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Advances in Acoustics and Vibration
Volume 2012, Article ID 214839, 28 pages
Review Article

Advanced Applications for Underwater Acoustic Modeling

Northrop Grumman Corporation, P.O. Box 1693, Baltimore, MD 21203, USA

Received 29 October 2011; Accepted 30 January 2012

Academic Editor: Jafar Saniie

Copyright © 2012 Paul C. Etter. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Changes in the ocean soundscape have been driven by anthropogenic activity (e.g., naval-sonar systems, seismic-exploration activity, maritime shipping and windfarm development) and by natural factors (e.g., climate change and ocean acidification). New regulatory initiatives have placed additional restrictions on uses of sound in the ocean: mitigation of marine-mammal endangerment is now an integral consideration in acoustic-system design and operation. Modeling tools traditionally used in underwater acoustics have undergone a necessary transformation to respond to the rapidly changing requirements imposed by this new soundscape. Advanced modeling techniques now include forward and inverse applications, integrated-modeling approaches, nonintrusive measurements, and novel processing methods. A 32-year baseline inventory of modeling techniques has been updated to reflect these new developments including the basic mathematics and references to the key literature. Charts have been provided to guide soundscape practitioners to the most efficient modeling techniques for any given application.