Advances in Astronomy The latest articles from Hindawi © 2019 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. A CME Automatic Detection Method Based on Adaptive Background Learning Technology Thu, 07 Nov 2019 12:05:12 +0000 In this paper, we describe a technique, which uses an adaptive background learning method to detect the CME (coronal mass ejections) automatically from SOHO/LASCO C2 image sequences. The method consists of several modules: adaptive background module, candidate CME area detection module, and CME detection module. The core of the method is based on adaptive background learning, where CMEs are assumed to be a foreground moving object outward as observed in running-difference time series. Using the static and dynamic features to model the corona observation scene can more accurately describe the complex background. Moreover, the method can detect the subtle changes in the corona sequences while filtering their noise effectively. We applied this method to a month of continuous corona images, compared the result with CDAW, CACTus, SEEDS, and CORIMP catalogs and found a good detection rate in the automatic methods. It detected about 73% of the CMEs listed in the CDAW CME catalog, which is identified by human visual inspection. Currently, the derived parameters are position angle, angular width, linear velocity, minimum velocity, and maximum velocity of CMES. Other parameters could also easily be added if needed. Zhenping Qiang, Xianyong Bai, Qinghui Zhang, and Hong Lin Copyright © 2019 Zhenping Qiang et al. All rights reserved. Mask-Pix2Pix Network for Overexposure Region Recovery of Solar Image Thu, 05 Sep 2019 13:05:25 +0000 Overexposure may happen for imaging of solar observation as extremely violet solar bursts occur, which means that signal intensity goes beyond the dynamic range of imaging system of a telescope, resulting in loss of signal. For example, during solar flare, Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) often records overexposed images/videos, resulting loss of fine structures of solar flare. This paper makes effort to retrieve/recover missing information of overexposure by exploiting deep learning for its powerful nonlinear representation which makes it widely used in image reconstruction/restoration. First, a new model, namely, mask-Pix2Pix network, is proposed for overexposure recovery. It is built on a well-known Pix2Pix network of conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN). In addition, a hybrid loss function, including an adversarial loss, a masked L1 loss and a edge mass loss/smoothness, are integrated together for addressing challenges of overexposure relative to conventional image restoration. Moreover, a new database of overexposure is established for training the proposed model. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed mask-Pix2Pix network can well recover missing information of overexposure and outperforms the state of the arts originally designed for image reconstruction tasks. Dong Zhao, Long Xu, Linjie Chen, Yihua Yan, and Ling-Yu Duan Copyright © 2019 Dong Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Intelligent Recognition of Time Stamp Characters in Solar Scanned Images from Film Wed, 28 Aug 2019 00:05:11 +0000 Prior to the availability of digital cameras, the solar observational images are typically recorded on films, and the information such as date and time were stamped in the same frames on film. It is significant to extract the time stamp information on the film so that the researchers can efficiently use the image data. This paper introduces an intelligent method for extracting time stamp information, namely, the convolutional neural network (CNN), which is an algorithm in deep learning of multilayer neural network structures and can identify time stamp character in the scanned solar images. We carry out the time stamp decoding for the digitized data from the National Solar Observatory from 1963 to 2003. The experimental results show that the method is accurate and quick for this application. We finish the time stamp information extraction for more than 7 million images with the accuracy of 98%. Jiafeng Zhang, Guangzhong Lin, Shuguang Zeng, Sheng Zheng, Xiao Yang, Ganghua Lin, Xiangyun Zeng, and Haimin Wang Copyright © 2019 Jiafeng Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Full-Disk Solar Flare Forecasting Model Based on Data Mining Method Thu, 01 Aug 2019 01:05:22 +0000 Solar flare is one of the violent solar eruptive phenomena; many solar flare forecasting models are built based on the properties of active regions. However, most of these models only focus on active regions within 30° of solar disk center because of the projection effect. Using cost sensitive decision tree algorithm, we build two solar flare forecasting models from the active regions within 30° of solar disk center and outside 30° of solar disk center, respectively. The performances of these two models are compared and analyzed. Merging these two models into a single one, we obtain a full-disk solar flare forecasting model. Rong Li and Yong Du Copyright © 2019 Rong Li and Yong Du. All rights reserved. Deep Learning for Automatic Recognition of Magnetic Type in Sunspot Groups Thu, 01 Aug 2019 01:05:20 +0000 Sunspots are darker areas on the Sun’s photosphere and most of solar eruptions occur in complex sunspot groups. The Mount Wilson classification scheme describes the spatial distribution of magnetic polarities in sunspot groups, which plays an important role in forecasting solar flares. With the rapid accumulation of solar observation data, automatic recognition of magnetic type in sunspot groups is imperative for prompt solar eruption forecast. We present in this study, based on the SDO/HMI SHARP data taken during the time interval 2010-2017, an automatic procedure for the recognition of the predefined magnetic types in sunspot groups utilizing a convolutional neural network (CNN) method. Three different models (A, B, and C) take magnetograms, continuum images, and the two-channel pictures as input, respectively. The results show that CNN has a productive performance in identification of the magnetic types in solar active regions (ARs). The best recognition result emerges when continuum images are used as input data solely, and the total accuracy exceeds 95%, for which the recognition accuracy of Alpha type reaches 98% while the accuracy for Beta type is slightly lower but maintains above 88%. Yuanhui Fang, Yanmei Cui, and Xianzhi Ao Copyright © 2019 Yuanhui Fang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Ap-Index of Geomagnetic Activity on S&P 500 Stock Market Return Sun, 14 Jul 2019 09:05:11 +0000 Geomagnetic activity with global influence is an essential object of space weather research and is a significant link in the section of the solar wind-magnetospheric coupling process. Research so far provides strong evidence that geomagnetic activity affects stock investment decisions by influencing human health, mood, and human behaviours. Therefore, this research investigates the empirical association between geomagnetic activity and stock market return. Overall, we find that geomagnetic activity exerts a negative influence on the return of the US stock market. Further, market liquidity effectively magnifies the effect of geomagnetic activity. Inconsistent with previous literature, this effect is not mainly caused by the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity. Our research contributes to the introduction of geomagnetic indices to financial economics studies on the impact of geomagnetic activity influence on stock market return. Lifang Peng, Ning Li, and Jingwen Pan Copyright © 2019 Lifang Peng et al. All rights reserved. Single and Multiwavelength Detection of Coronal Dimming and Coronal Wave Using Faster R-CNN Mon, 08 Jul 2019 07:05:09 +0000 Automatic detection of solar events, especially uncommon events such as coronal dimming (CD) and coronal wave (CW), is very important in solar physics research. The CD and CW are not only related to the detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) but also affect space weather. In this paper, we have studied methods for automatically detecting them. In addition, we have collected and processed a dataset that includes the solar images and event records, where the solar images come from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the event records come from Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK). Different from the methods used before, we introduce the idea of deep learning. We train single-wavelength and multiwavelength models based on Faster R-CNN. In terms of accuracy, the single-wavelength model performs better. The multiwavelength model has a better detection performance on multiple solar events than the single-wavelength model. Zongxia Xie and Chunyang Ji Copyright © 2019 Zongxia Xie and Chunyang Ji. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Lunar Exploration Using Radar and Microwave Techniques Sun, 07 Jul 2019 13:05:08 +0000 Jing Li, Zhiguo Meng, and Alexander Gusev Copyright © 2019 Jing Li et al. All rights reserved. Structural Analysis of Lunar Regolith from LPR CH-2 Data Based on Adaptive f-x E MD: LPR Data Processed by Adaptive f-x EMD Mon, 01 Jul 2019 07:05:37 +0000 The Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific payloads in China’s Chang’E-3 (CE-3) to image within 100 m below the lunar surface. The acquired LPR data is significant for the research of lunar geological structure. Based on the sedimentary mechanism of lunar regolith, the regolith contains many rocks with different sizes. These local anomalies appear as diffraction in LPR data, which reduces the data quality and limits the structural analysis of lunar regolith. According to the kinematics characteristics of rock caused diffraction, we transform these problems to a problem of steep dip decreasing. To reach this goal, we adopt a data preprocessing workflow to improve the quality of the radar image, firstly. Then, a dip filter based on adaptive f-x empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is proposed to extract the rocks in the regolith and the corresponding removed IMF map indicates the degree of rock enrichment and highlights regolith-basement interface. Both simulation and LPR CH-2 data present a great performance. Finally, according to the processed result, we locate the position of each rock and highlight the contact interface of regolith and the basement rock. Bin Hu, Deli Wang, Ling Zhang, and Zhaofa Zeng Copyright © 2019 Bin Hu et al. All rights reserved. Several Geological Issues of Schrödinger Basin Exposed by CE-2 CELMS Data Mon, 01 Jul 2019 07:05:34 +0000 The study on the Schrödinger basin may provide important clues about the formation of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin. In this paper, the thermophysical features of Schrödinger basin were evaluated using the Chang’E-2 microwave sounder (CELMS) data. The results are as follows. (1) The geological units are reevaluated with the CELMS data and a new geological view was provided according to the brightness temperature and emissivity maps. (2) The surface topography plays an important role in the observed CELMS data. (3) The hot anomaly in the basin floor indicates a warm substrate. (4) The pyroxene-bearing anorthosite is probably an important cause for the cold anomaly over the lunar surface. Also, the study proves the applicability of the CELMS data applying in high latitude regions to a certain extent. Z. G. Meng, H. H. Wang, Y. C. Zheng, Y. Z. Wang, H. Miyamoto, Z. C. Cai, J. S. Ping, and Y. Z. Zhu Copyright © 2019 Z. G. Meng et al. All rights reserved. Extracting Filaments Based on Morphology Components Analysis from Radio Astronomical Images Sun, 02 Jun 2019 12:05:10 +0000 Filaments are a type of wide-existing astronomical structure. It is a challenge to separate filaments from radio astronomical images, because their radiation is usually weak. What is more, filaments often mix with bright objects, e.g., stars, which makes it difficult to separate them. In order to extract filaments, A. Men’shchikov proposed a method “getfilaments” to find filaments automatically. However, the algorithm removed tiny structures by counting connected pixels number simply. Removing tiny structures based on local information might remove some part of the filaments because filaments in radio astronomical image are usually weak. In order to solve this problem, we applied morphology components analysis (MCA) to process each singe spatial scale image and proposed a filaments extraction algorithm based on MCA. MCA uses a dictionary whose elements can be wavelet translation function, curvelet translation function, or ridgelet translation function to decompose images. Different selection of elements in the dictionary can get different morphology components of the spatial scale image. By using MCA, we can get line structure, gauss sources, and other structures in spatial scale images and exclude the components that are not related to filaments. Experimental results showed that our proposed method based on MCA is effective in extracting filaments from real radio astronomical images, and images processed by our method have higher peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). M. Zhu, W. Liu, B. Y. Wang, M. F. Zhang, W. W. Tian, X. C. Yu, T. H. Liang, D. Wu, D. Hu, and F. Q. Duan Copyright © 2019 M. Zhu et al. All rights reserved. A Cosmological Scenario from the Starobinsky Model within the Formalism Sun, 02 Jun 2019 11:05:24 +0000 In this paper we derive a novel cosmological model from the theory of gravitation, for which is the Ricci scalar and is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. We consider the functional form , with being the Starobinsky Model, named , and , with and being constants. We show that a hybrid expansion law form for the scale factor is a solution for the derived Friedmann-like equations. In this way, the model is able to predict both the decelerated and the accelerated regimes of expansion of the universe, with the transition redshift between these stages being in accordance with recent observations. We also apply the energy conditions to our material content solutions. Such an application makes us able to obtain the range of acceptability for the free parameters of the model, named and . P. H. R. S. Moraes, P. K. Sahoo, G. Ribeiro, and R. A. C. Correa Copyright © 2019 P. H. R. S. Moraes et al. All rights reserved. Observations of Radio Magnetars with the Deep Space Network Sun, 02 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide array of radio telescopes which supports NASA’s interplanetary spacecraft missions. When the DSN antennas are not communicating with spacecraft, they provide a valuable resource for performing observations of radio magnetars, searches for new pulsars at the Galactic Center, and additional pulsar-related studies. We describe the DSN’s capabilities for carrying out these types of observations. We also present results from observations of three radio magnetars, PSR J1745–2900, PSR J1622–4950, and XTE J1810–197, and the transitional magnetar candidate, PSR J1119–6127, using the DSN radio telescopes near Canberra, Australia. Aaron B. Pearlman, Walid A. Majid, and Thomas A. Prince Copyright © 2019 Aaron B. Pearlman et al. All rights reserved. Disk-Integrated Lunar Brightness Temperatures between 89 and 190 GHz Sun, 02 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Measurements of the disk-integrated brightness temperature of the Moon at 89, 157, 183, and 190 GHz are presented for phase angles between -80° and 50° relative to full Moon. They were obtained with the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) on NOAA-18 from 39 instances when the Moon appeared in the deep space view of the instrument. Polynomials were fitted to the measured values and the maximum temperature and the phase angle of its occurrence were determined. A comparison of these results with the predictions from three different models or rather parametrical expressions by Keihm, Mo & Kigawa, and Yang et al. revealed significantly larger phase lags for the lower frequencies in the measurements with MHS. As the Moon has appeared thousands of times in the field of view of all microwave sounders combined, this investigation demonstrates the potential of weather satellites for fine tuning models and establishing the Moon as extremely accurate calibration reference. Martin J. Burgdorf, Stefan A. Buehler, Imke Hans, and Marc Prange Copyright © 2019 Martin J. Burgdorf et al. All rights reserved. Lunar Radiometric Measurement Based on Observing China Chang’E-3 Lander with VLBI—First Insight Sun, 02 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 China Chang’E-3 performed soft landing at the plains of Sinus Iridum on lunar surface on December 2013 successfully; it opened a new window for observing lunar surface with radiometric tracking which many lunar scientific researchers always pursue for. Since July 2014, OCEL (Observing Chang’E-3 Lander with VLBI) project has been conducted jointly by IVS (International VLBI Service of Geodesy and Astrometry) and BACC (Beijing Aerospace Control Center), a global IVS R&D network augmented with two China Deep Space Stations configured for OCEL. This paper presents the current status and preliminary result of the OCEL and mainly focuses on determination of the lander position, which is about 7 meter in height and 14 meter in plane of lunar surface with respect to LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter). Based on accuracy analysis, further optimized OCEL sessions will make use of this target-of-opportunity, the Chang’E-3 lunar lander, as long as it is working. With higher accurate radiometric observables, more prospective contribution to earth and lunar science is expected by combining with LLR. SongTao Han, ZhongKai Zhang, Jing Sun, JianFeng Cao, Lue Chen, Weitao Lu, and WenXiao Li Copyright © 2019 SongTao Han et al. All rights reserved. The Mid-Term Forecast Method of F10.7 Based on Extreme Ultraviolet Images Mon, 13 May 2019 11:05:11 +0000 The solar radio flux at 10.7cm (F10.7) is a direct monitor and an important indicator of solar variability, and F10.7 is commonly used in empirical atmospheric models, ionosphere models, etc. The source regions of F10.7 are mainly in the corona above the active regions, and the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images reflect the coronal thermal structure. In this paper, an index is defined as based on the intensity values of solar EUV images to represent the coronal contribution to F10.7. The Spearman correlation coefficient between the observed values of F10.7 and is 0.85 in 304 Å EUV images. Based on the high correlation, an empirical model is constructed. Combining the EUV data of SDO/AIA and the twin STEREO/EUVI, solar full-disk EUV images can be generated, and the future 27-day values of can be calculated. Then, a realistic estimation of F10.7 from 1 to 27 days in advance can be provided by the empirical model. Compared to the predictive values of F10.7 by the 54th-order autoregressive models in 2012-2013, the error drop-rate of our model is 12.54%, and our method has significant advantages in the upcoming 3 to 27 days’ forecast. L. Lei, Q. Zhong, J. Wang, L. Shi, and S. Liu Copyright © 2019 L. Lei et al. All rights reserved. An Introduction to a New Space Debris Evolution Model: SOLEM Mon, 06 May 2019 11:05:05 +0000 SOLEM is the first space debris long-term evolution model of China. This paper describes the principles, components, and workflow of the SOLEM. The effects of different mitigation measures based on SOLEM model are analyzed and presented. The limitation of the model is pointed out and its future improvement work-plan is prospected. Xiao-wei Wang and Jing Liu Copyright © 2019 Xiao-wei Wang and Jing Liu. All rights reserved. Relations between the Spectral Indices and Flux Densities of Eight Blazars Thu, 02 May 2019 14:05:05 +0000 Relations between the flux densities (F) and spectral indices () can help us analyze the emission process. In this paper, we choose 8 blazars (0235+164, 0430+052, 1156+295, 3C345, 1308+326, 1413+135, 3C454.3, and 1749+096) from the University of Michigan Radio Observatory (UMRAO) database to study the relations between the spectral indices () and flux densities at 14.5GHz (). The main results are the following. (1) There are strong anticorrelations between and , with the correlation coefficient r in the range from to . (2) The distributions show elliptic appearance, which have been fitted by elliptic curves. (3) For most of the sources, the time intervals of elliptic circle () are consistent with the quasi-periodicities calculated by the averaged light curves and spectral variances (). Yu-hai Yuan Copyright © 2019 Yu-hai Yuan. All rights reserved. The Fractal Geometry of the Cosmic Web and Its Formation Thu, 02 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The cosmic web structure is studied with the concepts and methods of fractal geometry, employing the adhesion model of cosmological dynamics as a basic reference. The structures of matter clusters and cosmic voids in cosmological N-body simulations or the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are elucidated by means of multifractal geometry. A nonlacunar multifractal geometry can encompass three fundamental descriptions of the cosmic structure, namely, the web structure, hierarchical clustering, and halo distributions. Furthermore, it explains our present knowledge of cosmic voids. In this way, a unified theory of the large-scale structure of the universe seems to emerge. The multifractal spectrum that we obtain significantly differs from the one of the adhesion model and conforms better to the laws of gravity. The formation of the cosmic web is best modeled as a type of turbulent dynamics, generalizing the known methods of Burgers turbulence. Jose Gaite Copyright © 2019 Jose Gaite. All rights reserved. A New Image Restoration Method for MUSER Thu, 02 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Solar radio images in decimeter wave range consist of many complicated components including a disk component, some bright and weak compact sources, and many diffuse features. Complicated structures combining these various components maybe cause restoration failure when using conventional algorithms. Furthermore, the images at different frequencies band are pretty different. Therefore, restoration method for solar radio image is different from other radio sources. Some image restoration methods were applied and obtained good results on Nancay radioheliograph images and Nobeyama radioheliograph images, and some new methods were introduced into processing these complicated solar radio images in recent years. For a new radioheliograph with ultrawide frequency band, new image restoration method which can maximize function of telescope is demanded. Different images could be obtained from the same visibilities data by using different weighting functions in imaging processing. In this paper, a new restoration method for solar radio image was proposed. Two images with different weighting functions from the same data are combined in this method. This restoration method has applied to data processing of Mingantu spectral radioheliograph. Wei Wang and Yihua Yan Copyright © 2019 Wei Wang and Yihua Yan. All rights reserved. Study of Chang’E-2 Microwave Radiometer Data in the Lunar Polar Region Wed, 24 Apr 2019 10:05:24 +0000 The Chang’E-2 (CE-2) four-channel microwave radiometer (MRM) data with frequencies of 3 GHz, 7.8 GHz, 19.35 GHz, and 37 GHz have been used to investigate the properties of lunar surface such as regolith thickness, dielectric constant, and titanium abundance within a depth of several meters in middle and low latitudes. The purpose of this work is to take a close look at MRM data in the polar regions of the Moon and analyze the characteristics of the brightness temperature (TB) in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs), especially where evidence of water ice has been found. First, the comparisons of brightness temperature values in the polar region and in low latitudes show that (1) the periodic diurnal (day/night) variation of TB becomes weak in high latitudes since topography plays a dominant role in determining TB in polar region and (2) seasonal effects are more recognizable in polar region than in low latitudes due to the weak illumination condition. Second, even without direct sun illumination, significant seasonal variations of TBs are observed in PSRs, probably caused by the scattering flux from neighboring topography. TB Ratio (TBR) between channel 1 and channel 4, which indicates the differences of TB at different depths of lunar regolith, is higher and shows stronger seasonal variation in PSR than regions with direct illumination. Third, overall the distribution of high TBR values is in consistence with the water ice distributions obtained by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument, the LAMP UV spectra, and the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. The proportion of the summation over area with water ice proof in the regions of interest is 0.89 and 0.56 in south pole and north pole, respectively. The causes of the correlation of high TBR between different microwave frequencies and stability of water ice deposits still require further investigation, but MRM data shows unique characteristic in PSRs and could provide important information about the upper few meters of lunar regolith. Fan Yang, Yi Xu, Kwing Lam Chan, Xiaoping Zhang, Guoping Hu, and Yong Li Copyright © 2019 Fan Yang et al. All rights reserved. Oscillating Cosmological Solutions in the Modified Theory of Induced Gravity Wed, 24 Apr 2019 10:05:22 +0000 This work is the extension of author’s research, where the modified theory of induced gravity (MTIG) is proposed. In the framework of the MTIG, the mechanism of phase transitions and the description of multiphase behavior of the cosmological scenario are proposed. The theory describes two systems (stages): Einstein (ES) and “restructuring” (RS). This process resembles the phenomenon of a phase transition, where different phases (Einstein’s gravitational systems, but with different constants) pass into each other. The hypothesis that such transitions are random and lead to stochastic behavior of cosmological parameters is considered. In our model, effective gravitational and cosmological “constants” arise, which are defined by the “mean square” of the scalar fields. These parameters can be compared with observations related to the phenomenon of dark energy. The aim of the work is to solve equations of MTIG for the case of a quadratic potential and compare them with observational cosmology data. The interaction of fundamental scalar fields and matter in the form of an ideal fluid is introduced and investigated. For the case of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time, numerical solutions of nonlinear MTIG equations are obtained using the qualitative theory of dynamical systems and mathematical computer programs. For the case of a linear potential, examples joining of solutions, the ES and RS stages, of the evolution of the cosmological model are given. It is shown that the values of such parameters as “Hubble parameter” and gravitational and cosmological “constants” in the RS stage contain solutions oscillating near monotonically developing averages or have stochastic behavior due to random transitions to different stages (RS or ES). Such a stochastic behavior might be at the origin of the tension between CMB measurements of the value of the Hubble parameter today and its local measurements. Farkhat Zaripov Copyright © 2019 Farkhat Zaripov. All rights reserved. Mass Transfer and Intrinsic Light Variability in the Contact Binary MT Cas Thu, 04 Apr 2019 13:30:07 +0000 First CCD photometry for the contact binary MT Cas is performed in 2013 in December. The spectral type of F8V is determined from the low-precision spectrum observed on 2018 Oct 22. With Wilson-Devinney code, the photometric solutions are deduced from light curves (LCs) and AAVSO’s and ASAS-SN’s data, respectively. The results imply that MT Cas is a W-type weak-contact binary with a mass ratio of and a fill-out factor of , respectively. The asymmetric LCs in 2013 are modeled by a dark spot on the more massive component. By analyzing the curve, it is discovered that the orbital period may be undergoing a secular increase at a rate of , which may result from mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, MT Cas may evolve into a broken-contact configuration as predicted by TRO theory. Haifeng Dai, Huiyu Yuan, and Yuangui Yang Copyright © 2019 Haifeng Dai et al. All rights reserved. Design and Implementation of Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory Astronomical Data Transmission Visualization System Tue, 02 Apr 2019 09:05:17 +0000 With the development of astronomical observation technology, astronomical devices produce more data than ever. Astronomical telescopes are usually far away from city, so the long-distance data transmission between telescope and data center faces great challenges. Visualization system of astronomical data transmission with four-layer structure was built to manage data transmission. This visualization system has a four-layer structure: hardware layer, system layer, middle layer, and visualization layer. System function includes automatic data transmission, log recording of transmission process, and display of the transmission status in dynamic web pages. Besides, the middle layer contains an alarm subsystem that can automatically send system exceptions to administrator. We also design corresponding mechanisms to ensure the high stability of the system and to control the data transmission when the network is unstable through adaptive algorithms. In test, this visualization system can run stably for a long time in unmanned manner. This system also provides a solution for the astronomical observation bases to automatically transmit data to the data center. Xinchen Ye, Hailong Zhang, Yan Zhu, Jie Wang, Tohtonur Ergesh, and Huijuan Li Copyright © 2019 Xinchen Ye et al. All rights reserved. Revisiting the Question: The Cause of the Solar Cycle Variation of Total Solar Irradiance Tue, 26 Mar 2019 18:05:05 +0000 The Mg II index and sunspot area are usually used to represent the intensification contribution by solar bright structures to total solar irradiance (TSI) and sunspot darkening, respectively. In order to understand the cause of the solar cycle variation of TSI, we use extension of wavelet transform, wavelet coherence (WTC), and partial wavelet coherence (PWC), to revisit this issue. The WTC of TSI with sunspot area shows that the two time series are very coherent on timescales of one solar cycle, but the PWC of TSI with sunspot area, which can find the results of WTC after eliminating the effect of the Mg II index, indicates that the solar cycle variation of TSI is not related to sunspots on the solar surface. The coherence of two time series at these timescales should be due to a particular phase relation between sunspots and TSI. The WTC and PWC of TSI with Mg II index show that the solar cycle variation of TSI is highly related to Mg II index, which reflects the relation of TSI with the long-term part of Mg II index that shows the intensification contribution by the small magnetic features to TSI. Consequently, the solar cycle variation of TSI is dominated by the small magnetic features on the solar full disk. Additionally, we also show the combined effects of the sunspot darkening and the intensification contribution represented by Mg II index to TSI on timescales of a few days to several months and indicate that the faculae increase TSI and contribute to its variation at these timescales. N. B. Xiang Copyright © 2019 N. B. Xiang. All rights reserved. Anthropic Principle’s Predicting Symmetric Distribution Matter Strata, Their Physics Laws, and Verifications Mon, 18 Mar 2019 08:05:05 +0000 This paper shows anthropic principle’s predicting symmetric distribution matter strata, their physics laws, and verifications, concretely deduces characteristic time, energy, and temperature expressions at different scales, discovers four interesting invariant quantities, shows homeomorphic theorem of space map, and naturally presents a supersymmetric scale energy. We further discover that any infinitesimal space has the same proportional structure space; namely, they have renormalization group invariance. Consequently, this paper shows that the region of any level Plank-scope is from the level Planck scale to the (n+1) level Planck scale, where the different matters of the level Planck scale build up the level Planck scale matter. The branches of physics science for this region include the level Planck scale matter dynamics and the level Planck scale matter group dynamics. The level Planck scale matter group dynamics describe how the level Planck scale matter constructs the level Planck scale matter and how the different matters of the level Planck scale evolve in the group system. This paper discovers that the different matters below Planck scale can exist with our matter world at the same time and same place and may be some candidates for dark matter; furthermore, this paper shows a relative theorem of matter scale: for the world of any level, the matters’ sizes are relative, not absolute. Evidently, the discoveries of both the symmetrical distribution scales and the relations among the corresponding different physics laws from infinitesimal to infinitely large scales give a scientific solid development platform for formation of new scientific branches and deeper development of old scientific branches, because we can precisely construct many kinds of scientific theories relevant to all the corresponding matter strata. All the branch sciences of different matter strata up to now naturally need to be included in the framework of the new scientific system of physics. Changyu Huang and Yong-Chang Huang Copyright © 2019 Changyu Huang and Yong-Chang Huang. All rights reserved. Comparison of Decadal Trends among Total Solar Irradiance Composites of Satellite Observations Sun, 10 Mar 2019 13:30:15 +0000 We present a new analysis of the two-decade-old controversy over interpretation of satellite observations of total solar irradiance (TSI) since 1978 and the implications of our findings for TSI as a driver of climate change. Our approach compares the methods of constructing the two most commonly referenced TSI composites (ACRIM and PMOD) that relate successive observational databases and two others recently constructed using a novel statistical approach. Our primary focus is on the disparate decadal trending results of the ACRIM and PMOD TSI composite time series, namely, whether they indicate an increasing trend from 1980 to 2000 and a decreasing trend thereafter (ACRIM) or a continuously decreasing trend since 1980 (PMOD). Construction of the four-decade observational TSI composites from 1978 to the present requires the use of results from two less precise Earth Radiation Budget experiments (Nimbus7/ERB and ERBS/ERBE) during the so-called ACRIM-Gap (1989.5–1991.8), between the end of the ACRIM1 and the beginning of the ACRIM2 experiments. The ACRIM and PMOD composites used the ERB and ERBE results, respectively, to bridge the gap. The well-established paradigm of positive correlation between Solar Magnetic Field Strength (SMFS) and TSI supports the validity of the upward trend in the ERB results and the corresponding decadal upward trend of the ACRIM composite during solar cycles 21 and 22. The ERBE results have a sensor degradation caused downward gap trend, contrary to the SMFS/TSI paradigm, that biased the PMOD composite decadal trend downward during solar cycles 21 and 22. The different choice of gap bridging data is clearly the cause of the ACRIM and PMOD TSI trending difference, agreeing closely in both magnitude and direction. We also analyze two recently proposed statistical TSI composites. Unfortunately their methodology cannot account for the gap degradation of the ERBE experiment and their resulting uncertainties are too large to uniquely distinguish between the trending of the ACRIM and PMOD composites. Our analysis supports the ACRIM TSI increasing trend during the 1980 to 2000 period, followed by a long-term decreasing trend since. Nicola Scafetta and Richard C. Willson Copyright © 2019 Nicola Scafetta and Richard C. Willson. All rights reserved. Rain Attenuation Study at Ku-Band over Earth-Space Path in South Korea Sun, 03 Mar 2019 14:15:02 +0000 Rain attenuation measurement techniques are studied with appropriate prediction of rain attenuation at Ku-band for Koreasat 6. This is accomplished by the establishment of experimental setup in Mokdong at 12.25 GHz link. The databases are analyzed for three years, 2013 till 2015. During observation period, rainfall rate of 50 mm/hr is obtained which is measured by OTT Parsivel showing the signal attenuated by 10.7 dB for 0.01% of the occurrence. Comparison with the measured data demonstrates that the proposed technique provides sufficiently accurate estimation for Ku-band signal attenuation in site specifically whose effectiveness is performed through the statistical analysis against the established rain attenuation models. The proposed technique is judged through the error matrices where relative error margins of 52.82, 4.11, and 23.64% are obtained for 0.1%, 0.01%, and 0.001% of the occurrence. Sujan Shrestha and Dong-You Choi Copyright © 2019 Sujan Shrestha and Dong-You Choi. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Stability of Oblate Infinitesimal in Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem Influenced by the Oblate and Radiating Primaries Wed, 27 Feb 2019 13:05:15 +0000 This work deals with the nonlinear stability of the elliptical restricted three-body problem with oblate and radiating primaries and the oblate infinitesimal. The stability has been analyzed for the resonance cases around and and also the nonresonance cases. It was observed that the motion of the infinitesimal in this system shows instable behavior when considered in the third order resonance. However, for the fourth order resonance the stability is shown for some mass parameters. The motion in the case of nonresonance was found to be unstable. The problem has been numerically applied to study the movement of the infinitesimal around two binary systems, Luyten-726 and Sirius. A. Narayan, A. Chakraborty, and A. Dewangan Copyright © 2019 A. Narayan et al. All rights reserved. Generalized Out-of-Plane Equilibrium Points in the Frame of Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem: Impact of Oblate Primary and Luminous-Triaxial Secondary Tue, 26 Feb 2019 14:05:08 +0000 This paper studies the motion of a third body near the family of the out-of-plane equilibrium points, , in the elliptic restricted problem of three bodies under an oblate primary and a radiating-triaxial secondary. It is seen that the pair of points () which correspond to the positions of the family of the out-of-plane equilibrium points, , are affected by the oblateness of the primary, radiation pressure and triaxiality of the secondary, semimajor axis, and eccentricity of the orbits of the principal bodies. But the point is unaffected by the semimajor axis and eccentricity of the orbits of the principal bodies. The effects of the parameters involved in this problem are shown on the topologies of the zero-velocity curves for the binary systems PSR 1903+0327 and DP-Leonis. An investigation of the stability of the out-of-plane equilibrium points, numerically, shows that they can be stable for and for very low eccentricity. of PSR 1903+0327 and DP-Leonis are however linearly unstable. Aminu Abubakar Hussain and Aishetu Umar Copyright © 2019 Aminu Abubakar Hussain and Aishetu Umar. All rights reserved.