`International Journal of Inorganic ChemistryVolume 2011 (2011), Article ID 108087, 8 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/108087`
Research Article

## Surfactant-Assisted Sol-Gel Synthesis of TiO2 with Uniform Particle Size Distribution

1Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademicheskaya 1, Ivanovo 153045, Russia
2Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology, pr. Engel’sa 7, Ivanovo 153000, Russia

Received 8 November 2011; Accepted 18 December 2011

Copyright © 2011 O. L. Galkina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. B. O'Regan and B. M. Grätzel, “A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films,” Nature, vol. 353, no. 6346, pp. 737–740, 1991.
2. M. A. Fox and M. T. Dulay, “Heterogeneous photocatalysis,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 341–357, 1993.
3. A. L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates, “Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfaces: principles, mechanisms, and selected results,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 735–758, 1995.
4. D. S. Bhatkhande, V. G. Pangarkar, and A. A. C. M. Beenackers, “Photocatalytic degradation for environmental applications—a review,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 102–116, 2002.
5. O. Carp, C. L. Huisman, and A. Reller, “Photoinduced reactivity of titanium dioxide,” Progress in Solid State Chemistry, vol. 32, no. 1-2, pp. 33–177, 2004.
6. K. Hashimoto, H. Irie, and A. Fujishima, “TiO2 photocatalysis: a historical overview and future prospects,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 8269–8285, 2005.
7. D. Mao, G. Lu, and Q. Chen, “Influence of calcination temperature and preparation method of TiO2-ZrO2 on conversion of cyclohexanone oxime to $\epsilon$-caprolactam over B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 catalyst,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 263, no. 1, pp. 83–89, 2004.
8. R. Fretwell and P. Douglas, “An active, robust and transparent nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 thin film—preparation, characterisation and the kinetics of photodegradation of model pollutants,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 143, no. 2-3, pp. 229–240, 2001.
9. B. E. Yoldas, “Hydrolysis of titanium alkoxide and effects of hydrolytic polycondensation parameters,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1087–1092, 1986.
10. J. Yu, X. Zhao, and Q. Zhao, “Effect of surface structure on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 379, no. 1-2, pp. 7–14, 2000.
11. J. Yu, X. Zhao, J. Du, and W. Chen, “Preparation, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the porous TiO2 anatase coating by sol-gel processing,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 163–171, 2000.
12. D. J. Kim, S. H. Hahn, S. H. Oh, and E. J. Kim, “Influence of calcination temperature on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating,” Materials Letters, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 355–360, 2002.
13. C. Legrand-Buscema, C. Malibert, and S. Bach, “Elaboration and characterization of thin films of TiO2 prepared by sol–gel process,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 418, no. 2, pp. 79–84, 2002.
14. L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, Y. He, W. Li, and H. Sun, “Preparation and performances of mesoporous TiO2 film photocatalyst supported on stainless steel,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 287–292, 2003.
15. S. Bu, Z. Jin, X. Liu, L. Yang, and Z. Cheng, “Fabrication of TiO2 porous thin films using peg templates and chemistry of the process,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 88, no. 2-3, pp. 273–279, 2004.
16. S. J. Bu, Z. G. Jin, X. X. Liu, L. R. Yang, and Z. J. Cheng, “Synthesis of TiO2 porous thin films by polyethylene glycol templating and chemistry of the process,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 673–679, 2005.
17. B. Guo, Z. Liu, L. Hong, and H. Jiang, “Sol gel derived photocatalytic porous TiO2 thin films,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 198, no. 1–3, pp. 24–29, 2005.
18. Y. Djaoued, M. Thibodeau, J. Robichaud et al., “Photocatalytic degradation of domoic acid using nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 193, no. 2-3, pp. 271–283, 2008.
19. G. Oskam, A. Nellore, R. L. Penn, and P. C. Searson, “The growth kinetics of TiO2 nanoparticles from titanium(IV) alkoxide at high water/titanium ratio,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 1734–1738, 2003.
20. D. Vorkapic and T. Matsoukas, “Reversible agglomeration: a kinetic model for the peptization of titania nanocolloids,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 214, no. 2, pp. 283–291, 1999.
21. R. A. Spurr and H. Myers, “Quantitative analysis of anatase-rutile mixtures with an X-ray diffractometer,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 760–762, 1957.
22. M. C. Cordero-Cabrera, G. S. Walker, and D. M. Grant, “Effect of processing parameters on the particle size and stabilisation of titania sols,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 40, no. 14, pp. 3709–3714, 2005.
23. Y. Gou, D. Chen, and Z. X. Su, “Photocatalyst of nanometer TiO2/conjugated polymer complex employed for depigmentation of methyl orange,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 2004.
24. H. Yoshitake, T. Sugihara, and T. Tatsumi, “Preparation of wormhole-like mesoporous TiO2 with an extremely large surface area and stabilization of its surface by chemical vapor deposition,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 1023–1029, 2002.
25. M. R. Mohammadi, M. C. Cordero-Cabrera, M. Ghorbani, and D. J. Fray, “Synthesis of high surface area nanocrystalline anatase-TiO2 powders derived from particulate sol-gel route by tailoring processing parameters,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2006.
26. X. Bokhimi, A. Morales, and F. Pedraza, “Crystallography and crystallite morphology of rutile synthesized at low temperature,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 169, no. 2, pp. 176–181, 2002.
27. S. Kim and S. H. Ehrman, “Photocatalytic activity of a surface-modified anatase and rutile titania nanoparticle mixture,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 338, no. 1, pp. 304–307, 2009.
28. X. F. Zhou, D. B. Chu, S. W. Wang, C. J. Lin, and Z. Q. Tian, “New route to prepare nanocrystalline TiO2 and its reaction mechanism,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1851–1857, 2002.
29. T. Ohno, K. Tokieda, S. Higashida, and M. Matsumura, “Synergism between rutile and anatase TiO2 particles in photocatalytic oxidation of naphthalene,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 244, no. 2, pp. 383–391, 2003.
30. S. Bakardjieva, J. Šubrt, V. Štengl, M. J. Dianez, and M. J. Sayagues, “Photoactivity of anatase-rutile TiO2 nanocrystalline mixtures obtained by heat treatment of homogeneously precipitated anatase,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 58, no. 3-4, pp. 193–202, 2005.