Table of Contents
Advances in Andrology
Volume 2014, Article ID 127693, 5 pages
Research Article

Complications of Inflatable Penile Prostheses Implantation Classified according to the Modified Clavien System

1A’Urologic Department of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 81A Egnatia Street, 54635 Thessaloniki, Greece
2Regional Urology, 255 Bert Kouns Industrial Loop, Shreveport, LA 71106, USA

Received 3 October 2014; Accepted 2 December 2014; Published 16 December 2014

Academic Editor: Enzo Vicari

Copyright © 2014 Ioannis Vakalopoulos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. In patients with erectile dysfunction (ED), inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery is regarded as the gold standard treatment in medically refractory cases or where its conservative treatment options are contraindicated. Despite improvements in surgical technique and implanted materials, IPP surgery retains a substantial complication rate. The aim of the study was to record and grade the postoperative complications of IPP implantation according to a modified Clavien system. Methods. A total of 60 three-piece IPP implantations were performed between 2007 and 2013 by a single surgeon. The primary outcome was to stratify the early (first 30 days) complications into five categories using the modified Clavien-Dindo classification system. A secondary aim was to record the long-term adverse events and to identify possible factors related to complication occurrence. Results. Overall, there were 21 (35%) postoperative complications in 17 of 60 men (28.3%), with 15 adverse events occurring early after surgery. In terms of late complications, there were six (10%) major complications managed by either revision surgery or removal of the prosthesis. Conclusion. This study utilizes a validated morbidity scale thus overcoming problems of previous studies reporting IPP surgery complications. The modified Clavien classification system easily aids in assessing and comparing accurately patients’ postoperative complications, thus improving management and prevention.