Hindawi Publishing Corporation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Expression of EGFR and Molecules Downstream to PI3K/Akt, Raf-1-MEK-1-MAP (Erk1/2), and JAK (STAT3) Pathways in Invasive Lung Adenocarcinomas Resected at a Single Institution Thu, 18 Dec 2014 14:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/352925/ Therapies targeting EGFR are effective in treating tumors that harbor molecular alterations; however, there is heterogeneity in long-term response to these therapies. We retrospectively analyzed protein expression of EGFR, Stat3, phospho-Akt, and phospho-Erk1/2 by immunohistochemistry in a series of resected cases from a single institution, correlated with clinicopathological variables. There were 96 patients, with the majority of cases being of low stage tumors (17 pT1a, 23 pT1b, 30 pT2a, and 18 pT2b). Histologic subtypes were 45 acinar predominant, 2 cribriform, 25 solid, 7 papillary, 11 lepidic, and 4 mucinous tumors. The EGFR score was higher in tumors with vascular invasion (), in solid and cribriform acinar histology, and in high stage tumors ( and ). EGFR was more likely overexpressed in solid compared to lepidic tumors (). Acinar tumors had the highest rate of ERK1/2 positivity (19%). There was a strong correlation among positivity for ERCC1 and other markers, including STAT3 (), Akt (), and ERK1/ERK2 (). Expression of molecules downstream to EGFR varied from 12% to 31% of tumors; however, the expression did not directly correlate to EGFR expression, which may suggest activation of the cascades through different pathways. The correlation of protein expression and the new lung adenocarcinoma classification may help in the understanding of activated pathways of each tumor type, which may act in the oncogenesis and drug resistance of these tumors. Alba Fabiola Torres, Cleto Nogueira, Juliana Magalhaes, Igor Santos Costa, Alessa Aragao, Antero Gomes Neto, Filadelfia Martins, and Fabio Tavora Copyright © 2014 Alba Fabiola Torres et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Molybdenum Content and MoO Species on the Textural and Structural ZrO2 Properties Thu, 18 Dec 2014 13:28:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/432031/ The present work proposes to study the incorporation of molybdenum into the zirconium oxide precursor (Zr(OH)4), in order to analyze its possible repercussions on the textural and structural zirconia properties (ZrO2). For this, the Zr(OH)4 was synthesized by the sol-gel method and modified with 5, 10, and 15 wt% of molybdenum into the stabilized oxide. The synthesized materials were dried at 120°C for 24 h and then were calcined at 600°C for 3 h. The characterization of the solids was carried out by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen physisorption, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal analyses results showed that the change from the amorphous to the crystalline phase of ZrO2 is shifted to higher temperatures due to the presence of molybdenum content. Tetragonal phase was identified for all synthesized materials, showing a decrease in crystallinity as a function of the metal content. The textural properties were improved due to the incorporation of molybdenum into the ZrO2 structure, developing specific surface areas which are above up to four times the area of pure ZrO2. The synthesized materials presented spherical morphology with particle sizes less than 1 µm, with a change of this morphology for high metal contents (15 wt%) being observed. Alberto Hernández Zapién, Juan Manuel Hernández Enríquez, Ricardo García Alamilla, Guillermo Sandoval Robles, Ulises Páramo García, and Luz Arcelia García Serrano Copyright © 2014 Alberto Hernández Zapién et al. All rights reserved. Cartilaginous Choristoma of the Gingiva: A Rare Clinical Entity Thu, 18 Dec 2014 13:06:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/246965/ Choristomas are rare entities which are aggregates of microscopically normal cells or tissues in aberrant locations. They are a “heterotopic” rest of cells, as they appear as a tumor-like mass. Herein we report a case of cartilaginous choristoma in a 54-year-old male who presented with a swelling on right lower gingiva. The histopathological examination revealed features of a well circumscribed mass of mature cartilage in a dense fibrous connective tissue stroma. Ramalingam Suganya, Narasimhan Malathi, Subramani Vijaya Nirmala, Chinnaswami Ravindran, and Harikrishnan Thamizhchelvan Copyright © 2014 Ramalingam Suganya et al. All rights reserved. Class-Based Constraint-Based Routing with Implemented Fuzzy Logic in MPLS-TE Networks Thu, 18 Dec 2014 12:46:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcnc/2014/237810/ The paper deals with constraint-based routing (CBR) in MPLS-TE networks and proposes a new CBR algorithm based on fuzzy logic called Fuzzy Class-Based Algorithm (FCBA). Multiprotocol label switching with traffic engineering (MPLS-TE) networks represent a popular mechanism to effectively use resources of service providers’ core networks. The paths can be either built by administrators (explicit routing) or built by using existing routing algorithms which mostly decide based on the shortest paths towards the destination which might not be sufficient in nowadays’ multimedia networks. To address this problem various CBR algorithms have emerged which take into consideration various aspects important to existing traffic like QoS parameters or administrative policies. FCBA makes routing decisions based on traffic classes and by using fuzzy logic we can assign normalized values to various constraints based on the traffic class’ preferences (e.g., low delay paths for voice traffic) and network administrator’s preferences (e.g., avoiding congested links). The paper provides comparison of FCBA with existing CBR approaches based on their ability to provide QoS parameters loss. The simulations show that FCBA provides the best results for the highest priority traffic where it uses lower priority traffic to efficiently utilize the network. Michal Pištek and Martin Medvecký Copyright © 2014 Michal Pištek and Martin Medvecký. All rights reserved. Corrosion Potential Profile Simulation in a Tube under Cathodic Protection Thu, 18 Dec 2014 12:27:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijc/2014/102363/ The potential distribution in tubes of a heat exchanger is simulated when applying cathodic polarization to its extremes. The comparison of two methods to achieve this goal is presented: a numeric solution based on boundary elements carried out with the commercial software Beasy-GID and a semianalytical method developed by the authors. The mathematical model, the simplifications considered, and the problem solving are shown. Since both approaches use polarization curves as a boundary condition, experimental polarization curves (voltage versus current density) were determined in the laboratory under flow conditions and cylindrical cell geometry. The results obtained suggest the impossibility of extending the protection along the whole tube length; therefore, other protection methods are considered. Mauricio Ohanian and Víctor Martínez-Luaces Copyright © 2014 Mauricio Ohanian and Víctor Martínez-Luaces. All rights reserved. Isolated Bilateral Renal Mucormycosis Masquerading as Renal Abscess in an Immunocompetent Individual: A Lesson Learnt Thu, 18 Dec 2014 12:01:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2014/304380/ Isolated renal mucormycosis is a rare entity in immunocompetent subjects. It is usually a rapidly progressive disease with poor prognosis but it can mimic renal abscess with a protracted course. Somorendro Paonam, Sananda Bag, Ravimohan S. Mavuduru, Mayank Mohan Agarwal, and Arup Kumar Mandal Copyright © 2014 Somorendro Paonam et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Methods and Modeling in Machine Fault Diagnosis Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:52:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/516590/ Ruqiang Yan, Xuefeng Chen, Weihua Li, and Shuangwen Sheng Copyright © 2014 Ruqiang Yan et al. All rights reserved. Heat and Mass Transfer in the Boundary Layer of Unsteady Viscous Nanofluid along a Vertical Stretching Sheet Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:52:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcengi/2014/345153/ Heat and mass transfer in the boundary-layer flow of unsteady viscous nanofluid along a vertical stretching sheet in the presence of magnetic field, thermal radiation, heat generation, and chemical reaction are presented in this paper. The sheet is situated in the xz-plane and y is normal to the surface directing towards the positive y-axis. The sheet is continuously stretching in the positive x-axis and the external magnetic field is applied to the system parallel to the positive y-axis. With the help of similarity transformations, the partial differential equations are transformed into a couple of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The new problem is then solved numerically by a finite-difference scheme known as the Keller-box method. Effects of the necessary parameters in the flow field are explicitly studied and briefly explained graphically and in tabular form. For the selected values of the pertinent parameters appearing in the governing equations, numerical results of velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are obtained. The results are compared to the works of others (from previously published journals) and they are found in excellent agreement. Eshetu Haile and B. Shankar Copyright © 2014 Eshetu Haile and B. Shankar. All rights reserved. Optimization in Industrial Systems Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:41:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/824539/ Kok Lay Teo, Hsiao-Fan Wang, and Changzhi Wu Copyright © 2014 Kok Lay Teo et al. All rights reserved. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:28:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/neuroscience/2014/585237/ Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge) and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability). Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested. Mónica Rosselli, Alfredo Ardila, Esmeralda Matute, and Idaly Vélez-Uribe Copyright © 2014 Mónica Rosselli et al. All rights reserved. Novel Technologies and Applications for Construction Materials Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:28:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/960541/ Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera, Osman Gencel, João Marciano Laredo dos Reis, and Juan José del Coz Díaz Copyright © 2014 Gonzalo Martínez-Barrera et al. All rights reserved. Theoretical Analysis and Computational Simulation of Advanced Structured Materials Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acmp/2014/367916/ Hanxing Zhu, Daniel Balint, and Zaoyang Guo Copyright © 2014 Hanxing Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Trip Travel Time Forecasting Based on Selective Forgetting Extreme Learning Machine Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:18:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/829256/ Travel time estimation on road networks is a valuable traffic metric. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based method for trip travel time estimation in road networks. The method uses the historical trip information extracted from taxis trace data as the training data. An optimized online sequential extreme machine, selective forgetting extreme learning machine, is adopted to make the prediction. Its selective forgetting learning ability enables the prediction algorithm to adapt to trip conditions changes well. Experimental results using real-life taxis trace data show that the forecasting model provides an effective and practical way for the travel time forecasting. Zhiming Gui and Haipeng Yu Copyright © 2014 Zhiming Gui and Haipeng Yu. All rights reserved. Symmetry and Group Theory and Its Application to Few-Body Physics Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:12:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amp/2014/486420/ Xiao-Yan Gu, Fabien Gatti, Shi-Hai Dong, and Jian-Qiang Sun Copyright © 2014 Xiao-Yan Gu et al. All rights reserved. English Language Learner Boys and Girls Reading and Math Achievement as a Function of Early-Exit and Late-Exit Bilingual Programs: A Multiyear, Statewide Analysis Thu, 18 Dec 2014 10:49:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2014/508459/ We examined the reading and math performance of English Language Learner boys and girls in Grades 3, 4, 5, and 6 as a function of early-exit or late-exit transitional bilingual education program. Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Reading and Mathematics scores of all English Language Learner boys and girls who were enrolled in either early-exit or late-exit bilingual education programs were analyzed for the 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 school years. Results were not consistent across reading and math, across the 4 grade levels, and across the 3 school years. On the TAKS Reading test, 5 instances were present in which statistically significant differences were revealed for boys and 11 for girls. On the TAKS Mathematics test, 8 statistically significant results were revealed for boys and 6 for girls. These statistically significant differences were not consistently in favor of either the early-exit or the late-exit bilingual education programs. Moreover, the differences that were present reflected small to trivial effect sizes. As such, neither the early-exit nor the late-exit bilingual education program was demonstrated to be more effective than its counterpart. Rosa Maria Martinez, John R. Slate, and Cynthia Martinez-Garcia Copyright © 2014 Rosa Maria Martinez et al. All rights reserved. Cartilage Degeneration at Symptomatic Persistent Olecranon Physis in Adolescent Baseball Players Thu, 18 Dec 2014 10:16:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aorth/2014/545438/ Background. Elbow overuse injuries are common in adolescent baseball players, but symptomatic persistent olecranon physis is rare, and its pathogenesis remains unclear. Purpose. To examine the histopathological and imaging findings of advanced persistent olecranon physis. Methods. The olecranon physes of 2 baseball pitchers, aged 14 and 15 years, were examined by preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and surgical specimens were examined histologically. Results. T2-weighted MRI revealed alterations in the intrachondral signal intensity possibly related to collagen degeneration and increased free water content. Histological findings of specimens stained with hematoxylin-eosin showed complete disorganization of the cartilage structure, hypocellularity, chondrocyte cluster formation, and moderately reduced staining. All these findings are hallmarks of osteoarthritis and are suggestive of cartilage degeneration. Conclusion. Growth plate degeneration was evident in advanced cases of symptomatic persistent olecranon physis. These findings contribute to understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Tetsuya Enishi, Tetsuya Matsuura, Naoto Suzue, Yoshinori Takahashi, and Koichi Sairyo Copyright © 2014 Tetsuya Enishi et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Oils and Essential Oils from Seeds of Zanthoxylum schinifolium against Foodborne Viral Surrogates Thu, 18 Dec 2014 10:12:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/135797/ Human noroviruses are the most frequent cause of foodborne viral disease and are responsible for the vast majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. However, no specific therapies are available for the efficient control or prevention of foodborne viral disease. Here, we determined the antiviral activities of oils from seeds of Zanthoxylum schinifolium (ZSO) against foodborne viral surrogates, feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9), and murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), using plaque assay. Time-of-addition experiments were designed to determine the antiviral mechanism of action of ZSO against the surrogates. Maximal antiviral effect was observed upon pretreatment of FCV-F9 or MNV-1 with ZSO, which comprised oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid as the major fatty acids. FCV-F9 was more sensitive to ZSO than MNV-1, and the 50% effective concentration of ZSO against pretreatment of FCV-F9 was 0.0007%. However, essential oils from Z. schinifolium (ZSE), which comprised 42% estragole, showed no inhibitory effects against FCV-F9 and MNV-1. These results suggest that the inhibitory activities of ZSO were exerted by direct interaction of FCV-F9 or MNV-1 virion with ZSO, which may be a food material candidate for control of foodborne viral disease. Mi Oh and Mi Sook Chung Copyright © 2014 Mi Oh and Mi Sook Chung. All rights reserved. Feature Based Stereo Matching Using Two-Step Expansion Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:57:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/452803/ This paper proposes a novel method for stereo matching which is based on image features to produce a dense disparity map through two different expansion phases. It can find denser point correspondences than those of the existing seed-growing algorithms, and it has a good performance in short and wide baseline situations. This method supposes that all pixel coordinates in each image segment corresponding to a 3D surface separately satisfy projective geometry of 1D in horizontal axis. Firstly, a state-of-the-art method of feature matching is used to obtain sparse support points and an image segmentation-based prior is employed to assist the first region outspread. Secondly, the first-step expansion is to find more feature correspondences in the uniform region via initial support points, which is based on the invariant cross ratio in 1D projective transformation. In order to find enough point correspondences, we use a regular seed-growing algorithm as the second-step expansion and produce a quasi-dense disparity map. Finally, two different methods are used to obtain dense disparity map from quasi-dense pixel correspondences. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method. Liqiang Wang, Zhen Liu, and Zhonghua Zhang Copyright © 2014 Liqiang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Communications and Networking Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:56:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/376260/ Zhongmei Zhou, Yuxin Mao, Jaime Lloret, Xiaoxuan Meng, and Jingjing Zhou Copyright © 2014 Zhongmei Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Environmental Control of Adult Neurogenesis: From Hippocampal Homeostasis to Behavior and Disease Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:56:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2014/808643/ Sjoukje D. Kuipers, Clive R. Bramham, Heather A. Cameron, Carlos P. Fitzsimons, Aniko Korosi, and Paul J. Lucassen Copyright © 2014 Sjoukje D. Kuipers et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:49:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/167253/ Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters and and () were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. Zhaohui Ge, Yuanyuan Xie, Qionglin Liang, Yiming Wang, and Guoan Luo Copyright © 2014 Zhaohui Ge et al. All rights reserved. Prospect of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja) in Bangladesh: A Sustainable Source of Liquid Fuel Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:34:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jre/2014/647324/ Energy is the basic requirement for the existence of human being in today’s digital world. Indigenous energy of Bangladesh (especially natural gas and diesel) is basically used in power generation and depleting hastily to meet the increasing power demand. Therefore, special emphasis has been given to produce alternative liquid fuel worldwide to overcome the crisis of diesel. Pongamia pinnata (karanja) may be an emerging option for providing biooil for biodiesel production. Although karanja biooil has been used as a source of traditional medicines in Bangladesh, it can also be used for rural illumination. This paper outlines the medical and energy aspects of Pongamia pinnata. It has been assessed that Bangladesh can utilize about 128.95 PJ through Pongamia cultivation in unused lands. The paper reviews the potentiality of Pongamia pinnata as a source of biodiesel and its benefits in Bangladesh. The paper also revives that, about 0.52 million tons of biodiesel can be produced only utilizing the unused lands per year in sustainable basis as it reduces CO2, CO, HC, and NOx emission compared to pure diesel. P. K. Halder, N. Paul, and M. R. A. Beg Copyright © 2014 P. K. Halder et al. All rights reserved. Leaching of Chromium, Copper, and Arsenic from CCA-Treated Utility Poles Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:28:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aess/2014/167971/ Concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in soils surrounding 26 Douglas Fir Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) treated utility poles and in rainwater runoff from a new CCA treated utility pole segment (log) suspended outside in a cylinder were studied. The age of the utility poles, distances from the poles, rainfall amounts, and characteristics of soil samples including cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH, and total organic carbon (TOC) were considered. Heavier rainfall, damp conditions, and more weathered poles contributed to the greatest leaching of Cu, Cr, and As. The maximum measured soil concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As were 37.5, 65.5, and 38.9 mmol/kg and maximum Cu, Cr, and As concentrations in rainwater run-off were 14, 77.7 and 55.8 μmol/L. Metal concentrations decreased with distance from the poles and, except at one utility pole location, Cu was the most leached of the three elements. The As appeared to have greater mobility in the soil than the Cr. Along the transmission line nearest the coast and from which the greatest amount of samples was collected, soil CEC and TOC values were the highest and the CEC and TOC were directly and strongly correlated. Cynthia A. Coles, Joseph A. Arisi, Marion Organ, and Geoff I. Veinott Copyright © 2014 Cynthia A. Coles et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of Adaptive GAs and Back Propagation ANNs Performance in Condition Diagnosis of Multiple Bearing System Using Grey Relational Analysis Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:23:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cin/2014/419743/ Condition diagnosis of multiple bearings system is one of the requirements in industry field, because bearings are used in many equipment and their failure can result in total breakdown. Conditions of bearings commonly are reflected by vibration signals data. In multiple bearing condition diagnosis, it will involve many types of vibration signals data; thus, consequently, it will involve many features extraction to obtain precise condition diagnosis. However, large number of features extraction will increase the complexity of the diagnosis system. Therefore, in this paper, we presented a diagnosis method which is hybridization of adaptive genetic algorithms (AGAs), back propagation neural networks (BPNNs), and grey relational analysis (GRA) to diagnose the condition of multiple bearings system. AGAs are used in the diagnosis algorithm to determine the best initial weights of BPNNs in order to improve the diagnosis accuracy. In addition, GRA is applied to determine and select the dominant features from the vibration signal data which will provide good diagnosis of multiple bearings system in less features extraction. The experiments results show that AGAs-BPNNs with GRA approaches can increase the accuracy of diagnosis in shorter processing time, compared with the AGAs-BPNNs without the GRA. Lili A. Wulandhari, Antoni Wibowo, and Mohammad I. Desa Copyright © 2014 Lili A. Wulandhari et al. All rights reserved. Use of Magnetic Fluid in Accelerometers Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:08:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/js/2014/375623/ Magnetic fluid accelerometer is designed based on the special physical properties of magnetic fluid. Compared with the conventional acceleration sensors, magnetic fluid accelerometer has stronger shock resistance capability, higher sensitivity, lower energy consumption, and better performance in low frequency response. It satisfies the growing requirements of acceleration sensors. In this paper, the dynamic model and the theory of magnetic fluid accelerometers were presented. The structure characteristics of typical magnetic fluid accelerometers were investigated, and the development trend of magnetic fluid accelerometers in the future was also predicted. Besides, a novel accelerometer with linearity better than 1.5% and sensitivity better than 75 mV/g was proposed. Leping Qian and Decai Li Copyright © 2014 Leping Qian and Decai Li. All rights reserved. Unilateral Fusion of Maxillary Lateral Incisor: Diagnosis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:01:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/934218/ Objective. The objective of this paper is to report a dental fusion case focusing on clinical and radiographic features for the diagnosis. Method. To report a case of right maxillary lateral incisor fusion and a supernumerary tooth, the anatomy of the root canal and dental united portion were assessed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Results. The clinical examination showed dental juxtaposition with the absence of interdental papilla and esthetic impairment in the right maxillary lateral incisor region. The periapical radiography did not provide enough information for the differential diagnosis due to the inherent limitations of this technique. CBCT confirmed the presence of tooth fusion. Conclusion. CBCT examination supports the diagnosis and provides both the identification of changes in tooth development and the visualization of their extent and limits. Iury Oliveira Castro, Carlos Estrela, Vinícius Rezende Souza, Lawrence Gonzaga Lopes, and João Batista de Souza Copyright © 2014 Iury Oliveira Castro et al. All rights reserved. Automatic Segmentation of Anatomical Structures from CT Scans of Thorax for RTP Thu, 18 Dec 2014 07:53:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/472890/ Modern radiotherapy techniques are vulnerable to delineation inaccuracies owing to the steep dose gradient around the target. In this aspect, accurate contouring comprises an indispensable part of optimal radiation treatment planning (RTP). We suggest a fully automated method to segment the lungs, trachea/main bronchi, and spinal canal accurately from computed tomography (CT) scans of patients with lung cancer to use for RTP. For this purpose, we developed a new algorithm for inclusion of excluded pathological areas into the segmented lungs and a modified version of the fuzzy segmentation by morphological reconstruction for spinal canal segmentation and implemented some image processing algorithms along with them. To assess the accuracy, we performed two comparisons between the automatically obtained results and the results obtained manually by an expert. The average volume overlap ratio values range between 94.30 ± 3.93% and 99.11 ± 0.26% on the two different datasets. We obtained the average symmetric surface distance values between the ranges of 0.28 ± 0.21 mm and 0.89 ± 0.32 mm by using the same datasets. Our method provides favorable results in the segmentation of CT scans of patients with lung cancer and can avoid heavy computational load and might offer expedited segmentation that can be used in RTP. Emin Emrah Özsavaş, Ziya Telatar, Bahar Dirican, Ömer Sağer, and Murat Beyzadeoğlu Copyright © 2014 Emin Emrah Özsavaş et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasonic Investigations of Molecular Interaction in Binary Mixtures of Cyclohexanone with Isomers of Butanol Thu, 18 Dec 2014 07:30:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jac/2014/741795/ Ultrasonic speed, , and density, , have been measured in binary liquid mixtures of cyclohexanone with the isomers of butanol (-butanol, sec-butanol, and tert-butanol) at 308.15 K over the entire range of composition. Molar volume (), adiabatic compressibility (), intermolecular free length (), acoustic impedance (), and their excess/deviation along with have been calculated from the experimental data. These values have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation. Positive values of , , and negative values of , have been observed for all the liquid mixtures indicating the existence of weak interactions between components. Rupture of H-bond or reduction in H-bond strength of isomers of butanol or breaking of the structure of one or both of the components in a solution causes the existence of dispersions in the present investigated binary mixtures. The data obtained from , , and excess partial molar volumes , , reflects the inferences drawn from . Furthermore, FTIR spectra support the conclusions drawn from excess/deviation properties. The measured values of ultrasonic speed for all the investigated mixtures have been compared with the theoretically estimated values using empirical relations such as, Nomoto, Van Dael and Vangeels, Impedance and Rao specific sound speed. Sk. Md Nayeem, M. Kondaiah, K. Sreekanth, and D. Krishna Rao Copyright © 2014 Sk. Md Nayeem et al. All rights reserved. Iterative Learning Control with Forgetting Factor for Linear Distributed Parameter Systems with Uncertainty Thu, 18 Dec 2014 07:06:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcse/2014/508573/ Iterative learning control is an intelligent control algorithm which imitates human learning process. Based on this concept, this paper discussed iterative learning control problem for a class parabolic linear distributed parameter systems with uncertainty coefficients. Iterative learning control algorithm with forgetting factor is proposed and the conditions for convergence of algorithm are established. Combining the matrix theory with the basic theory of distributed parameter systems gives rigorous convergence proof of the algorithm. Finally, by using the forward difference scheme of partial differential equation to solve the problems, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the feasibility of the algorithm. Xisheng Dai, Senping Tian, Wenguang Luo, and Yajun Guo Copyright © 2014 Xisheng Dai et al. All rights reserved. Facile Solvothermal Synthesis of BiOCl/ZnO Heterostructures with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity Thu, 18 Dec 2014 07:01:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/347061/ Well-defined nanosheet-assembled (BiOCl)x(ZnO)1−x nanoflowers were synthesized by a solvothermal method. It was found that ZnO nanoparticles were anchored on the flower-like BiOCl nanostructures, as demonstrated by varying the initial compositions of the Bi precursor and the volume ratios of mixed solvents (ethylene glycol to water). The as-prepared (BiOCl)0.6(ZnO)0.4 nanocomposites showed enhanced photocatalytic activity toward rhodamine B degradation under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. And the photocatalytic mechanism was discussed in detail. Yong-Fang Li, Ming Zhang, Dan-Lu Guo, Fei-Xia He, Ying-Zhu Li, and Ai-Jun Wang Copyright © 2014 Yong-Fang Li et al. All rights reserved. Flying Robot Based Viewpoint Selection for the Electricity Transmission Equipment Inspection Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:50:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/783810/ In the process of inspection for the electricity transmission equipment using flying robots, an automatic way to find the best viewpoint to get the high quality of image would be beneficial to observe the state of the electricity transmission equipment. Finding the best viewpoint belongs to the viewpoint selection problem. A strategy is proposed in this paper to find the best viewpoint for the electricity transmission equipment inspection, according to which the candidate viewpoints can be generated based on the 3D model of the equipment. Then a scoring function is constructed which combines three factors including the amount of the information, the viewing quality, and the visibility of the information to evaluate the quality of the candidate viewpoint. Finally, the best viewpoint can be selected from all of candidate viewpoints according to the scoring function. The proposed algorithm is tested on the experiment to demonstrate its effectiveness. Chang-an Liu, Rui-fang Dong, and Hua Wu Copyright © 2014 Chang-an Liu et al. All rights reserved. Not Always Asthma: Clinical and Legal Consequences of Delayed Diagnosis of Laryngotracheal Stenosis Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:48:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2014/325048/ Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a rare condition that occurs most commonly as a result of instrumentation of the airway but may also occur as a result of inflammatory conditions or idiopathically. Here, we present the case of a patient who developed LTS as a complication of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), which was misdiagnosed as asthma for 6 years. After an admission with respiratory symptoms that worsened to the extent that she required intubation, a previously well 14-year-old girl was diagnosed with GPA. Following immunosuppressive therapy, she made a good recovery and was discharged after 22 days. Over subsequent years, she developed dyspnoea and “wheeze” and a diagnosis of asthma was made. When she became pregnant, she was admitted to hospital with worsening respiratory symptoms, whereupon her “wheeze” was correctly identified as “stridor,” and subsequent investigations revealed a significant subglottic stenosis. The delay in diagnosis precluded the use of minimally invasive therapies, with the result that intermittent laser resection and open laryngotracheal reconstructive surgery were the only available treatment options. There were numerous points at which the correct diagnosis might have been made, either by proper interpretation of flow-volume loops or by calculation of the Empey or Expiratory Disproportion Indices from spirometry data. Adam C. Nunn, S. Ali R. Nouraei, P. Jeremy George, Guri S. Sandhu, and S. A. Reza Nouraei Copyright © 2014 Adam C. Nunn et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Antibiotic Producing Rare Actinomycete Nonomuraea sp. JAJ18 Derived from an Indian Coastal Solar Saltern Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:42:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/456070/ Rare actinomycete genera are accepted as a promising source of novel metabolites having pharmaceutical importance. One such genus of rare actinomycete is Nonomuraea. The present study was aimed at characterizing the antibiotic producing Nonomuraea strain JAJ18 which was previously isolated from coastal solar saltern. Strain JAJ18 was recognized as a member of genus Nonomuraea based on its almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequence and phenotypic characteristics. The strain JAJ18 was found to be closely related to Nonomuraea maheshkhaliensis 16-5-14T (98.90%), Nonomuraea candida HMC10T (98.58%), and Nonomuraea jabiensis A4036T (98.43%). From cell-free culture broth of strain JAJ18, an antibiotic was extracted and purified by silica column chromatography. The obtained antibiotic was found to be active against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including drug-resistant Staphylococcus, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 0.5 to 16.0 µg mL−1. The structural characteristics of antibiotic were determined by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The antibiotic was identified to be an aliphatic rich compound with significant dissimilarity to known antibiotics reported from members of the genus, Nonomuraea. As the trends to discover novel metabolites from Nonomuraea are vibrant, further studies are needed to understand the structural and biotechnological significance of antibiotic compound produced by Nonomuraea sp. JAJ18. Polpass Arul Jose, Kunjukrishnan Kamalakshi Sivakala, Pandiyan Rajeswari, and Solomon Robinson David Jebakumar Copyright © 2014 Polpass Arul Jose et al. All rights reserved. First Episode of Psychosis in a Middle-Aged Patient with a 14-Year History of Conversion Disorder Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:41:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2014/804930/ We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders). Vaios Peritogiannis, Thiresia Manthopoulou, and Venetsanos Mavreas Copyright © 2014 Vaios Peritogiannis et al. All rights reserved. Variability Modeling of Rainfall, Deforestation, and Incidence of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Orán, Argentina, 1985–2007 Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:40:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ipid/2014/461013/ American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is a disease transmitted to humans by the female sandflies of the genus Lutzomyia. Several factors are involved in the disease transmission cycle. In this work only rainfall and deforestation were considered to assess the variability in the incidence of ATL. In order to reach this goal, monthly recorded data of the incidence of ATL in Orán, Salta, Argentina, were used, in the period 1985–2007. The square root of the relative incidence of ATL and the corresponding variance were formulated as time series, and these data were smoothed by moving averages of 12 and 24 months, respectively. The same procedure was applied to the rainfall data. Typical months, which are April, August, and December, were found and allowed us to describe the dynamical behavior of ATL outbreaks. These results were tested at 95% confidence level. We concluded that the variability of rainfall would not be enough to justify the epidemic outbreaks of ATL in the period 1997–2000, but it consistently explains the situation observed in the years 2002 and 2004. Deforestation activities occurred in this region could explain epidemic peaks observed in both years and also during the entire time of observation except in 2005–2007. Juan Carlos Rosales, Hyun Mo Yang, and Orlando José Avila Blas Copyright © 2014 Juan Carlos Rosales et al. All rights reserved. Outcomes of the Use of Fully Covered Esophageal Self-Expandable Stent in the Management of Colorectal Anastomotic Strictures and Leaks Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:38:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dte/2014/187541/ Introduction. Colorectal anastomotic leak or stricture is a dreaded complication leading to significant morbidity and mortality. The novel use of self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) in the management of postoperative colorectal anastomotic leaks or strictures can avoid surgical reintervention. Methods. Retrospective study with particular attention to the indications, operative or postoperative complications, and clinical outcomes of SEMS placement for patients with either a colorectal anastomotic stricture or leak. Results. Eight patients had SEMS (WallFlex stent) for the management of postoperative colorectal anastomotic leak or stricture. Five had a colorectal anastomotic stricture and 3 had a colorectal anastomotic leak. Complete resolution of the anastomotic stricture or leak was achieved in all patients. Three had recurrence of the anastomotic stricture on 3-month flexible sigmoidoscopy follow-up after the initial stent was removed. Two of these patients had a stricture that was technically too difficult to place another stent. Stent migration was noted in 2 patients, one at day 3 and the other at day 14 after stent placement that required a larger 23 mm stent to be placed. Conclusions. The use of SEMS in the management of colorectal anastomotic leaks or strictures is feasible and is associated with high technical and clinical success rate. Chad J. Cooper, Angel Morales, and Mohamed O. Othman Copyright © 2014 Chad J. Cooper et al. All rights reserved. Reducing TRPC1 Expression through Liposome-Mediated siRNA Delivery Markedly Attenuates Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Murine Model Thu, 18 Dec 2014 06:33:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2014/316214/ We tested the hypothesis that Lipofectamine siRNA delivery to deplete transient receptor potential cation channel (TRPC) 1 protein expression can suppress hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were equally divided into group 1 (normal controls), group 2 (hypoxia), and group 3 (hypoxia + siRNA TRPC1). By day 28, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), number of muscularized arteries, right ventricle (RV), and lung weights were increased in group 2 than in group 1 and reduced in group 3 compared with group 2. Pulmonary crowded score showed similar pattern, whereas number of alveolar sacs exhibited an opposite pattern compared to that of RVSP in all groups. Protein expressions of TRPCs, HIF-1α, Ku-70, apoptosis, and fibrosis and pulmonary mRNA expressions of inflammatory markers were similar pattern, whereas protein expressions of antifibrosis and VEGF were opposite to the pattern of RVSP. Cellular markers of pulmonary DNA damage, repair, and smooth muscle proliferation exhibited a pattern similar to that of RVSP. The mRNA expressions of proapoptotic and hypertrophy biomarkers displayed a similar pattern, whereas sarcomere length showed an opposite pattern compared to that of RVSP in all groups. Lipofectamine siRNA delivery effectively reduced TRPC1 expression, thereby attenuating PAH-associated RV and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling. Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yen-Yi Zhen, Hung-I Lu, Pei-Hsun Sung, Li-Teh Chang, Tzu-Hsien Tsai, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Yung-Lung Chen, Sarah Chua, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Yi-Ling Chen, Fan-Yen Lee, and Hon-Kan Yip Copyright © 2014 Cheuk-Kwan Sun et al. All rights reserved. Nature of C-(A)-S-H Phases Formed in the Reaction Bentonite/Portlandite Thu, 18 Dec 2014 05:49:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jg/2014/145425/ Reactions between bentonite/montmorillonite and portlandite have been studied in the context of the engineered barriers of a purpose built repository for the deep geological disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive wastes. Portlandite was selected as the representative material of cement leaching in the early alkaline stage expected in a repository when conventional Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is used. Eight different batch experiments were performed for a reaction time near to two months, including bentonite or montmorillonite at montmorillonite/portlandite molar ratios of 2 : 1 and 3 : 1 under hydrothermal conditions. Temperatures of reactions were maintained constant at either 60 or 120°C. Calcium silicates hydrates with limited substitution of Al for Si (C-(A)-S-H phases with Al/Si <0.3) were formed with different structures and compositions as a function of the reaction conditions. Orthorhombic 11 Å-tobermorite-type phase was detected in experiments at 120°C while a more disordered monoclinic tobermorite formed at 60°C. These results are useful for the interpretation of experimental data in more complex experiments using concrete or cement pastes and bentonite, where C-(A)-S-H phases of variable compositions can precipitate, in addition to the characteristic cement hydrates and other secondary minerals carbonates. Raúl Fernández, Lorena González, Ana Isabel Ruiz, and Jaime Cuevas Copyright © 2014 Raúl Fernández et al. All rights reserved. Accelerated Tooth Movement and Temporary Skeletal Anchorage Devices (TSADs) Thu, 18 Dec 2014 05:49:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijd/2014/384380/ Seong-Hun Kim, Shin-Jae Lee, Gerald Nelson, and Ki Beom Kim Copyright © 2014 Seong-Hun Kim et al. All rights reserved. ECR-MAPK Regulation in Liver Early Development Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/850802/ Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development. Xiu-Ju Zhao and Hexian Zhuo Copyright © 2014 Xiu-Ju Zhao and Hexian Zhuo. All rights reserved. Iron as the Key Modulator of Hepcidin Expression in Erythroid Antibody-Mediated Hypoplasia Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/421304/ Erythroid hypoplasia (EH) is a rare complication associated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapies, due to development of anti-rHuEPO antibodies; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly clarified. Our aim was to manage a rat model of antibody-mediated EH induced by rHuEPO and study the impact on iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Wistar rats treated during 9 weeks with a high rHuEPO dose (200 IU) developed EH, as shown by anemia, reduced erythroblasts, reticulocytopenia, and plasmatic anti-rHuEPO antibodies. Serum iron was increased and associated with mRNA overexpression of hepatic hepcidin and other iron regulatory mediators and downregulation of matriptase-2; overexpression of divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin was observed in duodenum and liver. Decreased EPO expression was observed in kidney and liver, while EPO receptor was overexpressed in liver. Endogenous EPO levels were normal, suggesting that anti-rHuEPO antibodies blunted EPO function. Our results suggest that anti-rHuEPO antibodies inhibit erythropoiesis causing anemia. This leads to a serum iron increase, which seems to stimulate hepcidin expression despite no evidence of inflammation, thus suggesting iron as the key modulator of hepcidin synthesis. These findings might contribute to improving new therapeutic strategies against rHuEPO resistance and/or development of antibody-mediated EH in patients under rHuEPO therapy. J. C. Fernandes, P. Garrido, S. Ribeiro, P. Rocha-Pereira, E. Bronze-da-Rocha, L. Belo, E. Costa, F. Reis, and A. Santos-Silva Copyright © 2014 J. C. Fernandes et al. All rights reserved. Sequential Coordination between Lingual and Pharyngeal Pressures Produced during Dry Swallowing Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/691352/ The aim of this study was to investigate oropharyngeal pressure flow dynamics during dry swallowing in ten healthy subjects. Tongue pressure (TP) was measured using a sensor sheet system with five measuring points on the hard palate, and pharyngeal pressure (PP) was measured using a manometric catheter with four measuring points. The order and correlations of sequential events, such as onset, peak, and offset times of pressure production, at each pressure measuring point were analyzed on the synchronized waveforms. Onset of TP was earlier than that of PP. The peak of TP did not show significant differences with the onset of PP, and it was earlier than that of PP. There was no significant difference between the offset of TP and PP. The onset of PP was temporally time-locked to the peak of TP, and there was an especially strong correlation between the onset of PP and TP at the posterior-median part on the hard palate. The offset of PP was temporally time-locked to that of TP. These results could be interpreted as providing an explanation for the generation of oropharyngeal pressure flow to ensure efficient bolus transport and safe swallowing. Jitsuro Yano, Yoichiro Aoyagi, Takahiro Ono, Kazuhiro Hori, Wakami Yamaguchi, Shigehiro Fujiwara, Isami Kumakura, Shogo Minagi, and Akio Tsubahara Copyright © 2014 Jitsuro Yano et al. All rights reserved. Cell Hydration as a Biomarker for Estimation of Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation on Cells and Organisms Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/890518/ “Changes in cell hydration” have been hypothesized as an input signal for intracellular metabolic cascade responsible for biological effects of nonionizing radiation (NIR). To test this hypothesis a comparative study on the impacts of different temperature and NIR (infrasound frequency mechanical vibration (MV), static magnetic field (SMF), extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF), and microwave (MW)) pretreated water on the hydration of barley seeds in its dormant and germination periods was performed. In dormant state temperature sensitivity () of seed hydration in distilled water (DW) was less than 2, and it was nonsensitive to NIR treated DW, whereas during the germination period (48–72 hours) seeds hydration exhibited temperature sensitivity and higher sensitivity to NIR treated DW. Obtained data allow us to suggest that the metabolic driving of intracellular water dynamics accompanied by hydrogen bonding and breaking is more sensitive to NIR-induced water structure changes in seed bathing aqua medium than the simple thermodynamic processes such as osmotic gradient driven water absorption by seeds in dormant state. Therefore, cell hydration is suggested to be a universal and extrasensitive biomarker for detection of biological effects of NIR on cells and organisms. Sinerik Ayrapetyan and Jaysankar De Copyright © 2014 Sinerik Ayrapetyan and Jaysankar De. All rights reserved. The Improved Kriging Interpolation Algorithm for Local Underwater Terrain Based on Fractal Compensation Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/289521/ The interpolation-reconstruction of local underwater terrain using the underwater digital terrain map (UDTM) is an important step for building an underwater terrain matching unit and directly affects the accuracy of underwater terrain matching navigation. The Kriging method is often used in terrain interpolation, but, with this method, the local terrain features are often lost. Therefore, the accuracy cannot meet the requirements of practical application. Analysis of the geographical features is performed on the basis of the randomness and self-similarity of underwater terrain. We extract the fractal features of local underwater terrain with the fractal Brownian motion model, compensating for the possible errors of the Kriging method with fractal theory. We then put forward an improved Kriging interpolation method based on this fractal compensation. Interpolation-reconstruction tests show that the method can simulate the real underwater terrain features well and that it has good usability. Pengyun Chen, Ye Li, Yumin Su, and Xiaolong Chen Copyright © 2014 Pengyun Chen et al. All rights reserved. Real-Time Analysis and Forecasting of Multisite River Flow Using a Distributed Hydrological Model Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/659262/ A spatial distributed hydrological forecasting system was developed to promote the analysis of river flow dynamic state in a large basin. The research presented the real-time analysis and forecasting of multisite river flow in the Nakdong River Basin using a distributed hydrological model with radar rainfall forecast data. A real-time calibration algorithm of hydrological distributed model was proposed to investigate the particular relationship between the water storage and basin discharge. Demonstrate the approach of simulating multisite river flow using a distributed hydrological model couple with real-time calibration and forecasting of multisite river flow with radar rainfall forecasts data. The hydrographs and results exhibit that calibrated flow simulations are very approximate to the flow observation at all sites and the accuracy of forecasting flow is gradually decreased with lead times extending from 1 hr to 3 hrs. The flow forecasts are lower than the flow observation which is likely caused by the low estimation of radar rainfall forecasts. The research has well demonstrated that the distributed hydrological model is readily applicable for multisite real-time river flow analysis and forecasting in a large basin. Mingdong Sun and Gwangseob Kim Copyright © 2014 Mingdong Sun and Gwangseob Kim. All rights reserved. Use of Angong Niuhuang in Treating Central Nervous System Diseases and Related Research Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/346918/ In Chinese medicine-based therapeutics, Angong Niuhuang pill (ANP) is one of the three most effective formulas for febrile diseases, and it is also used to treat other diseases. This paper reviews current knowledge regarding the clinical and pharmacological effects of ANP for treating different central nervous system (CNS) diseases to confirm its validity and efficacy. These diseases are like centric fever, coma, stroke, and viral encephalitis. This review reveals that various diseases could be treated using the same agent, which is one of the most important principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the “Same Treatment for Different Diseases” principle, ANP might be efficacious in other CNS diseases. Yu Guo, Shaohua Yan, Lipeng Xu, Gexin Zhu, Xiaotong Yu, and Xiaolin Tong Copyright © 2014 Yu Guo et al. All rights reserved. Coptis chinensis and Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) Can Synergistically Inhibit Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/510157/ Objectives. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Coptis chinensis plus myrobalan (CM) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. The inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animal models were established by using ear swelling and paw edema of mouse induced by xylene and formaldehyde, respectively. In vitro, cytotoxicity, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cell supernatant were detected. In vivo, swelling rate and edema inhibitory rate of ear and paw were observed using CM-treated mice. Results. At 150–18.75 μg·mL−1, CM had no cytotoxicity and could significantly promote the growth and the phagocytosis of macrophages and inhibit the overproduction of NO, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages induced by LPS. In vivo, pretreatment with CM, the ear swelling, and paw edema of mice could be significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the antiedema effect of CM at high dose was better than dexamethasone. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that Coptis chinensis and myrobalan possessed synergistically anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that CM had therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-mediated diseases. Enhui Cui, Xiaoyan Zhi, Ying Chen, Yuanyuan Gao, Yunpeng Fan, Weimin Zhang, Wuren Ma, Weifeng Hou, Chao Guo, and Xiaoping Song Copyright © 2014 Enhui Cui et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/890842/ Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman M. Al-Elaiwi, Md Tanwir Athar, Mohammad Tariq, Ahmed Al Eid, and Saeed M. Al-Asmary Copyright © 2014 Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari et al. All rights reserved. Spatial-Temporal Correlative Fault Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/709390/ Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used extensively in a range of applications to facilitate real-time critical decision-making and situation monitoring. Accurate data analysis and decision-making rely on the quality of the WSN data that have been gathered. However, sensor nodes are prone to faults and are often unreliable because of their intrinsic natures or the harsh environments in which they are used. Using dust data from faulty sensors not only has negative effects on the analysis results and the decisions made but also shortens the network lifetime and can waste huge amounts of limited valuable resources. In this paper, the quality of a WSN service is assessed, focusing on abnormal data derived from faulty sensors. The aim was to develop an effective strategy for locating faulty sensor nodes in WSNs. The proposed fault detection strategy is decentralized, coordinate-free, and node-based, and it uses time series analysis and spatial correlations in the collected data. Experiments using a real dataset from the Intel Berkeley Research Laboratory showed that the algorithm can give a high level of accuracy and a low false alarm rate when detecting faults even when there are many faulty sensors. Zhiping Kang, Honglin Yu, Qingyu Xiong, and Haibo Hu Copyright © 2014 Zhiping Kang et al. All rights reserved. Cooperative Target Localization and Tracking with Incomplete Measurements Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/906764/ This study investigates a problem on target localization and tracking for two cases where either the slant range information of dual stations is lost or the slant range information of one station and the pitch angle information of the other one are missing. The models of cooperative localization with incomplete measurements are presented and the Kalman filtering algorithm is applied for target tracking. For improving tracking precision, a strategy of observers path planning based on the gradient of circular error probability (CEP) is integrated into the Kalman filtering algorithm. Several numerical examples are used to illustrate the tracking performance of the proposed algorithm with the corresponding root mean square error (RMSE) and Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The Monte Carlo simulation results validate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm. Yi Zhang, Yinya Li, Guoqing Qi, and Andong Sheng Copyright © 2014 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation of the Variation of Concrete Pores under the Action of Freeze-Thaw Cycles by Using X-Ray CT Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/571357/ The variation of concrete pores under the action of freeze-thaw cycles was investigated experimentally by using the X-ray CT. Firstly, the statistical characteristics of pores of concrete specimens were obtained by using the X-ray image analysis. Secondly, the variation of porosity and pore volume of concrete pores were analyzed and discussed by comparing with above characteristics. Thirdly, the failure process of the concrete specimens acted by the freeze-thaw cycles was investigated by scanning the interior of concrete specimens. The results showed that the pore volumes of concrete pores whose volumes were located at the interval [0.5 mm3, 20 mm3] have no big variation in both the amounts and volume of concrete pores, while others were found to have huge change during the process of experiment. The extent of damage acted by the repeated freezing and thawing gradually ranged from surface to complete disintegration of the interior of concrete specimens after 30 cycles of freeze-thaw acting. Jie Yuan, Yang Liu, Hongxia Li, and Baokun Zhang Copyright © 2014 Jie Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Sc on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of High Zn-Containing Mg Alloy Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/975041/ Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-11Zn and Mg-11Zn-1Sc (wt%) alloys were investigated. The main secondary phase of Mg-11Zn and Mg-11Zn-1Sc alloys is MgZn2 phase. Rare earth Sc element is an effective grain refiner and the grain size of Mg-11Zn-1Sc alloy is greatly refined. The mechanical properties of the Mg-11Zn alloy were greatly improved with incorporation of 1 wt% Sc, especially for the elevated temperature strength. Such mechanical property enhancement is ascribed to the refinement and pinning mechanism of high heat-resistant Sc and Sc-containing intermetallic particles in Mg alloy. Lidong Wang, Jie Yang, Limin Wang, and Zhanyi Cao Copyright © 2014 Lidong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Dimerization Behavior of Five Metallophthalocyanines in Different Solvents Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/914916/ Metallophthalocyanine (MPc) has become one of the metal organic compounds with the largest production and the most widely application, because of its excellent performance in catalytic oxidation. However, aggregation of the MPc in solution, resulting in decreased solubility, greatly limits the performance of application. Studying the behavior of dimerization of MPcs can provide a theoretical basis for solving the problem of the low solubility. So five metallophthalocyanines (FePc, CoPc, NiPc, CuPc, and ZnPc) were prepared with improved method and characterized. Dimerization of the five MPcs was measured by UV-Vis spectroscopy separately in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The red-shift of maximum absorption wavelength and deviations from Lambert-Beer law with increasing the concentration were observed for all the five MPcs. The dimerization equilibrium constants (K) of the five MPcs in DMF were arranged in order of CoPc > ZnPc > CuPc > FePc > NiPc, while in DMSO they were arranged in order of ZnPc > CoPc > FePc > CuPc > NiPc. The type of the central metal and nature of the solvent affect the dimerization of the MPcs. Zhenhua Cheng, Na Cui, Hongxiao Zhang, Lijun Zhu, and Daohong Xia Copyright © 2014 Zhenhua Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Reestablishment of Active Immunity against HBV Graft Reinfection after Liver Transplantation for HBV-Related End Stage Liver Disease Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/764234/ Background. The aim of this study was to establish a hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination protocol among orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) recipients under the coverage of a low-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) combined with an antiviral agent prophylaxis protocol. Method. Two hundred OLT recipients were included in this study. The vaccine was injected at months 0, 1, 2, and 6. Low-dose HBIG combined with antiviral agent prophylaxis protocol was continued before reestablishment of active immunity against HBV in order to maintain a steady anti-HBs titer. Results. Active immunity against HBV was reestablished in 50 patients, for an overall response rate of 25%. Of the 50 patients, 24 discontinued HBIG without any HBV graft reinfection during a follow-up period of 26.13 ± 7.05 months. 21 patients discontinued both HBIG and antiviral agents during a follow-up period of 39.86 ± 15.47 months, and 4 patients among them appeared to be HBsAg positive. There was no recipient death or graft loss because of HBV reinfection. Conclusions. Vaccination preventing HBV reinfection for OLT recipients is feasible. The strategy withdrawal of HBIG with induction of active immunity against hepatitis B is reasonable for long-term survivors of OLT; however, discontinuation nucleoside analogues should be cautious. Shi-Chun Lu, Tao Jiang, Wei Lai, Yuan Liu, Jing Zhang, Dao-Bing Zeng, Chuan-Yun Li, Meng-Long Wang, Dong-Dong Lin, Yue Zhu, You-Ping Li, and Ning Li Copyright © 2014 Shi-Chun Lu et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Modeling of Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/485353/ We present a three-dimensional mathematical model for the study of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with blood flow for varicose vein. The model designed to analyze temperature distribution heated by radiofrequency energy and cooled by blood flow includes a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel with a homogeneous vein wall. The simulated blood velocity conditions are U = 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mm/s. The lower the blood velocity, the higher the temperature in the vein wall and the greater the tissue damage. The region that is influenced by temperature in the case of the stagnant flow occupies approximately 28.5% of the whole geometry, while the region that is influenced by temperature in the case of continuously moving electrode against the flow direction is about 50%. The generated RF energy induces a temperature rise of the blood in the lumen and leads to an occlusion of the blood vessel. The result of the study demonstrated that higher blood velocity led to smaller thermal region and lower ablation efficiency. Since the peak temperature along the venous wall depends on the blood velocity and pullback velocity, the temperature distribution in the model influences ablation efficiency. The vein wall absorbs more energy in the low pullback velocity than in the high one. Sun Young Choi, Byung Kook Kwak, and Taewon Seo Copyright © 2014 Sun Young Choi et al. All rights reserved. The Accumulation and Seasonal Dynamic of the Soil Organic Carbon in Wetland of the Yellow River Estuary, China Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/408923/ The wetland of the Yellow River estuary is a typical new coastal wetland in northern China. It is essential to study the carbon pool and its variations for evaluating the carbon cycle process. The study results regarding the temporal-spatial distribution and influential factors of soil organic carbon in four typical wetlands belonging to the Yellow River estuary showed that there was no significant difference in the contents of the surface soil TOC to the same season among the four types of wetlands. For each type of wetlands, the TOC content in surface soils was significantly higher in October than that in both May and August. On the whole, the obvious differences in DOC contents in surface soils were not observed in the different wetland types and seasons. The peak of TOC appeared at 0–10 cm in the soil profiles. The contents of TOC and DOC were significantly higher in salsa than those in reed, suggesting that the rhizosphere effect of organic carbon in salsa was more obvious than that in reed. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the nitrogen content, salinity, bulk density, and water content were dominant influential factors for organic carbon accumulation and seasonal variation. Xianxiang Luo, Leyun Wang, Meng Dun, Jianqiang Yang, and Zhenyu Wang Copyright © 2014 Xianxiang Luo et al. All rights reserved. Fetal Circulatory Variation in an Acute Incident Causing Bradycardia Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2014/820318/ Umbilical artery\vein, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry were performed at 33 weeks of gestation in the settings of an intrauterine growth restricted fetus during a heart rate deceleration. Interestingly, we recorded a sudden onset redistribution of fetal blood flow with fetal bradycardia. Spontaneous normalization of waveforms was observed once fetal heart rate returned to normal. Our case provides evidence to circulatory variation of a human fetus resulting from an acute incident causing bradycardia. Safak Olgan, Mehmet Sakinci, Murat Ozekinci, Nasuh Utku Dogan, Erkan Cagliyan, and Sabahattin Altunyurt Copyright © 2014 Safak Olgan et al. All rights reserved. Polyangiitis with Granulomatosis as a Paraneoplastic Syndrome of B-Cell Lymphoma of the Lacrimal Gland Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2014/713048/ Introduction. The clinical course of an autoimmune paraneoplastic syndrome parallels the natural history of the primary malignancy. In most cases, such paraneoplastic are syndromes hardly distinguishable from idiopathic autoimmune diseases. A case of polyangiitis with granulomatosis as a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with B-cell Lymphoma of the lacrimal gland has not yet been reported. Case Presentation. We present the case of a male patient with a B-cell Lymphoma of the lacrimal gland, who debuted with symptoms similar to rheumatoid arthritis and acute renal failure, secondary to polyangiitis with granulomatosis. The current pathophysiological hypotheses explaining the relationship between a lymphoproliferative disease and an autoimmune paraneoplastic disorder are discussed. Conclusion. Tumor-associated segmental necrotizing glomerulopathy is a very rare manifestation of glomerular diseases. Some atypical clinical features should increase the suspicion of an underlying tumor, in which case it is essential to treat the primary neoplasia, in order to control the autoimmune manifestations. Beatriz Wills Sanín, Yenny R. Cárdenas Bolivar, Jose J. Carvajal, Guillermo E. Quintero, and Rafael Andrade Copyright © 2014 Beatriz Wills Sanín et al. All rights reserved. Octreotide for the Management of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in a Patient with a HeartWare Left Ventricular Assist Device Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cric/2014/826453/ HeartWare is a third generation left ventricular assist device (LVAD), widely used for the management of advanced heart failure patients. These devices are frequently associated with a significant risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. The data for the management of patients with LVAD presenting with GI bleeding is limited. We describe a 56-year-old lady, recipient of a HeartWare device, who experienced recurrent GI bleeding and was successfully managed with subcutaneous (SC) formulations of octreotide. Geetanjali Dang, Ryan Grayburn, Geoffrey Lamb, Adrian Umpierrez De Reguero, and Nunzio Gaglianello Copyright © 2014 Geetanjali Dang et al. All rights reserved. Markov Switching Model Analysis of Implied Volatility for Market Indexes with Applications to S&P 500 and DAX Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jmath/2014/753852/ We adopt a regime switching approach to study concrete financial time series with particular emphasis on their volatility characteristics considered in a space-time setting. In particular the volatility parameter is treated as an unobserved state variable whose value in time is given as the outcome of an unobserved, discrete-time and discrete-state, stochastic process represented by a suitable Markov chain. We will take into account two different approaches for inference on Markov switching models, namely, the classical approach based on the maximum likelihood techniques and the Bayesian inference method realized through a Gibbs sampling procedure. Then the classical approach shall be tested on data taken from the Standard & Poor’s 500 and the Deutsche Aktien Index series of returns in different time periods. Computations are given for a four-state switching model and obtained numerical results are put beside by explanatory graphs which report the outcomes obtained exploiting both smoothing and filtering algorithms used in the estimation/calibration procedures we proposed to infer on the switching model parameters. Luca Di Persio and Samuele Vettori Copyright © 2014 Luca Di Persio and Samuele Vettori. All rights reserved. Freedom and Confinement: Patients’ Experiences of Life with Home Haemodialysis Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nrp/2014/252643/ Patients with chronic end stage renal disease need dialysis to survive; however, they also need a treatment that suits their life situation. It is important that healthcare providers provide reliable, up-to-date information about different dialysis treatment options. Since home haemodialysis is a relatively new treatment, it is necessary to gather more knowledge about what the treatment entails from the patient’s perspective. The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of having home haemodialysis. To gain access to the patients’ experiences, they were asked to write narratives, which describe both their good and bad experiences of life with the treatment. The narratives were analysed with a qualitative method. The results of this analysis are subdivided into five themes: freedom to be at home and control their own treatment, feeling of being alone with the responsibility, changes in the home environment, need for support, and security and well-being with home haemodialysis. The conclusion is that home haemodialysis provides a certain level of freedom, but the freedom is limited as the treatment itself is restrictive. In order to improve patients’ experiences with home haemodialysis, more research based on patients’ experiences is needed and it is necessary to involve the patients in the development of the care. C. Vestman, M. Hasselroth, and M. Berglund Copyright © 2014 C. Vestman et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Thermal Analysis of Different Cool Roof Materials for Minimizing Building Energy Consumption Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/685640/ The roof and walls in the urban areas contribute to major share in the absorption of solar radiations and also retard the outflow of the absorbed radiation from the building envelope, thereby increasing the global warming by inducing the heat island effect. The impact of using cool roof technologies on the thermal comfort of the office buildings has been estimated. Cool roofs reduce electricity consumption for maintaining the temperature of the air-conditioned buildings in the comfort level and also increase comfort in buildings merely not relying completely on cooling equipment. The cool roofs and cool pavements, however, can mitigate summer urban heat islands by improving indoor air quality and comfort. The thermal analysis of different materials has been carried out to analyze the impact of the rate of heat transfer on the building envelope and the results obtained indicate that different cool roof techniques are beneficial in maintaining the comfort level of the building which purely depends on the ambient temperature conditions. Y. Anand, A. Gupta, A. Maini, Avi Gupta, A. Sharma, A. Khajuria, S. Gupta, S. Sharma, S. Anand, and S. K. Tyagi Copyright © 2014 Y. Anand et al. All rights reserved. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Treatment in Chronic Neurological Diseases: Do We Have Maintenance Dose Right? Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ad/2014/962530/ Objectives. We tried to define, on individual basis, minimal effective maintenance dose of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) in 26 patients with chronic neurological conditions requiring long-term IVIG treatment. Methods. Clinical criteria were reviewed in individual cases (Phase 1) followed by titration phase (Phase 2, 12 months) and posttitration/follow-up phase (Phase 3, 3 months). Objective neurological examination and patient self-reports were used for clinical follow-up. Results. 69.2% of patients reported condition as stable, 26.9% as better, and 3.9% as mildly worse. Original mean monthly dose was 1 g/kg; over the period of 12 months we reduced dose of IVIG to mean dose 0.67 g/kg (range 0.3–2.5 g/kg, which meant reduction by 36.4%. We identified 4 nonresponders and diagnosis in one case was reclassified to degenerative disease. In follow-up phase we reduced dose further to 0.60 g/kg. Cumulative monthly dose dropped from 2040 g to 1298 g and to 991 g, respectively. Financial expenses were reduced significantly (by −36.4% during titration phase and by −51.4% during follow-up phase) (comparing with baseline) . Conclusion. Individual dose titration leads to significant maintenance IVIG dose reduction with preserved clinical efficacy. Maintenance dose below 1 g/kg (in our study around 0.7 g/kg) has acceptable risk/benefit ratio. Ondrej Dolezal Copyright © 2014 Ondrej Dolezal. All rights reserved. Paraneoplastic Dermatomyositis with Carcinoma Cervix: A Rare Clinical Association Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cridm/2014/836246/ Dermatomyositis is an uncommon inflammatory myopathy associated with cutaneous manifestations. It may also occur as paraneoplastic syndrome associated with various malignancies, most common of which being lung, breast, stomach, rectum, kidney, or testicular cancer. A postmenopausal woman presented to us with generalized itching along with skin rash and proximal muscle weakness of 2 years’ duration. Examination revealed heliotrope rash and mechanic hands and muscle power 2/5 in proximal muscle groups of both upper and lower limbs. A clinical diagnosis of dermatomyositis was made which was supported by raised lactate dehydrogenase levels and skin biopsy findings. Past history was significant for vaginal discharge and bleeding per vagina. Further work-up revealed carcinoma cervix and she was referred to oncology department for further management. Temporal relationship and improvement of muscle weakness with treatment of underlying neoplasm supported its paraneoplastic nature. So, final diagnosis of keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of cervix with paraneoplastic dermatomyositis was made. A nationwide cohort study of 1,012 patients with dermatomyositis in Taiwan revealed only 3 patients with cervical cancer. So this case is being reported for its rare association with carcinoma cervix and to highlight the need of detailed evaluation for underlying malignancies in patients with dermatomyositis. Sumir Kumar, B. B. Mahajan, Sandeep Kaur, and Amarbir Singh Copyright © 2014 Sumir Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Metabolic Changes and Serum Ghrelin Level in Patients with Psoriasis Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/175693/ Background. Serum ghrelin levels may be related to metabolic and clinical changes in patients with psoriasis. Objective. This study was performed to determine the possible effects of serum ghrelin in patients with psoriasis. Methods. The study population consisted of 25 patients with plaque psoriasis. The patients were questioned with regard to age, gender, age of onset, duration of disease, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). In addition, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, insulin, and ghrelin levels were measured. Results. The mean serum ghrelin level was 45.41 ± 22.41 in the psoriasis group and 29.92 ± 14.65 in the healthy control group. Serum ghrelin level was significantly higher in the psoriasis group compared with the controls (). The mean ghrelin level in patients with a lower PASI score was significantly higher than in those with a higher PASI score (). Conclusion. The present study was performed to determine the effects of ghrelin in psoriasis patients. We found a negative correlation between severity of psoriasis and ghrelin level. Larger and especially experimental studies focusing on correlation of immune system-ghrelin levels and severity of psoriasis may be valuable to clarify the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Haydar Ucak, Betul Demir, Demet Cicek, Ilker Erden, Suleyman Aydin, Selma Bakar Dertlioglu, and Mustafa Arica Copyright © 2014 Haydar Ucak et al. All rights reserved. Interstitial Lung Disease Associated with mTOR Inhibitors in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Results from a Large Phase III Clinical Trial Program of Everolimus and Review of the Literature Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtrans/2014/305931/ Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been reported with the use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi). The clinical and safety databases of three Phase III trials of everolimus in de novo kidney (A2309), heart (A2310), and liver (H2304) transplant recipients (TxR) were searched using a standardized MedDRA query (SMQ) search for ILD followed by a case-by-case medical evaluation. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Out of the 1,473 de novo TxR receiving everolimus in Phase III trials, everolimus-related ILD was confirmed in six cases (one kidney, four heart, and one liver TxR) representing an incidence of 0.4%. Everolimus was discontinued in three of the four heart TxR, resulting in ILD improvement or resolution. Outcome was fatal in the kidney TxR (in whom everolimus therapy was continued) and in the liver TxR despite everolimus discontinuation. The literature review identified 57 publications on ILD in solid organ TxR receiving everolimus or sirolimus. ILD presented months or years after mTORi initiation and symptoms were nonspecific and insidious. The event was more frequent in patients with a late switch to mTORi. In most cases, ILD was reversed after prompt mTORi discontinuation. ILD induced by mTORi is an uncommon and potentially fatal event warranting early recognition and drug discontinuation. Patricia Lopez, Sven Kohler, and Seema Dimri Copyright © 2014 Patricia Lopez et al. All rights reserved. Computer-Assisted Segmentation of Videocapsule Images Using Alpha-Divergence-Based Active Contour in the Framework of Intestinal Pathologies Detection Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbi/2014/428583/ Visualization of the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract through natural orifices is a challenge for endoscopists. Videoendoscopy is currently the “gold standard” technique for diagnosis of different pathologies of the intestinal tract. Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been developed in the 1990s as an alternative to videoendoscopy to allow direct examination of the gastrointestinal tract without any need for sedation. Nevertheless, the systematic postexamination by the specialist of the 50,000 (for the small bowel) to 150,000 images (for the colon) of a complete acquisition using WCE remains time-consuming and challenging due to the poor quality of WCE images. In this paper, a semiautomatic segmentation for analysis of WCE images is proposed. Based on active contour segmentation, the proposed method introduces alpha-divergences, a flexible statistical similarity measure that gives a real flexibility to different types of gastrointestinal pathologies. Results of segmentation using the proposed approach are shown on different types of real-case examinations, from (multi)polyp(s) segmentation, to radiation enteritis delineation. L. Meziou, A. Histace, F. Precioso, O. Romain, X. Dray, B. Granado, and B. J. Matuszewski Copyright © 2014 L. Meziou et al. All rights reserved. Outcomes of Geriatric Hip Fractures Treated with AFFIXUS Hip Fracture Nail Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aorth/2014/509592/ Geriatric hip fractures are one of the commonest fractures worldwide. The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of a series of unstable geriatric hip fractures treated with AFFIXUS hip fracture nail. A retrospective study of 100 unstable geriatric hip fractures treated with AFFIXUS hip fracture nail is presented. The mean follow-up duration was 8 months (range 3–32). Of the patients 83% were female. The average age was 85 years. The fracture was treated by closed reduction and intramedullary fixation. The mean acute hospital stay was 17.6 days. Systemic complications occurred in 29 patients (29%) and local complications in 3 patients (3%) including lag screw cutout in one patient (1%), lag screw backout in one patient (1%), and deep infection in one patient (1%). Mechanical failures and periprosthetic fractures were not observed in our series. Fractures united in all patients. Preinjury activity level was recovered in 78% of the patients. The results of AFFIXUS hip fracture nail were satisfactory in most elderly patients. The unique design of the lag screw and its thread spacing had effectively reduced cut-out rate. Ahmed Mabrouk, Mysore Madhusudan, Mohammed Waseem, Steven Kershaw, and Jochen Fischer Copyright © 2014 Ahmed Mabrouk et al. All rights reserved. Intraurban Analysis of Domestic Solid Waste Disposal Methods in a Sub-Sahara African City Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jwm/2014/193469/ The study examined the influence of socioeconomic attributes of residents on domestic solid waste disposal methods in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Primary data for the study were obtained through questionnaire administered on residents in Eti-Osa, Ikeja, and Mushin Local Government Areas (LGAs) representing the low, medium, and high densities, respectively, into which the sixteen LGAs in Lagos metropolis were stratified. One out of every four wards in each LGA was selected for survey. From a total of 15,275 residential buildings in the ten wards, one out of every forty buildings (2.5%) was selected using systematic random sampling where a household head was sampled. Information obtained includes the residential characteristics and the disposal methods. Enquiries into the socioeconomic attributes of the residents showed that 59.9% were high income earners and 76.6% had attained tertiary school education. This study concluded that six disposal methods were common in the study area. Furthermore, through multinomial logistic regression, the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of residents (density, income, age of respondents, educational status, and length of stay) on domestic solid waste disposal methods varied significantly in Lagos metropolis. The study established that most of the solid waste disposal methods utilized by residents in Lagos metropolis were not environment-friendly. Oluwole Samuel Ojewale Copyright © 2014 Oluwole Samuel Ojewale. All rights reserved. Investigation of a Superscalar Operand Stack Using FO4 and ASIC Wire-Delay Metrics Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/vlsi/2014/493189/ Complexity in processor microarchitecture and the related issues of power density, hot spots and wire delay, are seen to be a major concern for design migration into low nanometer technologies of the future. This paper evaluates the hardware cost of an alternative to register-file organization, the superscalar stack issue array (SSIA). We believe this is the first such reported study using discrete stack elements. Several possible implementations are evaluated, using a 90 nm standard cell library as a reference model, yielding delay data and FO4 metrics. The evaluation, including reference to ASIC layout, RC extraction, and timing simulation, suggests a 4-wide issue rate of at least four Giga-ops/sec at 90 nm and opportunities for twofold future improvement by using more advanced design approaches. Christopher Bailey and Brendan Mullane Copyright © 2014 Christopher Bailey and Brendan Mullane. All rights reserved. Nonholonomic Motion Planning Strategy for Underactuated Manipulator Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jr/2014/743857/ This paper develops nonholonomic motion planning strategy for three-joint underactuated manipulator, which uses only two actuators and can be converted into chained form. Since the manipulator was designed focusing on the control simplicity, there are several issues for motion planning, mainly including transformation singularity, path estimation, and trajectory robustness in the presence of initial errors, which need to be considered. Although many existing motion planning control laws for chained form system can be directly applied to the manipulator and steer it to desired configuration, coordinate transformation singularities often happen. We propose two mathematical techniques to avoid the transformation singularities. Then, two evaluation indicators are defined and used to estimate control precision and linear approximation capability. In the end, the initial error sensitivity matrix is introduced to describe the interference sensitivity, which is called robustness. The simulation and experimental results show that an efficient and robust resultant path of three-joint underactuated manipulator can be successfully obtained by use of the motion planning strategy we presented. Liang Li, Yuegang Tan, and Zhang Li Copyright © 2014 Liang Li et al. All rights reserved. Bioinformatic Identification of Peptidomimetic-Based Inhibitors against Plasmodium falciparum Antigen AMA1 Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mrt/2014/642391/ Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1) is a valuable vaccine candidate and exported on the merozoite surface at the time of erythrocyte invasion. PfAMA1 interacts with rhoptry neck protein PfRON2, a component of the rhoptry protein complex, which forms the tight junction at the time of invasion. Phage display studies have identified a 15-residue (F1) and a 20-residue (R1) peptide that bind to PfAMA1 and block the invasion of erythrocytes. Cocrystal structures of central region of PfAMA1 containing disulfide-linked clusters (domains I and II) with R1 peptide and a peptide derived from PfRON2 showed strong structural similarity in binding. The peptides bound to a hydrophobic groove surrounded by domain I and II loops. In this study, peptidomimetics based on the crucial PfAMA1-binding residues of PfRON2 peptide have been identified. Top 5 peptidomimetics when checked for their docking on the region of PfAMA1 encompassing the hydrophobic groove were found to dock on the groove. Drug-like molecules having structural similarity to the top 5 peptidomimetics were identified based on their binding ability to PfAMA1 hydrophobic groove in blind docking. These inhibitors provide potential lead compounds, which could be used in the development of antimalarials targeting PfAMA1. Asrar Alam Copyright © 2014 Asrar Alam. All rights reserved. On Henstock Method to Stratonovich Integral with respect to Continuous Semimartingale Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijsa/2014/534864/ We will use the Henstock (or generalized Riemann) approach to define the Stratonovich integral with respect to continuous semimartingale in space. Our definition of Stratonovich integral encompasses the classical definition of Stratonovich integral. Haifeng Yang and Tin Lam Toh Copyright © 2014 Haifeng Yang and Tin Lam Toh. All rights reserved. Cost Analysis for a Supplier in an Inflationary Environment with Stock Dependent Demand Rate for Perishable Items Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ads/2014/457276/ The present study is concerned with the cost modeling of an inventory system with perishable multi-items having stock dependent demand rates under an inflationary environment of the market. The concept of permissible delay is taken into account. The study provides the cost analysis of inventory system under the decision criteria of time value of money, inflation, deterioration, and stock dependent demand. Numerical illustrations are derived from the quantitative model to validate the results. The cost of inventory and optimal time are also computed by varying different system parameters. The comparison of these results is facilitated by computing the results with neurofuzzy results. Madhu Jain, G. C. Sharma, and Varsha Rani Copyright © 2014 Madhu Jain et al. All rights reserved. A Low-Power Voltage Limiter/Regulator IC in Standard Thick-Oxide 130 nm CMOS for Inductive Power Transfer Application Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ape/2014/317523/ This paper presents a novel CMOS low-power voltage limiter/regulator circuit with hysteresis for inductive power transfer in an implanted telemetry application. The circuit controls its rail voltage to the maximum value of 3 V DC employing 100 mV of comparator hysteresis. It occupies a silicon area of only 127 µm × 125 µm using the 130 nm IBM CMOS process. In addition, the circuit dissipated less than 1 mW and was designed using thick-oxide 3.6 V NMOS and PMOS devices available in the process library. Stepan Lapshev and S. M. Rezaul Hasan Copyright © 2014 Stepan Lapshev and S. M. Rezaul Hasan. All rights reserved. Macrocyclic Assembly: A Dive into the Pecking Order and Applied Aspects of Multitalented Metallomacrocycles Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijic/2014/509151/ To aid in knowledge of macrocyclic complexes and biomedical scientists, we are presenting here a review article with compilation of work done so far along in relation to macrocyclic ligands and their metal complexes. The metal ion chemistry of macrocyclic ligands has now become a major subdivision of coordination chemistry. This overview focuses on developments in design, synthesis, and self-assembly of metal-based architectures and ligands related to macrocyclic chemistry. Ashu Chaudhary and Ekta Rawat Copyright © 2014 Ashu Chaudhary and Ekta Rawat. All rights reserved. Proving and Generalizing Desargues’ Two-Triangle Theorem in 3-Dimensional Projective Space Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geometry/2014/276108/ With the use of only the incidence axioms we prove and generalize Desargues’ two-triangle Theorem in three-dimensional projective space considering an arbitrary number of points on each one of the two distinct planes allowing corresponding points on the two planes to coincide and three points on any of the planes to be collinear. We provide three generalizations and we define the notions of a generalized line and a triangle-connected plane set of points. Dimitrios Kodokostas Copyright © 2014 Dimitrios Kodokostas. All rights reserved. Global Modeling of CO2 Discharges with Aerospace Applications Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aae/2014/847097/ We developed a global model aiming to study discharges in CO2 under various conditions, pertaining to a large spectrum of pressure, absorbed energy, and feeding values. Various physical conditions and form factors have been investigated. The model was applied to a case of radiofrequency discharge and to helicon type devices functioning in low and high feed conditions. In general, main charged species were found to be for sufficiently low pressure cases and O− for higher pressure ones, followed by , CO+, and in the latter case. Dominant reaction is dissociation of CO2 resulting into CO production. Electronegativity, important for radiofrequency discharges, increases with pressure, arriving up to 3 for high flow rates for absorbed power of 250 W, and diminishes with increasing absorbed power. Model results pertaining to radiofrequency type plasma discharges are found in satisfactory agreement with those available from an existing experiment. Application to low and high flow rates feedings cases of helicon thruster allowed for evaluation of thruster functioning conditions pertaining to absorbed powers from 50 W to 1.8 kW. The model allows for a detailed evaluation of the CO2 potential to be used as propellant in electric propulsion devices. Chloe Berenguer and Konstantinos Katsonis Copyright © 2014 Chloe Berenguer and Konstantinos Katsonis. All rights reserved. An Improvement Technique Based on Structural Similarity Thresholding for Digital Watermarking Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aceng/2014/580697/ Digital watermarking is extensively used in ownership authentication and copyright protection. In this paper, we propose an efficient thresholding scheme to improve the watermark embedding procedure in an image. For the proposed algorithm, watermark casting is performed separately in each block of an image, and embedding in each block continues until a certain structural similarity threshold is reached. Numerical evaluations demonstrate that our scheme improves the imperceptibility of the watermark when the capacity remains fixed, and at the same time, robustness against attacks is assured. The proposed method is applicable to most image watermarking algorithms. We verify this issue on watermarking schemes in discrete cosine transform (DCT), wavelet, and spatial domain. Amin Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Mehdi Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Jamshid Abouei, and Said Nader-Esfahani Copyright © 2014 Amin Banitalebi-Dehkordi et al. All rights reserved. Validation of Whole Slide Imaging in Pathology Wed, 17 Dec 2014 16:41:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/476854/ Liron Pantanowitz Copyright © 2014 Liron Pantanowitz. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of M5 Model Tree and Artificial Neural Network in Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration Using MODIS Products Wed, 17 Dec 2014 13:53:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcli/2014/839205/ Reference evapotranspiration () is one of the major parameters affecting hydrological cycle. Use of satellite images can be very helpful to compensate for lack of reliable weather data. This study aimed to determine using land surface temperature (LST) data acquired from MODIS sensor. LST data were considered as inputs of two data-driven models including artificial neural network (ANN) and M5 model tree to estimate values and their results were compared with calculated by FAO-Penman-Monteith (FAO-PM) equation. Climatic data of five weather stations in Khuzestan province, which is located in the southeastern Iran, were employed in order to calculate . LST data extracted from corresponding points of MODIS images were used in training of ANN and M5 model tree. Among study stations, three stations (Amirkabir, Farabi, and Gazali) were selected for creating the models and two stations (Khazaei and Shoeybie) for testing. In Khazaei station, the coefficient of determination () values for comparison between calculated by FAO-PM and estimated by ANN and M5 tree model were 0.79 and 0.80, respectively. In a similar manner, values for Shoeybie station were 0.86 and 0.85. In general, the results showed that both models can properly estimate by means of LST data derived from MODIS sensor. Armin Alipour, Jalal Yarahmadi, and Maryam Mahdavi Copyright © 2014 Armin Alipour et al. All rights reserved. Feature Extraction with Ordered Mean Values for Content Based Image Classification Wed, 17 Dec 2014 13:39:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aceng/2014/454876/ Categorization of images into meaningful classes by efficient extraction of feature vectors from image datasets has been dependent on feature selection techniques. Traditionally, feature vector extraction has been carried out using different methods of image binarization done with selection of global, local, or mean threshold. This paper has proposed a novel technique for feature extraction based on ordered mean values. The proposed technique was combined with feature extraction using discrete sine transform (DST) for better classification results using multitechnique fusion. The novel methodology was compared to the traditional techniques used for feature extraction for content based image classification. Three benchmark datasets, namely, Wang dataset, Oliva and Torralba (OT-Scene) dataset, and Caltech dataset, were used for evaluation purpose. Performance measure after evaluation has evidently revealed the superiority of the proposed fusion technique with ordered mean values and discrete sine transform over the popular approaches of single view feature extraction methodologies for classification. Sudeep Thepade, Rik Das, and Saurav Ghosh Copyright © 2014 Sudeep Thepade et al. All rights reserved. Alternate Phosphorylation/O-GlcNAc Modification on Human Insulin IRSs: A Road towards Impaired Insulin Signaling in Alzheimer and Diabetes Wed, 17 Dec 2014 13:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/abi/2014/324753/ Impaired insulin signaling has been thought of as important step in both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) regulate functions and interaction of insulin with insulin receptors substrates (IRSs) and activate insulin signaling downstream pathways via autophosphorylation on several tyrosine (TYR) residues on IRSs. Two important insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 are widely expressed in human, and alternative phosphorylation on their serine (Ser) and threonine (Thr) residues has been known to block the Tyr phosphorylation of IRSs, thus inhibiting insulin signaling and promoting insulin resistance. Like phosphorylation, O-glycosylation modification is important PTM and inhibits phosphorylation on same or neighboring Ser/Thr residues, often called Yin Yang sites. Both IRS-1 and IRS-2 have been shown to be O-glycosylated; however exact sites are not determined yet. In this study, by using neuronal network based prediction methods, we found more than 50 Ser/Thr residues that have potential to be O-glycosylated and may act as possible sites as well. Moreover, alternative phosphorylation and O-glycosylation on IRS-1 Ser-312, 984, 1037, and 1101 may act as possible therapeutic targets to minimize the risk of AD and T2DM. Zainab Jahangir, Waqar Ahmad, and Khadija Shabbiri Copyright © 2014 Zainab Jahangir et al. All rights reserved. Enhancing Automatic Classification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Images through Image Masking, Tissue Changes, and Trabecular Features Wed, 17 Dec 2014 13:20:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/726782/ Maulana Abdul Aziz, Hiroshi Kanazawa, Yuri Murakami, Fumikazu Kimura, Masahiro Yamaguchi, Tomoharu Kiyuna, Yoshiko Yamashita, Akira Saito, Masahiro Ishikawa, Naoki Kobayashi, Tokiya Abe, Akinori Hashiguchi, and Michiie Sakamoto Copyright © 2014 Maulana Abdul Aziz et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Patients with Sarcoidosis Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:53:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ad/2014/351852/ Introduction. Sarcoidosis, which is a chronic inflammatory granulomatous disease, can mimic different rheumatologic diseases including connective tissue diseases. Antinuclear antibodies are the markers used for connective tissue diseases. Aim. To determine antinuclear antibody frequency and any possible correlation with clinical and laboratory data in sarcoidosis patients. Material and Method. Forty-two sarcoidosis patients, 45 rheumatoid arthritis patients, and 45 healthy volunteers who were followed up in rheumatology outpatient clinic were included in this study. Demographic, clinical, serological, and radiological data of all patients were recorded. Antinuclear antibodies were determined with indirect immunofluorescent method and 1/100 titration was accepted as positive. The cases that were ANA positive were evaluated with immunoblot method. Results. Average age of the 42 patients (10 males) with sarcoidosis was 45.2 (20–70 years), and average disease duration was 3.5 years. ANA positivity was detected in 12 (28.5%) patients with sarcoidosis (1/100 in 10 patients, 1/320 in two patients), in 19 of RA patients (42.2%), and in two of healthy volunteers in low titer (). In the subgroup analysis made by immunblot test, one patient had anticentromere antibody, one had anti-Ro antibody, one had anti-Scl-70 antibody, one had anti-dsDNA antibody, and eight patients were negative. The two patients who had anticentromere and anti-Scl-70 antibodies had also Sjögren’s syndrome and scleroderma diagnosis, respectively. Discussion. The prevalence of ANA in patients with sarcoidosis was found to be significantly higher than healthy control group and lower than RA patients. This result shows that ANA may have an important role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis and also could be important in revealing the overlap syndromes of sarcoidosis-connective tissue diseases. Further studies with larger series are necessary in this subject. Senol Kobak, Hatice Yilmaz, Fidan Sever, Arzu Duran, Nazime Sen, and Ahmet Karaarslan Copyright © 2014 Senol Kobak et al. All rights reserved. The Cloninger Type I/Type II Typology: Configurations and Personality Profiles in Socially Stable Alcohol Dependent Patients Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:44:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apsy/2014/346157/ Many attempts have been made to derive alcohol use typologies or subtypes of alcohol dependence and this study aimed at validating the type I/type II typology in a treatment sample of socially stable alcohol dependent males and females. A second aim was to compare the two types with respect to their temperament profiles. Data was part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study, the Gothenburg Alcohol Research Project, and included 269 alcohol dependent males and females recruited from three treatment centers. The results showed that type II alcoholism occurred as a more homogenous type than type I alcoholism, and type I alcoholism seemed too heterogeneous to be summarized into one single type. When adapting a strict classification, less than a third of the study population could be classified in accordance with the typology, suggesting that the typology is not applicable, at least in socially stable individuals with alcohol dependence. The results also showed that type II alcoholics showed higher levels of novelty seeking than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics. Quite surprisingly, the individuals classified as type II alcoholics also showed higher levels of harm avoidance than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics. Peter Wennberg, Kristina Berglund, Ulf Berggren, Jan Balldin, and Claudia Fahlke Copyright © 2014 Peter Wennberg et al. All rights reserved. Malignant Pediatric Gliosarcoma Defies General Survival Data Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:36:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/175679/ Gliosarcoma, a variant of glioblastoma multiforme, is a dimorphic tumor known for its intra-axial occurrence and poor survival of less than a year. Here is an 11-year-old boy with gliosarcoma. He had a near total excision and postoperative chemoradiotherapy. He has lived through the disease for over 34 months with a residual disease.This case report is to report an unusual long survival of gliosarcoma in a teenager (Ravisankar et al., 2012). Jovita Martin, Premkumar Devadoss, Kalaichelvi Kannan, and Suresh Kumar Sundarraj Copyright © 2014 Jovita Martin et al. All rights reserved. The Potential Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Psychiatry Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:31:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/psychiatry/2014/730956/ Over the last decade, pharmacogenetics has become increasingly significant to clinical practice. Psychiatric patients, in particular, may benefit from pharmacogenetic testing as many of the psychotropic medications prescribed in practice lead to varied response rates and a wide range of side effects. The use of pharmacogenetic testing can help tailor psychotropic treatment and inform personalized treatment plans with the highest likelihood of success. Recently, many studies have been published demonstrating improved patient outcomes and decreased healthcare costs for psychiatric patients who utilize genetic testing. This review will describe evidence supporting the clinical utility of genetic testing in psychiatry, present several case studies to demonstrate use in everyday practice, and explore current patient and clinician opinions of genetic testing. Kathryn R. Gardner, Francis X. Brennan, Rachel Scott, and Jay Lombard Copyright © 2014 Kathryn R. Gardner et al. All rights reserved. Regulation of UCP1 in the Browning of Epididymal Adipose Tissue by β3-Adrenergic Agonist: A Role for MicroRNAs Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:29:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/530636/ Background. White adipose tissue browning may be a promising strategy to combat obesity. UCP1 is strongly induced in White adipose tissue with β3-adrenergic agonist treatment, but the causes of this increase have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to explore more miRNAs involved in the process of browning of visceral adipose tissue. Methods. Total of fourteen mice were randomly divided into control and study group. Study group mice were injected intraperitoneally with CL316243 once daily for seven days; meanwhile the control group were treated with 0.9% NaCl. After a 7-day period, the expression of genes involved in WAT browning and potential UCP1-targeting miRNAs in adipose tissues was analyzed by qPCR. Results. qPCR analysis revealed that UCP1, DIO2, CIDEA, and CPT1B in epididymal adipose tissue were overexpressed in CL316243 group. Furthermore, potential UCP1-targeting miR-9 and miR-338-3p in epididymal adipose tissue were significantly decreased in CL316243 group. Conclusion. This suggests that potential UCP1-targeting miR-9 and miR-338-3p may be involved in the browning of epididymal adipose tissue by regulating UCP1 gene expression. In this study, we demonstrated that this increase of UCP1 is due, at least in part, to the decreased expression of certain UCP1-targeting miRNAs in epididymal adipose tissue compared to control. Zongji Zheng, Xiaomeng Liu, Qianwei Zhao, Lei Zhang, Chenzhong Li, and Yaoming Xue Copyright © 2014 Zongji Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Interpreting the Consequences of Metformin Accumulation in an Emergency Context: Impact of the Time Frame on the Blood Metformin Levels Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:24:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/717198/ Objective. To clarify the link between metformin accumulation and its metabolic consequences by taking the time frame for metformin measurement into account. Research Design and Methods. Our database was studied for cases of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis status available on admission, and then we selected patients in whom arterial pH, blood lactate, and plasma and erythrocyte metformin levels had been determined at the same time point. Results. Seventeen reports were studied on 16 patients, of whom 10 presented lactic acidosis. The time interval between admission and comprehensive testing ranged from 0 to 52 hours. The study parameters were determined simultaneously on admission in only 4 patients. In the 9 patients with lactic acidosis on admission and a delayed metformin assay, lactic acidosis persisted in 6 cases and had resolved in 3 cases by the time the blood sampling for metformin assay was performed. Conversely, lactic acidosis developed after admission in one case. Conclusions. Caution must be taken when interpreting the consequences of metformin accumulation in an emergency context: the patient’s lactic acidosis status will have changed by the time the metformin assay is performed, even though metformin accumulation may still be present. Jean-Daniel Lalau and Farshad Kajbaf Copyright © 2014 Jean-Daniel Lalau and Farshad Kajbaf. All rights reserved. Image Guidance in Radiation Therapy: Techniques and Applications Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:22:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/rrp/2014/705604/ In modern day radiotherapy, the emphasis on reduction on volume exposed to high radiotherapy doses, improving treatment precision as well as reducing radiation-related normal tissue toxicity has increased, and thus there is greater importance given to accurate position verification and correction before delivering radiotherapy. At present, several techniques that accomplish these goals impeccably have been developed, though all of them have their limitations. There is no single method available that eliminates treatment-related uncertainties without considerably adding to the cost. However, delivering “high precision radiotherapy” without periodic image guidance would do more harm than treating large volumes to compensate for setup errors. In the present review, we discuss the concept of image guidance in radiotherapy, the current techniques available, and their expected benefits and pitfalls. Shikha Goyal and Tejinder Kataria Copyright © 2014 Shikha Goyal and Tejinder Kataria. All rights reserved. Numerical Study of the Generic Sports Utility Vehicle Design with a Drag Reduction Add-On Device Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:11:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jcengi/2014/785294/ CFD simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 6.3.26 have been performed on a generic SUV design and the settings are validated using the experimental results investigated by Khalighi. Moreover, an add-on inspired by the concept presented by Englar at GTRI for drag reduction has been designed and added to the generic SUV design. CFD results of add-on model and the basic SUV model have been compared for a number of aerodynamic parameters. Also drag coefficient, drag force, mean surface pressure, mean velocities, and Cp values at different locations in the wake have been compared for both models. The main objective of the study is to present a new add-on device which may be used on SUVs for increasing the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Mean pressure results show an increase in the total base pressure on the SUV after using the device. An overall reduction of 8% in the aerodynamic drag coefficient on the add-on SUV has been investigated analytically in this study. Shubham Singh, M. Zunaid, Naushad Ahmad Ansari, Shikha Bahirani, Sumit Dhall, and Sandeep Kumar Copyright © 2014 Shubham Singh et al. All rights reserved. Green Nanobiotechnology: Factors Affecting Synthesis and Characterization Techniques Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:05:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/417305/ Nanobiotechnology is gaining tremendous impetus in this era owing to its ability to modulate metals into their nanosize, which efficiently changes their chemical, physical, and optical properties. Accordingly, considerable attention is being given to the development of novel strategies for the synthesis of different kinds of nanoparticles of specific composition and size using biological sources. However, most of the currently available techniques are expensive, environmentally harmful, and inefficient with respect to materials and energy use. Several factors such as the method used for synthesis, pH, temperature, pressure, time, particle size, pore size, environment, and proximity greatly influence the quality and quantity of the synthesized nanoparticles and their characterization and applications. Additionally, characterization of the synthesized nanoparticles is essential to their potential use in various drug delivery and biomedical applications. The present review highlights various parameters affecting the synthesis of nanoparticles by green nanobiotechnology and different techniques used for characterizing the nanoparticles for their potential use in biomedical and environmental applications. Jayanta Kumar Patra and Kwang-Hyun Baek Copyright © 2014 Jayanta Kumar Patra and Kwang-Hyun Baek. All rights reserved. Intraoperative Boost Radiotherapy during Targeted Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: Overview and Single Center Experiences Wed, 17 Dec 2014 11:57:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2014/637898/ Breast-conserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation is the standard local therapy for early breast cancer. The international discussion of reduced importance of wider tumor-free resection margins than “tumor not touching ink” leads to the development of five principles in targeted oncoplastic breast surgery. IORT improves local recurrence risk and diminishes toxicity since there is less irradiation of healthy tissue. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) can be delivered in two settings: an IORT boost followed by a conventional regimen of external beam radiotherapy or a single IORT dose. The data from TARGIT-A and ELIOT reinforce the conviction that intraoperative radiotherapy during breast-conserving surgery is a reliable alternative to conventional postoperative fractionated irradiation, but only in a carefully selected population at low risk of local recurrence. We describe our experiences with IORT boost (50 kV energy X-rays; 20 Gy) in combination with targeted oncoplastic breast surgery in a routine clinical setting. Our experiences demonstrate the applicability and reliability of combining IORT boost with targeted oncoplastic breast surgery in breast-conserving therapy of early breast cancer. Wolfram Malter, Verena Kirn, Lisa Richters, Claudius Fridrich, Birgid Markiefka, Rudolf Bongartz, Robert Semrau, Peter Mallmann, and Stefan Kraemer Copyright © 2014 Wolfram Malter et al. All rights reserved. New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus as an Unusual Presentation of a Suspected Organophosphate Poisoning Wed, 17 Dec 2014 11:26:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criem/2014/676358/ New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a new entity in medical literature. It has different infectious and noninfectious etiologies showing a devastating impact onto the clinical outcome of patients. Therapy with anaesthetic and antiepileptic agents often fails to improve the condition, unless the primary cause is rectified. Here is presented the case of a young female with a history of depression who after a recent bereavement came to the Emergency Department of Aga Khan University Hospital with complaints of drowsiness that lasted for few hours. Though she had no history of organophosphate poisoning, her physical examination and further investigations were suggestive of the diagnosis. During her hospital stay, she developed refractory status epilepticus. Her seizures did not respond to standard antiepileptic and intravenous anesthetic agents and subsided only after intravenous infusion of atropine for a few days. Organophosphate poisoning is a very common presentation in the developing world and the associated status epilepticus poses a devastating problem for emergency physicians. In patients with suspected organophosphate poisoning with favoring clinical exam findings, the continuation of atropine intravenous infusion can be a safe option to abate seizures. Shahan Waheed, Amber Sabeen, and Nadeem Ullah Khan Copyright © 2014 Shahan Waheed et al. All rights reserved. Pathological Diagnosis with a Whole Slide Imaging System Wed, 17 Dec 2014 10:27:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/acp/2014/690804/ Daiki Taniyama, Kazuya Kuraoka, Akihisa Saito, Miho Tanaka, Yoko Kodama, Junichi Sakane, Yukari Nakagawa, Naoko Yasumura, Toshinao Nishimura, and Kiyomi Taniyama Copyright © 2014 Daiki Taniyama et al. All rights reserved. Certain Type Turbofan Engine Whole Vibration Model with Support Looseness Fault and Casing Response Characteristics Wed, 17 Dec 2014 09:09:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/sv/2014/683469/ Support looseness fault is a type of common fault in aeroengine. Serious looseness fault would emerge under larger unbalanced force, which would cause excessive vibration and even lead to rubbing fault, so it is important to analyze and recognize looseness fault effectively. In this paper, based on certain type turbofan engine structural features, a rotor-support-casing whole model for certain type turbofan aeroengine is established. The rotor and casing systems are modeled by means of the finite element beam method; the support systems are modeled by lumped-mass model; the support looseness fault model is also introduced. The coupled system response is obtained by numerical integral method. In this paper, based on the casing acceleration signals, the impact characteristics of symmetrical stiffness and asymmetric stiffness models are analyzed, finding that the looseness fault would lead to the longitudinal asymmetrical characteristics of acceleration time domain wave and the multiple frequency characteristics, which is consistent with the real trial running vibration signals. Asymmetric stiffness looseness model is verified to be fit for aeroengine looseness fault model. H. F. Wang and G. Chen Copyright © 2014 H. F. Wang and G. Chen. All rights reserved. 1 : 3 Resonance and Chaos in a Discrete Hindmarsh-Rose Model Wed, 17 Dec 2014 09:01:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jam/2014/896478/ 1 : 3 resonance of a two-dimensional discrete Hindmarsh-Rose model is discussed by normal form method and bifurcation theory. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the theoretical analysis, which predict the occurrence of a closed invariant circle, period-three saddle cycle, and homoclinic structure. Furthermore, it also displays the complex dynamical behaviors, especially the transitions between three main dynamical behaviors, namely, quiescence, spiking, and bursting. Bo Li and Zhimin He Copyright © 2014 Bo Li and Zhimin He. All rights reserved. Impacts of Improved Switchgrass and Big Bluestem Selections on Yield, Morphological Characteristics, and Biomass Quality Wed, 17 Dec 2014 08:49:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aag/2014/192824/ Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii V.) are promising warm-season grasses for biomass production. Understanding the morphological and quality-related traits of these grasses can guide breeders in developing strategies to improve yield and quality for bioindustrial applications. Elite selections were made in Southern Quebec from four promising varieties of switchgrass and one of big bluestem. Biomass yield, morphological characteristics, and selected quality traits were evaluated at two sites in 2011 and 2012. Significant variation was detected for all measured characteristics, with differences varying by site and year. In some cases the selection process modified characteristics including increasing height and reducing tiller mortality. Switchgrasses reached a similar tiller equilibrium density in both years of 690 m−2 and 379 m−2 at a productive and marginal site, respectively. Differences in yield were pronounced at the marginal site, with some advanced selections having a higher yield than their parent varieties. Switchgrass yields were generally greater than those of big bluestem. A delayed spring harvest date greatly reduced yield but reduced moisture content and slightly increased cellulose concentration. Big bluestem had a higher cellulose content than switchgrass, likely due to greater stem content. Erik Delaquis, Roger Samson, Philippe Seguin, Arif Mustafa, and Huguette Martel Copyright © 2014 Erik Delaquis et al. All rights reserved. The Meaning of Collaboration, from the Perspective of Iranian Nurses: A Qualitative Study Wed, 17 Dec 2014 08:48:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/785942/ Background. Interdisciplinary collaboration among nurses is a complex and multifaceted process, an essential element in nursing, which is crucial to maintain an efficient, safe, and viable medical setting. The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of concept of collaboration through conducting a qualitative research approach. Method. The present study is qualitatively conducted in a content analysis approach. The data collection process included 18 unstructured and in-depth interviews with nurses during 2012-2013 in educational medical centers of west and northwest of Iran. A purposive sampling method was used. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and finally analyzed using a qualitative content analysis with a conventional method. Result. Categories obtained from analysis of the data to explain the meaning of collaboration consist of (i) prerequisites of collaboration, (ii) actualization of collaboration, and (iii) achievement of a common goal. Conclusion. The results of the present study ended in the discovery of meaning of collaboration that confirm results of other related studies, hence clarifying and disambiguating the concept under study. These results also contribute to the development of collaboration theories and the relevant measurement tools. V. Zamanzadeh, A. Irajpour, L. Valizadeh, and M. Shohani Copyright © 2014 V. Zamanzadeh et al. All rights reserved. Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer Wed, 17 Dec 2014 08:37:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/btri/2014/571520/ Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly () with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m). The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly () from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom. N. K. Kortei, V. P. Dzogbefia, and M. Obodai Copyright © 2014 N. K. Kortei et al. All rights reserved. Intraoperative Full-Dose of Partial Breast Irradiation with Electrons Delivered by Standard Linear Accelerators for Early Breast Cancer Wed, 17 Dec 2014 08:17:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbc/2014/568136/ Purpose. To assess feasibility, efficacy, toxicity, and cosmetic results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with electrons delivered by standard linear accelerators (Linacs) during breast conserving surgeries for early infiltrating breast cancer (BC) treatment. Materials and Methods. A total of 152 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma ( cm) at low risk for local relapses were treated. All had unicentric lesions by imaging methods and negative sentinel node. After a wide local excision, 21 Gy were delivered on the parenchyma target volume with electron beams. Local recurrences (LR), survival, toxicity, and cosmetic outcomes were analyzed. Results. The median age was 58.3 years (range 40–85); median follow-up was 50.7 months (range 12–101.5). There were 5 cases with LR, 2 cases with distant metastases, and 2 cases with deaths related to BC. The cumulative incidence rates of LR, distant metastases, and BC death were 3.2%, 1.5%, and 1.5%, respectively. Complications were rare, and the cosmetic results were excellent or good in most of the patients. Conclusions. IORT with electrons delivered by standard Linacs is feasible, efficient, and well tolerated and seems to be beneficial for selected patients with early infiltrating BC. Alfredo Carlos S. D. Barros, Samir A. Hanna, Heloísa A. Carvalho, Eduardo Martella, Felipe Eduardo M. Andrade, José Roberto M. Piato, and José Luiz B. Bevilacqua Copyright © 2014 Alfredo Carlos S. D. Barros et al. All rights reserved. SPOT: A DSL for Extending Fortran Programs with Metaprogramming Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:57:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ase/2014/917327/ Metaprogramming has shown much promise for improving the quality of software by offering programming language techniques to address issues of modularity, reusability, maintainability, and extensibility. Thus far, the power of metaprogramming has not been explored deeply in the area of high performance computing (HPC). There is a vast body of legacy code written in Fortran running throughout the HPC community. In order to facilitate software maintenance and evolution in HPC systems, we introduce a DSL that can be used to perform source-to-source translation of Fortran programs by providing a higher level of abstraction for specifying program transformations. The underlying transformations are actually carried out through a metaobject protocol (MOP) and a code generator is responsible for translating a SPOT program to the corresponding MOP code. The design focus of the framework is to automate program transformations through techniques of code generation, so that developers only need to specify desired transformations while being oblivious to the details about how the transformations are performed. The paper provides a general motivation for the approach and explains its design and implementation. In addition, this paper presents case studies that illustrate the potential of our approach to improve code modularity, maintainability, and productivity. Songqing Yue and Jeff Gray Copyright © 2014 Songqing Yue and Jeff Gray. All rights reserved. Influences of Different Preparation Conditions on Catalytic Activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 for Hydrogenation of Coal Pyrolysis Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:55:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jspec/2014/272819/ A series of catalysts of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was prepared by equivalent volume impregnation method. The effects of the metal loading, calcination time, and calcination temperatures of Ag and Co, respectively, on the catalytic activity were investigated. The optimum preparing condition of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was decided, and then the influence of different preparation conditions on catalytic activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 was analyzed. The results showed the following: (1) at the same preparation condition, when silver loading was 8%, the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 showed higher catalyst activity, (2) the catalyst activity had obviously improved when the cobalt loading was 8%, while it was weaker at loadings 5% and 10%, (3) the catalyst activity was influenced by different calcination temperatures of silver, but the influences were not marked, (4) the catalyst activity can be influenced by calcination time of silver, (5) different calcination times of cobalt can also influence the catalyst activity of Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3, and (6) the best preparation conditions of the Ag2O-Co3O4/γ-Al2O3 were silver loading of 8%, calcination temperature of silver of 450°C, and calcinations time of silver of 4 h, while at the same time the cobalt loading was 8%, the calcination temperature of cobalt was 450°C, and calcination time of cobalt was 4 h. Lei Zhang, Sha Xiang-ling, Lei Zhang, Wang Rui, Zhang Lixin, and Shu Xinqian Copyright © 2014 Lei Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Review of Surgical Approaches for Adrenal Tumors: Lateral Transperitoneal versus Posterior Retroperitoneal and Laparoscopic versus Robotic Adrenalectomy Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:49:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/918346/ Background. Laparoscopic lateral transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LTA) has been the standard method for resecting benign adrenal gland tumors. Recently, however, laparoscopic posterior retroperitoneal adrenalectomy (PRA) has been more popular as an alternative method. This systematic review evaluates current evidence on adrenalectomy techniques, comparing laparoscopic LTA with PRA and laparoscopic adrenalectomy with robotic adrenalectomy. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched systematically for studies comparing surgical outcomes of laparoscopic LTA versus PRA and laparoscopic versus robotic adrenalectomy. The studies were evaluated according to the PRISMA statement. Results. Eight studies comparing laparoscopic PRA and LTA showed that laparoscopic PRA was superior or at least comparable to laparoscopic LTA in operation time, blood loss, pain score, hospital stay, and return to normal activity. Conversion rates and complication rates were similar. Six studies comparing robotic and laparoscopic adrenalectomy found that outcomes and complications were similar. Conclusion. Laparoscopic PRA was more effective than LTA, especially in reducing operation time and hospital stay, but there was no evidence showing that robotic adrenalectomy was superior to laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Cost reductions and further technical advances are needed for wider application of robotic adrenalectomy. Young Jun Chai, Hyungju Kwon, Hyeong Won Yu, Su-jin Kim, June Young Choi, Kyu Eun Lee, and Yeo-Kyu Youn Copyright © 2014 Young Jun Chai et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics and Prevention of the Debris Flows following Wenchuan Earthquake in Jushui River Basin, An County, China Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:46:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jearth/2014/519865/ After analysing the catastrophic debris flows on August 18, 2012, and on July 9, 2013, in Jushui River basin, An County, the Wenchuan Earthquake seriously striken areas, it was found that they were characterized by the clay soil content of 0.1~1.2%, the density of 1.68~2.03 t/m3, the discharges of 62.2 m3/s to 552.5 m3/s, and the sediment delivery modulus of 1.0~9.4 × 104 m3/km2. Due to intense rainstorm, many large debris flows produced hazard chain, involved in flash flood, debris flow, dammed lake, and outburst flood, and rose Jushui River channel about 1~4 m as well as amplified flood. The hazards and losses mainly originated from the burying and scouring of debris flows, flood inundating, and river channel rise. The prevention of debris flows is facing the intractable problems including potential hazard identification, overstandard debris flow control, control constructions destructing, and river channel rapid rise. Therefore, the prevention measures for the basin, including hazard identification and risk assessment, inhabitants relocating, monitoring and alarming network establishing, emergency plans founding, and river channel renovating, and the integrated control mode for watershed based on regulating the process of debris flow discharge, were recommended for mitigation. Yonggang Ge, Jianqiang Zhang, and Xiaojun Guo Copyright © 2014 Yonggang Ge et al. All rights reserved. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:45:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijh/2014/791045/ Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBeAg-positive, 26 HBeAg-negative, and 60 healthy control children. Results. Thirteen microRNAs showed aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and targeted liver-specific genes. In particular, three microRNAs were upregulated and one was downregulated in HBeAg-positive children compared to HBeAg-negative and healthy control children, which showed equal levels. Conclusion. The identified microRNAs might impact the progression of CHB in children. Functional studies are warranted, however, to elucidate the microRNAs’ role in the immunopathogenesis of childhood CHB. Thilde Nordmann Winther, Kari Stougaard Jacobsen, Aashiq Hussain Mirza, Ida Louise Heiberg, Claus Heiner Bang-Berthelsen, Flemming Pociot, and Birthe Hogh Copyright © 2014 Thilde Nordmann Winther et al. All rights reserved. The Roles of CD147 and/or Cyclophilin A in Kidney Diseases Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:42:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2014/728673/ CD147 is a widely expressed integral plasma membrane glycoprotein and has been involved in a variety of physiological and pathological activities in combination with different partners, including cyclophilins, caveolin-1, monocarboxylate transporters, and integrins. Recent data demonstrate that both CyPA and CD147 significantly contribute to renal inflammation, acute kidney injury, renal fibrosis, and renal cell carcinoma. Here we review the current understanding of cyclophilin A and CD147 expression and functions in kidney diseases and potential implications for treatment of kidney diseases. Xin Qu, Chunting Wang, Jicheng Zhang, Guoqiang Qie, and Jianxin Zhou Copyright © 2014 Xin Qu et al. All rights reserved. The Filtering of the Posturographic Signals Shows the Age Related Features Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:36:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/403893/ Objective. Lower frequencies of slow oscillations of the posturographic signals can be removed using high-pass filtering. This procedure releases postural reflexes possessing higher frequencies and lower amplitude range. Mutual dependence between the and components of posturographic signals was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The posturographic signals of old patients with idiopathic gait disturbance were compared with the control group of similar age and with younger patients. There was also the analysis of the influence of the eyes state (open versus closed) and the head position (normal or bent back). The statistically significant differences in the mutual dependence between and components between the groups of patients were analyzed using MANOVA. The significant differences were observed mainly in the range of filter frequencies  Hz and  Hz with a maximum effect at approximately  Hz. A detailed post-hoc analysis is also presented. The differences in the higher frequency range suggest the main disturbance to be connected with the spinal reflexes. Visual and vestibular support appear insufficient for postural stability control in the idiopathic gait disturbance group. The results suggest that idiopathic gait disturbance is the final stage of the aging process of postural system. Krzysztof Piotr Michalak, Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Paweł Nawrot, Piotr Woźniak, and Peter Vieregge Copyright © 2014 Krzysztof Piotr Michalak et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae) Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:35:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/190543/ Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500 μg/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125 μg/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 μg/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5 μg/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125 μg/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. Poliana Guerino Marson Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio, Aline Aires Aguiar, Adriana Fiorini, and Raphael Sanzio Pimenta Copyright © 2014 Poliana Guerino Marson Ascêncio et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Analysis of Non-Newtonian Blood Flow in Stenosis Narrow Arteries Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:04:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2014/479152/ The flow of blood in narrow arteries with bell-shaped mild stenosis is investigated that treats blood as non-Newtonian fluid by using the K-L model. When skin friction and resistance of blood flow are normalized with respect to non-Newtonian blood in normal artery, the results present the effect of stenosis length. When skin friction and resistance of blood flow are normalized with respect to Newtonian blood in stenosis artery, the results present the effect of non-Newtonian blood. The effect of stenosis length and effect of non-Newtonian fluid on skin friction are consistent with the Casson model in which the skin friction increases with the increase of ither stenosis length or the yield stress but the skin friction decreases with the increase of plasma viscosity coefficient. The effect of stenosis length and effect of non-Newtonian fluid on resistance of blood flow are contradictory. The resistance of blood flow (when normalized by non-Newtonian blood in normal artery) increases when either the plasma viscosity coefficient or the yield stress increases, but it decreases with the increase of stenosis length. The resistance of blood flow (when normalized by Newtonian blood in stenosis artery) decreases when either the plasma viscosity coefficient or the yield stress increases, but it decreases with the increase of stenosis length. Somchai Sriyab Copyright © 2014 Somchai Sriyab. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Service Selection Problem Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:04:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2014/835071/ To tackle the QoS-based service selection problem, a hybrid artificial bee colony algorithm called -ABC is proposed, which incorporates the ant colony optimization mechanism into the artificial bee colony optimization process. In this algorithm, a skyline query process is used to filter the candidates related to each service class, which can greatly shrink the search space in case of not losing good candidates, and a flexible self-adaptive varying construct graph is designed to model the search space based on a clustering process. Then, based on this construct graph, different foraging strategies are designed for different groups of bees in the swarm. Finally, this approach is evaluated experimentally using different standard real datasets and synthetically generated datasets and compared with some recently proposed related service selection algorithms. It reveals very encouraging results in terms of the quality of solutions. Changsheng Zhang and Bin Zhang Copyright © 2014 Changsheng Zhang and Bin Zhang. All rights reserved. Safe and Successful Yttrium-90 Resin Microsphere Radioembolization in a Heavily Pretreated Patient with Chemorefractory Colorectal Liver Metastases after Biliary Stent Placement above the Papilla Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:41:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihep/2014/921406/ We report a case of safe and successful yttrium-90 resin microsphere radioembolization in a patient with a long history of multiple recurrent colon cancer hepatic metastases progressing after hepatic resections, hepatic arterial chemotherapy, and multiple regimens of systemic chemotherapy. One month prior to radioembolization, a biliary stent was placed above the level of the ampulla to relieve tumor-related biliary obstruction and normalize bilirubin levels. Vlasios S. Sotirchos, Elena N. Petre, Karen T. Brown, Lynn A. Brody, Michael I. D’Angelica, Ronald P. DeMatteo, Nancy E. Kemeny, and Constantinos T. Sofocleous Copyright © 2014 Vlasios S. Sotirchos et al. All rights reserved. Stability Analysis of a Car-Following Model on Two Lanes Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:38:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/727560/ Considering lateral influence from adjacent lane, an improved car-following model is developed in this paper. Then linear and nonlinear stability analyses are carried out. The modified Korteweg-de Vries (MKdV) equation is derived with the kink-antikink soliton solution. Numerical simulations are implemented and the result shows good consistency with theoretical study. Yuhan Jia, Yiman Du, and Jianping Wu Copyright © 2014 Yuhan Jia et al. All rights reserved. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:36:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/248049/ Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof. N. Chowdhury, A. Saleque, N. K. Sood, and L. D. Singla Copyright © 2014 N. Chowdhury et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Optimization Algorithms for Sunlight-Based Positioning Sensor Networks Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:34:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/564072/ The sunlight intensity-based global positioning system (SGPS) is able to geolocate outdoor objects by means of the sunlight intensity detection. This paper presents the integration of SGPS into a sensor network in order to improve the overall accuracy using evolutionary algorithms. Another contribution of the paper is to theoretically solve both global and relative positioning of the sensors composing the network within the same framework without satellite-based GPS technology. Results show that this approach is promising and has potential to be improved further. Jose Pardeiro, Javier V. Gómez, Alberto Brunete, and Frode Eika Sandnes Copyright © 2014 Jose Pardeiro et al. All rights reserved. Fault Diagnosis of Beam-Like Structure Using Modified Fuzzy Technique Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:31:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aav/2014/491510/ This paper presents a novel hybrid fuzzy logic based artificial intelligence (AI) technique applicable to diagnosis of the crack parameters in a fixed-fixed beam by using the vibration signatures as input. The presence of damage in engineering structures leads to changes in vibration signatures like natural frequency and mode shapes. In the first part of this work, a structure with a failure crack has been analyzed using finite element method (FEM) and retrospective changes in the vibration signatures have been recorded. In the second part of the research work, these deviations in the vibration signatures for the first three mode shapes have been taken as input parameters for a fuzzy logic based controller for calculation of crack location and its severity as output parameters. In the proposed fuzzy controller, hybrid membership functions have been taken. Several fuzzy rules have been identified for prediction of crack depth and location and the results have been compared with finite element analysis. A database of experimental results has also been considered to check the robustness of the fuzzy controller. The results show that predictions for the nondimensional crack location, , deviate ~2.4% from experimental values and for the nondimensional crack depth, , are less than ~−2%. Dhirendranath Thatoi, Sasanka Choudhury, and Prabir Kumar Jena Jena Copyright © 2014 Dhirendranath Thatoi et al. All rights reserved. Sciatic Nerve Palsy following Total Hip Replacement via Direct Anterior Approach after Recommencement of Warfarin for Prophylaxis in Atrial Fibrillation Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:28:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crior/2014/810481/ The occurrence of sciatic nerve palsy following posterior and anterolateral approaches to the hip has been well documented and is about 1-2%. To our knowledge, however, there are no reports of sciatic nerve palsy occurring secondary to the anterior approach to the hip for arthroplasty. We describe a case of sciatic nerve palsy secondary to haematoma formation following total hip replacement through the anterior approach. The recommencement of warfarin for prophylaxis against atrial fibrillation is thought to have been a contributing factor. Full recovery is rare following delayed diagnosis and early recognition of the signs of pain, parasthesia, and gradual loss of dorsiflexion and prompt drainage may reverse the condition. We advise caution with restarting warfarin following total hip arthroplasty. Vipin Asopa, Shafic Al-Nammari, Tony Spriggins, Tony Menz, and Adrian Bauze Copyright © 2014 Vipin Asopa et al. All rights reserved. Changing Smoking Behavior of Staff at Dr. Zainoel Abidin Provincial General Hospital, Banda Aceh Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:22:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aph/2014/316274/ Smoking tobacco is a habit of individuals. Determinants of smoking behavior are multiple factors both within the individual and in the social environment around the individual. Staff smoking has been an undesirable phenomenon at Dr. Zainoel Abidin Provincial General Hospital in Banda Aceh. Health promotion efforts are a strategy that has resulted in behavioral changes with reductions in smoking by staff. This action research was designed to analyze changes in smoking behavior of hospital staff. The sample for this research was all 152 male staff who were smokers. The results of this research showed that Health Promotion Interventions (HPI) consisting of personal empowerment plus social support and advocacy to improve employee knowledge and attitudes influenced staff to stop or to significantly. HPI employed included counseling programs, distribution of antismoking leaflets, putting up antismoking posters, and installation of no smoking signs. These HPI proved effective to increase knowledge and create a positive attitude to nonsmoking that resulted in major reductions in smoking by staff when offsite and complete cessation of smoking whilst in the hospital. Continuous evaluation, monitoring, and strengthening of policies banning smoking should be maintained in all hospitals. Said Usman, Soekidjo Notoadmodjo, Kintoko Rochadi, and Fikarwin Zuska Copyright © 2014 Said Usman et al. All rights reserved. Successful Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure Caused by Mediastinal Precursor T Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:20:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/804917/ Precursor T lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) often manifests as a mediastinal mass sometimes compressing vital structures like vessels or large airways. This case was a 40-year-old male who developed T-LBL presenting as respiratory failure caused by mediastinal T-LBL. He presented with persistent life threatening hypoxia despite tracheal intubation. We successfully managed this respiratory failure using venovenous (VV) ECMO. Induction chemotherapy was started after stabilizing oxygenation and the mediastinal lesion shrank rapidly. Respiratory failure caused by compression of the central airway by tumor is an oncologic emergency. VV ECMO may be an effective way to manage this type of respiratory failure as a bridge to chemotherapy. Masafumi Oto, Kyoko Inadomi, Toshiyuki Chosa, Shima Uneda, Soichi Uekihara, and Minoru Yoshida Copyright © 2014 Masafumi Oto et al. All rights reserved. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Synthetically Produced Oil Field Seawater Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:04:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmet/2014/628505/ The life of offshore steel structure in the oil production units is decided by the huge corrosive degradation due to , S2−, and Cl−, which normally present in the oil field seawater. Variation in pH and temperature further adds to the rate of degradation on steel. Corrosion behavior of mild steel is investigated through polarization, EIS, XRD, and optical and SEM microscopy. The effect of all 3 species is huge material degradation with FeSx and FeCl3 and their complex as corrosion products. EIS data match the model of Randle circuit with Warburg resistance. Addition of more corrosion species decreases impedance and increases capacitance values of the Randle circuit at the interface. The attack is found to be at the grain boundary as well as grain body with very prominent sulphide corrosion crack. Subir Paul, Anjan Pattanayak, and Sujit K. Guchhait Copyright © 2014 Subir Paul et al. All rights reserved. Undernutrition and Its Correlates among Children of 3–9 Years of Age Residing in Slum Areas of Bhubaneswar, India Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:11:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/719673/ Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3–9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother’s education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. Ansuman Panigrahi and Sai Chandan Das Copyright © 2014 Ansuman Panigrahi and Sai Chandan Das. All rights reserved. Methods, Diagnostic Criteria, Cutoff Points, and Prevalence of Sarcopenia among Older People Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:11:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/231312/ Aim. To identify methods, index, diagnostic criteria, and corresponding cutoff points used to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia in older people in different countries. Methods. A systematic review was carried out in accordance with PRISMA Statement. The search encompassed the MEDLINE and LILACS databases and was executed during March 2012 using the keyword sarcopenia. Results. A total of 671 studies were identified by the search strategy, and 30 meet all inclusion criteria. Specifically for dual-X-ray absorptiometry, prevalence ranged from 2.2% to 95% in men and from 0.1% to 33.9% in women. For bioelectrical impedance analysis, the range was from 6.2% to 85.4% in men and 2.8% to 23.6% in women. Regarding anthropometric and computed tomography, prevalence rates were, respectively, 14.1% and 55.9%. Conclusions. Heterogeneity in prevalence of sarcopenia was identified, due to diagnostic method choice, cutoff points, and, characteristics of the population as well as reference population. These factors should be considered in research designs to enable comparison and validation of results. Despite the limitations of most studies that indicated high prevalence rates, the results indicate the need for early detection of this syndrome. Valéria Pagotto and Erika Aparecida Silveira Copyright © 2014 Valéria Pagotto and Erika Aparecida Silveira. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Levofloxacin Based Triple and High-Dose PPI-Amoxicillin Dual Eradication Therapy for Helicobacter pylori after Failures of First- and Second-Line Therapies Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:11:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/631501/ Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori as the third-line triple therapy with rabeprazole (RPZ) + amoxicillin (AMPC) + levofloxacin (LVFX) and high-dose RPZ + AMPC. Methods. 51 patients who failed Japanese first-line (proton pump inhibitor (PPI) + AMPC + clarithromycin) and second-line (PPI + AMPC + metronidazole) eradication therapy were randomly assigned at a 1 : 1 ratio to one of the following third-line eradication groups: (1) RAL group: RPZ 10 mg (b.i.d.), AMPC 750 mg (b.i.d.), and LVFX 500 mg (o.d.) for 10 days; (2) RA group: RPZ 10 mg (q.i.d.) and AMPC 500 mg (q.i.d.) for 14 days. Patients who failed to respond to third-line eradication therapy received salvage therapy. Results. The rates of eradication success, based on intention to treat (ITT) analysis, were 45.8% in the RAL group and 40.7% in the RA group. The overall eradication rates were 73.9% in the RAL group and 64.0% in the RA group. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions. The third-line triple therapy with RPZ, AMPC, and LVFX was as effective as that with high-dose RPZ and AMPC. Kenichiro Okimoto, Makoto Arai, Keiko Saito, Shoko Minemura, Daisuke Maruoka, Tomoaki Matsumura, Tomoo Nakagawa, Tatsuro Katsuno, Chisato Ishii, Shota Murata, Masaharu Watanabe, Fumio Nomura, and Osamu Yokosuka Copyright © 2014 Kenichiro Okimoto et al. All rights reserved. Copper Oxide Nanomaterials Prepared by Solution Methods, Some Properties, and Potential Applications: A Brief Review Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:11:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/856592/ Cupric oxide (CuO), having a narrow bandgap of 1.2 eV and a variety of chemophysical properties, is recently attractive in many fields such as energy conversion, optoelectronic devices, and catalyst. Compared with bulk material, the advanced properties of CuO nanostructures have been demonstrated; however, the fact that these materials cannot yet be produced in large scale is an obstacle to realize the potential applications of this material. In this respect, chemical methods seem to be efficient synthesis processes which yield not only large quantities but also high quality and advanced material properties. In this paper, the effect of some general factors on the morphology and properties of CuO nanomaterials prepared by solution methods will be overviewed. In terms of advanced nanostructure synthesis, microwave method in which copper hydroxide nanostructures are produced in the precursor solution and sequentially transformed by microwave into CuO may be considered as a promising method to explore in the near future. This method produces not only large quantities of nanoproducts in a short reaction time of several minutes, but also high quality materials with advanced properties. A brief review on some unique properties and applications of CuO nanostructures will be also presented. Thi Ha Tran and Viet Tuyen Nguyen Copyright © 2014 Thi Ha Tran and Viet Tuyen Nguyen. All rights reserved. MHD Two-Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer between Two Inclined Parallel Plates in a Rotating System Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:11:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/256898/ Two-phase magnetohydrodynamic convective flow of electrically conducting fluid through an inclined channel is studied under the action of a constant transverse magnetic field in a rotating system. The fluids in the two phases are steady, incompressible, laminar, immiscible, and electrically conducting, having different densities, viscosities, and thermal and electrical conductivities. The transport properties of both the fluids are assumed constant. The bounding infinite inclined parallel plates are maintained at different constant temperatures, making an angle with the horizontal. Approximate solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are obtained by using a straightforward regular perturbation technique. An in-depth study has been done on the effects of rotation parameter, Hartmann number, inclination angle, the ratio of electrical conductivities, and viscosities of two fluids on the flow. It is observed that the effect of increasing rotation is to decrease the primary velocity. Further it is noticed that as the rotation increases, the secondary velocity increases for smaller rotation, while for larger rotation it decreases. It is also found that the temperature distribution decreases as the rotation increases. P. Sri Ramachandra Murty and G. Balaji Prakash Copyright © 2014 P. Sri Ramachandra Murty and G. Balaji Prakash. All rights reserved. Mulberry Extracts Alleviate Aβ25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/150617/ Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against β-amyloid 25–35- (Aβ25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200 μg/mL) for 24 h were treated with Aβ25–35 (20 μmol/L) for another 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent Aβ25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer’s disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit Aβ25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. Nan Song, Hongpeng Yang, Wei Pang, Zhiwei Qie, Hao Lu, Long Tan, Haiqiang Li, Shoudan Sun, Fuzhi Lian, Chuan Qin, and Yugang Jiang Copyright © 2014 Nan Song et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Characterization, and DNA Binding Studies of Nanoplumbagin Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnm/2014/179149/ The traditional anticancer medicine plumbagin (PLN) was prepared as nanostructured material (nanoplumbagin, NPn1) from its commercial counterparts, simultaneously coencapsulating with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or cyclodextrin as stabilizers using ultrasonication technique. Surface morphology of NPn analysed from atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicates that NPn has tunable size between 75 nm and 100 nm with narrow particle size distribution. Its binding efficiency with herring sperm DNA was studied using spectral and electrochemical techniques and its efficiency was found to be more compared to the commercial microcrystalline plumbagin (PLN). DNA cleavage was also studied by gel electrophoresis. The observed results indicate that NPn1 has better solubility in aqueous medium and hence showed better bioavailability compared to its commercial counterparts. Sheik Dawood Shahida Parveen, Abdullah Affrose, Basuvaraj Suresh Kumar, Jamespandi Annaraj, and Kasi Pitchumani Copyright © 2014 Sheik Dawood Shahida Parveen et al. All rights reserved. 5 G WiFi Signal-Based Indoor Localization System Using Cluster -Nearest Neighbor Algorithm Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/247525/ Indoor localization based on existent WiFi signal strength is becoming more and more prevalent and ubiquitous. Unfortunately, the WiFi received signal strength (RSS) is susceptible by multipath, signal attenuation, and environmental changes, which is the major challenge for accurate indoor localization. To overcome these limitations, we propose the cluster -nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm with 5 G WiFi signal to reduce the environmental interference and improve the localization performance without additional equipment. In this paper, we propose three approaches to improve the performance of localization algorithm. For one thing, we reduce the computation effort based on the coarse localization algorithm. For another, according to the detailed analysis of the 2.4 G and 5 G signal fluctuation, we expand the real-time measurement RSS before matching the fingerprint map. More importantly, we select the optimal nearest neighbor points based on the proposed cluster KNN algorithm. We have implemented the proposed algorithm and evaluated the performance with existent popular algorithms. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve localization accuracy and exhibit superior performance in terms of localization stabilization and computation effort. Feng Yu, Minghua Jiang, Jing Liang, Xiao Qin, Ming Hu, Tao Peng, and Xinrong Hu Copyright © 2014 Feng Yu et al. All rights reserved. Experimental Investigation on Use of Wheat Straw Ash and Bentonite in Self-Compacting Cementitious System Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/832508/ In this research, we evaluated the feasibility of wheat straw ash and bentonite (raw and heated at 150°C for 8 hrs) as secondary raw materials in self-compacting paste (SCP). The fresh and hardened properties of SCP formulations including water and superplasticizer demand, flow behavior, compressive and flexural strength development, water absorption, and acid attack resistance were evaluated. Moreover, porosity, microstructural, and mineralogical investigations were also carried out on SCP formulations. Test results showed that the properties of SCP formulations in fresh state depend on the morphology of secondary raw materials. For heated bentonite and wheat straw ash formulations, the 28 days of compressive and flexural strength were higher or almost similar to reference SCP formulation. Among SCP formulations, wheat straw ash formulation was found to be more effective in consuming free lime and showed significant decrease in porosity with time, which in turn improved the resistance of this SCP formulation against water absorption and acid attack. Based on the test results, it can be concluded that the successful utilization of wheat straw ash and bentonite SCP formulations will offer durable and environmental friendly option to construction industry. Rao Arsalan Khushnood, Syed Ali Rizwan, Shazim Ali Memon, Jean-Marc Tulliani, and Giuseppe Andrea Ferro Copyright © 2014 Rao Arsalan Khushnood et al. All rights reserved. Utilization of Recycled Concrete Aggregates in Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixtures Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/amse/2014/902307/ Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) is considered as one of the largest wastes in the entire world which is produced by demolishing concrete structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams. It is the intention of scientists and researchers, as well as people in authority, to explore waste material recycling for environmental and economic advantages. The current paper presents an experimental research on the feasibility of reusing RCA in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures as a partial replacement of coarse and fine aggregates. The engineering properties of SMA mixtures containing RCA have been evaluated for different percentages of binders based on the Marshall mix design method. The outcomes were statistically analyzed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). Test results revealed that the performance of SMA mixtures is affected by RCA due to higher porosity and absorption of RCA in comparison with virgin granite aggregates. However, the engineering properties of SMA mixtures containing a particular amount of RCA showed the acceptable trends and could satisfy the standard requirements. Moreover, to achieve desirable performance characteristics, more caution should be made on properties of SMA mixtures containing RCA. Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb and Mohamed Rehan Karim Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Saeed Pourtahmasb and Mohamed Rehan Karim. All rights reserved. Proteomic Analysis of Serum and Urine of HIV-Monoinfected and HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients Undergoing Long Term Treatment with Nevirapine Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2014/315824/ Nevirapine (NVP) is an effective nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) of particular interest as it is often used in resource limited countries. However, one of the main concerns with the use of NVP is hepatotoxicity and elevation of liver enzymes as a consequence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) containing NVP is more often reported in HIV patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus than in HIV-monoinfected patients. To discover possible markers of NVP induced hepatotoxicity, serum and urine samples from twenty-five HIV or HIV/HCV patients, all of whom had received NVP continuously for at least four months, and healthy controls were subjected to in-solution or in-gel proteomic analysis. A total of 83 differentially regulated proteins consisted of 34 proteins identified in serum by in-solution analysis, 2 proteins identified from serum in a 2D gel electrophoresis analysis, and 47 proteins identified in urine in an in-solution analysis. Three proteins, namely, haptoglobin, Rho-related BTB domain containing protein 3, and death-associated protein kinase 3, were selected for further validation by Western blot analysis and results showed that haptoglobin has potential for further development as an additional marker of NVP induced hepatotoxicity. Jeerang Wongtrakul, Thananya Thongtan, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Benjawan Kumrapich, Kanokwan Janphen, Jutarat Praparattanapan, Khuanchai Supparatpinyo, and Duncan R. Smith Copyright © 2014 Jeerang Wongtrakul et al. All rights reserved. Accumulation of Bile in the Gallbladder: Evaluation by means of Serial Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Cholangiography with Gadolinium Ethoxybenzyl Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2014/479067/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the process of biliary excretion of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) into the biliary tract and to assess the accumulation patterns in the gallbladder using MR cholangiography obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA which is a liver-specific hepatobiliary contrast agent. Seventy-five patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. Serial multiphasic hepatobiliary phase imaging was qualitatively reviewed to evaluate the process of the biliary excretion of contrast agent into the bile duct and the gallbladder. The accumulation pattern of contrast agent into gallbladder was classified into two groups (group 1 = orthodromic type and group 2 = delayed type). Furthermore, the results in differences of the presence of T1 hyperintense bile or sludge of gallbladder, gall stones, wall thickening of gallbladder, chronic liver disease, and liver cirrhosis between two groups were compared. Forty-eight of 75 patients (64%) were included in group 1, and remaining 27 (36%) were in group 2. The frequency of the presence of T1 hyperintense bile or sludge of gallbladder was significantly higher in patients with group 2 than that in patients with group 1 (). MR cholangiography obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA showed that there may be an association between the biliary accumulation pattern in the gallbladder and the pathological condition. Tsutomu Tamada, Katsuyoshi Ito, Kazuya Yasokawa, Atsushi Higaki, Akihiko Kanki, Yasufumi Noda, and Akira Yamamoto Copyright © 2014 Tsutomu Tamada et al. All rights reserved. Hemorrhagic Complications of Paracentesis: A Systematic Review of the Literature Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2014/985141/ Introduction. Large volume paracentesis is considered a safe procedure carrying minimal risk of complications and rarely causing morbidity or mortality. The most common complications of the procedure are ascitic fluid leakage, hemorrhage, infection, and perforation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate all hemorrhagic complications and their outcomes and to identify any common variables. Methods. A literature search for all reported hemorrhagic complications following paracentesis was conducted. A total of 61 patients were identified. Data of interest were extracted and analyzed. The primary outcome of the study was 30-day mortality, with secondary endpoints being achievement of hemostasis after intervention and mortality based on type of intervention. Results. 90% of the patients undergoing paracentesis had underlying cirrhosis. Three types of hemorrhagic complications were identified: abdominal wall hematomas (52%), hemoperitoneum (41%), and pseudoaneurysm (7%). Forty percent of the patients underwent either a surgical (35%) or an IR guided intervention (65%). Patients undergoing a surgical intervention had a significantly higher rate of mortality at day 30 compared to those undergoing IR intervention. Conclusion. Abdominal wall hematomas and hemoperitoneum are the most common hemorrhagic complications of paracentesis. Transcatheter coiling and embolization appear to be superior to both open and laparoscopic surgery in treatment of these complications. Kaveh Sharzehi, Vishal Jain, Ammara Naveed, and Ian Schreibman Copyright © 2014 Kaveh Sharzehi et al. All rights reserved. Perampanel and Challenging Behaviour in Intellectual Disability and Epilepsy: A Management Dilemma Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2014/409209/ We describe a case of a patient with a diagnosis of moderate learning disability with challenging behaviour and treatment refractory epilepsy. Antiepileptics can increase challenging behaviour; however, antipsychotics can provoke seizures. This results in a difficult balance for patient care. Due to worsening seizures, the patient was prescribed perampanel. This increased her aggression and agitation resulting in admission. We trialled four antipsychotic drugs to reduce her challenging behaviour, two of which worsened her seizures. It was necessary to continue antiepileptic medication to maintain adequate seizure control. However, the resulting uncontrolled challenging behaviour persisted, meaning she was unable to return to her family home on discharge. This case emphasises the difficult scenario clinician’s encounter when balancing the use of antipsychotics and antiepileptics. The case demonstrates the significant functional loss due to challenging behaviour, balanced against controlling life threatening seizures. Emily Dolton and Ansar Choudry Copyright © 2014 Emily Dolton and Ansar Choudry. All rights reserved. Effect of Irrigation and Preplant Nitrogen Fertilizer Source on Maize in the Southern Great Plains Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ija/2014/247835/ With the demand for maize increasing, production has spread into more water limited, semiarid regions. Couple this with the increasing nitrogen (N) fertilizer costs and environmental concerns and the need for proper management practices has increased. A trial was established to evaluate the effects of different preplant N fertilizer sources on maize cultivated under deficit irrigation or rain-fed conditions on grain yield, N use efficiency (NUE), and water use efficiency (WUE). Two fertilizer sources, ammonium sulfate (AS) and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN), applied at two rates, 90 and 180 kg N ha−1, were evaluated across four site-years. Deficit irrigation improved grain yield, WUE, and NUE compared to rain-fed conditions. The preplant application of a pure ammoniacal source of N fertilizer, such as AS, had a tendency to increase grain yields and NUE for rain-fed treatments. Under irrigated conditions, the use of UAN as a preplant N fertilizer source performed just as well or better at improving grain yield compared to AS, as long as the potential N loss mechanisms were minimized. Producers applying N preplant as a single application should adjust rates based on a reasonable yield goal and production practice. Jacob T. Bushong, Eric C. Miller, Jeremiah L. Mullock, D. Brian Arnall, and William R. Raun Copyright © 2014 Jacob T. Bushong et al. All rights reserved. Propofol Infusion Syndrome: A Retrospective Analysis at a Level 1 Trauma Center Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ccrp/2014/346968/ Objectives. The propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS), a rare, often fatal, condition of unknown etiology, is defined by development of lipemic serum, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis, hepatomegaly, cardiac arrhythmias, and acute renal failure. Methods. To identify risk factors for and biomarkers of PRIS, a retrospective chart review of all possible PRIS cases during a 1-year period was conducted at a level 1 trauma hospital in ICU patients over 18 years of age receiving continuous propofol infusions for ≥3 days. Additional study inclusion criteria included vasopressor support and monitoring of serum triglycerides and creatinine. Results. Seventy-two patients, 61 males (84.7%) and 11 females (15.3%), satisfied study inclusion criteria; and of these, 3 males met the study definition for PRIS, with 1 case fatality. PRIS incidence was 4.1% with a case-fatality rate of 33%. The mean duration of propofol infusion was 6.96 days. A positive linear correlation was observed between increasing triglyceride levels and infusion duration, but no correlation was observed between increasing creatinine levels and infusion duration. Conclusions. Risk factors for PRIS were confirmed as high dose infusions over prolonged periods. Increasing triglyceride levels may serve as reliable biomarkers of impending PRIS, if confirmed in future investigations with larger sample sizes. James H. Diaz, Amit Prabhakar, Richard D. Urman, and Alan David Kaye Copyright © 2014 James H. Diaz et al. All rights reserved. A New Method of Designing Circularly Symmetric Shaped Dual Reflector Antennas Using Distorted Conics Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmst/2014/849194/ A new method of designing circularly symmetric shaped dual reflector antennas using distorted conics is presented. The surface of the shaped subreflector is expressed using a new set of equations employing differential geometry. The proposed equations require only a small number of parameters to accurately describe practical shaped subreflector surfaces. A geometrical optics (GO) based method is used to synthesize the shaped main reflector surface corresponding to the shaped subreflector. Using the proposed method, a shaped Cassegrain dual reflector system is designed. The field scattered from the subreflector is calculated using uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD). Finally, a numerical example is provided showing how a shaped subreflector produces more uniform illumination over the main reflector aperture compared to an unshaped subreflector. Mohammad Asif Zaman and Md. Abdul Matin Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Asif Zaman and Md. Abdul Matin. All rights reserved. Lepra Reaction with Lucio Phenomenon Mimicking Cutaneous Vasculitis Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crii/2014/641989/ Leprosy is a disease typically found in the tropics. Patients with leprosy can have varying presentation with constitutional symptoms, joint pains, skin nodules, and rarely a vasculitis-like picture with skin ulcers and neuropathy. We present a young lady who presented with the rare manifestation of skin infarcts mimicking cutaneous vasculitis, diagnosed on histopathology to have Lucio phenomenon on a background of lepromatous leprosy. With increasing migration and widespread use of biologic response modifiers, clinicians all over the world need to be aware of various presentations of leprosy as well as needing to keep an open mind while considering the differential diagnoses of vasculitis. Durga Prasanna Misra, Jyoti Ranjan Parida, Abhra Chandra Chowdhury, Krushna Chandra Pani, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani, and Vikas Agarwal Copyright © 2014 Durga Prasanna Misra et al. All rights reserved. New Thrombotic Events in Ischemic Stroke Patients with Elevated Factor VIII Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/thrombosis/2014/302861/ Background. Heightened levels of Factor VIII (FVIII) have been associated with both arterial and venous thrombosis. While elevated FVIII is common during acute ischemic stroke (AIS), whether elevated FVIII confers an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events (RTEs) following AIS has not been previously explored. Methods. Consecutive AIS patients who presented to our center between July 2008 and September 2013 and had FVIII measured during admission were identified from our stroke registry. Baseline characteristics and the occurrence of RTE (recurrent or progressive ischemic stroke, DVT/PE, and MI) were compared in patients with and without elevated FVIII levels. Results. Of the 298 patients included, 203 (68.1%) had elevated FVIII levels. Patients with elevated FVIII had higher rates of any in-hospital RTE (18.7% versus 8.4%, ). This association remained after adjustment for baseline stroke severity and etiology (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00–1.01, ). Rates of major disability were also higher in patients who experienced a RTE (17.8% versus 3.2%, ). Conclusion. A significantly higher frequency of in-hospital RTEs occurred in AIS patients with elevated FVIII. The occurrence of such events was associated with higher morbidity. Further study is indicated to evaluate whether FVIII is a candidate biomarker for increased risk of RTEs following AIS. Brittany M. Gouse, Amelia K. Boehme, Dominique J. Monlezun, James E. Siegler, Alex J. George, Katherine Brag, Karen C. Albright, T. Mark Beasley, Cindy Leissinger, Ramy El Khoury, and Sheryl Martin-Schild Copyright © 2014 Brittany M. Gouse et al. All rights reserved. Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mrt/2014/451065/ Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria. Asrar Alam, Md. Kausar Neyaz, and Syed Ikramul Hasan Copyright © 2014 Asrar Alam et al. All rights reserved. Mathematical Analysis of the Reduction of Wüstite at Different Basicity Using Factorial Design Tue, 16 Dec 2014 14:13:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jm/2014/201659/ Numerical prediction is performed on the reduction of wüstite under simulated blast furnace conditions using factorial design approach. Wüstite sinter samples with different basicity (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0) are reduced with a gas mixture consisting of 30% CO, 10% H2, 5% CO2, and 55% N2 at 950–1100°C. In all cases, the reduction degree of wüstite increased with basicity and temperature. A 23 factorial design is applied to derive a regression model based on the experimental data of acidic (CaO/SiO2 = 0.5) and basic (CaO/SiO2 = 2.0) wüstite which is reduced at 950°C and 1100°C for 5 and 35 min. The developed mathematical model is applied to predict the reduction degree of wüstite at different basicity (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0), interval of time (5–35 min), and temperatures (950, 1000, 1050°C, and 1100°C). In general, the results of the driven models are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data of reduction of wüstite in many cases. The MATLAB program is used to carry out the required calculations. E. A. Mousa Copyright © 2014 E. A. Mousa. All rights reserved. A Middleware for the Integration of Smart Grid Elements with WSN Based Solutions Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:57:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijdsn/2014/506203/ Currently, electricity distributors make use of various types of equipment divided into levels of automation. This automation enables the integration of elements such as Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs) to the supervision of the distribution electrical system, but there is not an appropriate environment to increase the scale of these elements. In this context, the smart grid comes with specifications that allow adding new elements to the intelligence of the power grid operation. However, the cost of communication is still an impediment to the scalability of the integration of these elements into the current structure. In this paper, we propose a middleware that optimizes the communication of this integration using wireless sensor networks (WSN). The goal is to ensure a gradual integration of new elements taking advantage of the increase in the number of sensor nodes in the network due to the scalability of the system itself. The conversion solutions have been used to allow easy communication between the WSN and the smart grid system, and we also have used data aggregation and compression techniques to increase the lifetime of the wireless sensor network. Paulo Régis C. de Araújo, Raimir Holanda, Antonio Wendell de Oliveira Rodrigues, André Luiz Carneiro de Araújo, José de Aguiar Moraes Filho, and João Paolo C. M. Oliveira Copyright © 2014 Paulo Régis C. de Araújo et al. All rights reserved. Factors Associated with Significant Ocular Injury in Conservatively Treated Orbital Fractures Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:53:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/412397/ Purpose. To determine factors associated with the presence of significant ocular injury in subjects with orbital fractures. Subjects. A consecutive prospective cohort of 161 patients presenting to a general tertiary referral hospital with orbital fractures and undergoing initial conservative treatment was identified. Subjects were assessed at time of injury for the need for emergency surgery, and those initially treated conservatively were subsequently followed up by the Ophthalmology Department to assess for ocular injury requiring ophthalmic management at 1–7 days after injury. Associations between ocular injury and age, sex, visual acuity, presence of blowout fracture, extent of orbital involvement, and presence of distant facial fractures were assessed. Results. 142 male (average age of 32 [95% CI 30–35]) and 19 female (average age of 49 [95% CI 39–59]) subjects were identified. 17 subjects were diagnosed with significant ocular injury. Ocular injury was significantly associated with LogMAR VA worse than 0.2 (OR 49 [95% CI 11–217, ]), but no relationship was noted for age, sex, presence of blowout fracture, extent of fractures, or presence of distal facial fractures. LogMAR visual acuity worse than or equal to 0.2 had a 98% negative predictive value for ocular injury in the setting of orbital fractures. Conclusions. Demographic and nonophthalmic fracture characteristics were not useful predictors of ocular injury in orbital fractures. LogMAR visual acuity worse than or equal to 0.2 is a highly sensitive and useful guide of the need for ophthalmic referral in subjects with orbital fractures. Christopher J. Layton Copyright © 2014 Christopher J. Layton. All rights reserved. Influence of Plantation Establishment on Discharge Characteristics in a Small Catchment of Tropical Forest Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:52:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfr/2014/408409/ A study was conducted on the impact of forest clearance on discharge from newly established Hopea odorata plantations catchment (14.4 ha). The stands were two years old when this study commenced in year 2006 and the data collection was carried out for two years. The forested catchment (C3) was clear-cut during the preparation of the forest plantation and catchment C1 was left undisturbed. Discharge and rainfall were measured continuously for two years. The discharge measured from years 1997 to 2003 was used also to determine the water yield before and after forest clear-cut. This study showed that the plantation catchment is more responsive to storm with higher total water yield than in the forested catchment. The effect of forest clear cutting to discharge was clearly shown by the increment in the amount following the clear-cut activities and time taken for the recovery of the discharge back to its original state was almost three years. The peak discharge in C3 also was affected in which the biggest change was obtained during the forest clear-cutting period compared with during calibration and after clearing periods. This study is useful as basis for improving the existing guidelines on forest plantation establishment. Siti Aisah Shamsuddin, Zulkifli Yusop, and Shoji Noguchi Copyright © 2014 Siti Aisah Shamsuddin et al. All rights reserved. A New Method for Inextensible Flows of Timelike Curves in Minkowski Space-Time Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:43:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpde/2014/517070/ We construct a new method for inextensible flows of timelike curves in Minkowski space-time . Using the Frenet frame of the given curve, we present partial differential equations. We give some characterizations for curvatures of a timelike curve in Minkowski space-time . Talat Körpinar Copyright © 2014 Talat Körpinar. All rights reserved. Nanoemulsion Based Hydrogel for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Ketoprofen Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:43:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ap/2014/468456/ The aim of the present study was to investigate the nanoemulgel as transdermal delivery system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different nanoemulsion components (oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant) were selected on the basis of solubility and emulsification ability. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using titration method to figure out the concentration range of components. Carbomer 940 was added as gel matrix to convert nanoemulsion into nanoemulgel. Drug loaded nanoemulsions and nanoemulgels were characterized for particle size, TEM, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, rheological behavior, and permeation studies using Wistar rat skin and stability studies. Transdermal permeation of ketoprofen from nanoemulgels was determined by using Franz diffusion cell. Nanoemulgel containing 6% oleic acid as oil, 35% Tween 80, and Transcutol P as surfactant cosurfactant mixture, 56.5% water, 2.5% drug, and 0.6% carbomer was concluded as optimized formulation (NG6). The ex vivo permeation profile of optimized formulation was compared with nanoemulsion and marketed formulation (Fastum). Nanoemulgel showed significantly higher () cumulative amount of drug permeated and flux along with lower lag time and skin retention than marketed formulation. Thus, the study substantiated that nanoemulgel formulation can be used as a feasible alternative to conventional formulations of ketoprofen with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application. Ritika Arora, Geeta Aggarwal, S. L. Harikumar, and Kirandeep Kaur Copyright © 2014 Ritika Arora et al. All rights reserved. Towards the Equation of State for Neutral (C2H4), Polar (H2O), and Ionic ([bmim][BF4], [bmim][PF6], [pmmim][Tf2N]) Liquids Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:31:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jther/2014/496835/ Despite considerable effort of experimentalists no reliable vapor-liquid coexistence at very small pressures and liquid-solid coexistence at high pressures have been until now observed in the working range of temperature / for ionic liquids. The measurements of high-pressure properties in low-temperature stable liquid are relatively scarce while the strong influence of their consistency on the phase equilibrium prediction is obvious. In this work we discuss the applicability of fluctuational-thermodynamic methodology and respective equation of state to correlate the properties of any (neutral, polar, ionic) liquids since our ultimate goal is the simple reference predictive model to describe vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-solid equilibria of mixtures containing above components. It is shown that the inconsistencies among existing volumetric measurements and the strong dependence of the mechanical and, especially, caloric derived properties on the shape of the functions chosen to fit the experimental data can be resolved in the framework of fluctuational-thermodynamic equation of state. To illustrate its results the comparison with the known experimental data for [bmim][BF4] and [bmim][PF6] as well as with the lattice-fluid equation of state and the methodology of thermodynamic integration is represented. It corroborates the thermodynamic consistency of predictions and excellent correlation of derived properties over the wide range of pressures /. Vitaly B. Rogankov and Valeriy I. Levchenko Copyright © 2014 Vitaly B. Rogankov and Valeriy I. Levchenko. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Pressure Ulcer among Hospitalized Patients at Felegehiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:17:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/anurs/2014/767358/ Introduction. Pressure ulcers, also known as decubitus ulcers (bed sores), are localized skin injuries that remain a major health problem affecting approximately 3 million adults. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of pressure ulcer among hospitalized patients in Felegehiwot referral hospital. Methods. This cross-sectional study used systematic sampling on a sample of 422 patients. The data was collected by trained data collectors through pretested checklist. Bivariate analysis was used principally and variables were then entered into multiple logistic regressions model for controlling the possible effect of confounders and the variables which have significant association were identified on the basis of OR with 95% CI and P value. Results. The finding of this study revealed that 71 (16.8%) of them had pressure ulcer. Prolonged length of stay in hospital, slight limit of sensory perception, and friction and shearing forces were significantly associated with the presence of pressure ulcer. Conclusions and Recommendations. The prevalence of pressure ulcer was high among hospitalized patients. Researches of prospective (follow-up) study required investigating the incidence and associated factors of pressure ulcer for hospitalized patients. Haileyesus Gedamu, Mignote Hailu, and Abdella Amano Copyright © 2014 Haileyesus Gedamu et al. All rights reserved. The Secretion of IL-22 from Mucosal NKp44+ NK Cells Is Associated with Microbial Translocation and Virus Infection in SIV/SHIV-Infected Chinese Macaques Tue, 16 Dec 2014 13:06:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2014/387950/ Microbial translocation (MT) causes systemic immune activation in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The role of a novel subtype of innate lymphoid cells, the NKp44+ NK cells, in HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus- (SIV-) induced MT remains unknown. In this study, 12 simian-human immunodeficiency virus- (SHIV-) infected macaques were chosen and split into two groups based on the MT level. Blood and Peripheral lymphoid tissue were sampled for flow cytometric analysis, viral load detection, and interleukin testing. Then, six naive Chinese macaques were used to determine the dynamics of cytokine secretion from mucosal NKp44+ NK cells in different phases of SIV infection. As a result, the degranulation capacity and IL-22 production of mucosal NKp44+ NK cells were associated with the MT level in the SHIV-infected macaques. And the number of mucosal NKp44+ NK cells and IL-22 secretion by these cells were lower in the chronic phase than in the early acute phase of SIV infection. The number of mucosal NKp44+ NK cells and interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion by these cells increased before MT occurred. Therefore, we conclude that a decline in IL-22 production from mucosal NKp44+ NK cells induced by virus infection may be one of the causes of microbial translocation in HIV/SIV infection. Wei Wang, Fangxin Wu, Zhe Cong, Kejian Liu, Chuan Qin, and Qiang Wei Copyright © 2014 Wei Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Apparent Contact Dermatitis Caused by Toxocara Infection Tue, 16 Dec 2014 12:58:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cridm/2014/625724/ Infection from Toxocara species may give rise to a large array of clinical symptoms, including apparent manifestations of allergy such as asthma, urticaria/angioedema, and dermatitis. We report a case, thus far not described, of contact dermatitis attributed to nickel allergy but caused by Toxocara infection. The patient was a 53-year-old woman presenting from 10 years a dermatitis affecting head, neck, and thorax. Patch tests initially performed gave a positive result to nickel, but avoidance of contact with nickel did not result in recovery. The patient referred to our Allergy Service in 2010 because of dermatitis to feet. Patch testing confirmed the positive result for nickel, but expanding the investigation a positive result for IgG antibodies to Toxocara was detected by Western blotting and ELISA. Treatment with mebendazole achieved immediate efficacy on feet dermatitis. Then, two courses of treatment with albendazole resulted in complete regression of dermatitis accompanied by development of negative ELISA and Western blotting for Toxocara antibodies. This report adds another misleading presentation of Toxocara infection as apparent contact dermatitis caused by nickel and suggests bearing in mind, in cases of contact dermatitis not responding to avoidance of the responsible hapten and to medical treatment, the possible causative role of Toxocara. Rosanna Qualizza, Eleni Makrì, Laura Losappio, and Cristoforo Incorvaia Copyright © 2014 Rosanna Qualizza et al. All rights reserved. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:58:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cdr/2014/656327/ This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to examine the effects of large group training by comparing parent and child behaviors prior to intervention with behaviors after the intervention. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measures ANOVA. The results indicated that group training increased parents’ ability to implement functional assessment based strategies and these strategies resulted in a significant reduction in children’s challenging behaviors. Furthermore, parent implementation of functional assessment based strategies and children’s decreased levels of challenging behaviors were maintained after the completion of the intervention. Angel Fettig and Michaelene M. Ostrosky Copyright © 2014 Angel Fettig and Michaelene M. Ostrosky. All rights reserved. An Interesting Cause of Hyperandrogenemic Hirsutism Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:52:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2014/987272/ Mild clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism may appear during the menopausal transition as part of the normal aging process, but the development of frank virilization suggests a specific source of androgen excess. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with signs of virilization that had started 6 months before. Clinical analyses revealed high levels of serum testosterone for a postmenopausal woman. Pelvic MRI and abdomen CT showed no evidence of ovarian and adrenal tumor. Postmenopausal hyperandrogenism can be the result of numerous etiologies ranging from normal physiologic changes to ovarian or rarely adrenal tumors. Our patient was found to have iatrogenic hyperandrogenism. This condition is rarely reported cause of virilization. Murat Atmaca, İsmet Seven, Rıfkı Üçler, Murat Alay, Veysi Barut, Yaren Dirik, and Yasin Sezgin Copyright © 2014 Murat Atmaca et al. All rights reserved. Rate of Nonadherence to Antipsychotic Medications and Factors Leading to Nonadherence among Psychiatric Patients in Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:28:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apsy/2014/475812/ Objective. The main aim of this study was to assess the rate of medication nonadherence among psychiatry patients at University of Gondar Hospital. Materials and Methods. Cross-sectional, descriptive method was conducted over a period of one month in May, 2013, at University of Gondar Hospital. Rate of nonadherence was computed using Medication Adherence Rating Scale questionnaire and self-reporting via a structured patient interview. Chi-square was used to determine the statistical significance of the association of variables with adherence. Result. Out of 209 respondents, 105 (50.2%) were found to be nonadherent. Patients who were forced to take their medication against their will (), those who did not believe they require medication (), and those who discontinued their medication without consulting their prescriber () had significant association with nonadherence. Adherence among schizophrenia was 75.7%; psychotic was 46.7%; bipolar disorder was 37.5%; and psychosis with depression was 52.6%. Reasons for nonadherence included recovery from the illness (26.7%), seeking alternative therapy and unavailability of drugs (18.1% each), adverse drug reaction (12.7%), forgetfulness (10.6%), and being busy (8.6%). Conclusion. The observed rate of antipsychotic medication nonadherence in this study was high. Interventions to increase adherence are therefore crucial. Abyot Endale Gurmu, Esileman Abdela, Bashir Allele, Ermias Cheru, and Bemnet Amogne Copyright © 2014 Abyot Endale Gurmu et al. All rights reserved. E. coli Induced Experimental Model of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: At Last Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:28:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijh/2014/848373/ Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) have been considered potential triggers of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterised by progressive destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. Additional support for the link made between PBC and UTI was based on early observations of recurrent episodes of bacteriuria in female patients with PBC. A series of large epidemiological studies demonstrated a strong correlation between recurrent UTI and PBC, initiating a series of studies investigating the role of Escherichia coli (E. coli, the most prevalent organism isolated in women with UTI) as a trigger of PBC. Immunological evidence of B- and T-cell cross-reactive responses implicating PBC-specific autoantigens and E. coli mimics have been clearly demonstrated, adding support to the notion that E. coli is a potential infectious inducer of PBC in susceptible individuals. One of the major limitations in proving the E. coli/PBC association was the lack of reliable E. coli-infected animal models of PBC. This review provides an overview of the evidence linking this infectious agent with PBC and discusses the pros and cons of a recently developed E. coli-infected animal model of PBC. Andreas L. Koutsoumpas, Daniel S. Smyk, and Dimitrios P. Bogdanos Copyright © 2014 Andreas L. Koutsoumpas et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:28:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/nri/2014/301473/ Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person’s central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction ( values and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. Grrishma Balakrishnan, Gurunandan Uppinakudru, Gaur Girwar Singh, Shobith Bangera, Aswini Dutt Raghavendra, and Dinesh Thangavel Copyright © 2014 Grrishma Balakrishnan et al. All rights reserved. Arch Height Mediation of Obesity-Related Walking in Adults: Contributors to Physical Activity Limitations Tue, 16 Dec 2014 11:21:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/physiology/2014/821482/ Walking and foot arch structure have risk-increasing effects that contribute to decreased physical activity in adults with overweight and obese body mass index (BMI) scores. However, it is unknown whether both excessive weight and arch height influence walking compared to the effects of excessive weight or arch height alone. The purpose of this study was to investigate if arch height mediates obesity-related walking characteristics among adults with different BMI classifications. Spatiotemporal walking kinematics and dynamic plantar pressure were collected as adults with normal , overweight , and obese BMI scores walked at their preferred speed. Digital footprints created with plantar pressure data were used to calculate a measure of arch height, the Chippaux-Smirak Index (CSI). The results showed that obese adults had lower arches than normal weight adults . Arch height was related to velocity, double limb support time, stance time, step length, and foot rotation (all Ps < 0.05). Overweight participants with lower arches had lower velocities and higher double limb support times (all Ps < 0.05). The results have implications for aiding an increase in physical activity for overweight adults via intervening in adults’ arch height. Simone V. Gill, Cara L. Lewis, and Jeremy M. DeSilva Copyright © 2014 Simone V. Gill et al. All rights reserved. Battery Energy Storage System for PV Output Power Leveling Tue, 16 Dec 2014 10:50:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ape/2014/796708/ Fluctuating photovoltaic (PV) output power reduces the reliability in power system when there is a massive penetration of PV generators. Energy storage systems that are connected to the PV generators using bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter can be utilized for compensating the fluctuating PV power. This paper presents a grid connected energy storage system based on a 2 kW full-bridge bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter and a PWM converter for PV output power leveling. This paper proposes two controllers: a current controller using the d-q synchronous reference and a phase-shift controller. The main function of the current controller is to regulate the voltage at the high-side dc, so that the voltage ratio of the high-voltage side (HVS) with low-voltage side (LVS) is equal to the transformer turns ratio. The phase-shift controller is employed to manage the charging and discharging modes of the battery based on PV output power and battery voltage. With the proposed system, unity power factor and efficient active power injection are achieved. The feasibility of the proposed control system is investigated using PSCAD simulation. Rajkiran Singh, Seyedfoad Taghizadeh, Nadia Mei Lin Tan, and Jagadeesh Pasupuleti Copyright © 2014 Rajkiran Singh et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Mangrove Zonation and the Physicochemical Parameters of Soil on the Distribution of Macrobenthic Fauna in Kadolkele Mangrove Forest, a Tropical Mangrove Forest in Sri Lanka Tue, 16 Dec 2014 10:03:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ae/2014/564056/ The ecology of the macrobenthic fauna of the mangrove forests has received little attention compared to the mangrove flora. The present study was aimed at filling this information gap and investigated if the diversity and distribution of macrobenthic fauna at Kadolkele mangrove forest, a pristine mangrove forest situated at the Negombo estuary in Sri Lanka, are governed by the mangrove zonation and variation of physicochemical parameters of the mangrove soil. Since the aerial photographs identified three distinct mangrove zones at Kadolkele, namely, Rhizophora, Avicennia, and Lumnitzera zones, fauna were sampled and physicochemical parameters of the soil were measured in belt transects that were established at each mangrove zone. Data were collected and analyzed using appropriate field sampling techniques and statistical methods, respectively. Results revealed that the physicochemical parameters in soil varied between the three mangrove zones and that the distribution of benthic fauna followed the mangrove zonation. Further, the diversity measures of epifauna were found to be higher than those of the infauna of this tropical estuary. Navodha Dissanayake and Upali Chandrasekara Copyright © 2014 Navodha Dissanayake and Upali Chandrasekara. All rights reserved. The Association between Early Artificial Amniotomy and Chorioamnionitis in Nulliparous Induction of Labor Tue, 16 Dec 2014 09:57:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/628452/ Objectives. To investigate whether early artificial amniotomy (AROM) <4 cm in nulliparous women admitted for induction of labor was associated with an increased rate of chorioamnionitis and cesarean section or a decreased time to vaginal delivery. Study Design. A retrospective cohort study was performed on nulliparous women with a term, singleton gestation and intact membranes who presented for induction of labor (January 2008 to December 2011). Chorioamnionitis was defined using ICD9 codes. Results. 1,567 women were enrolled; 25.4% underwent early AROM. Overall, the prevalence of chorioamnionitis was 12.4%, the rate of cesarean section was 32.2%, and the time from 4 cm cervical dilation to vaginal delivery was 413 min. Compared to women without AROM < 4 cm, early AROM did not affect overall chorioamnionitis rates (10.2 versus 13.2%, ) but was associated with an increased cesarean section rate (40.2 versus 29.5%, ). However, among those who delivered vaginally, AROM < 4 cm decreased the rate of chorioamnionitis (8.4 versus 14.6%, ), which persisted when controlling for potential confounders (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33–0.92), and decreased the time from 4 cm dilation to vaginal delivery (329 versus 472 min, ). Conclusions. Our findings do not suggest that early AROM is associated with an increased rate of clinical chorioamnionitis. Laura G. Cooney and Jamie A. Bastek Copyright © 2014 Laura G. Cooney and Jamie A. Bastek. All rights reserved. Coordinate Descent Based Hierarchical Interactive Lasso Penalized Logistic Regression and Its Application to Classification Problems Tue, 16 Dec 2014 09:30:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/430201/ We present the hierarchical interactive lasso penalized logistic regression using the coordinate descent algorithm based on the hierarchy theory and variables interactions. We define the interaction model based on the geometric algebra and hierarchical constraint conditions and then use the coordinate descent algorithm to solve for the coefficients of the hierarchical interactive lasso model. We provide the results of some experiments based on UCI datasets, Madelon datasets from NIPS2003, and daily activities of the elder. The experimental results show that the variable interactions and hierarchy contribute significantly to the classification. The hierarchical interactive lasso has the advantages of the lasso and interactive lasso. Jin-Jia Wang and Yang Lu Copyright © 2014 Jin-Jia Wang and Yang Lu. All rights reserved. Corneal Bee Sting Controlled with Early Surgical Intervention and Systemic High-Dose Steroid Therapy Tue, 16 Dec 2014 09:25:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2014/140626/ A 34-year-old Asian woman presented with painful corneal bee sting. Examinations revealed severe corneal swelling with stinger stuck in deep stroma and endothelial cell loss. She was treated with early surgery including stinger removal and anterior chamber irrigation combined with systemic high-dose steroid therapy. Vision and corneal clarity was recovered in 5 days and no additional corneal endothelial damage was observed. This report suggests that early surgical intervention and high-dose steroid therapy appear to be a useful option in the treatment of corneal bee sting. Jung-Hoon Kim, Moosang Kim, Seung-Jun Lee, Sang Beom Han, and Joon Young Hyon Copyright © 2014 Jung-Hoon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Unweighted Amino Acids Network Tue, 16 Dec 2014 09:21:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/350276/ The analysis of amino acids network is very important to studying the various physicochemical properties of amino acids. In this paper we consider the amino acid network based on mutation of the codons. To analyze the relative importance of the amino acids we have discussed different measures of centrality. The measure of centrality is a powerful tool of graph theory for ranking the vertices and analysis of biological network. We have also investigated the correlation coefficients between various measures of centrality. Also we have discussed clustering coefficient as well as average clustering coefficient of the network. Finally we have discussed the degree of distribution as well as skewness. Adil Akhtar and Tazid Ali Copyright © 2014 Adil Akhtar and Tazid Ali. All rights reserved. Deblurring by Solving a TVp-Regularized Optimization Problem Using Split Bregman Method Tue, 16 Dec 2014 09:19:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/am/2014/906464/ Image deblurring is formulated as an unconstrained minimization problem, and its penalty function is the sum of the error term and TVp-regularizers with . Although TVp-regularizer is a powerful tool that can significantly promote the sparseness of image gradients, it is neither convex nor smooth, thus making the presented optimization problem more difficult to deal with. To solve this minimization problem efficiently, such problem is first reformulated as an equivalent constrained minimization problem by introducing new variables and new constraints. Thereafter, the split Bregman method, as a solver, splits the new constrained minimization problem into subproblems. For each subproblem, the corresponding efficient method is applied to ensure the existence of closed-form solutions. In simulated experiments, the proposed algorithm and some state-of-the-art algorithms are applied to restore three types of blurred-noisy images. The restored results show that the proposed algorithm is valid for image deblurring and is found to outperform other algorithms in experiments. Su Xiao Copyright © 2014 Su Xiao. All rights reserved. Simulation Study on Train-Induced Vibration Control of a Long-Span Steel Truss Girder Bridge by Tuned Mass Dampers Tue, 16 Dec 2014 09:11:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/506578/ Train-induced vibration of steel truss bridges is one of the key issues in bridge engineering. This paper talks about the application of tuned mass damper (TMD) on the vibration control of a steel truss bridge subjected to dynamic train loads. The Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge (NYRB) is taken as the research object and a recorded typical train load is included in this study. With dynamic finite element (FE) method, the real-time dynamic responses of NYRB are analyzed based on a simplified train-bridge time-varying system. Thereinto, two cases including single train moving at one side and two trains moving oppositely are specifically investigated. According to the dynamic characteristics and dynamic responses of NYRB, the fourth vertical bending mode is selected as the control target and the parameter sensitivity analysis on vibration control efficiency with TMD is conducted. Using the first-order optimization method, the optimal parameters of TMD are then acquired with the control efficiency of TMD, the static displacement of Midspan, expenditure of TMDs, and manufacture difficulty of the damper considered. Results obtained in this study can provide references for the vibration control of steel truss bridges. Hao Wang, Tianyou Tao, Huaiyu Cheng, and Xuhui He Copyright © 2014 Hao Wang et al. All rights reserved. “Peripheral Neuropathy Crippling Bronchial Asthma”: Two Rare Case Reports of Churg-Strauss Syndrome Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:14:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2014/673906/ Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare cause of vasculitic neuropathy. Although rare and potentially fatal, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is easily diagnosable and treatable. The presence of bronchial asthma with peripheral neuropathy in a patient alerts a physician to this diagnosis. This is vividly illustrated by the presented two cases who had neuropathy associated with bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, sinusitis, and positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA) test, which improved with administration of steroids. Kamal Kishore Pandita, Khalid Javid Bhat, Sushil Razdan, and R. P. Kudyar Copyright © 2014 Kamal Kishore Pandita et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:11:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/828760/ Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. Thana Juckmeta, Pakakrong Thongdeeying, and Arunporn Itharat Copyright © 2014 Thana Juckmeta et al. All rights reserved. Shifting the Frontiers of Analog and Mixed-Signal Electronics Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:03:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aelc/2014/590970/ Nowadays, analog and mixed-signal (AMS) IC designs, mainly found in the frontends of large ICs, are highly dedicated, complex, and costly. They form a bottleneck in the communication with the outside world, determine an upper bound in quality, yield, and flexibility for the IC, and require a significant part of the power dissipation. Operating very close to physical limits, serious boundaries are faced. This paper relates, from a high-level point of view, these boundaries to the Shannon channel capacity and shows how the AMS circuitry forms a matching link in transforming the external analog signals, optimized for the communication medium, to the optimal on-chip signal representation, the digital one, for the IC medium. The signals in the AMS part itself are consequently not optimally matched to the IC medium. To further shift the frontiers of AMS design, a matching-driven design approach is crucial for AMS. Four levels will be addressed: technology-driven, states-driven, redundancy-driven, and nature-driven design. This is done based on an analysis of the various classes of AMS signals and their specific properties, seen from the angle of redundancy. This generic, but abstract way of looking at the design process will be substantiated with many specific examples. Arthur H. M. van Roermund Copyright © 2014 Arthur H. M. van Roermund. All rights reserved. Research on Overflow Monitoring Mechanism Based on Downhole Microflow Detection Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:03:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/676290/ The flow rate variation of the drilling fluid and micro-overflow loss is difficult to analyze. The purpose to prevent the occurrence of kick, lost circulation, and other complex conditions is not easy to be achieved. Therefore, the microflow-induced annulus multiphase flow rate and annulus pressure field model were studied, and a downhole microflow measurement system has been developed. A differential pressure type flow measurement was used in the system, and real-time downhole information was obtained to achieve deep, narrow windows and other safety-density complex formation security. This paper introduced a new bottom-hole flow meter which can measure the annular flux while drilling and monitor overflow and circulation loss. The accuracy and reliability of the MPD (managed pressure drilling) system can be improved obviously by applying the device; as a result, the safety of drilling is enhanced and the cost is reduced. Liang Ge, Ze Hu, Ping Chen, Lei Shi, Qing Yang, and Junbi Liao Copyright © 2014 Liang Ge et al. All rights reserved. Simulation of the Westinghouse AP1000 Response to SBLOCA Using RELAP/SCDAPSIM Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:54:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijne/2014/410715/ Great interest is given now to advanced nuclear reactors especially those using passive safety components. The Westinghouse AP1000 Advanced Passive pressurized water reactor (PWR) is an 1117 MWe PWR designed to achieve a high safety and performance record. The AP1000 safety system uses natural driving forces, such as pressurized gas, gravity flow, natural circulation flow, and convection. In this paper, the safety performance of the AP1000 during a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) is investigated. This was done by modelling the AP1000 and the passive safety systems employed using RELAP/SCDAPSIM code. RELAP/SCDAPSIM is designed to describe the overall reactor coolant system (RCS) thermal hydraulic response and core behaviour under normal operating conditions or under design basis or severe accident conditions. Passive safety components in the AP1000 showed a clear improvement in accident mitigation. It was found that RELAP/SCDAPSIM is capable of modelling a LOCA in an AP1000 and it enables the investigation of each safety system component response separately during the accident. The model is also capable of simulating natural circulation and other relevant phenomena. The results of the model were compared to that of the NOTRUMP code and found to be in a good agreement. Ayah Elshahat, Timothy Abram, Judith Hohorst, and Chris Allison Copyright © 2014 Ayah Elshahat et al. All rights reserved. Reproductive Biology of Bothrops erythromelas from the Brazilian Caatinga Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:28:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/az/2014/680861/ The reproductive biology of Bothrops erythromelas, a small pit viper from the Caatinga, a semiarid biome in Brazil, is described based on analysis of individuals deposited in zoological collections. Males are smaller and also attain sexual maturity at a smaller size than females. Female reproductive cycle is seasonal with an extended period of secondary vitellogenesis and births occurring in a restricted period from late spring to early summer. Sperm storage in females may probably occur in infundibular tubular glands and uterine muscular twisting (UMT), which is a polymorphic condition within B. erythromelas. Seasonal spermatogenesis in males is variable with some intraspecific variation regarding the male reproductive stage per season. Most males are reproductively active during spring/summer and reproductively quiescent during autumn/winter, although some individuals vary (e.g., show testicular spermatogenesis and active sexual segment of the kidneys (SSK) during winter). The SSK could be identified in every male. Most males showed highly hypertrophied SSK in spring/summer and moderately hypertrophied SSK in autumn/winter. The ampulla ductus deferentis was observed and histochemical reactions were conducted. We discuss the probable influence of the unique environmental conditions of the Caatinga region and phylogenetic inertia in the reproductive patterns of this snake species. Verônica Alberto Barros, Claudio Augusto Rojas, and Selma Maria Almeida-Santos Copyright © 2014 Verônica Alberto Barros et al. All rights reserved. On Optimal Frequencies for Reconstruction of a One-Dimensional Profile of Gradient Layer’s Refractive Index Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:24:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2014/841960/ The problem of reconstruction of a one-dimensional profile of gradient layer’s refractive index is investigated. An algorithm for choosing a right frequency, at which a scattered field is measured, is proposed. It is concluded that at the correct choice of frequency one measurement must be sufficient. Moreover, in this case, regularization parameters of the residual functional are chosen as zero. It is shown that in case of measurements being carried out with errors, residual terms must be added to the functional. Dmitrii Tumakov Copyright © 2014 Dmitrii Tumakov. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Cross-Borehole Pulse Radar Signature on a Partially Water-Filled Tunnel Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:23:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2014/396835/ Cross-borehole pulse radar has been employed to detect a deeply located empty tunnel. In this paper, effects of underground water collected in the bottom of an empty tunnel on cross-borehole pulse radar signatures are analyzed numerically. B-scan images, stacks of received pulses, are calculated by applying the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for 6 different heights of water from the bottom to the half height inside an empty tunnel. The most important features of an empty tunnel, the fastest time of peak (TOP) and time of arrival (TOA) extracted from the B-scan images, are slowed considerably depending on the increased height of water inside the tunnel. To compensate the weak TOP like that of an empty tunnel, a relation curve is formulated only utilizing measurable parameters of the fastest TOP and the fastest TOA. Then, a unified curve including the effects of two granites with the low and high dielectric properties is derived to cover widely varied dielectric properties of underground rocks. Based on the fastest TOP of an empty tunnel, the average difference between the fastest TOP of an empty tunnel and that of a partially water-filled tunnel decreases from 22.92% to 2.59% after enhancement. Ji-Hyun Jung and Se-Yun Kim Copyright © 2014 Ji-Hyun Jung and Se-Yun Kim. All rights reserved. Red Cell Distribution Width Is Associated with Presence, Stage, and Grade in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:16:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2014/860419/ It has been reported that red blood cell width (RDW) is a marker associated with the presence and adverse outcomes of various diseases. However, no data are available on the correlation of RDW with presence, stage, and grade in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) yet. By retrospectively analyzing clinical and laboratory data at baseline of histologically confirmed RCC cases and controls, the present study demonstrated that the RDW values were significantly higher in patients with RCC than those in controls, and the baseline RDW value was independently associated with the presence of RCC. Besides, the data revealed a positive association between RCC stage and grade and the level of RDW. These findings may have important clinical implications due to future application using a RDW value in predicting RCC. Fang-Ming Wang, Gongjun Xu, Yan Zhang, and Lu-Lin Ma Copyright © 2014 Fang-Ming Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Newly Developed Sublingual Tonometric Method for the Evaluation of Tissue Perfusion and Its Validation In Vitro and in Healthy Persons In Vivo and the Results of the Measurements in COPD Patients Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:13:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ccrp/2014/534130/ Introduction. Since its first publication in the medical literature, an extremely large number of references have demonstrated that the tonometric measurement of tissue perfusion is a reliable indicator of the actual condition of critically ill patients. Later a new method was developed by the introduction of sublingual tonometry for the determination of tissue perfusion. In comparison with gastric tonometry, the new method was simpler and could even be used in awake patients. Unfortunately, at present, because of severe failures of manufacturing, the device is withdrawn from commerce. Materials and Methods. In this study, we present a new method using a newly developed tool for the PslCO2 measurement in sublingual tonometry as well as the data for its validation in vitro and in vivo and the results of 25 volunteers and 54 COPD patients belonging to different GOLD groups at their hospitalization due to the acute exacerbation of the disease but already in a stable condition at the time of the examination. Results and Conclusion. The results of the performed examinations showed that the method is suitable for monitoring the actual condition of the patients by mucosal perfusion tonometry in the sublingual region. Zoltán Rózsavölgyi, Domokos Boda, Andrea Hajnal, Krisztina Boda, and Attila Somfay Copyright © 2014 Zoltán Rózsavölgyi et al. All rights reserved. Complications of Inflatable Penile Prostheses Implantation Classified according to the Modified Clavien System Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:06:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aandrol/2014/127693/ Introduction. In patients with erectile dysfunction (ED), inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery is regarded as the gold standard treatment in medically refractory cases or where its conservative treatment options are contraindicated. Despite improvements in surgical technique and implanted materials, IPP surgery retains a substantial complication rate. The aim of the study was to record and grade the postoperative complications of IPP implantation according to a modified Clavien system. Methods. A total of 60 three-piece IPP implantations were performed between 2007 and 2013 by a single surgeon. The primary outcome was to stratify the early (first 30 days) complications into five categories using the modified Clavien-Dindo classification system. A secondary aim was to record the long-term adverse events and to identify possible factors related to complication occurrence. Results. Overall, there were 21 (35%) postoperative complications in 17 of 60 men (28.3%), with 15 adverse events occurring early after surgery. In terms of late complications, there were six (10%) major complications managed by either revision surgery or removal of the prosthesis. Conclusion. This study utilizes a validated morbidity scale thus overcoming problems of previous studies reporting IPP surgery complications. The modified Clavien classification system easily aids in assessing and comparing accurately patients’ postoperative complications, thus improving management and prevention. Ioannis Vakalopoulos, Spyridon Kampantais, Konstantinos Gkagkalidis, Stavros Ioannidis, Georgios Dimitriadis, Christos Patsialas, Chrysovalantis Toutziaris, Ioannis Anagnostou, Dimitrios Pavlakis, and Gerard D. Henry Copyright © 2014 Ioannis Vakalopoulos et al. All rights reserved. On the Torsion Units of Integral Adjacency Algebras of Finite Association Schemes Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:06:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/algebra/2014/842378/ Torsion units of group rings have been studied extensively since the 1960s. As association schemes are generalization of groups, it is natural to ask about torsion units of association scheme rings. In this paper we establish some results about torsion units of association scheme rings analogous to basic results for torsion units of group rings. Allen Herman and Gurmail Singh Copyright © 2014 Allen Herman and Gurmail Singh. All rights reserved. Measuring Visual Function Using the MultiQuity System: Comparison with an Established Device Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:03:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/180317/ Purpose. To compare measures of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) from the Thompson Xpert 2000 and MultiQuity (MiQ) devices. Methods. Corrected distance VA (CDVA) and CS were measured in the right eye of 73 subjects, on an established system (Thompson Xpert) and a novel system (MiQ 720). Regression was used to convert MiQ scores into the Thompson scale. Agreement between the converted MiQ and Thompson scores was investigated using standard agreement indices. Test-retest variability for both devices was also investigated, for a separate sample of 24 subjects. Results. For CDVA, agreement was strong between the MiQ and Thomson devices (accuracy = 0.993, precision = 0.889, CCC = 0.883). For CS, agreement was also strong (accuracy = 0.996, precision = 0.911, CCC = 0.907). Agreement was unaffected by demographic variables or by presence/absence of ocular pathology. Test-retest agreement indices for both devices were excellent: in the range 0.88–0.96 for CDVA and in the range 0.90–0.98 for CS. Conclusion. MiQ measurements exhibit strong agreement with corresponding Thomson measurements, and test-retest results are good for both devices. Agreement between the two devices is unaffected by age or ocular pathology. Patrycja Smolarek-Kasprzak, John M. Nolan, Stephen Beatty, Jessica Dennison, Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo, Robert Kuchling, Jim Stack, and Graham O’Regan Copyright © 2014 Patrycja Smolarek-Kasprzak et al. All rights reserved. Sexual Coercion and Associated Factors among Female Students of Madawalabu University, Southeast Ethiopia Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:58:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aph/2014/417517/ Introduction. Violence against women, in its various forms, is an important social and public health problem in different communities around the world. Although violence against women is against the inalienable human right and resulted in physical, sexual, and psychological harm or suffering to women, little has been documented regarding its factors and distribution among youth population such as university students. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess factors associated with sexual coercion among female students at Madawalabu University. Methods. This was a cross-sectional institution based study conducted on 411 female students which were selected by systematic random sampling from the list of female students. Data were collected in April 2012 using structured-interview administered questionnaire. Descriptive, binary, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS version 16. Result. In this study, the mean (±SD) age at first sex was 18.19 (+1.83) years. Lifetime and coercion in last twelve months were 163 (41.1%) and 101 (25.4%), respectively. Twenty-one (5.9%) of the respondents were raped. Being influenced/forced into unwanted sexual act 74 (18.6%) and having their genitalia/breast unwillingly touched 44 (11.1%) were reported as the commonest mechanisms of coercion. Age at first sex (17–19 years) (AOR = 0.241, 95% CI: 0.074, 0.765) and occasional alcohol use (AOR = 4.161, 95% CI: 1.386, 12.658) were significantly associated with coercion in the last twelve months. Conclusion. The overall lifetime sexual coercion was found to be 41.1%. In this study 6.8% of female students were raped and majority have had trial of rape. But 93.75% did not report to any legal body. With the existing prevalence and identified factors, the university should work towards minimizing the risk of sexual coercion through intensifying life skill peer education and assertiveness trainings. Abulie Takele and Tesfaye Setegn Copyright © 2014 Abulie Takele and Tesfaye Setegn. All rights reserved. Development, Characterization, and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Hydrochlorothiazide Loaded Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:52:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/274823/ The objective of the current work was to develop optimized self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo performance. The research comprised various studies which includes solubility studies in various vehicles, pseudoternary phase diagram construction, and preparation and characterization of SNEDDS along with in vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacodynamic profiling. Based on dissolution profile, a remarkable increase in rate of dissolution was observed in comparison with plain drug and marketed formulation. Optimized SNEDDS formulation was composed of Capmul MCM (19.17% w/w), Tween 80 (57.5% w/w), Transcutol P (12.7% w/w), and HCT (4.17% w/w). In vivo pharmacodynamic evaluation in Wistar rats showed considerable increase in pharmacological effect of HCT by SNEDDS formulation as compared with plain HCT. Pankajkumar S. Yadav, Ekta Yadav, Amita Verma, and Saima Amin Copyright © 2014 Pankajkumar S. Yadav et al. All rights reserved. Emotional Intelligence and Personality in Anxiety Disorders Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:51:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/apsy/2014/968359/ Anxiety disorders (AD) are by far the most frequent psychiatric disorders, and according to epidemiologic data their chronicity, comorbidities, and negative prognostic constitute a public health problem. This is why it is necessary to continue exploring the factors which contribute to the incidence, appearance, and maintenance of this set of disorders. The goal of this study has been to analyze the possible relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and personality disorders (PersD) in outpatients suffering from AD. The sample was made up of 146 patients with AD from the Mental Health Center at the Health Consortium of Maresme, who were evaluated with the STAI, MSCEIT, and MCMI-II questionnaires. The main findings indicate that 89,4% of the patients in the sample met the criteria for the diagnosis of some PersD. The findings also confirm that patients with AD present a low EI, especially because of difficulties in the skills of emotional comprehension and regulation, and the lack of these skills is related to a higher level of anxiety and the presence of PersD. These findings suggest the need to consider emotional skills of EI and personality as central elements for the diagnosis and treatment of AD. Nathalie P. Lizeretti, María Vázquez Costa, and Ana Gimeno-Bayón Copyright © 2014 Nathalie P. Lizeretti et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Hospital and Long-Term Mortality of Critically Ill Elderly Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:51:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/960575/ Background. Data on long-term outcomes of elderly (≥65 years) patients in ICU are sparse. Materials and Methods. Adult patients (, 45.4% elderly) admitted over 28 months were analyzed by competing risks regression model to determine independent factors related to in-hospital and long-term mortality. Results. 414 (26.5%) and 337 (21.6%) patients died in-hospital and during the 52 months following discharge, respectively; the elderly group had higher mortality during both periods. After discharge, elderly patients had 2.3 times higher mortality compared to the general population of the same age-group. In-hospital mortality was independently associated with mechanical ventilation (subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) 2.74), vasopressors (SHR 2.56), neurological disease (SHR 1.77), and Mortality Prediction Model II score (SHR 1.01) regardless of age and with malignancy (SHR, hematological 3.65, nonhematological 3.4) and prior renal replacement therapy (RRT, SHR 2.21) only in the elderly. Long-term mortality was associated with low hemoglobin concentration (SHR 0.94), airway disease (SHR 2.23), and malignancy (SHR hematological 1.11, nonhematological 2.31) regardless of age and with comorbidities especially among the nonelderly. Conclusions. Following discharge, elderly ICU patients have higher mortality compared to the nonelderly and general population. In the elderly group, prior RRT and malignancy contribute additionally to in-hospital mortality risk. In the long-term, comorbidities (age-related), anemia, airway disease, and malignancy were significantly associated with mortality. A. Mukhopadhyay, B. C. Tai, K. C. See, W. Y. Ng, T. K. Lim, S. Onsiong, S. Ee, M. J. Chua, P. R. Lee, M. L. Loh, and J Phua Copyright © 2014 A. Mukhopadhyay et al. All rights reserved. EOQ Model for Deteriorating Items with Stock-Level-Dependent Demand Rate and Order-Quantity-Dependent Trade Credit Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:46:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/962128/ This paper develops a generalized inventory model for exponentially deteriorating items with current-stock-dependent demand rate and permissible delay in payments. In the model, the payment for the item must be made immediately if the order quantity is less than the predetermined quantity; otherwise, a fixed trade credit period is permitted. The maximization of the average profit per unit of time is taken as the inventory system’s objective. The necessary and sufficient conditions and some properties of the optimal solution to the model are developed. Simple solution procedures are proposed to efficiently determine the optimal ordering policies of the considered problem. Numerical example is also presented to illustrate the solution procedures obtained. Jie Min, Jian Ou, Yuan-Guang Zhong, and Xin-Bao Liu Copyright © 2014 Jie Min et al. All rights reserved. On Certain Subclasses of Analytic Functions Involving Carlson-Shaffer Operator and Related to Lemniscate of Bernoulli Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:35:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jca/2014/295703/ The object of the present investigation is to solve the Fekete-Szegö problem and determine the sharp upper bound to the second Hankel determinant for a new class of analytic functions involving the Carlson-Shaffer operator in the unit disk. We also obtain a sufficient condition for normalized analytic functions in the unit disk to be in this class. Jagannath Patel and Ashok Kumar Sahoo Copyright © 2014 Jagannath Patel and Ashok Kumar Sahoo. All rights reserved. Some Function Spaces via Orthonormal Bases on Spaces of Homogeneous Type Tue, 16 Dec 2014 06:25:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/aaa/2014/265378/ Let be a space of homogeneous type in the sense of Coifman and Weiss, where the quasi-metric d may have no regularity and the measure μ satisfies only the doubling property. Adapting the recently developed randomized dyadic structures of X and applying orthonormal bases of constructed recently by Auscher and Hytönen, we develop the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces on such a general setting. In this paper, we establish the wavelet characterizations and provide the dualities for these spaces. The results in this paper extend earlier related results with additional assumptions on the quasi-metric d and the measure μ to the full generality of the theory of these function spaces. Chuang Chen, Ji Li, and Fanghui Liao Copyright © 2014 Chuang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Nanospray Drying as a Novel Technique for the Manufacturing of Inhalable NSAID Powders Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/838410/ The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of the nanospray drier as a novel apparatus for the manufacturing of a dry powder for inhalation containing ketoprofen lysinate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to control the inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. We produced several ketoprofen lysinate and leucine powder batches by means of nanospray dryer, studying the influence of process parameters on yield, particle properties (size distribution and morphology), and, mainly, aerodynamic properties of powders. Micronized particles were prepared from different hydroalcoholic solutions (alcohol content from 0 to 30% v/v) using ketoprofen in its lysine salt form and leucine as dispersibility enhancer in different ratios (from 5 to 15% w/w) with a total solid concentration ranging from 1 to 7% w/v. Results indicated that the spray head equipped with a 7 µm nozzle produced powders too big to be inhaled. The reduction of nozzle size from 7 to 4 µm led to smaller particles suitable for inhalation but, at the same time, caused a dramatic increase in process time. The selection of process variables, together with the nozzle pretreatment with a surfactant solution, allowed us to obtain a free flowing powder with satisfying aerosol performance, confirming the usefulness of the nanospray drier in the production of powder for inhalation. Aquino Rita Patrizia, Stigliani Mariateresa, Del Gaudio Pasquale, Mencherini Teresa, Sansone Francesca, and Russo Paola Copyright © 2014 Aquino Rita Patrizia et al. All rights reserved. Consolidation by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with a Threshold Gradient Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2014/410390/ This paper shows the development of an approximate analytical solution of radial consolidation by prefabricated vertical drains with a threshold gradient. To understand the effect of the threshold gradient on consolidation, a parametric analysis was performed using the present solution. The applicability of the present solution was demonstrated in two cases, wherein the comparisons with Hansbo’s results and observed data were conducted. It was found that (1) the flow with the threshold gradient would not occur instantaneously throughout the whole unit cell. Rather, it gradually occurs from the vertical drain to the outside; (2) the moving boundary would never reach the outer radius of influence if , whereas it will reach the outer radius of influence at some time; (3) the excess pore pressure will not be dissipated completely, but it will maintain a long-term stable value at the end of consolidation; (4) the larger the threshold gradient is, the greater the long-term excess pore pressure will be; and (5) the present solution could predict the consolidation behavior in soft clay better than previous methods. Xiao Guo, Kang-He Xie, and Yue-Bao Deng Copyright © 2014 Xiao Guo et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Duration of Daily Antituberculosis Therapy before Switching to DOTS Intermittent Therapy to Reduce Mortality in HIV Infected Patients: A Duration-Response Analysis Using Restricted Cubic Splines Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/704980/ Compared with thrice-weekly intermittent antituberculosis therapy (ATT), the use of daily ATT during the intensive phase has shown improved survival in HIV infected patients with tuberculosis. However, the optimal duration of daily ATT before initiating intermittent ATT is not well known. In this study, we analysed the mortality of HIV-related tuberculosis according to the duration of daily ATT before switching to thrice-weekly ATT in patients who completed at least two months of treatment in an HIV cohort study. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models. To relax the linearity assumption in regression models and to allow for a flexible interpretation of the relationship between duration of daily ATT and mortality, continuous variables were modelled using restricted cubic splines. The study included 520 HIV infected patients with tuberculosis and 8,724.3 person-months of follow-up. The multivariable analysis showed that the mortality risk was inversely correlated with the duration of daily ATT before switching to intermittent therapy during the first 30 days of ATT but, after approximately 30 days of treatment, differences were not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that daily ATT should be given for at least 30 days before switching to intermittent ATT in HIV infected patients with tuberculosis. Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Raghavakalyan Pakam, Manoranjan Midde, and Praveen Kumar Naik Copyright © 2014 Gerardo Alvarez-Uria et al. All rights reserved. C-Reactive Protein: An In-Depth Look into Structure, Function, and Regulation Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/653045/ Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult population worldwide, with atherosclerosis being its key pathophysiologic component. Atherosclerosis possesses a fundamental chronic inflammatory aspect, and the involvement of numerous inflammatory molecules has been studied in this scenario, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a plasma protein with strong phylogenetic conservation and high resistance to proteolysis, predominantly synthesized in the liver in response to proinflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF. CRP may intervene in atherosclerosis by directly activating the complement system and inducing apoptosis, vascular cell activation, monocyte recruitment, lipid accumulation, and thrombosis, among other actions. Moreover, CRP can dissociate in peripheral tissue—including atheromatous plaques—from its native pentameric form into a monomeric form, which may also be synthesized de novo in extrahepatic sites. Each form exhibits distinct affinities for ligands and receptors, and exerts different effects in the progression of atherosclerosis. In view of epidemiologic evidence associating high CRP levels with cardiovascular risk—reflecting the biologic impact it bears on atherosclerosis—measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity CRP has been proposed as a tool for assessment of cardiovascular risk. Juan Salazar, María Sofía Martínez, Mervin Chávez-Castillo, Victoria Núñez, Roberto Añez, Yaquelin Torres, Alexandra Toledo, Maricarmen Chacín, Carlos Silva, Enrique Pacheco, Joselyn Rojas, and Valmore Bermúdez Copyright © 2014 Juan Salazar et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of a Biglucoside and Its Application as Montmorillonite Hydration Inhibitor Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jchem/2014/353161/ A biglucoside (BG) was synthesized with glucose and epichlorohydrin as raw materials. The inhibition of BG against montmorillonite swelling was investigated by various methods including montmorillonite linear expansion test, mud ball immersing test, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the BG has good inhibition ability to the hydration swelling and dispersion of montmorillonite. Under the same condition, the linear expansion ratio of montmorillonite in BG solution is much lower than that of MEG. The particle distribution measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy results all prove the efficient inhibition of BG. Xin-chun Zhang, Xing-zhi Wang, Gang Chen, Qiang Deng, and Huarui Hao Copyright © 2014 Xin-chun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Association between Diabetic Retinopathy and Levels of Ischemia-Modified Albumin, Total Thiol, Total Antioxidant Capacity, and Total Oxidative Stress in Serum and Aqueous Humor Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/820853/ Purpose. To investigate the oxidant and antioxidant status of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DRP). Methods. Forty-four patients who had cataract surgery were enrolled in the study. We included 22 patients with DRP in one group and 22 patients in the control group. Samples of aqueous humor and serum were taken from all patients. Serum and aqueous ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), total thiol, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and total oxidative stress (TOS) levels were compared in two groups. Results. Median serum IMA levels were 44.80 absorbance units in the DRP group and 40.15 absorbance units in the control group (). Median serum total thiol levels in the DRP group were significantly less than those in the control group (3051.13 and 3910.12, resp., ). Mean TOS levels in the serum were 2.93 ± 0.19 in the DRP group and 2.61 ± 0.26 in the control group (). The differences in mean total thiol, TAC, and TOS levels in the aqueous humor and mean TAC levels in the serum were not statistically significant. Conclusion. IMA, total thiol, and TOS levels in the serum might be useful markers in monitoring the risk of DRP development. Kadir Kirboga, Ayse V. Ozec, Mustafa Kosker, Ayhan Dursun, Mustafa I. Toker, Huseyin Aydin, Haydar Erdogan, Aysen Topalkara, and Mustafa K. Arici Copyright © 2014 Kadir Kirboga et al. All rights reserved. Numb Chin Syndrome as First Symptom of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2014/413162/ Numb chin syndrome is a rare sensory neuropathy of the mental nerve characterized by numbness, hypoesthesia, paraesthesia, and very rarely pain. Dental causes, especially iatrogenic ones, maxillofacial trauma, or malignant neoplasm are etiologic factors for this rare syndrome. Many malignant and metastatic neoplasms are causing this syndrome, like primary osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mandibular metastasis of primary carcinoma of breast, lung, thyroid, kidney, prostate, and nasopharynx. Haematological malignancies like acute lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and myeloma can cause this neuropathy. The authors report a case of a 71-year-old woman in which the numb chin syndrome was the first symptom of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which caused infiltration and reabsorption of the alveolar ridge and lower mandibular cortex. A biopsy of the mass was performed on fragments of tissue collected from the mandibular periosteum, medullary and cortical mandibular bone, and inferior alveolar nerve. Mario Carbone, Francesco Della Ferrera, Lucio Carbone, Gaia Gatti, and Marco Carrozzo Copyright © 2014 Mario Carbone et al. All rights reserved. Rab27b Is a Potential Predictor for Metastasis and Prognosis in Colorectal Cancer Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2014/913106/ Objective. Rab27b is reported to correlate with cancer development and progression. However, the association between Rab27b expression and the clinical characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) is barely investigated. Methods. One-step quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test with 18 fresh-frozen CRC samples and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis in 113 CRC cases were performed to explore the relationship between Rab27b expression and the clinicopathological features of CRC. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were executed to evaluate the prognosis of CRC. Results. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of Rab27b mRNA and protein were significantly higher in CRC tissues than that in matched noncancerous tissues (). Rab27b protein expression in CRC was statistically correlated with serum CEA level (), lymph node metastasis (), distant metastasis (), and TNM stage (). Cox multifactor analysis and Kaplan-Meier method suggested that higher Rab27b protein expression () and tumor differentiation () were significantly associated with the overall survival of CRC patients. Conclusions. The data indicated that higher expression of Rab27b was observed in CRC tissues and Rab27b may be identified as a useful predictor of metastasis and prognosis for CRC. Jun Bao, Yijiang Ni, Hui Qin, Li Xu, Zhijun Ge, Feng Zhan, Huijun Zhu, Jiabi Zhao, Xiaoli Zhou, Xiaojun Tang, and Liming Tang Copyright © 2014 Jun Bao et al. All rights reserved. The Effectiveness of Self-Expandable Metallic Stent Insertion in Treating Right-Sided Colonic Obstruction: A Comparison between SEMS and Decompression Tube Placement and an Investigation of the Safety and Difficulties of SEMS Insertion in Right Colons Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2014/372918/ Objectives. Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) is widely used to treat malignant colonic obstruction. However, most reports about SEMS insertion have concentrated on the left colon. This study aimed to (1) investigate the effectiveness of SEMS insertion compared with conventional decompression tube for right-sided colonic obstruction and (2) compare the safety and technical success of SEMS insertion between left- and right-sided colonic obstructions. Methods. The data from thirty-seven patients who underwent SEMS or conventional decompression tube placement for malignant colonic obstruction in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Technical and clinical success, complications, and technical difficulties were analyzed. We compared the results between SEMS insertion and decompression tube placement in right colons and the outcomes of SEMS insertion between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Results. For right colons, the clinical success rate of SEMS insertion (100%) was significantly higher than that of decompression tube placement (55.9%). Concerning SEMS insertion, the technical difficulty and safety of SEMS insertion were similar between right- and left-sided colonic obstructions. Conclusion. SEMS insertion for right-sided colon is significantly more effective than conventional decompression tube placement, and this procedure was safer and less technically challenging than expected. SEMS insertion should be considered for treating right-sided malignant colonic obstruction. Rintaro Moroi, Katsuya Endo, Ryo Ichikawa, Hiroshi Nagai, Hirohiko Shinkai, Tomoya Kimura, Fumitake Ishiyama, Kei Yaguchi, Shoichi Kayaba, and Tooru Shimosegawa Copyright © 2014 Rintaro Moroi et al. All rights reserved. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Dental Extraction Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criopm/2014/202834/ Aim. To describe a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following dental extraction and to point out the ophthalmic complications of dental procedures to ophthalmologists and dentists. Case. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with painless sudden visual loss in her left eye after tooth extraction two days ago. In her left eye the best corrected visual acuity was 6/30 and fundus examination revealed peripapillary flame-shaped hemorrhages and pale retina in the upper temporal arcuate. The right eye examination was unremarkable. Conclusion. Dental procedures can lead to miscellaneous ophthalmic complications possibly due to the close proximity of the anatomic structures. Retinal arterial occlusion is a rare but serious cause of permanent visual loss among these dental procedures where the exact pathologic mechanism is still obscure. Tevfik Oğurel, Zafer Onaran, Reyhan Oğurel, Nurgül Örnek, Nesrin Büyüktortop Gökçınar, and Kemal Örnek Copyright © 2014 Tevfik Oğurel et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Neutron Yield of IR-IECF Facility in High Voltages Using Artificial Neural Network Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/je/2014/798160/ Artificial neural network (ANN) is applied to predict the number of produced neutrons from IR-IECF device in wide discharge current and voltage ranges. Experimentally, discharge current from 20 to 100 mA had been tuned by deuterium gas pressure and cathode voltage had been changed from −20 to −82 kV (maximum voltage of the used supply). The maximum neutron production rate (NPR) of 1.46 × 107 n/s had occurred when the voltage was −82 kV and the discharge current was 48 mA. The back-propagation algorithm is used for training of the proposed multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network structure. The obtained results show that the proposed ANN model has achieved good agreement with the experimental data. Results show that NPR of 1.855 × 108 n/s can be achieved in voltage and current of 125 kV and 45 mA, respectively. This prediction shows 52% increment in maximum voltage of power supply. Also, the optimum discharge current can increase 1270% NPR. A. Sadighzadeh, A. Salehizadeh, M. Mohammadzadeh, F. Shama, S. Setayeshi, S. A. H. Feghhi, S. M. Sadati, M. Rezaei, E. Haji Ebrahimi, and G. H. Roshani Copyright © 2014 A. Sadighzadeh et al. All rights reserved. Theories of Urban Dynamics Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpr/2014/494871/ This paper reviews the existing analysis framework for territorial dynamics and urban growth and proposes a taxonomy of interpretive theories as well as a critical review. Specifically, the paper aims to provide four innovations to existing knowledge in this field as follows: firstly, a clear presentation of how the data of population growth of each habitat type have appeared and their academic interpretations; secondly, a reclassification of interpretative theories into three groups: the counterurban, the post-fordist, and the cyclical theories; thirdly, with the ultimate goal to analyze the suitability of interpretations to the reality, a taxonomic proposal of habitat categories being made; fourthly, the final one refering to the balance of the theoretical to the empirical reality, in light of the data currently available, using the considered methodologies. That balance allows collecting positive elements of each theory and pointing to the possibility of developing a theory of synthesis. Manuel García Docampo Copyright © 2014 Manuel García Docampo. All rights reserved. Practical Implication of Chromatographic Method for Estimation of Aceclofenac and Pregabalin in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cri/2014/643027/ Background. Aceclofenac and Pregabalin in combination significantly reduce pain as compared to individual drug in chronic low back pain. Literature reveals that all the reported spectrophotometric methods either need tedious extraction procedures, do not offer high sensitivity, use nonspecific reagent, or recommend the measurement of absorbance in the near UV region where interference most probably occurs that does not offer suitable linearity range. Result. A selective, sensitive, accurate, and precise, high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detector analysis of Aceclofenac and Pregabalin was investigated. Good chromatographic separation was achieved using an ODS-BP hypersil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, i.d., 5 μm) and a mobile phase consisting of 0.05 M phosphate buffer (KH2PO4) (pH 6.0) : methanol (60 : 40, v/v) at a flow rate 1 mL/min. The ultraviolet detector was set at wavelength 218 nm. Retention time for Aceclofenac and Pregabalin was found to be 3.220 and 5.910 min, respectively. Rectilinear relationship with good regression coefficients 0.999 and 0.999 was found over the concentration ranges of 5–25 μg/mL and 3.75–18.75 μg/mL for ACF and PGB, respectively, with detection limits 0.64 and 0.35 μg/mL and quantitation limits 1.95 and 1.06 μg/mL. Conclusion. The mean percentage recoveries were in the range of 98.45–100.08 and 99.69–100.48 for ACF and PGB, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the drugs in their commercial tablets. Hitendrakumar D. Gelani, Payal P. Chauhan, and Samir K. Shah Copyright © 2014 Hitendrakumar D. Gelani et al. All rights reserved. Severe/Extreme Hypertriglyceridemia and LDL Apheretic Treatment: Review of the Literature, Original Findings Tue, 16 Dec 2014 00:10:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cholesterol/2014/109263/ Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a feature of numerous metabolic disorders including dyslipidemias, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus type 2 and can increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease. HTG may also be due to genetic factors (called primary HTG) and particularly the severe/extreme HTG (SEHTG), which is a usually rare genetic disorder. Even rarer are secondary cases of SEHTG caused by autoimmune disease. This review considers the causes of SEHTG, and their management including treatment with low density lipoprotein apheresis and analyzes the original findings. Olga Diakoumakou, Georgios Hatzigeorgiou, Nikos Gontoras, Maria Boutsikou, Vana Kolovou, Sophie Mavrogeni, Vassiliki Giannakopoulou, and Genovefa D. Kolovou Copyright © 2014 Olga Diakoumakou et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Host-Adherent-Invasive Escherichia coli Interaction in Crohn’s Disease: Opening Up New Therapeutic Strategies Mon, 15 Dec 2014 14:43:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/567929/ A trillion of microorganisms colonize the mammalian intestine. Most of them have coevolved with the host in a symbiotic relationship and some of them have developed strategies to promote their replication in the presence of competing microbiota. Recent evidence suggests that perturbation of the microbial community favors the emergence of opportunistic pathogens, in particular adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) that can increase incidence and severity of gut inflammation in the context of Crohn’s disease (CD). This review will report the importance of AIEC as triggers of intestinal inflammation, focusing on their impact on epithelial barrier function and stimulation of mucosal inflammation. Beyond manipulation of immune response, restoration of gut microbiota as a new treatment option for CD patients will be discussed. Allison Agus, Sébastien Massier, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Elisabeth Billard, and Nicolas Barnich Copyright © 2014 Allison Agus et al. All rights reserved.