Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Agriculture
Volume 2014, Article ID 541097, 8 pages
Review Article

Origin, Domestication, and Dispersing of Pear (Pyrus spp.)

Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Federal University of Pelotas, 96001-970 Pelotas, RS, Brazil

Received 11 March 2014; Accepted 29 April 2014; Published 9 June 2014

Academic Editor: Innocenzo Muzzalupo

Copyright © 2014 G. J. Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. E. Gonsalves, “As frutas e seus benefícios,” in Frutas Que Curam, vol. 1, pp. 131–166, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  2. R. E. C. Layne and H. A. Quamme, “Pears,” in Advances in Fruit Breeding, J. Janick and J. N. Moore, Eds., pp. 38–70, Purdue University Press, West lafayette, Ind, USA, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  3. T. Shen, “Pears in China,” HortScience, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  4. Food and Agricultural organization of the United Nation FAO,
  5. USDA, National Agriculture Library, “National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference,” 2012,
  6. A. Dzhangaliev, T. Salova, and P. Turekhanova, “Pome fruits,” in The Wild Fruit and Nut Plantas of Kazakhstan, J. Janick, Ed., Chapter 1, pp. 311–324, Horticultural Reviews, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  7. C. Fideghelli, “Origine ed evoluzione,” in Il Pero, R. Angelini, Ed., vol. 1, Bayer/CropScience, Milano, Italy, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  8. K. Sax, “The origin and relationships of the pomoideae,” Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, vol. 12, 1931. View at Google Scholar
  9. N. Weeden and R. C. Lamb, “Genetics and linkage analysis of 19 isozyme loci in apple,” Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science, vol. 112, pp. 865–872, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  10. Q. B. Zielinski and M. M. Thompson, “Speciation in Pyrus: chromosome number and meiotic behavior,” Botanical Gazette, vol. 128, pp. 109–112, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  11. G. A. Rubzov, “Geographical distribution of the genus Pyrus and trends and factors in its evolution,” American Naturalist, vol. 78, pp. 358–366, 1944. View at Google Scholar
  12. A. C. Zeven and P. M. Zhukovsky, Dictionary of Cultivated Plants and Their Centres of Diversity, vol. 2, Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1975.
  13. N. I. Vavilov, “The origin, variation, immunity and breeding of cultivated plants,” Chronica Botanica, vol. 13, 1951. View at Google Scholar
  14. P. M. Zukovskij, Cultivated Plants and Their Wild Relatives, Farnham Royal, London, UK, 1962, Translated by P.S. Hudson.
  15. N. I. Vavilov, Origin and Geography of Cultivated Plants, vol. 15, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1992.
  16. W. Erhardt, E. Götz, N. Bödeker, and S. Seybold, Zander. Handwörterbuch der Pflanzennamen, vol. 1, Eugen Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 2002.
  17. M. N. Westwood, “Pear germplasm of the new national clonal repository: its evaluation and uses,” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 124, pp. 57–65, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  18. R. L. Bell, “Pears,” in Fruit Breeding, J. Janick and J. N. Moore, Eds., Tree and Tropical Fruits, pp. 441–514, John Wiley & Sons, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  19. J. S. Challice and M. N. Westwood, “Phenolic compounds of the genus Pyrus,” Phytochemistry, vol. 11, pp. 37–44, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  20. A. Masseron, El Nashi, vol. 2, Mundi Prensa, Madrid, Spain, 1992.
  21. S. Teramoto, “DNA finger printing,” in Techniques on Gene Diagnosis and Breeding in Fruit Trees, T. Hayashi, M. Omura, and N. S. Scott, Eds., pp. 74–76, Fruit Tree Research Station, Tsukuba, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Rehder, Manual of Cultivated Tress and Shrubs Hardy in North America Exclusive of the Subtropical and Warmer Temperate Regions, Collier Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 1940.
  23. C. Miranda, J. Urrestarazu, L. G. Santesteban, J. B. Royo, and V. Urbina, “Genetic diversity and structure in a collection of ancient Spanish pear cultivars assessed by microsatellite markers,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 428–437, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Bao, K. Chen, D. Zhang, Y. Cao, T. Yamamoto, and Y. Teng, “Genetic diversity and similarity of pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars native to East Asia revealed by SSR (simple sequence repeat) markers,” Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, vol. 54, pp. 959–971, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. Zhengwang, T. Feiyan, H. Hongwen, H. Hongju, and C. Qiliang, “Assessment of genetic diversity of Chinese sand pear landraces (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) using simple sequence repeat markers,” HortScience, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 619–626, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Wu, Z. Wang, Z. Shi et al., “The genome of the pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.),” Genome Research, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 396–408, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Spiegel-Roy, “Domestication of fruits trees,” in The Origin and Domestication of Cultivated Plants, C. Barigozzi, Ed., pp. 201–211, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  28. U. P. Hedrick, The Pears of New York, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, 1921.
  29. V. H. Heywood and D. Zohary, “A catalogue of the wild relatives of cultivated plants native to Europe,” Herbarium Mediterraneum Panormitanum, vol. 5, pp. 375–415, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  30. T. Shen, “Pears in China,” HortiScience, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 13–17, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  31. R. Watkins, “Apple and pear,” in Evolution of Crop Plants, N. W. Simmonds, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 247–250, Edinburgh School of Agriculture, Edinburgh, UK, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  32. A. Itai, “Pear,” in Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants, C. Kole, Ed., Chapter 6, pp. 157–170, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. R. L. Bell and A. Itai, “Pyrus,” in Wild Crop Relatives: Genomic and Breeding Resources—Temperate Fruits, C. Kole, Ed., Chapter 8, pp. 147–178, Springer, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  34. I. Kajiura, S. Yamaki, M. Omura, T. Akihama, and Y. Machida, “Improvement of sugar content and composition in fruits and classification of east asian pears by the principal component analysis of sugar compositions in fruits,” Japan Journal of Breeding, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 12–11, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  35. J. E. Jackson, “The growing of apples and pears,” in Biology of Apples and Pears, Chapter 1, pp. 4–20, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003. View at Google Scholar