Figure 16: Quasi-paraxial interaction () between a lower-branch nonlinear surface wave (with ) and a unit-amplitude () soliton in regime 2 (mismatch parameters and ) with . (a) Evolution in of the peak amplitude of the solution. (b), (c), and (d) show the full numerical solution of (5) when the nonlinearity exponent is (surface wave “skimming”), 2 (deflection of the surface wave), and 3 (deflection of the surface wave and breakup of the soliton into radiation), respectively.