Table of Contents
Advances in Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 543974, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/543974
Review Article

Importance of Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections: New Therapeutic Approaches

Barcelona Centre for International Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Edificio CEK-1a planta C/Roselló 149-153, 08036 Barcelona, Spain

Received 27 March 2014; Accepted 13 June 2014; Published 2 July 2014

Academic Editor: Octavio Franco

Copyright © 2014 Sara M. Soto. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bacterial biofilms play an important role in urinary tract infections (UTIs), being responsible for persistence infections causing relapses and acute prostatitis. Bacterial forming biofilm are difficult to eradicate due to the antimicrobial resistant phenotype that this structure confers being combined therapy recommended for the treatment of biofilm-associated infections. However, the presence of persistent cells showing reduced metabolism that leads to higher levels of antimicrobial resistance makes the search for new therapeutic tools necessary. Here, a review of these new therapeutic approaches is provided including catheters coated with hydrogels or antibiotics, nanoparticles, iontophoresis, biofilm enzyme inhibitors, liposomes, bacterial interference, bacteriophages, quorum sensing inhibitors, low-energy surface acoustic waves, and antiadhesion agents. In conclusion, new antimicrobial drugs that inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation are needed.