reserved. Establishment of Approximate Analytical Model of Oil Film Force for Finite Length Tilting Pad Journal Bearings Wed, 20 May 2015 16:39:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijrm/2015/531209/ Tilting pad bearings offer unique dynamic stability enabling successful deployment of high-speed rotating machinery. The model of dynamic stiffness, damping, and added mass coefficients is often used for rotordynamic analyses, and this method does not suffice to describe the dynamic behaviour due to the nonlinear effects of oil film force under larger shaft vibration or vertical rotor conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a nonlinear oil force model for finite length tilting pad journal bearings. An approximate analytic oil film force model was established by analysing the dynamic characteristic of oil film of a single pad journal bearing using variable separation method under the dynamic oil film boundary condition. And an oil film force model of a four-tilting-pad journal bearing was established by using the pad assembly technique and considering pad tilting angle. The validity of the model established was proved by analyzing the distribution of oil film pressure and the locus of journal centre for tilting pad journal bearings and by comparing the model established in this paper with the model established using finite difference method. Yongliang Wang, Yu Gao, Ying Cui, and Zhansheng Liu Copyright © 2015 Yongliang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Dislocation Synchronization of the Different Complex Value Chaotic Systems Based on Single Adaptive Sliding Mode Controller Wed, 20 May 2015 16:38:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/240586/ Based on the active control and the adaptive sliding mode controller, a new method of the combination of the active control and the single adaptive sliding mode variable structure control is proposed to realize the dislocation synchronization of the three-dimensional different complex value chaotic systems. The synchronization method is suitable not only for the same complex value chaotic systems, but also for different complex value chaotic systems, so it expands the application of the single sliding mode controller. For the states in the complex space of the driving system and response system, the synchronization for the complex state of the two different chaotic systems is achieved according to the dislocation relationship, not in accordance with the corresponding relationship. The complexity of complex value chaotic system and the diversity of dislocation synchronization increase the security of the chaotic secure communication. This single adaptive sliding mode variable structure controller is simple, and it can enhance the robustness of the system. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the controller designed. Li-lian Huang, Shuai-shuai Shi, and Juan Zhang Copyright © 2015 Li-lian Huang et al. All rights reserved. Neurexin-Neuroligin Synaptic Complex Regulates Schizophrenia-Related DISC1/Kal-7/Rac1 “Signalosome” Wed, 20 May 2015 16:34:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2015/167308/ Neurexins (NXs) and neuroligins (NLs) are cell adhesion molecules that are localized at opposite sites of synaptic membranes. They interact with each other to promote the assembly, maintenance, and function of synapses in the central nervous system. Both NX and NL are cleaved from a membrane-attached intracellular domain in an activity-dependent manner, generating the soluble ectodomain of NX or NL. Expression of the NX1 and NX3 genes in the brain appears to be regulated by a schizophrenia-related protein, DISC1. Here, we show that soluble ecto-NX1β can regulate the expression of DISC1 and induce signaling downstream of DISC1. We also show that NL1 binds to a well-characterized DISC1 interaction partner, Kal-7, and this interaction can be compromised by DISC1. Our results indicate that the NX/NL synaptic complex is intrinsically involved in the regulation of DISC1 function, thus contributing to a better understanding of the pathology of schizophrenia. Sylwia Owczarek, Marie Louise Bang, and Vladimir Berezin Copyright © 2015 Sylwia Owczarek et al. All rights reserved. Triptolide Attenuates Podocyte Injury by Regulating Expression of miRNA-344b-3p and miRNA-30b-3p in Rats with Adriamycin-Induced Nephropathy Wed, 20 May 2015 16:32:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/107814/ Objectives. We investigated the action of triptolide in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy and evaluated the possible mechanisms underlying its protective effect against podocyte injury. Methods. In total, 30 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups (normal group, model group, and triptolide group). On days 7, 28, 42, and 56, 24 h urine samples were collected. All rats were sacrificed on day 56, and their blood and renal tissues were collected for determination of biochemical and molecular biological parameters. Expression of miRNAs in the renal cortex was analyzed by a biochip assay and RT-PCR was used to confirm observed differences in miRNA levels. Results. Triptolide decreased proteinuria, improved renal function without apparent adverse effects on the liver, and alleviated renal pathological lesions. Triptolide also elevated the nephrin protein level. Furthermore, levels of miR-344b-3p and miR-30b-3p were elevated in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy, while triptolide treatment reversed the increase in the expression of these two miRNAs. Conclusions. These results suggest that triptolide may attenuate podocyte injury in rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy by regulating expression of miRNA-344b-3p and miRNA-30b-3p. Chun-Bo Jiang, Ming-Gang Wei, Yue Tu, Hao Zhu, Chun-Qing Li, Wei-Min Jing, and Wei Sun Copyright © 2015 Chun-Bo Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Chatter Prediction for Variable Pitch and Variable Helix Milling Wed, 20 May 2015 14:37:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/419172/ Regenerative chatter is a self-excited vibration that can occur during milling, which shortens the lifetime of the tool and results in unacceptable surface quality. In this paper, an improved semidiscretization method for modeling and simulation with variable pitch and variable helix milling is proposed. Because the delay between each flute varies along the axial depth of the tool in milling, the cutting tool is discrete into some axial layers to simplify calculation. A comparison of the predicted and observed performance of variable pitch and variable helix against uniform pitch and uniform helix milling is presented. It is shown that variable pitch and variable helix milling can obtain larger stable cutting area than uniform pitch and uniform helix milling. Thus, it is concluded that variable pitch and variable helix milling are an effective way for suppressing chatter. Yong Wang, Taiyong Wang, Zhiqiang Yu, Yue Zhang, Yulong Wang, and Hengli Liu Copyright © 2015 Yong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Role of Oxidative RNA Damage in Chronic-Degenerative Diseases Wed, 20 May 2015 14:32:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2015/358713/ Normal cellular metabolism and exposure to ionizing and ultraviolet radiations and exogenous agents produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Due to their reactivity, they can interact with many critical biomolecules and induce cell damage. The reaction of ROS with free nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides, or oligonucleotides can generate numerous distinct modifications in nucleic acids. Oxidative damage to DNA has been widely investigated and is strongly implicated in the development of many chronic-degenerative diseases. In contrast, RNA damage is a poorly examined field in biomedical research. In this review, I discuss the importance of RNA as a target of oxidative damage and the role of oxidative damage to RNA in the pathogenesis of some chronic-degenerative diseases, such as neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Furthermore, I review recent evidence suggesting that RNA may be the target for toxic agents and indicating RNA degradation as a powerful tool to treat any pathology in which there is an aberrant expression of mRNA and/or its gene products. Carmela Fimognari Copyright © 2015 Carmela Fimognari. All rights reserved. Thermal Annealing Effect on Structural, Morphological, and Sensor Performance of PANI-Ag-Fe Based Electrochemical E. coli Sensor for Environmental Monitoring Wed, 20 May 2015 14:29:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2015/696521/ PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films based electrochemical E. coli sensor was developed with thermal annealing. PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films were prepared by oxidative polymerization of aniline and the reduction process of Ag-Fe bimetallic compound with the presence of nitric acid and PVA. The films were deposited on glass substrate using spin-coating technique before they were annealed at 300°C. The films were characterized using XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and FESEM to study the structural and morphological properties. The electrochemical sensor performance was conducted using I-V measurement electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensitivity upon the presence of E. coli was measured in clean water and E. coli solution. From XRD analysis, the crystallite sizes were found to become larger for the samples after annealing. UV-Vis absorption bands for samples before and after annealing show maximum absorbance peaks at around 422 nm–424 nm and 426 nm–464 nm, respectively. FESEM images show the diameter size for nanospherical Ag-Fe alloy particles increases after annealing. The sensor performance of PANI-Ag-Fe nanocomposite thin films upon E. coli cells in liquid medium indicates the sensitivity increases after annealing. Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim, H. Abdullah, Akrajas Ali Umar, Aidil Abdul Hamid, and Sahbudin Shaari Copyright © 2015 Norshafadzila Mohammad Naim et al. All rights reserved. Glioblastoma Circulating Cells: Reality, Trap or Illusion? Wed, 20 May 2015 14:29:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/182985/ Metastases are the hallmark of cancer. This event is in direct relationship with the ability of cancer cells to leave the tumor mass and travel long distances within the bloodstream and/or lymphatic vessels. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent primary brain neoplasm, is mainly characterized by a dismal prognosis. The usual fatal issue for GBM patients is a consequence of local recurrence that is observed most of the time without any distant metastases. However, it has recently been documented that GBM cells could be isolated from the bloodstream in several studies. This observation raises the question of the possible involvement of glioblastoma-circulating cells in GBM deadly recurrence by a “homing metastasis” process. Therefore, we think it is important to review the already known molecular mechanisms underlying circulating tumor cells (CTC) specific properties, emphasizing their epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) abilities and their possible involvement in tumor initiation. The idea is here to review these mechanisms and speculate on how relevant they could be applied in the forthcoming battles against GBM. A. Lombard, N. Goffart, and B. Rogister Copyright © 2015 A. Lombard et al. All rights reserved. Study on Low-Frequency TEM Effect of Coal during Dynamic Rupture Wed, 20 May 2015 14:28:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/189569/ Dynamic loads provided by the SHPB test system were applied to coal specimens, and the TEM signals that emerged during coal rupture were recorded by the TMVT system. Experiments on coal-mass blasting rupture in excavating workface were also carried out, and the emerged TEM signal was analyzed. The results indicate that the low-frequency TEM signals were detected close to the coal specimens under high strain dynamic load applied by the SHPB, initially rising sharply and dropping rapidly, followed by a small tailing turbulence. And the field test results obtained during coal blasting process coincided with the results from the SHPB tests. Furthermore, its initial part shaped like a pulse cluster had a more pronounced tail and lasted even longer. And the generation mechanism of the low-frequency TEM effect was analyzed. It suggests that the low-frequency TEM effect of coal during dynamic rupture is contributed by the fractoemission mechanism and the resonance or waveguide effects. Because its wavelength is longer than the higher ones, the low-frequency TEM has a good anti-interference performance. That can expand the scope and performance of the coal-rock dynamic disaster electromagnetic monitoring technique. Cheng-wu Li, Chuan Wang, Bei-jing Xie, Xiao-yuan Sun, and Xiao-meng Xu Copyright © 2015 Cheng-wu Li et al. All rights reserved. Bolt Pull-Out Tests of Anchorage Body under Different Loading Rates Wed, 20 May 2015 14:28:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/121673/ Based on the force analysis and mechanical transmission mechanism of grouting bolts, the self-developed test apparatus for interfacial mechanics is used to study the distribution rule of axial force and interfacial stress of bolts in anchorage body. At the same time, pull-out tests of anchorage body are simulated with the particle flow code software , and stress distribution and failure patters are researched under different loading rates. The results show that the distribution of axial force and interfacial shear stress is nonuniform along the anchorage section: axial force decreases, shear force increases first and then decreases, and the maximum value of both of them is closed to the pull-out side; with the increase of loading rates, both of axial force and interfacial shear stress show a trend of increase in the upper anchorage section but changes are not obvious in the lower anchorage section, which causes serious stress concentration; failure strength of pull-out and loading rates show a linear correlation; according to loading rates’ impact on the anchoring effect, the loading rates’ scope can be divided into soft scope ( mm/s), moderate scope (10 mm/s < < 100 mm/s), and strong scope ( mm/s). Tong-bin Zhao, Wei-yao Guo, Yan-chun Yin, and Yun-liang Tan Copyright © 2015 Tong-bin Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Smoothing Approach of RSSI and LQI for Indoor Localization System Wed, 20 May 2015 14:26:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2015/195297/ Ubiquitous indoor environments often contain substantial amounts of metal and other similar reflective materials that affect the propagation of radio frequency signals in important ways, causing severe multipath effects, including noise and interference, when measuring the signal strength between sender and receiver. To minimize the noise level, this study proposes advanced fusion filter (AFF) and improved fusion filter (IFF) using received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and link quality indicator (LQI) by using feedback filter. The aim of this research was to provide a low cost, simple technique based on RSSI and LQI values, provided by ZigBee module without considering needs to change the system according to specific indoor environments. The proposed technique could efficiently decrease huge amount of noise level from the original signal. To check the performance of the proposed technique, this study applied median filter and Savitzky-Golay filter to compare the performance of AFF and IFF. Further, the statistical analysis technique of cross-correlation method was used to check the similarity between original signal and filtered signal. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed RF-based indoor location determination. Sharly Joana Halder, Paritosh Giri, and Wooju Kim Copyright © 2015 Sharly Joana Halder et al. All rights reserved. Toxicity of Nanomaterials Wed, 20 May 2015 14:14:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/521014/ Haseeb A. Khan and Rishi Shanker Copyright © 2015 Haseeb A. Khan and Rishi Shanker. All rights reserved. Effects of Naringin on Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo Wed, 20 May 2015 14:08:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2015/758706/ This study is to explore the osteogenesis potential of the human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) induced by naringin in vitro and in vitro. The results confirmed that 1 μM naringin performs the best effect and a collection of bone-related genes (RUNX2, COL1A2, OPN, and OCN) had significantly higher expression levels compared to the control group. Furthermore, a typical trabecular structure was observed in vivo, surrounded by a large amount of osteoblasts. These results demonstrated that naringin, at a concentration of 1 μM, can efficiently promote the proliferation and differentiation of hPDLSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Lihua Yin, Wenxiao Cheng, Zishun Qin, Hongdou Yu, Zhanhai Yu, Mei Zhong, Kemo Sun, and Wei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Lihua Yin et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Cause of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension Resistant to Therapy in The Newborn: Short-Rib Polydactyly Syndrome Wed, 20 May 2015 14:04:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2015/274639/ Short-rib polydactyly syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited lethal skeletal dysplasia. The syndrome is characterized by marked narrow fetal thorax, short extremities, micromelia, cleft palate/lip, polydactyly, cardiac and renal abnormalities, and genital malformations. In cases with pulmonary hypoplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn can develop. In this paper, we present a term newborn with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, which has developed secondary to short-rib polydactyly syndrome and was resistant to therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil. Nihat Demir, Erdal Peker, İbrahim Ece, Sultan Kaba, Kemal Ağengin, and Oğuz Tuncer Copyright © 2015 Nihat Demir et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Methods and Applications in Medical Imaging 2014 Wed, 20 May 2015 13:48:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2015/685036/ Liang Li, Tianye Niu, and Yi Gao Copyright © 2015 Liang Li et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Diversified Processes Monitoring Wed, 20 May 2015 13:48:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/984768/ The paper proposed a new method to classify and establish the monitoring model for diversified processes data with multiscale. The advantages of the proposed approach are listed as follows. (1) The issues of diversified processes data with multiscale are considered and the fault monitoring effect is enhanced. (2) From a new perspective, the common and specific characteristic subspaces are extracted to help simplify the structure of the monitoring model. (3) It makes the correlation between the common subspace itself and input-output dataset of each mode as close as possible. The effect of the proposed method has been shown in the Experiment Results section. Yunpeng Fan, Shipeng Li, Wenyou Du, and Yingwei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Yunpeng Fan et al. All rights reserved. Acoustic Emission Behavior of Rock-Like Material Containing Two Flaws in the Process of Deformation Failure Wed, 20 May 2015 13:47:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/167580/ Many sudden disasters (such as rock burst) by mining extraction originate in crack initiation and propagation. Meanwhile a large number of shock waves are produced by rock deformation and failure. With the purpose of investigating crack coalescence and failure mechanism in rock, experimental research of rock-like materials with two preexisting flaws was performed. Moreover, the AE technique and photographic monitoring were adopted to clarify further the procedure of the crack coalescence and failure. It reveals that AE location technique can record the moments of crack occurrences and follow the crack growth until final failure. Finally, the influence of different flaw geometries on crack initiation strength is analyzed in detail. This research provides increased understanding of the fracture mechanism of mining-induced disasters. Quan-Sheng Liu, Jie Xu, Bin Liu, and Jing-Dong Jiang Copyright © 2015 Quan-Sheng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Multivariable Super Twisting Based Robust Trajectory Tracking Control for Small Unmanned Helicopter Wed, 20 May 2015 13:47:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/620357/ This paper presents a highly robust trajectory tracking controller for small unmanned helicopter with model uncertainties and external disturbances. First, a simplified dynamic model is developed, where the model uncertainties and external disturbances are treated as compounded disturbances. Then the system is divided into three interconnected subsystems: altitude subsystem, yaw subsystem, and horizontal subsystem. Second, a disturbance observer based controller (DOBC) is designed based upon backstepping and multivariable super twisting control algorithm to obtain robust trajectory tracking property. A sliding mode observer works as an estimator of the compounded disturbances. In order to lessen calculative burden, a first-order exact differentiator is employed to estimate the time derivative of the virtual control. Moreover, proof of the stability of the closed-loop system based on Lyapunov method is given. Finally, simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control scheme. Xing Fang, Aiguo Wu, Yujia Shang, and Chunyan Du Copyright © 2015 Xing Fang et al. All rights reserved. Finite-Time Reentry Attitude Control Using Time-Varying Sliding Mode and Disturbance Observer Wed, 20 May 2015 13:45:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2015/262753/ This paper presents the finite-time attitude control problem for reentry vehicle with redundant actuators in consideration of planet uncertainties and external disturbances. Firstly, feedback linearization technique is used to cancel the nonlinearities of equations of motion to construct a basic mode for attitude controller. Secondly, two kinds of time-varying sliding mode control methods with disturbance observer are integrated with the basic mode in order to enhance the control performance and system robustness. One method is designed based on boundary layer technique and the other is a novel second-order sliding model control method. The finite-time stability analyses of both resultant closed-loop systems are carried out. Furthermore, after attitude controller produces the torque commands, an optimization control allocation approach is introduced to allocate them into aerodynamic surface deflections and on-off reaction control system thrusts. Finally, the numerical simulation results demonstrate that both of the time-varying sliding mode control methods are robust to uncertainties and disturbances without chattering phenomenon. Moreover, the proposed second-order sliding mode control method possesses better control accuracy. Xuzhong Wu, Shengjing Tang, Jie Guo, and Yao Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xuzhong Wu et al. All rights reserved. Human Genetic Diseases Wed, 20 May 2015 13:44:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/315216/ Hao Deng, Peter Riederer, Han-Xiang Deng, Weidong Le, Wei Xiong, and Yi Guo Copyright © 2015 Hao Deng et al. All rights reserved. The Interactions between Innate Immunity and Microbiota in Gastrointestinal Diseases Wed, 20 May 2015 13:42:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2015/898297/ Danilo Pagliari, Ciriaco A. Piccirillo, Anis Larbi, and Rossella Cianci Copyright © 2015 Danilo Pagliari et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Study on Anisotropic Strength and Deformation Behavior of a Coal Measure Shale under Room Dried and Water Saturated Conditions Wed, 20 May 2015 13:37:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/290293/ This paper presents an experimental investigation of anisotropic strength and deformation behavior of coal measure shale. The effect of two factors (i.e., anisotropy and water content) on shale strength and deformation behavior was studied. A series of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were conducted on both room dried and water saturated samples for different lamination angles. The test results indicate that (1) the compressive strength, cohesion, internal friction angle, tangent Young’s modulus, and axial strain corresponding to the peak and residual strengths of room dried specimens exhibit anisotropic behavior that strongly depends on the orientation angle ; (2) in comparison to the room dried samples, the compressive strength and Young’s modulus as well as the anisotropy are all reduced for water saturated specimens; and (3) the failure mechanism of the samples can be summarized into two categories: sliding along lamination and shearing of rock material, with the type occurring in a particular situation depending strongly on the lamination orientation angles with respect to the major principal stress. According to the findings, it is strongly recommended that the effect of anisotropy and water content on the strength and deformation behavior of the rock must be considered in ground control designs. Jingyi Cheng, Zhijun Wan, Yidong Zhang, Wenfeng Li, Syd S. Peng, and Peng Zhang Copyright © 2015 Jingyi Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Anticancer Properties of Natural Products Wed, 20 May 2015 13:37:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/242070/ István Zupkó, Walter Jaeger, Zeki Topcu, and Chin-Chung Wu Copyright © 2015 István Zupkó et al. All rights reserved. Fixed Point Theorems with Applications to the Solvability of Operator Equations and Inclusions on Function Spaces Wed, 20 May 2015 13:36:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jfs/2015/415950/ Nawab Hussain, Jesus Garcia-Falset, Mohamed-Aziz Taoudi, and Calogero Vetro Copyright © 2015 Nawab Hussain et al. All rights reserved. Advances in the Development of Biotherapeutics Wed, 20 May 2015 13:35:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/793876/ Pedro H. Oliveira, Juergen Mairhofer, Paula M. Alves, Alvaro R. Lara, and Cleo Kontoravdi Copyright © 2015 Pedro H. Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Chewing, Stress-Related Diseases, and Brain Function Wed, 20 May 2015 13:35:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/412493/ Kin-ya Kubo, Huayue Chen, Xiaolin Zhou, Jian-Hua Liu, and Olivier Darbin Copyright © 2015 Kin-ya Kubo et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Urban Biometeorology 2014 Wed, 20 May 2015 13:34:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amete/2015/273831/ Panagiotis Nastos, Andreas Matzarakis, Marialena Nikolopoulou, and Tzu-Ping Lin Copyright © 2015 Panagiotis Nastos et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Effect and Control of Key Strata Break of Immediate Roof in Fully Mechanized Mining with Large Mining Height Wed, 20 May 2015 13:31:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/657818/ This paper puts forward the concept of key strata in immediate roof (KSIF) and studied the dynamic effect and control mechanism of KSIF. The results show that KSIR controls the caving of its upper immediate roof strata; the break of KSIR has direct dynamic impact on its lower strata and this impact increases along with the increase of the thickness and hardness of the KSIR and the decrease of the distance to the working seam. The KSIR and main roof can easily form the bilayer structure “Cantilever-Masonry beam.” Support work load is affected by the position, thickness, and hardness of KSIR. The support work load increased on the condition of increase of the thickness and hardness of KSIR and the decrease of the distance to the face. Yuan Yong, Tu Shihao, Zhang Xiaogang, and Li Bo Copyright © 2015 Yuan Yong et al. All rights reserved. Blasting Vibration Safety Criterion Analysis with Equivalent Elastic Boundary: Based on Accurate Loading Model Wed, 20 May 2015 13:24:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2015/604683/ In the tunnel and underground space engineering, the blasting wave will attenuate from shock wave to stress wave to elastic seismic wave in the host rock. Also, the host rock will form crushed zone, fractured zone, and elastic seismic zone under the blasting loading and waves. In this paper, an accurate mathematical dynamic loading model was built. And the crushed zone as well as fractured zone was considered as the blasting vibration source thus deducting the partial energy for cutting host rock. So this complicated dynamic problem of segmented differential blasting was regarded as an equivalent elastic boundary problem by taking advantage of Saint-Venant’s Theorem. At last, a 3D model in finite element software FLAC3D accepted the constitutive parameters, uniformly distributed mutative loading, and the cylindrical attenuation law to predict the velocity curves and effective tensile curves for calculating safety criterion formulas of surrounding rock and tunnel liner after verifying well with the in situ monitoring data. Qingwen Li, Lan Qiao, Gautam Dasgupta, Siwei Ma, Liping Wang, and Jianghui Dong Copyright © 2015 Qingwen Li et al. All rights reserved. Choice of Antiepileptic Drugs in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: UAE Experience Wed, 20 May 2015 13:20:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/184928/ We retrospectively reviewed the electroencephalogram (EEG) reports of patients at our EEG lab from the years 2005–2010 to identify patients referred from the epilepsy clinic, with a confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by EEG criteria. We sought to report our experience in UAE of how often patients with IGE are placed on nonspecific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before being evaluated at an epilepsy referral clinic. 109 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IGE based on EEG criteria were identified. When initially seen, 32.11% were taking a broad-spectrum (specific) AED only, 25.69% were taking a narrow-spectrum (nonspecific) AED, and 15.59% were placed on various combinations. Of the total patients who were receiving nonspecific AEDs, 35.71% were seizure-free and 64.28% were poorly controlled accounting for “pseudointractability status.” When converted to broad-spectrum (specific) AEDs, 50% became well controlled. Furthermore, 26.6% of patients, who were previously on no AED prior to the clinic visit, became well controlled once placed on specific AED. Taoufik Alsaadi, Haytham Taha, and Fatema Al Hammadi Copyright © 2015 Taoufik Alsaadi et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid alldifferent-Tabu Search Algorithm for Solving Sudoku Puzzles Wed, 20 May 2015 13:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2015/286354/ The Sudoku problem is a well-known logic-based puzzle of combinatorial number-placement. It consists in filling a grid, composed of columns, rows, and subgrids, each one containing distinct integers from 1 to . Such a puzzle belongs to the NP-complete collection of problems, to which there exist diverse exact and approximate methods able to solve it. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid algorithm that smartly combines a classic tabu search procedure with the alldifferent global constraint from the constraint programming world. The alldifferent constraint is known to be efficient for domain filtering in the presence of constraints that must be pairwise different, which are exactly the kind of constraints that Sudokus own. This ability clearly alleviates the work of the tabu search, resulting in a faster and more robust approach for solving Sudokus. We illustrate interesting experimental results where our proposed algorithm outperforms the best results previously reported by hybrids and approximate methods. Ricardo Soto, Broderick Crawford, Cristian Galleguillos, Fernando Paredes, and Enrique Norero Copyright © 2015 Ricardo Soto et al. All rights reserved.