Abstract and Applied Analysis

VolumeΒ 2011, Article IDΒ 596971, 9 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/596971

## Approximate Best Proximity Pairs in Metric Space

^{1}Faculty of Mathematics, Valiasr Rafsanjan University, Rafsanjan, Iran^{2}Faculty of Mathematics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

Received 8 January 2011; Accepted 12 February 2011

Academic Editor: NorimichiΒ Hirano

Copyright Β© 2011 S. A. M. Mohsenalhosseini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space and also and , . We are going to consider element such that for some . We call pair an approximate best proximity pair. In this paper, definitions of approximate best proximity pair for a map and two maps, their diameters, -minimizing a sequence are given in a metric space.

#### 1. Introduction

Let be a metric space and and nonempty subsets of , and is distance of and . If , then the pair is called a best proximity pair for and and put as the set of all best proximity pair . Best proximity pair evolves as a generalization of the concept of best approximation. That reader can find some important result of it in [1β4].

Now, as in [5] (see also [4, 6β11]), we can find the best proximity points of the sets and , by considering a map such that and . Best proximity pair also evolves as a generalization of the concept of fixed point of mappings. Because if , every best proximity point is a fixed point of .

We say that the point is an approximate best proximity point of the pair , if , for some .

In the following, we introduce a concept of approximate proximity pair that is stronger than proximity pair.

*Definition 1.1. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space and a map such that , . put
We say that the pair is an approximate best proximity pair if .

*Example 1.2. *Suppose that , , and with for . Then for some . Hence .

#### 2. Approximate Best Proximity

In this section, we will consider the existence of approximate best proximity points for the map , such that , , and its diameter.

Theorem 2.1. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space . Suppose that the mapping is satisfying , , and
**
Then the pair is an approximate best proximity pair.*

*Proof. *Let be given and such that ; then there exists such that
If , then , and and .

Theorem 2.2. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space . Suppose that the mapping is satisfying , and
**
for all , where and . Then the pair is an approximate best proximity pair.*

*Proof. *If , then
Therefore,
Now if , then
also
Therefore,
and so
Therefore, by Theorem 2.1, ; then pair is an approximate best proximity pair.

*Definition 2.3. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space . Suppose that the mapping is satisfying , . We say that the sequence is *T*-minimizing if

Theorem 2.4. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space , suppose that the mapping is satisfying , . If is a T-minimizing for some , then is an approximate best pair proximity.*

*Proof. *Since
therefore, by Theorem 2.1, ; then pair is an approximate best proximity pair.

Theorem 2.5. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a normed space such that is compact. Suppose that the mapping is satisfying , , is continuous and
**
where . Then is nonempty and compact.*

*Proof. *Since compact, there exists a such that
If , then which contradict to the definition of , ( and by (*) ). Therefore, for some and . Therefore, is nonempty.

Also, if , then , for some , and by compactness of , there exists a subsequence and a such that and so
for some , hence is compact.

*Example 2.6. *If , and such that
then is compact, and we have
That is compact.

In the following, by for a set , we will understand the diameter of the set .

*Definition 2.7. *Let be a continuous map such that , and . We define diameter by

Theorem 2.8. *Let , such that , and . If there exists an such that for all **
then
*

*Proof. *If , then
Put , therefore, . Hence .

#### 3. Approximate Best Proximity for Two Maps

In this section, we will consider the existence of approximate best proximity points for two maps and , and its diameter.

*Definition 3.1. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space and let two maps such that , . A point in is said to be an approximate-pair fixed point for in if there exists
We say that the pair has the approximate-pair fixed property in if , where

Theorem 3.2. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space and let and be two maps such that , . If, for every ,
**
then has the approximate-pair fixed property.*

*Proof. *For , Suppose . Since
then for every . Put and . Hence and .

Theorem 3.3. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space and let and be two maps such that , and, for every ,
**
where and . Then if is an approximate fixed point for , or is an approximate fixed point for , then .*

*Proof. *If , then
Therefore,
Now if , then
also
If is an approximate fixed point for , then there exists a and by (*)
And ; also if is an approximate fixed point for , then there exists a and by (**)
And . Therefore, .

Theorem 3.4. *Let and be nonempty subsets of a metric space and let and be two continuous maps such that , . If, for every ,
**
where and , also let and be as follows:
**
If has a convergent subsequence in , then there exists a such that .*

*Proof. *We have
If converges to , that is, , then
Since is continuous, then
Therefore, .

*Definition 3.5. **Let ** and ** be continues maps such that ** and **. We define diameter ** by *

*Example 3.6. *Suppose , , , and . Then and .

Theorem 3.7. *Let and be continuous maps such that , . If there exists ββ,
**
then
*

*Proof. *If , then
Therefore, . Then .

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