Table 3: Measurement of management capabilities.

Relational capabilities

(1)Mutual trust with our strategic partners (Network 1).
(2)Good at sharing mutual commitment and goals with our strategic partners (Network 2).
(3)Good at pooling expertise with our strategic partners (Network 3).

Outside-in capabilities

(4)Good at creating, maintaining, and enhancing relationships with customers (Outside 1).
(5)Good at ascertaining customers’ current needs and what products they will need in the future (Outside 2).

Inside-out capabilities

(6)Strong financial management (Inside 1).
(7)Experience in business management (Inside 2).
(8)Effective human resources management (Inside 3).

Spanning capabilities

(9)Ability to launch successful new products (Span 1).
(10) Quality of customer service (Span 2).
(11) Good marketing management abilities (Span 3).
(12) Good at using information coming from the market (Span 4).