Abstract and Applied Analysis / 2013 / Article / Fig 4

Research Article

Bifurcations of a Ratio-Dependent Holling-Tanner System with Refuge and Constant Harvesting

Figure 4

(a) System (4) shows a cusp of codimension when , , , , , and , ; (b) the cusp of codimension break into an unstable focus and a hyperbolic saddle when , .
478315.fig.004a
(a)
478315.fig.004b
(b)