Abstract and Applied Analysis / 2013 / Article / Fig 5

Research Article

Bifurcations of a Ratio-Dependent Holling-Tanner System with Refuge and Constant Harvesting

Figure 5

(a) The cusp of codimension breaks into a stable focus and a hyperbolic saddle when , . The change of stability of the focus yields an unstable limit cycle. (b) The unstable limit cycle is broken when , , reachs the manifold of the saddle , and leads to a homoclinic loop occur.