Table 3: Error-correction model estimates.

CovariatesModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4Model 5
Coef. 𝑃 > | 𝑡 | Coef. 𝑃 > | 𝑡 | Coef. 𝑃 > | 𝑡 | Coef. 𝑃 > | 𝑡 | Coef. 𝑃 > | 𝑡 |

Cigarette price (real)−0.3790.000−0.3760.000−0.3740.000–0.3760.000−0.3750.000
Smokeless tobacco price (real)0.0140.5450.0140.5400.0130.5700.0140.5470.0130.564
Per capita income (real) −0.00005360.001 −0.0000550.000 −0.00005780.000 −0.00005510.000 −0.00005660.000
Workplace CIAL: percentage of population−0.0620.209
Restaurant CIAL: percentage of population−0.021890.603
Bar CIAL: percentage of population0.0100.848
Any CIAL: percentage of population −0.0310.481
All CIAL: percentage of population0.0110.874
Error correction (1st lag)−0.2130.000−0.213410.000−0.2130.000−0.2130.000−0.2120.000
Per capita cigarette units (1st lag)0.0950.0000.0951290.0000.0950.0000.0950.0000.0950.000
Per capita cigarette units (2nd lag)−0.1570.000−0.157290.000−0.1580.000−0.1570.000−0.1580.000

Note: The fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) regression residual of (1) is used as the error correction term in (2).
CIAL: clean indoor air law.