- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 750524, 7 pages
Unified Treatment of the Krätzel Transformation for Generalized Functions
1Department of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman 11134, Jordan
2Department of Mathematics and Institute of Mathematical Research, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Received 26 March 2013; Accepted 18 April 2013
Academic Editor: Mustafa Bayram
Copyright © 2013 S. K. Q. Al-Omari and A. Kılıçman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
We discuss a generalization of the Krätzel transforms on certain spaces of ultradistributions. We have proved that the Krätzel transform of an ultradifferentiable function is an ultradifferentiable function and satisfies its Parseval's inequality. We also provide a complete reading of the transform constructing two desired spaces of Boehmians. Some other properties of convergence and continuity conditions and its inverse are also discussed in some detail.
Let be in . Denote by , or , the space of all complex-valued smooth functions on such that , where runs through compact subsets of ; see . The strong dual of consists of distributions of compact supports.
Later, the authors in  have studied the transformation in a space of distributions of compact support inspired by known kernel method. They, also, have obtained its properties of analyticity and boundedness and have established its inversion theorem. In the sense of classical theory, the Meijer transformation and the Laplace transformation in  are presented as special forms of the cited transform for and , , respectively.
It is worth mentioning in this note that a suitable motivation of the cited transform has thoroughly been discussed in  by the aid of a Fréchet space of constituted functions of infinitely differentiable functions over .
This paper is a continuation of the work obtained in . We are concerned with a general study of the transform in the space of ultradistributions and further discuss its extension to Boehmian spaces in some detail. We are employing the adjoint method and method of kernels for our purpose to extend the classical integral transform to generalized functions and hence ultradistributions.
The theory of ultradistributions is one of generalizations of the theory of Schwartz distributions; see [3, 7]. Since then, in the recent past and even earlier, it was extensively studied by many authors such as Roumieu [8, 9], Komatsu , Beurling , Carmichael et al. , Pathak [13, 14], and Al-Omari [15, 16].
By an ultradifferentiable function we mean an infinitely smooth function whose derivatives satisfy certain growth conditions as the order of the derivatives increases. Unlike sequences presented in [15, 16], , wherever it appears, denotes a sequence of positive real numbers. Such omission of constraints may ease the analysis.
Let be a real number but fixed and be the space of Lebesgue integrable functions on . Denote by (resp., ), , the subsets of of all complex valued infinitely smooth functions on such that, for some constant , for all (for some ), where is a compact set traverses .
The elements of the dual spaces, , are the Beurling-type (Roumieu-type) ultradistributions. It may be noted that . Thus, every distribution of compact support is an ultradistribution of Roumieu type and further, and an ultradistribution of Roumieu type is of Beurling-type. Natural topologies on (resp., ) can be generated by the collection of seminorms: A sequence (resp., ) if and there is a constant independent of such that for all . is dense in , convergence in implies convergence in , and consequently a restriction of any to is in .
3. The Krätzel Transform of Tempered Ultradistributions
In this section of this paper we define the Krätzel transform of tempered ultradistributions by using both of kernel and adjoint methods. We restrict our investigation to the case of Beurling type since the other investigation for the Roumieu-type tempered ultradistributions is almost similar.
Lemma 1. Let and then .
Proof. Let and be fixed, and then certainly exists. By differentiation with respect to we get Hence the principle of mathematical induction on the th derivative gives From , we deduce that for some constant . The assumption that implies that the products under the integral sign, and , are also in . Moreover, ensures that the integral: belongs to . Hence for some constant . Therefore, from the above inequality we get for certain positive constant . This proves the lemma.
From Lemma 1 we deduce that the Krätzel transform is bounded and closed from into itself. Next, we establish the Parseval’s relation for the Krätzel transform.
Theorem 2. Let and be absolutely integrable functions over and then where and are the Krätzel transforms of and , respectively.
Proof. It is clear that and are continuous and bounded on . Moreover, the Fubini’s theorem allows us to interchange the order of integration: Equation (15) follows since the Krätzel kernel applies for the functions and , when the order of integration is interchanged. This completes the proof of the theorem.
Now, in consideration of Theorem 2, the adjoint method of extending the Krätzel transform can be read as where and .
Theorem 3. Given that then .
Proof. Consider a zero convergent sequence in then certainly is a zero-convergent sequence in the same space. It follows from (16) that
Linearity is obvious. This completes the proof.
From the above theorem we deduce that the Krätzel transform of a tempered ultradistribution is a tempered ultradistribution. Moreover, the boundedness property of follows from the following theorem.
Theorem 4. Let and then is bounded.
Proof. See [4, Proposition 2.3].
Theorem 5. Let then is infinitely differentiable and for every and .
Proof. See [4, Proposition 2.2].
4. Boehmian Spaces
Boehmians were first constructed as a generalization of regular Mikusinski operators . The minimal structure necessary for the construction of Boehmians consists of the following elements:(i)a nonempty set ,(ii)a commutative semigroup ,(iii)an aperation such that for each and ,(iv)a collection such that(a)if for all , then ,(b)if , then .
Elements of are called delta sequences. Consider If , , for all , then we say . The relation is an equivalence relation in . The space of equivalence classes in is denoted by . Elements of are called Boehmians. Between and there is a canonical embedding expressed as The operation can be extended to by In , there are two types of convergence: ( convergence) a sequence in is said to be convergent to in , denoted by , if there exists a delta sequence such that , for all , and as , in , for every , ( convergence) a sequence in is said to be convergent to in , denoted by , if there exists a such that , for all , and as in . For further discussion see [17–21].
5. The Ultra-Boehmian Space
Denote by , or , the Schwartz space of functions of bounded support. Let be the family of sequences such that the following holds: , for all , , for all , as .It is easy to see that each in forms a delta sequence.
Let and be related by the expression: where for every .
Lemma 6. Let and and then .
Proof. Using the weak topology of , we write
where . Hence, to complete the proof, we are merely required to show that .
First, if and , then choosing a compact set containing the support of yields which is dominated by . The dominated convergence theorem and the principle of mathematical induction implies Finally Therefore Thus . This completes the proof of the lemma.
Lemma 7. Let and and then(i), ,(ii).
Proof of the above Lemma is obvious.
Lemma 8. Let and and then
Proof. Let and then . Therefore Hence as .
Lemma 9. Let and then
Proof. Let and , and then It is sufficient to establish that as . By using (27) and imply that Hence, the mean value theorem implies . Let , where is certain compact set. The calculations show that where is certain constant. Hence Lemma 9. The Boehmian space is therefore constructed.
6. and the Krätzel Transform of Ultra-Boehmians
Denote by , or , the space of functions which are Krätzel transforms of ultradistributions in , and then convergence on can be defined in such away that in if as , where and . Let and and then it is proper to define for each .
Lemma 10. Let and and then .
Proof. Let be a compact set containing the support of , and then from (18) it follows that Hence the lemma follows.
Lemma 11. Let and and then .
Proof. implies , for some . Hence .
The following are lemmas which can be easily proved by the aid of the corresponding lemmas from the previous section. Detailed proof is avoided. First, if is the inverse Krätzel transform of , and then
Lemma 12. Let and and then
Lemma 13. Let and then for all we have(1), (2).
Lemma 14. Let and and then .
Lemma 15. Let and and then .
With the previous analysis, the Boehmian space is constructed. The sum of two Boehmians and multiplication by a scalar in is defined in a natural way and .
The operation and the differentiation are defined by
With the aid of Lemma 10 we define the extended Krätzel transform of a Boehmian to be a Boehmian in expressed by the relation:
Lemma 16. is well defined and linear mapping.
Proof is a straightforward conclusion of definitions.
Definition 17. Let and then the inverse of is defined as follows: for each .
Lemma 18. is an isomorphism from into .
Proof. Assume , then it follows from (41) and the concept of quotients of two sequences . Therefore, Lemma 10 implies . Employing properties of implies . Thus, . Next we establish that is onto. Let be arbitrary and then for every . Hence are such that . Hence the Boehmian satisfies the equation .
This completes the proof of the lemma.
Lemma 19. Let , , and and then
Theorem 20. and are continuous with respect to and convergences.
Proof. First of all, we show that and are continuous with respect to convergence. Let in as and then we establish that as . In view of , there are and in such that
such that as for every . The continuity condition of the Krätzel transform implies as , , and in the space . Thus, as in .
To prove the second part of the lemma, let as . From , we have and for some where as . Hence in as . That is, as . Using (42) we get as .
Now, we establish continuity of and with respect to convergence. Let in as . Then, we find , and such that and as . Employing (41) we get Hence, from (41) and Lemma 19 we have as in . Therefore Hence, as . Finally, let in as and then we find such that and as for some and .
Next, using (42), we obtain . Lemma 19 implies that Thus as . Hence, we have as in .
This completes the proof of the theorem.
The authors express their sincere thanks to the referees for the careful and detailed reading of the earlier version of paper and the very helpful suggestions that improved the paper substantially. The second author also acknowledges that this project was partially supported by University Putra Malaysia under the ERGS Grant Scheme with Project no. 5527068.
- E. Krätzel, “Integral transformations of Bessel-type,” in Generalized Functions and Operational Calculus (Proc. Conf., Varna, 1975), pp. 148–155, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1979.
- E. Krätzel and H. Menzer, “Verallgemeinerte Hankel-Funktionen,” Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen, vol. 18, pp. 139–147, 1971.
- A. H. Zemanian, Distribution Theory and Transform Analysis, Dover Publications, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1987.
- D. I. Cruz-Báez and J. Rodríguez Expósito, “New inversion formulas for the Krätzel transformation,” International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 253–263, 2001.
- A. H. Zemanian, Generalized Integral Transformations, Dover Publications, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1987.
- J. A. Barrios and J. J. Betancor, “A Krätzel's integral transformation of distributions,” Collectanea Mathematica, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 11–32, 1991.
- B. Fisher and A. Kiliçman, “A commutative neutrix product of ultradistributions,” Integral Transforms and Special Functions, vol. 4, no. 1-2, pp. 77–82, 1996.
- C. Roumieu, “Ultra-distributions définies sur et sur certaines classes de variétés différentiables,” Journal d'Analyse Mathématique, vol. 10, pp. 153–192, 1963.
- C. Roumieu, “Sur quelques extensions de la notion de distribution,” Annales Scientifiques de l'École Normale Supérieure. Troisième Série, vol. 77, pp. 41–121, 1960.
- H. Komatsu, “Ultradistributions. I. Structure theorems and a characterization,” Journal of the Faculty of Science. University of Tokyo. Section IA. Mathematics, vol. 20, pp. 25–105, 1973.
- A. Beurling, Quasi-Analiticity and Generalized Distributions, Lectures 4 and 5, A. M. S. Summer Institute, Stanford, Calif, USA, 1961.
- R. D. Carmichael, R. S. Pathak, and S. Pilipović, “Cauchy and Poisson integrals of ultradistributions,” Complex Variables. Theory and Application, vol. 14, no. 1–4, pp. 85–108, 1990.
- R. S. Pathak, Integral Transforms of Generalized Functions and Their Applications, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1997.
- R. S. Pathak, “A distributional generalised Stieltjes transformation,” Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society. Series II, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 1976.
- S. K. Q. Al-Omari, “Certain class of kernels for Roumieu-type convolution transform of ultra-distributions of compact support,” Journal of Concrete and Applicable Mathematics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 310–316, 2009.
- S. K. Q. Al-Omari, “Cauchy and Poison integrals of tempered ultradistributions of Roumieu and Beurling types,” Journal of Concrete and Applicable Mathematics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 36–46, 2009.
- T. K. Boehme, “The support of Mikusiński operators,” Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 176, pp. 319–334, 1973.
- S. K. Q. Al-Omari, D. Loonker, P. K. Banerji, and S. L. Kalla, “Fourier sine (cosine) transform for ultradistributions and their extensions to tempered and ultraBoehmian spaces,” Integral Transforms and Special Functions, vol. 19, no. 5-6, pp. 453–462, 2008.
- P. Mikusiński, “Fourier transform for integrable Boehmians,” The Rocky Mountain Journal of Mathematics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 577–582, 1987.
- P. Mikusiński, “Tempered Boehmians and ultradistributions,” Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 813–817, 1995.
- R. Roopkumar, “Mellin transform for Boehmians,” Bulletin of the Institute of Mathematics. Academia Sinica. New Series, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 75–96, 2009.