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Abstract and Applied Analysis
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 802859, 9 pages
Research Article

Generalized Outer Synchronization between Complex Networks with Unknown Parameters

1School of Mathematics and Statistics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2School of Mathematics and Statistics, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China

Received 20 August 2013; Accepted 5 December 2013

Academic Editor: Massimo Furi

Copyright © 2013 Di Ning et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


As is well known, complex networks are ubiquitous in the real world. One network always behaves differently from but still coexists in balance with others. This phenomenon of harmonious coexistence between different networks can be termed as “generalized outer synchronization (GOS).” This paper investigates GOS between two different complex dynamical networks with unknown parameters according to two different methods. When the exact functional relations between the two networks are previously known, a sufficient criterion for GOS is derived based on Barbalat's lemma. If the functional relations are not known, the auxiliary-system method is employed and a sufficient criterion for GOS is derived. Numerical simulations are further provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the theoretical results.