Advances in Otolaryngology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 185617, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/185617
Review Article

The Potential Use of Melatonin for Preventing Cisplatin Ototoxicity: An Insight for a Clinical Approach

University of Brasília, 70680-395 Brasília, DF, Brazil

Received 16 May 2014; Revised 15 July 2014; Accepted 24 July 2014; Published 18 August 2014

Academic Editor: Tino Just

Copyright © 2014 Juliana Gusmão de Araujo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cisplatin, one of the most effective and potent anticancer drugs, is used in the treatment of a wide variety of both pediatric and adult malignancies. However, the chemotherapeutic use of cisplatin is limited by its serious side effects, such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Ototoxicity produced by cisplatin is usually persistent, depending on the age of the patient, the cumulative number of doses, the number of chemotherapy cycles, the history of noise exposure, and deteriorating renal function. The mechanism of the ototoxicity caused by cisplatin is based on the generation of reactive oxygen species, which interfere with the antioxidant protection of the organ of Corti. Thus, protecting the cochlea with antioxidants ameliorates ototoxicity from cisplatin. In this context, melatonin appears as a therapeutic option for preventing the ototoxic effects of cisplatin, since the research in the last decade has proven its ability to be both a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant. In this sense, some of the evidence suggesting that melatonin is efficient for combating cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is summarized and discussed in this paper.