Research Article | Open Access

# Existence and Exact Asymptotic Behavior of Positive Solutions for a Fractional Boundary Value Problem

**Academic Editor:**Chuanzhi Bai

#### Abstract

We establish the existence and uniqueness of a positive solution for the fractional boundary value problem , with the condition , where , and is a nonnegative continuous function on that may be singular at or .

#### 1. Introduction

Fractional differential equations arise in various fields of science and engineering such as control, porous media, electrochemistry, viscoelasticity, and electromagnetism. They also serve as an excellent tool for the description of hereditary properties of various materials and processes (see[1–3]). In consequence, the subject of fractional differential equations is gaining much importance and attention. Motivated by the surge in the development of this subject, we consider the following problem: where , , is a nonnegative continuous function on that may be singular at or and is the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. Then we study the existence and exact asymptotic behavior of positive solutions for this problem.

We recall that for a measurable function , the Riemann-Liouville fractional integral and the Riemann-Liouville derivative of order are, respectively, defined by provided that the right-hand sides are pointwise defined on . Here and means the integral part of the number and is the Euler Gamma function.

Moreover, we have the following well-known properties (see [2, 4]):(i) for , , ,(ii) for a.e. , where , ,(iii) if and only if , where and .

Several results are obtained for fractional differential equation with different boundary conditions (see [5–15] and the references therein), but none of them deals with the existence of a positive solution for problem (1).

Our aim in this paper is to establish the existence and uniqueness of a positive solution for problem (1) with a precise asymptotic behavior, where is the set of all functions such that is continuous on . Note that for , the solution for problem (1) blows up at .

To state our result, we need some notations. We will use to denote the set of Karamata functions defined on by for some , where and such that . It is clear that a function is in if and only if is a positive function in such that For two nonnegative functions and defined on a set , the notation , , means that there exists such that , for all . We denote also for .

Throughout this paper we assume that is nonnegative on and satisfies the following condition.

such that where , , satisfying In the sequel, we introduce the function defined on by Our main result is the following.

Theorem 1. *Let and assume that satisfies . Then problem (1) has a unique positive solution satisfying for *

This paper is organized as follows. Some preliminary lemmas are stated and proved in the next section, involving some already known results on Karamata functions. In Section 3, we give the proof of Theorem 1.

#### 2. Technical Lemmas

To keep the paper self-contained, we begin this section by recapitulating some properties of Karamata regular variation theory. The following is due to [16, 17].

Lemma 2. *The following hold.*(i)*Let and , then one has
*(ii)*Let , and . Then one has , , and .*

*Example 3. *Let . Let , and let be a sufficiently large positive real number such that the function
is defined and positive on , for some , where ( times. Then .

Applying Karamata’s theorem (see [16, 17]), we get the following.

Lemma 4. *Let and let be a function in defined on . One has the following.*(i)*If , then diverges and . *(ii)*If , then converges and . *

Lemma 5. *Let be defined on . Then one has
**
If further converges, then one has
*

*Proof. *We distinguish two cases.*Case 1*. We suppose that converges. Since the function is nonincreasing in , for some , it follows that, for each , we have
It follows that . So we deduce (11).

Now put
Using that , we obtain
This implies that
So (12) holds.*Case 2*. We suppose that diverges. We have, for some ,
This implies that
This proves (11) and completes the proof.

*Remark 6. *Let defined on ; then, using (4) and (11), we deduce that
If further converges, we have by (11) that

Lemma 7. *Given and is such that the function is continuous and integrable on , then the boundary value problem
**
has a unique solution given by
**
where
**
is the Green function for the boundary value problem (21). *

* Proof. *Since is a solution of the equation , then . Consequently there exist two constants , such that . Using the fact that and , we obtain and . So
In the following, we give some estimates on the function . So, we need the following lemma.

Lemma 8. *For , and , one has
*

Proposition 9. *On , one has
*

*Proof. *For , we have
Since for , then, by applying Lemma 8 with and , we obtain
which completes the proof.

In the sequel we put where and we aim to give some estimates on .

Proposition 10. *Assume that with
**
Then for ,
*

*Proof. *Using Proposition 9, we have
For , we use Lemma 4 and hypotheses (30) to deduce that
Hence, it follows from Lemma 2 and hypothesis (30) that, for , we have
Now, for , we use again Lemma 4 and hypothesis (30) to deduce that
Hence, it follows from Lemmas 2 and 5 that, for , we have

This together with (34) implies that (36) holds on .

#### 3. Proof of Theorem 1

We begin this section by giving a preliminary result that will play a crucial role in the proof of Theorem 1.

Proposition 11. *Assume that the function satisfies and put for . Then one has, for ,
*

*Proof. *For , we have
So, we can see that
where , and, according to Lemma 2, the functions and are in . Moreover, using Lemma 4, we have and . So the result follows from Proposition 10.

*Proof of Theorem 1. *From Proposition 11, there exists such that for each
where .

Put and let
In order to use a fixed point theorem, we denote and we define the operator on by
For this choice of , we can easily prove that for , we have and .

Now, we have
Since the function is continuous on and the function is integrable on , we deduce that the operator is compact from to itself. It follows by the Schauder fixed point theorem that there exists such that . Put . Then and satisfies the equation
Since the function is continuous and integrable on , then by Lemma 7 the function is a positive continuous solution of problem (1).

Finally, let us prove that is the unique positive continuous solution satisfying (8). To this aim, we assume that (1) has two positive solutions satisfying (8) and consider the nonempty set and put . Then and we have . It follows that and consequently
Which implies by Lemma 7 that . By symmetry, we obtain also that . Hence and . Since , then and consequently .

*Example 12. *Let and be a positive continuous function on such that
where and or and . Then, using Theorem 1, problem (1) has a unique positive continuous solution satisfying the following estimates.(i)If or and , then for ,
(ii)If , then for ,
(iii)If , then for ,
(iv)If , then for ,
(v)If , then for ,

#### Acknowledgment

The authors thank the anonymous referees for a careful reading of the paper and for their helpful suggestions.

#### References

- K. Diethelm and A. D. Freed, “On the solution of nonlinear fractional order differential equations used in the modelling of viscoplasticity,” in
*Scientific Computing in Chemical Engineering II-Computational Fluid Dynamics, Reaction Engineering and Molecular Properties*, F. Keil, W. Mackens, and H. Voss, Eds., pp. 217–224, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 1999. View at: Google Scholar - A. A. Kilbas, H. M. Srivastava, and J. J. Trujillo,
*Theory and Applications of Fractional Differential Equations*, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2006. View at: MathSciNet - W. Lin, “Global existence theory and chaos control of fractional differential equations,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 332, no. 1, pp. 709–726, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - I. Podlubny,
*Fractional Differential Equations*, vol. 198 of*Mathematics in Science and Engineering*, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1999. View at: MathSciNet - R. P. Agarwal, D. O'Regan, and S. Staněk, “Positive solutions for Dirichlet problems of singular nonlinear fractional differential equations,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 371, no. 1, pp. 57–68, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - R. P. Agarwal, M. Benchohra, S. Hamani, and S. Pinelas, “Boundary value problems for differential equations involving Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative on the half-line,”
*Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete & Impulsive Systems A*, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 235–244, 2011. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - Z. Bai and H. Lü, “Positive solutions for boundary value problem of nonlinear fractional differential equation,”
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, vol. 311, no. 2, pp. 495–505, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - B. Ahmad, “Existence of solutions for irregular boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 390–394, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - B. Ahmad and J. J. Nieto, “Riemann-Liouville fractional integro-differential equations with fractional nonlocal integral boundary conditions,”
*Boundary Value Problems*, vol. 2011, article 36, 2011. View at: Google Scholar | MathSciNet - J. Caballero, J. Harjani, and K. Sadarangani, “Positive solutions for a class of singular fractional boundary value problems,”
*Computers & Mathematics with Applications*, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1325–1332, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - J. Deng and L. Ma, “Existence and uniqueness of solutions of initial value problems for nonlinear fractional differential equations,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 676–680, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - N. Kosmatov, “A singular boundary value problem for nonlinear differential equations of fractional order,”
*Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computing*, vol. 29, no. 1-2, pp. 125–135, 2009. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - Y. Liu, W. Zhang, and X. Liu, “A sufficient condition for the existence of a positive solution for a nonlinear fractional differential equation with the Riemann-Liouville derivative,”
*Applied Mathematics Letters*, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1986–1992, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | MathSciNet - T. Qiu and Z. Bai, “Existence of positive solutions for singular fractional differential equations,”
*Electronic Journal of Differential Equations*, vol. 149, 19 pages, 2008. View at: Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - Y. Zhao, S. Sun, Z. Han, and Q. Li, “Positive solutions to boundary value problems of nonlinear fractional differential equations,”
*Abstract and Applied Analysis*, vol. 2011, Article ID 390543, 16 pages, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar | Zentralblatt MATH | MathSciNet - V. Marić,
*Regular Variation and Differential Equations*, vol. 1726 of*Lecture Notes in Mathematics*, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | MathSciNet - E. Seneta,
*Regularly Varying Functions*, vol. 508 of*Lecture Notes in Mathematics*, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1976. View at: MathSciNet

#### Copyright

Copyright © 2013 Habib Mâagli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.