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Advances in Agriculture
Volume 2018, Article ID 8612135, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8612135
Research Article

Pathogenic Variability of Wheat Stem Rust Pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) in Hararghe Highlands, Ethiopia

1Wolkite University, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Department of Horticulture, P.O. BOX 07, Wolkite, Ethiopia
2Haramaya University, College of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Department of Plant Science, P.O. BOX 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia
3Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, P.O. Box 32, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Arif Abrahim; moc.liamg@miharbafr

Received 7 June 2018; Revised 10 September 2018; Accepted 11 October 2018; Published 28 October 2018

Academic Editor: Tibor Janda

Copyright © 2018 Arif Abrahim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Wheat is one of the important major crops of Hararghe Highlands. It is third in land coverage and total production after sorghum and maize. However, the wheat stem rust disease is threatening production of wheat in this region. So, this research was conducted with the following objective: to determine the population of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Hararghe Highlands. A total of 200 fields were surveyed and stem rust samples were collected and transported to Kulumsa Agricultural Research Center for race analysis. Inoculation of differentials carrying resistance genes Sr24 and Sr-Tmp indicated typical low infection types on all isolates. Isolates EH5, EH8, and EH3 from East Hararghe and WH2, WH1, and WH3 from West Hararghe showed high virulence of infection in all differential lines. Ten (10) races were identified by using Puccinia graminis tritici code system: TTGSK, PTJQK, TTSSK, TTKSK, TRSSK, and TTJQK from East Hararghe and TTTSK and TTSQK from West Hararghe zones. Race TTSSK was most frequent (25%) followed by TTKSK (25%) in East Hararghe. Race TTSSK showed 50% frequency of occurrence in West Hararghe zones. The low frequency of occurrences indicated high variability of the races in the survey areas. Therefore, monitoring of populations of pathogens is important for the national and regional research centers. Detection of pathogen virulence evolution and of currently effective resistance genes is necessary and must be applied within a system of resistance gene management.