Table 1: Phytochemical constituents of Parthenium  hysterophorus plant.

Chemical classMajor constituentsPlant part Associated biological activitiesReferences

Phenolics
Caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, anisic acid, p-coumaric acid, protocatechuic acid, and p-hydroxy benzoic acidLeaves, stems, roots, flowers, pollens, and trichomes.
Allelopathic phytotoxicity useful as herbicide, growth regulation in micro- and macroflora, and autotoxic effect[29, 122124]

FlavonoidsApigenin, luteolin, lignan, syringaresinol, quercetagetin dimethyl ether, 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6-dimethyl ether, 6-hydroxykaempferol-3,6,4′-trimethyl ether (tanetin), kaempferol glucoside, quercetin glucoside, kaempferol glucoarabinoside, chrysoeriol, santin, saponins, jaceidin, centaureidin, and so forthLeaves, stems, flowers and their calli, and pollensAntioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory activities; antiulcerative, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive effects; platelet aggregation inhibition; inhibition of aldose reductase; cell cycle regulation; nodulation induction in peaR.  leguminosarum association; plant defence against herbivores, pathogens, and harmful UV rays[29, 122125]

Pseudoguaianolides
Parthenin, anhydroparthenin, 11-H,13-hydroxyparthenin, dihydroxyparthenin, dihydroisoparthenin, 13-methoxydihydroparthenin, 2β,13α-dimethoxydihydroparthenin, ambrosin, 13-methoxydihydroambrosin, coronopilin, 2β and 8β-hydroxycoronopilin, damsin, hymanin, scopoletin, hysterin, hysterones A to E, 8β-acetoxyhysterone C, tetraneurin-A and tetraneurin-E, deacetyltetraneurin A, charminarone, conchasin A artecanin, balchanin, costunolide, 3-β-hydroxycostunolide, epoxyartemorin, 8-α-hydroxyestafiatin, 1-β-hydroxyarbusculin, 5-β-hydroxyreynosin, and acetylated pseudoguaianolidesStems, leaves, capitula/flowers and their calli, and trichomesCytotoxic, anticancer, antimicrobial, bioherbicidal, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoan, pesticidal, insectidical, antimalarial activities; antineoplastic, antifeedant, larvicidal effects; allergies, diseases and milk tainting in livestock; inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation; autotoxic effect to regulate plant’s own germination and population[29, 122, 123]

Oils α-Pinene, α-thujene, α-phellandrene β-pinene, β-myrcene, β-terpene, β-ocimene, p-cymene, ρ-cymen-8-ol, camphor, camphene, caryophyllene, humulene, limonene, linalool, ocimene, sabinene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, α-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol, bornyl acetate, tricylene, chrysanthenone, pinocarvone, borneol, myrtenal, carvacrol, eugenol, trans-myrtenol acetate, isobornyl 2-methyl butanoate, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene, farnesene and their estersStems, leaves, roots, and flowersAntimicrobial (against bacteria and fungi as well as viruses), pesticidal and insecticidal, antitussive, and helmethicidal activities, useful in medicinal and cosmetic industries and irritant, cardiotonic, antispasmodic and analgesic, stimulant, and sweat inducing effects[29, 123125]

AlkaloidsRoots and shootsAntifungal, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities and analgesic action[123126]

OthersHistamineRoots and shoots[5, 122]
Free amino acids (abundant glycine, proline, alanine, and lysine) glucose, galactose, and KClWhole plantUseful in compost and green manure; increases nutritive value of animal feed[5, 29, 122]