Richard Kramer

Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil

Richard Kramer is a Professor at the Departamento de Energia Nuclear of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE) in Recife, Brazil. He received his Doctoral degree in nuclear physics from the Technische Universität München, Germany in 1978. He worked at the former GSF Research Center near München, where he developed the sex-specific MIRD5-type mathematical phantoms, called ADAM and EVA, which have widely been used for Monte Carlo calculations of organ and tissue equivalent doses in the human body from external exposures. Today, Dr. Kramer is the Head of the Computational Dosimetry Group at the DEN/UFPE in Recife, Brazil, where he and his colleagues developed the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms, the first adult human voxel models based on anatomical reference data specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Report no. 89. Dr. Kramer’s group also developed a method for using microCT images of trabecular human bone for the purposes of dosimetry in skeletal soft tissues at risk. Meanwhile, the group has developed 40 adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces as a function of gender, posture, body mass, and height. The phantoms are used in dosimetry software for X-ray diagnosis, available at

Biography Updated on 7 September 2011

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