Chinese Journal of Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 318561, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/318561
Research Article

Inhibition of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (Ex Vivo) by Morus indica (Mulberry)

Department of Studies in Food Science and Nutrition, University of Mysore, Mysore 570006, India

Received 20 May 2014; Accepted 8 September 2014; Published 23 September 2014

Academic Editor: Yan Liu

Copyright © 2014 Vanitha Reddy Palvai and Asna Urooj. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Phytochemicals are the bioactive components that contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular and other degenerative diseases. Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol in humans. The present study explores the HMG CoA reductase inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Morus indica varieties, M5, V1, and S36, compared with the statin, using an ex vivo method. The assay is based on the stoichiometric formation of coenzyme A during the reduction of microsomal HMG CoA to mevalonate. Dechlorophyllised extract of three varieties was studied at 300 µg. The coenzyme A released at the end of assay in control (100.31 nmoles) and statins (94.46 nm) was higher than the dechlorphyllised extracts of the samples. The coenzyme A released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate in dechlorophyllised extracts of the samples was as follows: S36 M5 V1. The results indicated that the samples were highly effective in inhibiting the enzyme compared to statins (standard drug). The results indicate the role of Morus varieties extracts in modulating the cholesterol metabolism by inhibiting the activity of HMG CoA reductase. These results provide scope for designing in vivo animal studies to confirm their effect.

1. Introduction

Cholesterol as a constituent of all eukaryotic plasma membranes is essential for the growth and viability of higher organisms. For healthy statue cholesterol homeostasis is very important and is accomplished by a regulatory complex network [1]. The hypercholesterolemia and elevated LDL-C (LDL-cholesterol) concentration are the major risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease [2]. In this consequence, reducing plasma cholesterol levels is one of the major aims of public health organizations [3]. Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) is the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol in humans; inhibition of this enzyme would be an effective means of lowering plasma cholesterol. Drugs like statins, fibrates, niacin, and so forth are used to lower cholesterol. Due to the prevalence of these drugs adverse effects, search was made for an alternative natural drug [4].

Medicinal plants are good sources of therapeutic components and their use for medical purposes has a long history. Over past years, extracts of medicinal plants have gained increasing importance as a source of herbal drugs [5]. Exploration of the chemical constituents of the plants and pharmacological screening will thus provide the basis for developing new life saving drugs and functional foods. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors have been identified from many herbs, medicinal plants, microorganisms, and so forth. Phytochemicals such as phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and alkaloids are the bioactive components present at microlevel in our daily diet and have received much attention in disease treatment due to their in vivo and in vitro antioxidant capabilities [6].

Many studies have reported the hypocholesterolemic property of medicinal plants at biological level [79]. Some studies have also reported the ex vivo inhibition of HMG CoA reductase activity by herbs specially medicinal plants, namely, Quercus infectoria, Rosa damascene, Myrtus communis, Andrographis paniculata, Anthocephalus indicus, and Ocimum sanctum [10]. Our team has explored the antioxidant properties and potency of the phytochemicals and polyphenols of different medicinal plants from western Ghats on ex vivo inhibition of the HMG CoA reductase activity [1115] and hypocholesterolemic effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in animal models [7].

Morus indica (Mulberry tree) of the family Moraceae has been widely cultivated in countries all over the world including temperate to tropical areas. It is nontoxic natural therapeutic agent and different parts of the plant shown to possess hypoglycemic, hypotensive, cholesterol and lipid peroxides reduction, antiphlogistic, diuretic properties and expectorant effects. It occupies an important position in the holistic system of Indian medicine “Ayurveda” which has its roots in antiquity and has been practiced for centuries. The leaves of mulberry are nutritious, palatable, nontoxic, and also enriched with different active principles [1618].

Reports indicate Morus as a good source of phytochemicals and various solvent extracts of its leaves showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity in both in vitro and ex vivo models. Also, the extracts have exhibited stability to high temperature and different pH [19, 20]. Few reports are available on the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect of Morus leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The Morus effectively reduced the increased oxidative stress in diabetic rats and the leaves exerted a rapid protective effect against lipid peroxidation by scavenging (superoxide) and elevating the activities of antioxidant enzymes by virtue of antioxidant flavonoids (quercetins) [21, 22]. In another study, Morus therapy to human subjects with diabetes has resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, plasma peroxides, and urinary peroxides, while increasing HDL-cholesterol, and also in diabetic rats reduced the retinopathy [16, 17]. The available literature indicates the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Morus. However, studies on the hypocholesterolemic effect are lacking and studies are needed to prove its efficacy at biological level especially in cholesterol metabolism in animals. As an initiative, preclinical studies have been undertaken to study the ability of Morus varieties to inhibit HMG CoA reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol metabolism. The Morus extracts were compared with the commercial hypocholesterolemic drug, Atorvastatin.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Chemicals

All the chemicals were of analytical grade. HMG CoA, dithiothreitol, triethanolamine, and NADPH were obtained from Sigma Aldrich Chemicals, Bangalore.

2.2. Plant Material

Three varieties of Morus indica (MI), namely, M1, V1, and S36 leaves, collected from Central Sericultural Research and Training Institute (CSRTI), Mysore, and identified by Dr. Shivamurthy, Department of Studies in Botany, University of Mysore, and voucher specimen was retained in the laboratory for future. The collected leaves were washed and dried in a hot air oven at 55°C. Dry leaves were ground separately and passed through a 60 μm mesh sieve and kept in air-tight containers at 4°C until further use.

2.3. Preparation of Dechlorophyllised Extract

15 g sample of each sample was extracted separately with 100 mL 80% methanol (methanol 80 mL and water 20 mL). To avoid the interference of chlorophyll, it was separated as per the method of Rich A and Rich C [23]. Briefly, hexane was added to the 80% methanol extract and shaken for 30 min and the chlorophyll-rich hexane top layer was separated. The remaining extract was further evaporated (Rotary evaporator) and oven-dried (50°C) and stored in air-tight container at 0°C until used.

2.4. Preparation of Microsomes

A healthy male adult rat was obtained from the Central Animal House, Department of Zoology, University of Mysore, after availing clearance from the University Animal Ethics Committee of University of Mysore (number MGZ/2620/2011-12; dtd: 31.01.2012). The rat was fasted for 24 hrs and sacrificed after 9:00 pm to obtain the active HMG CoA reductase enzyme. The liver was immediately removed from the rat and placed in cold triethanolamine HCl buffer (0–4°C) at pH 7.4. The liver was thoroughly chilled and homogenized. The homogenate was centrifuged at 60,000 g for 60 min; the supernatant was separated and microsomal pellet was then rinsed with buffer and frozen at −20°C. The resuspended microsomes to be used for the assay were diluted with buffer to give a protein concentration of 5–10 mg/mL. The procedure described here is partially modified from that reported by Shapiro and Rodwell, 1971 [24].

2.5. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA Reductase Assay

For the assay of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, the incubation mixtures contain 0.5–1.0 mg of microsomal protein, 150 nmoles of HMG CoA, and 2 μmoles of NADPH. These components are added to 0.8 mL of 0.1 M triethanolamine-0.02 M EDTA buffer at pH 7.4 without dithiothreitol. The dithiothreitol (0.2 μmole) was added along with the microsomal preparation. The final incubation volume was 1 mL. Contents in tubes were as follows: (a) all components, (b) all components except NADPH, (c) all components except NADPH with 300 μg of Morus leaves extracts separately, and (d) all components except NADPH with statins (Atorvastatin-10 μg) [25]. After a series of steps, the coenzyme A released was calculated using the following formula: The value of 1.43 is the dilution factor, and A is the absorbance at 412 nm. The difference in absorbance between the complete reaction and that of all components except NADPH represents the activity due to HMG CoA reductase.

2.6. Statistical Analysis

Each experiment was conducted in triplicates and data are expressed as mean ± SD. The data was subjected to Student -test .

3. Results

In the present study, liver microsomes were treated with dechlorophyllised extracts (300 μg) of three Morus indica varieties (M5, V1, and S36) and their effect on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase was measured. The assay was run against a control and compared with the statins. The results indicate that all the three extracts were highly effective (63–67%) compared to statins (37%) in inhibiting the HMG CoA reductase in the liver microsomes (Figure 1).

318561.fig.001
Figure 1: Percent inhibition of HMG CoA reductase by Morus indica varieties Ctrl—control; Stns—Atorvastatin (10 μg); M5—300 μg; V1—300 μg; S36—300 μg. .

The coenzyme A released during the assay was higher in control (100.31 nmoles) than in the microsomes treated with Morus and statins (Figures 2 and 3) and, among all, S36 was more potent in inhibiting the enzyme activity (48.52 nmoles). Figure 2 shows the time course of activity of HMG CoA reductase for a period of 4th min; it can be observed that the rate of release of coenzyme A was constantly increasing from zeroth to 4th min, both in control and statins. In M5, the coenzyme A released at zeroth min (M5—48.36 nmoles) was higher than other samples and statins. At the end of 4th min, the rate of release of coenzyme A was less in M5 (50.47 nmoles) than in the control (100.31 nmoles), statins (94.46 nmoles), and V1 (54.76 nmoles). In case of the other two varieties, that is, V1 and S36, the coenzyme A released at zero min was less (V1—17.36 and S36—25.55 nmoles) than the other samples and rate of release of coenzyme was high in first 2 min and decreased from 2nd to 4th min. However, the rate of release of coenzyme A in all the samples, statins, and control was high in first 2nd min and decreased from 2nd to 4th min.

318561.fig.002
Figure 2: Effect of Morus indica on the activity of HMG CoA reductase and release of coenzyme. Ctrl—control; Stns—Atorvastatin (10 μg); M5—300 μg; V1—300 μg; S36—300 μg.
318561.fig.003
Figure 3: Total coenzyme A (nmoles/mg protein) released during the reduction of HMG CoA to mevalonate. Ctrl—control; Stns—Atorvastatin (10 μg); Ctrl—control; Stns—Atorvastatin (10 μg); M5—300 μg; V1—300 μg; S36—300 μg.

Figure 3 shows the total HMG Co A reductase activity as nmoles of coenzyme A released at the end of 4th min in the order of control (100.31 nmoles) > statins (94.46 nmoles) > V1 (54.76 nmoles) > M5 (50.47 nmoles) > S36 (48.52 nmoles). The low amount of CoA released by Morus varieties is indicative of the inhibitory effect on HMG CoA reductase.

4. Discussion

Cholesterol is an insoluble lipid molecule that plays a critical role in the structure and function of membrane bilayers. Membrane cholesterol contents that are either too high or too low are detrimental to cell function. When present in excess amounts in cells, cholesterol becomes toxic. Certainly, cholesterol-induced cytotoxicity represents a key initiating event leading to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease [26].

Statins are the most commonly administered class of drugs to lower plasma LDL-cholesterol. Their primary mechanism of action is to promote clearance of LDL particles from the plasma. This is accomplished because statins reduce the rate of intracellular cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis [27]. However, most commercial HMG CoA reductase inhibitors have shown adverse effects including the induction of cutaneous vasodilatation, rashes, gastrointestinal discomfort, and hyperuricemia [28].

In our laboratory, Morus indica has been investigated for its antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial effects [18, 19, 21, 29]. Oral administration of Morus leaf powder (500 mg/kg b.w) produced a significant hypoglycaemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The concurrent effect of Morus indica on lipid metabolism was significant in diabetic rats; this was evidenced by the reductions in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipid peroxides [30]. However, the mechanism involved in the cholesterol lowering by Morus indica leaf has not been reported. Hence, an attempt was made to study the inhibitory effect of leaves from three Morus indica varieties (300 μg) on HMG CoA reductase activity using a simple ex vivo model system comprising of liver microsomes. In the rat liver microsomes, a cell-free system, Morus indica extracts of leaves effectively the HMG CoA reductase activity better than the statins and control. This is the first report on the ex vivo inhibition of HMG CoA reductase by Morus indica.

The enzyme inhibitory effect correlates with the medicinal properties and phytochemical components such as phenol compounds, alkaloids, and saponins. All three Morus varieties are good sources of phytochemicals and dechlorophyllised extract was rich in polyphenol content [20]. Particularly, S36 with more phytochemical composition have inhibited the HMG CoA reductase with more potency than the other two varieties (M5 an V1). A similar result was reported in Moringa oleifera polyphenol extract on HMG CoA reductase inhibition, in a dose-dependent manner [12].

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the enzyme that synthesizes mevalonate, appears to be regulated through a multivalent feedback mechanism. Full suppression of the reductase requires the presence of at least two regulators: cholesterol, which is normally derived exogenously from plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL), and a nonsterol product, which is normally synthesized endogenously from mevalonate [31]. In cultured mammalian cells such as human fibroblasts, the activity of HMG CoA reductase and hence the formation of mevalonate are controlled through a feedback mechanism mediated by cholesterol that enters cells bound to a plasma lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein (LDL). In the absence of plasma LDL, cells in culture synthesize their own cholesterol, maintaining high levels of HMG CoA reductase. This effect was demonstrated by adding LDL to the culture medium. The LDL-derived cholesterol reduced the activity of HMG CoA reductase, thereby turning off the cell’s cholesterol synthesis [32, 33]. In the present study, Morus extracts and statins might have acted in a similar manner as LDL in inhibiting HMG CoA reductase, thus preventing formation of mevalonate.

Although several medicinal plants have been reported to possess cholesterol lowering properties, no data is reported on the cholesterol lowering mechanism [9, 3438]. The major metabolic pathway for reducing cholesterol is via conversion to bile acids or preventing the cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting the HMG CoA reductase enzyme. To establish the cholesterol lowering mechanism of Morus, we are also exploring its bile acid binding capacity using in vitro model system. Such preclinical studies will help in proper selection of medicinal plants for promoting their therapeutic utility.

5. Conclusion

The findings of the present study provide preliminary data that suggest that Morus indica is capable of reducing cholesterol levels by inhibiting the HMG CoA reductase activity in hyperlipidemic condition. The study also lends support to the reported data on the hypocholesterolemic role of Morus indica in diabetic condition. Promoting the utilization of Morus leaves appears to be beneficial as it can play an important role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases.

Conflict of Interests

The authors do not have conflict of interests.

Acknowledgment

The author acknowledges UGC-IOE (Institute of Excellence) for providing financial assistance.

References

  1. A. Gholamhoseinian, B. Shahouzehi, and F. Sharifi-Far, “Inhibitory activity of some plant methanol extracts on 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase,” International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 705–711, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Steinberg, “Low density lipoprotein oxidation and its pathobiological significance,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 34, pp. 20963–20966, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. M. Krauss, R. H. Eckel, B. Howard et al., “AHA Dietary Guidelines Revision 2000: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 18, pp. 2284–2299, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. W.-L. Wong, J. Dimitroulakos, M. D. Minden, and L. Z. Penn, “HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and the malignant cell: the statin family of drugs as triggers of tumor-specific apoptosis,” Leukemia, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 508–519, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. Miliauskas, P. R. Venskutonis, and T. A. van Beek, “Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts,” Food Chemistry, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. W. Morton, R. A.-A. Caccetta, I. B. Puddey, and K. D. Croft, “Chemistry and biological effects of dietary phenolic compounds: relevance to cardiovascular disease,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 152–159, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Oinum, A. Urooj, P. P. Philips, and N. P. Niranjan, “Effect of dirtary lipids and Drum stick leaves (Moringa oleifera) on lipid profile and antioxidant parameters in rats,” Food and Nutrition Science, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 141–145, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  8. N. Hirose, T. Inoue, K. Nishihara et al., “Inhibition of cholesterol absorption and synthesis in rats by sesamin,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 629–638, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Fawzy, Wild Medicinal Plants as Hypocholesterolemic Agents: Pulicaria Incise, Diplotaxis Harra, Avicennia Marina, VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2009.
  10. H. D. Patel, G. B. Shah, and V. Trivedi, “Investigation of HMG CoA reductase inhibitory activity of antihyperlipidemic herbal drugs in vitro study,” Asian Journal of Experimental Biology and Science, vol. 2, pp. 63–68, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  11. A. Urooj and P. V. Reddy, “Moringa oleifera: antioxidant properties and stability of various solvent extracts,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Biotechnology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  12. P. V. Reddy, F. Ahmed, and A. Urooj, “Inhibition of 3-hydroxy3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase in liver microsomes Y Moringa oleifera. Polyphenols,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 2510–2516, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  13. P. V. Reddy, S. Mahalingu, and A. Urooj, “Abrus precatorius Leaves: Antioxidant Activity in Food and Biological Systems, pH, and Temperature Stability,” International Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 2014, Article ID 748549, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. P. V. Reddy, S. Mahalingu, and A. Urooj, “Canthium parviflorum leaves: antioxidant activity in food and biological systems, pH, and temperature stability,” Chinese Journal of Biology, vol. 2014, Article ID 813201, 7 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. P. V. Reddy, L. Sarkar, and A. Urooj, “Inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (ex vivo) by medicinal plants from Western Ghats,” Annals of Phytomedicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 56–61, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  16. B. Andallu, V. Suryakantham, B. Lakshmi Srikanthi, and G. Kesava Reddy, “Effect of mulberry (Morus indica L.) therapy on plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 314, no. 1-2, pp. 47–53, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Andallu and N. C. Varadacharyulu, “Control of hyperglycemia and retardation of cataract by mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in streptozotocin diabetic rats,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 791–795, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. Pradeep Kumar, D. Sujatha, T. S. Mohamed Saleem, C. Madhusudhana Chetty, and D. Ranganayakulu, “Potential hypoglycemic & hypolipidemic effect of Morus Indica and Asystasia gangetica in alloxan induced diabetes mellitus,” International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Arabshahi-Delouee and A. Urooj, “Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves,” Food Chemistry, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1233–1240, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. V. Reddy and A. Urooj, “Proximate, phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity (in vitro and ex vivo) of morus indica varieties,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1626–1634, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  21. V. D. Devi and A. Urooj, “Hypoglycemic potential of Morus indica. L and Costus igneus. Nak.—a preliminary study,” Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 614–616, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. B. Andallu and N. C. Varadacharyulu, “Antioxidant role of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv. Anantha) leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic rats,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 338, no. 1-2, pp. 3–10, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. Rich, C. Rich, and University of Louisville, “Extraction of Chlorophyll and Carotenes from Spinach. and Analysis by Thin Layer Chromatography. Physiological Chemistry-Extraction of Chlorophyll from Spinach,” Toni Bell, Bloomsburg University. 1-6.
  24. D. J. Shapiro and V. W. Rodwell, “Regulation of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and cholesterol synthesis,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 246, no. 10, pp. 3210–3216, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. F. H. Hulcher and W. H. Oleson, “Simplified spectrophotometric assay for microsomal 3 hydroxy 3 methylglutaryl CoA reductase by measurement of coenzyme A,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 625–631, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. I. Tabas, “Consequences of cellular cholesterol accumulation: basic concepts and physiological implications,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 905–911, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein, “A receptor-mediated pathway for cholesterol homeostasis,” Science, vol. 232, no. 4746, pp. 34–47, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. E. Yu, D.-H. Lee, G.-S. Seo, S.-M. Cho, and J.-S. Lee, “Characterization of a novel β-hydroxy-β-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase-inhibitor from the mushroom, Pholiota adiposa,” Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 618–624, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Arabshahi-Delouee and A. Urooj, “Application of phenolic extracts from selected plants in fruit juice,” International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 479–488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. D. V. Devi and A. Urooj, Studies on hypoglycemic activity of selected medicinal plants [Ph.D. theisis], Department of Studies in Food Science and Nutrition, University of Mysore, Mysore, India, 2009.
  31. M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein, “Multivalent feedback regulation of HMG CoA reductase, a control mechanism coordinating isoprenoid synthesis and cell growth,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 505–517, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. S. Brown, S. E. Dana, and J. L. Goldstein, “Regulation of 3 hydroxy 3 methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in human fibroblasts by lipoproteins,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 2162–2166, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein, “Receptor-mediated endocytosis: insights from the lipoprotein receptor system,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 76, no. 7, pp. 3330–3337, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Stark and Z. Madar, “The effect of an ethanol extract derived from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on bile acid absorption and cholesterol levels in rats,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 277–287, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Kamal-Eldin, J. Frank, A. Razdan, S. Tengblad, S. Basu, and B. Vessby, “Effects of dietary phenolic compounds on tocopherol, cholesterol, and fatty acids in rats,” Lipids, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 427–435, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. O. A. Adaramoye, O. Akintayo, J. Achem, and M. A. Fafunso, “Lipid-lowering effects of methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina leaves in rats fed on high cholesterol diet,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 235–241, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Osorio-Esquivel, A. Ortiz-Moreno, L. Garduño-Siciliano, V. B. Álvarez, and M. D. Hernández-Navarro, “Antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 365–370, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. H. Wang, J. Chen, K. Hollister, L. C. Sowers, and B. M. Forman, “Endogenous bile acids are ligands for the nuclear receptor FXR/BAR,” Molecular Cell, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 543–553, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus