Table of Contents
Advances in Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 612471, 16 pages
Review Article

The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

1Institute Pasteur Cenci-Bolognetti, DAHFMO-Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, IIM, Sapienza University of Rome, Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Italian Institute of Technology, Viale Regina Elena 291, 00161 Rome, Italy
3Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA 6027, Australia

Received 27 March 2014; Revised 28 May 2014; Accepted 18 June 2014; Published 9 July 2014

Academic Editor: Shihuan Kuang

Copyright © 2014 Antonio Musarò. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.