Table of Contents
Advances in Biology
Volume 2014, Article ID 639274, 21 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/639274
Review Article

Placental Evolution within the Supraordinal Clades of Eutheria with the Perspective of Alternative Animal Models for Human Placentation

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo (FMVZ-USP), Avenida Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, 05508-270 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 15 June 2014; Accepted 22 September 2014; Published 23 October 2014

Academic Editor: Hong-Bo Zhao

Copyright © 2014 Andrea Mess. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. W. Luckett, “Uses and limitations of mammalian fetal membranes and placenta for phylogenetic reconstruction,” Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 266, no. 6, pp. 514–527, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. A. M. Carter, “Evolution of the placenta and fetal membranes seen in the light of molecular phylogenetics,” Placenta, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 800–807, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. Vogel, “The current molecular phylogeny of Eutherian mammals challenges previous interpretations of placental evolution,” Placenta, vol. 26, no. 8-9, pp. 591–596, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Mess and A. M. Carter, “Evolutionary transformations of fetal membrane characters in Eutheria with special reference to Afrotheria,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, vol. 306, no. 2, pp. 140–163, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. Mess and A. M. Carter, “Evolution of the placenta during the early radiation of placental mammals,” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology—A Molecular and Integrative Physiology, vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 769–779, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. E. Wildman, C. Chen, O. Erez, L. I. Grossman, M. Goodman, and R. Romero, “Evolution of the mammalian placenta revealed by phylogenetic analysis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 9, pp. 3203–3208, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. Ferner and A. Mess, “Evolution and development of fetal membranes and placentation in amniote vertebrates,” Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, vol. 178, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Garratt, J.-M. Gaillard, R. C. Brooks, and J.-F. Lemaître, “Diversification of the eutherian placenta is associated with changes in the pace of life,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 110, no. 19, pp. 7760–7765, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Starck, “Ontogenie und Entwicklungsphysiologie der Säugetiere,” in Handbuch der Zoologie, W. Kükenthal, Ed., vol. 8, part 22, pp. 1–276, Walter Gruyter, Berlin, Germany, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  10. H. W. Mossman, Vertebrate Fetal Membranes: Comparative Ontogeny and Morphology; Evolution; Phylogenetic Significance; Basic Functions; Research Opportunities, Macmillan, London, UK, 1987.
  11. A. C. Enders, “Reasons for diversity of placental structure,” Placenta, vol. 30, pp. S15–S18, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Carter, “Evolution of placental function in mammals: the molecular basis of gas and nutrient transfer, hormone secretion, and immune responses,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1543–1576, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. A. Miglino, F. O. Favaron, and A. M. Mess, “Review: comparative anatomy, development and functional significance of the mammalian yolk sac,” Novo Science Publishers. In press.
  14. Z. C. Hou, K. N. Sterner, R. Romero et al., “Elephant transcriptome provides insights into the evolution of eutherian placentation,” Genome Biology and Evolution, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 713–725, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Haig, “Retroviruses and the placenta,” Current Biology, vol. 22, no. 15, pp. R609–R613, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Dupressoir, C. Lavialle, and T. Heidmann, “From ancestral infectious retroviruses to bona fide cellular genes: role of the captured syncytins in placentation,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 663–671, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. B. Chuong, “Retroviruses facilitate the rapid evolution of the mammalian placenta,” BioEssays, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 853–861, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. J. Hemberger, “Immune balance at the foeto-maternal interface as the fulcrum of reproductive success,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. D. Laubichler, “Das Forschungsprogramm der evolutionären Entwicklungsbiologie,” in Phiolosophie der Biologie, U. Krohs and G. P. Toepfer, Eds., pp. 322–337, Suhrkamp, Berlin, Germany, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  20. L. Olsson, G. S. Levit, and U. Hossfeld, “Evolutionary developmental biology: its concepts and history with a focus on Russian and German contributions,” Naturwissenschaften, vol. 97, no. 11, pp. 951–969, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. M. Carter and A. C. Enders, “Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 2, article 46, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. P. Chavatte-Palmer and M. Guillomot, “Comparative implantation and placentation,” Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 166–174, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. C. Enders and A. M. Carter, “The evolving placenta: convergent evolution of variations in the endotheliochorial relationship,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 319–326, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. C. Enders and A. M. Carter, “Review: the evolving placenta: different developmental paths to a hemochorial relationship,” Placenta, vol. 33, pp. S92–S98, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. M. Carter and A. C. Enders, “The evolution of epitheliochorial placentation,” Annual Review of Animal Biosciences, vol. 1, pp. 443–467, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Mess, “Evolutionary transformations of chorioallantoic placental characters in Rodentia with special reference to hystricognath species,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology, vol. 299, no. 1, pp. 78–98, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Mess, “Development of the chorioallantoic placenta in Octodon degus—a model for growth processes in caviomorph rodents?” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, vol. 308, no. 4, pp. 371–383, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Mess, “The guinea pig placenta: model of placental growth dynamics,” Placenta, vol. 28, no. 8-9, pp. 812–815, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Mess, “The subplacenta in Octodon degus and Petromus typicus—two hystricognath rodents without significant placental lobulation,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, vol. 308, no. 2, pp. 172–188, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Mess, “Chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentation in the dassie rat Petromus typicus and its bearing to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia,” Placenta, vol. 28, no. 11-12, pp. 1229–1233, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Bonatelli, A. M. Carter, M. R. F. Machado, M. F. de Oliveira, M. C. de Lima, and M. A. Miglino, “Placentation in the paca (Agouti paca L),” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 3, article 9, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. F. de Oliveira, A. Mess, C. E. Ambrósio, C. A. G. Dantas, P. O. Favaron, and M. A. Miglino, “Chorioallantoic placentation in Galea spixii (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Caviidae),” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 6, article 39, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Franco de Oliveira, P. O. Favaron, C. E. Ambrósio, M. A. Miglino, and A. M. Mess, “Chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentation in Thrichomys laurentinus (Echimyidae) and the evolution of hystricognath rodents,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 13–25, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. F. De Oliveira, A. M. do Vale, P. O. Favaron et al., “Development of yolk sac inversion in Galea spixii and Cavia porcellus (Rodentia, Caviidae),” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 878–881, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. A. Flamini, E. L. Portiansky, P. O. Favaron et al., “Chorioallantoic and yolk sac placentation in the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus)—a caviomorph rodent with natural polyovulation,” Placenta, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 963–968, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. O. Favaron, A. M. Carter, C. E. Ambrósio et al., “Placentation in Sigmodontinae: a rodent taxon native to South America,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 9, article 55, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. O. Favaron, A. M. Carter, A. M. Mess, M. F. De Oliveira, and M. A. Miglino, “An unusual feature of yolk sac placentation in Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae),” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 578–580, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. O. Favaron, A. M. Mess, M. F. de Oliveira et al., “Morphometric analysis of the placenta in the new world mouse Necromys lasiurus (Rodentia, Cricetidae): a comparison of placental development in cricetids and murids,” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 11, no. 1, article 10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. M. Carter, A. C. Enders, C. J. P. Jones, P. K. Keovichit, and J. P. Hugot, “A new form of rodent placentation in the relict species, Laonastes aenigmamus (Rodentia: Diatomyidae),” Placenta, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 548–558, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. G. Vasconcelos, P. O. Favaron, M. A. Miglino, and A. M. Mess, “Development and morphology of the inverted yolk sac in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus),” Theriogenology, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 636–641, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. M. Carter, S. M. Goodman, and A. C. Enders, “Female reproductive tract and placentation in sucker-footed bats (Chiroptera: Myzopodidae) endemic to Madagascar,” Placenta, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 484–491, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. M. Carter and A. Mess, “Evolution of the placenta and associated reproductive characters in bats,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution, vol. 310, no. 5, pp. 428–449, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. C. Enders, C. J. P. Jones, P. J. Taylor, and A. M. Carter, “Placentation in the Egyptian slit-faced bat Nycteris thebaica (Chiroptera: Nycteridae),” Placenta, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 792–799, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. C. Rezende, C. G. Barbeito, P. O. Favaron, A. Mess, and M. A. Miglino, “The fetomaternal interface in the placenta of three species of armadillos (Eutheria, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae),” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 10, article 38, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. M. Mess, P. O. Favaron, C. Pfarrer et al., “Placentation in the anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Tamandua tetradactyla (Eutheria, Xenarthra),” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 10, article 102, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. M. Carter and A. C. Enders, “Placentation in mammals once grouped as insectivores,” The International Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 54, no. 2-3, pp. 483–493, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. C. Enders, T. N. Blankenship, S. M. Goodman, V. Soarimalala, and A. M. Carter, “PPlacental diversity in malagasy tenrecs: placentation in shrew tenrecs (Microgale spp.), the mole-like rice tenrec (Oryzorictes hova) and the web-footed tenrec (Limnogale mergulus),” Placenta, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 748–759, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. N. Rutherford, “Toward a nonhuman primate model of fetal programming: phenotypic plasticity of the common marmoset fetoplacental complex,” Placenta, vol. 33, pp. S35–S39, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Siniza, D. G. Lupiañez, R. Jiménez, and U. Zeller, “Morphology and ultrastructure of the chorioallantoic placenta of the Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis) with special reference to heterophagous areolas and the nature of interhaemal barrier,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 221, no. 2, pp. 164–173, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. Ferner, S. Siniza, and U. Zeller, “The placentation of eulipotyphla—reconstructing a morphotype of the mammalian placenta,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 275, no. 10, pp. 1122–1144, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. F. B. P. Wooding, J. Kimura, and A. J. Forhead, “Functional immunocytochemistry of Tragulus placenta: implications for ruminant evolution,” Placenta, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 305–310, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. M. Carter and A. M. Mess, “Conservation of placentation during the tertiary radiation of mammals in South America,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 274, no. 5, pp. 557–569, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. M. Carter, “Comparative studies of placentation and immunology in non-human primates suggest a scenario for the evolution of deep trophoblast invasion and an explanation for human pregnancy disorders,” Reproduction, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 391–396, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. M. Carter and R. Pijnenborg, “Evolution of invasive placentation with special reference to non-human primates,” Best Practice & Research: Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 249–257, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. R. Pijnenborg, L. Vercruysse, and A. M. Carter, “Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the lowland gorilla,” Placenta, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 586–591, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. Pijnenborg, L. Vercruysse, and A. M. Carter, “Deep trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling in the placental bed of the chimpanzee,” Placenta, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 400–408, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. M. Carter, T. N. Blankenship, A. C. Enders, and P. Vogel, “The fetal membranes of the otter shrews and a synapomorphy for afrotheria,” Placenta, vol. 27, no. 2-3, pp. 258–268, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. G. Elliot and B. J. Crespi, “Phylogenetic evidence for early hemochorial placentation in eutheria,” Placenta, vol. 30, no. 11, pp. 949–967, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D. E. Wildman, “Review: toward an integrated evolutionary understanding of the mammalian placenta,” Placenta, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. S142–S145, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. I. Capellini, “The evolutionary significance of placental interdigitation in mammalian reproduction: contributions from comparative studies,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 763–768, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Moffett and C. Loke, “Immunology of placentation in eutherian mammals,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 584–594, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. Emera, R. Romero, and G. Wagner, “The evolution of menstruation: a new model for genetic assimilation: explaining molecular origins of maternal responses to fetal invasiveness,” BioEssays, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 26–35, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. A. L. Fowden and T. Moore, “Maternal-fetal resource allocation: co-operation and conflict,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. e11–e15, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. M. Lewis, J. K. Cleal, and M. A. Hanson, “Review: placenta, evolution and lifelong health,” Placenta, vol. 33, pp. S28–S32, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. J. Crosley, M. G. Elliot, J. K. Christians, and B. J. Crespi, “Placental invasion, preeclampsia risk and adaptive molecular evolution at the origin of the great apes: evidence from genome-wide analyses,” Placenta, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 127–132, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. S. Hunt and M. G. Petroff, “IFPA senior award lecture: reproductive immunology in perspective—reprogramming at the maternal-fetal interface,” Placenta, vol. 34, pp. S52–S55, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. C. Teeling and S. B. Hedges, “Making the impossible possible: rooting the tree of placental mammals,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1999–2000, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. M. Carter, “Animal models of human placentation—a review,” Placenta, vol. 28, pp. S41–S47, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. L. James, A. M. Carter, and L. W. Chamley, “Human placentation from nidation to 5 weeks of gestation. Part II: tools to model the crucial first days,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 335–342, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. D. A. Clark, “The use and misuse of animal analog models of human pregnancy disorders,” Journal of Reproductive Immunology C, vol. 103, pp. 1–8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. A. M. Carter and A. M. Mess, “Mammalian placentation: implications for animal models,” in Pathobiology of Human Disease: A Dynamic Encyclopedia of Disease Mechanisms, L. M. McManus and R. N. Mitchell, Eds., Elsevier, Berlin, Germany, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. E. Guttmacher, Y. T. Maddox, and C. Y. Spong, “The Human Placenta Project: placental structure, development, and function in real time,” Placenta, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 303–304, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. W. Westheide and R. Rieger, Spezielle Zoologie. Teil 2: Wirbel-oder Schädeltiere, Spektrum, Elsevier, München, Germany, 2010.
  74. A. Mess, D. G. Blackburn, and U. Zeller, “Evolutionary transformations of fetal membranes and reproductive strategies,” Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology, vol. 299, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder, Mammal Species of the World, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2005.
  76. M. A. O'Leary, J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn et al., “The placental mammal ancestor and the Post-K-Pg radiation of placentals,” Science, vol. 339, no. 6120, pp. 662–667, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. J. Stanhope, V. G. Waddell, O. Madsen et al., “Molecular evidence for multiple origins of Insectivora and for a new order of endemic African insectivore mammals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 17, pp. 9967–9972, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. O. Madsen, M. Scally, C. J. Douady et al., “Parallel adaptive radiations in two major clades of placental mammals,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6820, pp. 610–614, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. W. J. Murphy, E. Eizirik, S. J. O'Brien et al., “Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics,” Science, vol. 294, no. 5550, pp. 2348–2351, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. P. J. Waddell, H. Kishino, and R. Ota, “A phylogenetic foundation for comparative mammalian genomics,” Genome information, vol. 12, pp. 141–154, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. S. Springer, M. J. Stanhope, O. Madsen, and W. W. de Jong, “Molecules consolidate the placental mammal tree,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 430–438, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. S. Springer, W. J. Murphy, E. Eizirik, and S. J. O'Brien, “Molecular evidence for major placental clades,” in The Rise of Placental Mammals: Origins and Relationships of the Major Extant Clades, K. D. Rose and J. D. Archibald, Eds., pp. 37–49, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  83. R. W. Meredith, J. E. Janečka, J. Gatesy et al., “Impacts of the cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification,” Science, vol. 334, no. 6055, pp. 521–524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. D. Archibald, “Timing and biogeography of the eutherian radiation: fossils and molecules compared,” Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 350–359, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. J. Novacek, A. R. Wyss, and M. C. McKenna, “The major groups of eutherian mammals,” in The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapods Volume 2: Mammals, M. J. Benton, Ed., pp. 31–71, Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  86. J. G. M. Thewissen, L. N. Cooper, M. T. Clementz, S. Bajpai, and B. N. Tiwari, “Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India,” Nature, vol. 450, no. 7173, pp. 1190–1194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. B. McDowell, “The greater antillean insectivores,” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 115, pp. 115–213, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  88. R. J. Asher, M. J. Novacek, and J. H. Geisler, “Relationships of endemic African mammals and their fossil relatives based on morphological and molecular evidence,” Journal of Mammalian Evolution, vol. 10, no. 1-2, pp. 131–164, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. R. E. Symonds, “Phylogeny and life histories of the “insectivora”: controversies and consequences,” Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 93–128, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. O. R. Bininda-Emonds, M. Cardillo, K. E. Jones et al., “The delayed rise of present-day mammals,” Nature, vol. 446, pp. 507–512, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  91. J. Romiguier, V. Ranwez, F. Delsuc, N. Galtier, and E. J. P. Douzery, “Less is more in mammalian phylogenomics: AT-rich genes minimize tree conflicts and unravel the root of placental mammals,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 2134–2144, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. C. Amoroso, “Placentation,” in Marshall's Physiology of Reproduction, A. S. Parkes, Ed., vol. 2, pp. 127–311, Longmans Green, London, UK, 1952. View at Google Scholar
  93. D. G. Blackburn, “Evolution of vertebrate viviparity and specializations for fetal nutrition: a quantitative and qualitative analysis,” Journal of Morphology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. J. R. Stewart, “Fetal nutrition in lecithotrophic squamate reptiles: toward a comprehensive model for evolution of viviparity and placentation,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 274, no. 7, pp. 824–843, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. B. Crespi and C. Semeniuk, “Parent-offspring conflict in the evolution of vertebrate reproductive mode,” The American Naturalist, vol. 163, no. 5, pp. 635–653, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. W. Zeh and J. A. Zeh, “Reproductive mode and speciation: the viviparity-driven conflict hypothesis,” Bioessays, vol. 22, pp. 938–946, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  97. F. B. Wooding and G. J. Burton, Comparative Placentation: Structures, Function and Evolution, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2008.
  98. O. Grosser, Eihäute und der Placenta, Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna, Austria, 1909.
  99. A. M. Carter, “Evolution of factors affecting placental oxygen transfer,” Placenta, vol. 30, pp. 19–25, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. R. Pijnenborg, L. Vercruysse, and M. Hanssens, “Fetal-maternal conflict, trophoblast invasion, preeclampsia, and the red queen,” Hypertension in Pregnancy, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 183–196, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. A. Mess, N. Zaki, M. Kadyrov, H. Korr, and P. Kaufmann, “Caviomorph placentation as a model for trophoblast invasion,” Placenta, vol. 28, no. 11-12, pp. 1234–1238, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. B. Huppertz, D. Ghosh, and J. Sengupta, “An integrative view on the physiology of human early placental villi,” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 33–48, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. A. Lillegraven, “Polarities in mammalian evolution seen through homologs of the inner cell mass,” Journal of Mammalian Evolution, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 277–333, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. K. Klisch and A. Mess, “Evolutionary differentiation of cetartiodactyl placentae in the light of the viviparity-driven conflict hypothesis,” Placenta, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 353–360, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. L. H. Hoffman and F. B. Wooding, “Giant and binucleate trophoblast cells of mammals,” Journal of Experimental Zoology, vol. 266, no. 6, pp. 559–577, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. C. D. Pfarrer, P. Hirsch, M. Guillomot, and R. Leiser, “Interaction of integrin receptors with extracellular matrix is involved in trophoblast giant cell migration in bovine placentomes,” Placenta, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 588–597, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. G. Sheng and A. C. Foley, “Diversification and conservation of the extraembryonic tissues in mediating nutrient uptake during amniote development,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1271, no. 1, pp. 97–103, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. M. H. Baron, “Concise review: early embryonic erythropoiesis: not so primitive after all,” Stem Cells, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 849–856, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J. D. Boyd and W. J. Hamilton, The Human Placenta, Heffer, Cambridge, UK, 1970.
  110. C. C. Morgan, P. G. Foster, A. E. Webb, D. Pisani, J. O. McInerney, and M. J. O'Connell, “Heterogeneous models place the root of the placental mammal phylogeny,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 2145–2156, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. L. P. Bergqvist, É. A. L. Abrantes, and L. D. S. Avilla, “The Xenarthra (Mammalia) of São José de Itaboraí basin (upper Paleocene, Itaboraian), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Geodiversitas, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 323–337, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. dos Reis, J. Inoue, M. Hasegawa, R. J. Asher, P. C. J. Donoghue, and Z. Yang, “Phylogenomic datasets provide both precision and accuracy in estimating the timescale of placental mammal phylogeny,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 279, no. 1742, pp. 3491–3500, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. J. J. Flynn, R. Charrier, D. A. Croft, and A. R. Wyss, “Cenozoic Andean faunas: shedding new light on South American mammal evolution, biogeography, environments and tectonics,” in Bones Clones and Biomes—The History and Geography of Recent Neotropical Mammals, B. D. Patterson and L. P. Costa, Eds., pp. 50–75, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  114. T. J. Gaudin and H. G. McDonald, “Morphology-based investigations of the phylogenetic relationships among extant and fossil xenarthrans,” in The Biology of the Xenarthra, S. F. L. Vizcaíno and W. J. Gainesville, Eds., pp. 24–36, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  115. A. C. Enders, “Development and structure of the villous haemochorial placenta of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus),” Journal of anatomy, vol. 94, pp. 34–45, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. A. C. Enders, “Electron microscopic observations on the villous haemochorial placenta of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus),” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 94, pp. 205–215, 1960. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. C. Enders, “Placentation in armadillos, with emphasis on development of the placenta in polyembryonic species,” in The Biology of the Xenarthra, S. F. L. Vizcaíno and W. J. Gainesville, Eds., pp. 172–180, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  118. B. F. King, P. B. N. Pinheiro, and R. L. Hunter, “The fine structure of the placental labyrinth in the sloth, Bradypus tridactylus,” Anatomical Record, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 15–22, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. G. B. Wislocki, “On the placentation of the two-toed anteater (Cyclopes didactylus),” Anatomical Record, vol. 39, pp. 69–79, 1928. View at Google Scholar
  120. K. Benirschke, G. J. Burton, and R. N. Baergen, Pathology of the Human Placenta, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2012.
  121. H. Becher, “Placenta und Uterusschleimhaut von Tamandua tetradactya (Myrmecophaga),” Morphologisches Jahrbuch, vol. 67, pp. 381–458, 1931. View at Google Scholar
  122. E. W. Walls, “Myrmecophaga jubata: an embryo with placenta,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 73, pp. 311–317, 1939. View at Google Scholar
  123. V. C. Adamoli, P. D. Cetica, M. S. Merani, and A. J. Solari, “Comparative morphologic placental types in dasypodidae (Chaetophractus villosus, Cabassous chacoensis, Tolypeutes matacus and Dasypus hybridus),” Biocell, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. G. G. Simpson, “The principles of classification and a classification of mammals,” Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 85, pp. 1–350, 1945. View at Google Scholar
  125. M. S. Springer, G. C. Cleven, O. Madsen et al., “Endemic African mammals shake the phylogenetic tree,” Nature, vol. 388, no. 6637, pp. 61–64, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. E. R. Seiffert, “A new estimate of afrotherian phylogeny based on simultaneous analysis of genomic, morphological, and fossil evidence,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 7, article 224, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. T. J. Robinson and E. R. Seiffert, “Afrotherian origins and interrelationships: new views and future prospects,” Current Topics in Developmental Biology, vol. 63, pp. 37–60, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. R. J. Asher and T. Lehmann, “Dental eruption in afrotherian mammals,” BMC Biology, vol. 6, article 14, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. E. Gheerbrant, M. Amaghzaz, B. Bouya, F. Goussard, and C. Letenneur, “Ocepeia (middle Paleocene of Morocco): the oldest skull of an afrotherian mammal,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 2, Article ID e89739, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. IUCN Afrotheria Specialist Group, http://www.afrotheria.net/.
  131. B. M. Hallström, A. Schneider, S. Zoller, and A. Janke, “A genomic approach to examine the complex evolution of Laurasiatherian mammals,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 12, Article ID e28199, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. J.-Y. Hu, Y.-P. Zhang, and L. Yu, “Summary of Laurasiatheria (mammalia) phylogeny,” Dongwuxue Yanjiu, vol. 33, no. 5-6, pp. E65–E74, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. M. Nikaido, A. P. Rooney, and N. Okada, “Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 18, pp. 10261–10266, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. X. Zhou, S. Xu, J. Xu, B. Chen, K. Zhou, and G. Yang, “Phylogenomic analysis resolves the interordinal relationships and rapid diversification of the laurasiatherian mammals,” Systematic Biology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 150–164, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. E. C. Teeling, M. S. Springer, O. Madsen, P. Bates, S. J. O'Brien, and W. J. Murphy, “A molecular phylogeny for bats illuminates biogeography and the fossil record,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5709, pp. 580–584, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. J. Rasweiler and N. K. Badwaik, “Anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive tract,” in Reproductive Biology of Bats, E. G. Crichton and P. H. Krutzch, Eds., pp. 157–219, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  137. F. T. V. Pereira, L. J. Oliveira, R. S. N. Barreto et al., “Fetal-maternal interactions in the synepitheliochorial placenta using the eGFP cloned cattle model,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 5, Article ID e64399, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. R. V. Anthony, A. N. Scheaffer, C. D. Wright, and T. R. Regnault, “Ruminant models of prenatal growth restriction,” Reproduction, vol. 61, pp. 183–194, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. J. S. Barry and R. V. Anthony, “The pregnant sheep as a model for human pregnancy,” Theriogenology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 55–67, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. D. H. Steven, Ed., Comparative Placentation: Essays in Structure and Function, Academic Press, London, UK, 1975.
  141. R. Leiser, C. Krebs, B. Ebert, and V. Dantzer, “Placental vascular corrosion cast studies: a comparison between ruminants and humans,” Microscopic Research Techniques, vol. 38, pp. 76–87, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  142. G. Meschia, J. R. Cotter, C. S. Breathnach, and D. H. Barron, “The diffusibility of oxygen across the sheep placenta,” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology and Cognate Medical Sciences, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 466–480, 1965. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. A. M. Carter, “Placental oxygen consumption. Part I: in vivo studies—a review,” Placenta, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. S31–S37, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. W. W. Hay Jr., “In vivo measurements of placental transport and metabolism,” Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 355–362, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. R. I. Jensen, A. M. Carter, O. Skøtt, and B. L. Jensen, “Adrenomedullin expression during hypoxia in fetal sheep,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 219–228, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. Y. Shufaro and N. Laufer, “Epigenetic concerns in assisted reproduction: update and critical review of the current literature,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 605–606, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. K. J. Go, J. C. Patel, and D. L. Cunningham, “The role of assisted reproductive technology in the management of recurrent pregnancy loss,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 459–463, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. A. Eroglu and L. C. Layman, “Role of ART in imprinting disorders,” Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 92–104, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. M. I. Cedars, “National reporting of in vitro fertilization success rates: how do we get patients useful information?” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1210–1211, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. N. Okun and S. Sierra, “Pregnancy outcomes after assisted human reproduction,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 64–83, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. N. R. Vulliemoz, E. McVeigh, and J. Kurinczuk, “In vitro fertilisation: perinatal risks and early childhood outcomes,” Human Fertility, vol. 15, pp. 62–68, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  152. R. Ramasamy, L. I. Lipshultz, and D. J. Lamb, “Cancer risk among children born after assisted conception,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, p. 975, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  153. J. L. Edwards, F. N. Schrick, M. D. McCracken et al., “Cloning adult farm animals: a review of the possibilities and problems associated with somatic cell nuclear transfer,” The American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 113–123, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. F. V. Meirelles, E. H. Birgel Jr., F. Perecin et al., “Delivery of cloned offspring: experience in Zebu cattle (Bos indicus),” Reproduction, Fertility and Development, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 88–97, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. T. H. C. De Bem, M. R. Chiaratti, R. Rochetti et al., “Viable calves produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using meiotic-blocked oocytes,” Cellular Reprogramming, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 419–429, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. J. R. Hill, R. C. Burghardt, K. Jones et al., “Evidence for placental abnormality as the major cause of mortality in first-trimester somatic cell cloned bovine fetuses,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1787–1794, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. M. A. Miglino, F. T. V. Pereira, J. A. Visintin et al., “Placentation in cloned cattle: structure and microvascular architecture,” Theriogenology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 604–617, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. F. Constant, M. Guillomot, Y. Heyman et al., “Large offspring or large placenta syndrome? Morphometric analysis of late gestation bovine placentomes from somatic nuclear transfer pregnancies complicated by hydrallantois,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 122–130, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. M. L. V. Alberto, F. V. Meirelles, F. Perecin et al., “Development of bovine embryos derived from reproductive techniques,” Reproduction, Fertility and Development, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 907–917, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. P. Chavatte-Palmer, S. Camous, H. Jammes, N. Le Cleac'H, M. Guillomot, and R. S. F. Lee, “Review: placental perturbations induce the developmental abnormalities often observed in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer,” Placenta, vol. 33, pp. S99–S104, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. P. C. Maiorka, A. Mess, P. O. Favaron, and M. A. Miglino, “Vascular alterations are key for developmental problems in the pre- and postnatal phases of cloned bovines,” PLoS ONE. Submitted.
  162. C. D. Pfarrer, S. D. Ruziwa, H. Winther et al., “Localization of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2 in bovine placentomes from implantation until term,” Placenta, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 889–898, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. D. B. Campos, P. C. Papa, J. E. B. Marques Jr. et al., “Somatic cell nuclear transfer is associated with altered expression of angiogenic factor systems in bovine placentomes at term,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 309–323, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. M. Kutzler, L. Sahlfeld, and E. Fellows, “Who let the dogs in: a canine trophoblast invasion model for pre-eclampsia,” Reproduction in Domestic Animals, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 186–189, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. L. Sahlfeld, T. Hazzard, and M. Kutzler, “Cellular characteristics of cultured canine trophoblasts,” Reproduction in Domestic Animals, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 161–164, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. J. O. Kriegs, G. Churakov, M. Kiefmann, U. Jordan, J. Brosius, and J. Schmitz, “Retroposed elements as archives for the evolutionary history of placental mammals,” PLoS biology, vol. 4, no. 4, article e91, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. R. J. Asher, N. Bennett, and T. Lehmann, “The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution,” BioEssays, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 853–864, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. M. S. Springer, R. W. Meredith, J. E. Janecka, and W. J. Murphy, “The historical biogeography of mammalia,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 366, no. 1577, pp. 2478–2502, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. R. J. Asher, J. Meng, J. R. Wible et al., “Stem lagomorpha and the antiquity of glires,” Science, vol. 307, no. 5712, pp. 1091–1094, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. J. O. Kriegs, A. Zemann, G. Churakov et al., “Retroposon insertions provide insights into deep Lagomorph evolution,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2678–2681, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. A. Mess, “Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia,” Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1108–1115, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. W. P. Luckett, “Superordinal and intraordinal affinities of rodents: developmental evidence from the dentition and placentation,” in Evolutionary Relationships among Rodents, W. P. Luckett and J.-L. Hartenberger, Eds., vol. 92 of NATO ASI-Series, pp. 227–276, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  173. M. Ade, “Macroscopic study on the rhinarium of the Lagomorpha. With special reference to the glires hypothesis,” Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Zoologische Reihe, vol. 75, pp. 191–216, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  174. S. Frahnert, “Morphology of the glires ancestral rostral cranium and its implications for the monophyly of this clade,” Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Zoologische Reihe, vol. 75, pp. 229–246, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  175. A. Mess, “The rostral nasal skeleton of hystricognath rodents: evidence on their phylogenetic interrelationships,” Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Zoologische Reihe, vol. 75, pp. 19–35, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  176. A. Mess, “Evolutionary differentiation of the rostral nasal skeleton within Glires. A review with new data on lagomorph ontogeny,” Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Zoologische Reihe, vol. 75, pp. 221–232, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  177. J. Meng, A. R. Wyss, M. R. Dawson, and R. Zhai, “Primitive fossil rodent from inner mongolia and its implications for mammalian phylogeny,” Nature, vol. 370, no. 6485, pp. 134–136, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. W. P. Luckett, “Morphogenesis of the placenta and fetal membranes of the tree shrews (family Tupaiidae).,” American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 385–428, 1968. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. P. Kaufmann, M. Luckhardt, and W. Elger, “The structure of the tupaia placenta - II. Ultrastructure,” Anatomy and Embryology, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 211–221, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. K. Theiler, The House Mouse: Development and Normal Stages from Fertilisation to 4 Weeks of Age, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1972.
  181. S. L. Adamson, Y. Lu, K. J. Whiteley et al., “Interactions between trophoblast cells and the maternal and fetal circulation in the mouse placenta,” Developmental Biology, vol. 250, no. 2, pp. 358–373, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. P. Georgiades, A. C. Fergyson-Smith, and G. J. Burton, “Comparative developmental anatomy of the murine and human definitive placentae,” Placenta, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 3–19, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. J. C. Cross, D. Baczyk, N. Dobric et al., “Genes, development and evolution of the placenta,” Placenta, vol. 24, no. 2-3, pp. 123–130, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. M. Hemberger, T. Nozaki, M. Masutani, and J. C. Cross, “Differential expression of angiogenic and vasodilatory factors by invasive trophoblast giant cells depending on depth of invasion,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 227, no. 2, pp. 185–191, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. E. D. Watson and J. C. Cross, “Development of structures and transport functions in the mouse placenta,” Physiology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 180–193, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. D. G. Simmons, A. L. Fortier, and J. C. Cross, “Diverse subtypes and developmental origins of trophoblast giant cells in the mouse placenta,” Developmental Biology, vol. 304, no. 2, pp. 567–578, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. D. Hu and J. C. Cross, “Development and function of trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta,” International Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 54, no. 2-3, pp. 341–354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. R. M. Roberts and S. J. Fisher, “Trophoblast stem cells,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 412–421, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. O. R. Vaughan, A. N. Sferruzzi-Perri, P. M. Coan, and A. L. Fowden, “Environmental regulation of placental phenotype: Implications for fetal growth,” Reproduction, Fertility and Development, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 80–96, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. M. R. Dilworth and C. P. Sibley, “Review: transport across the placenta of mice and women,” Placenta, vol. 34, pp. S34–S39, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. M. Gasperowicz, M. Yampolsky, and C. M. Salafia, “Metabolic scaling law for mouse fetal and placental weight,” Placenta, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1099–1101, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. H.-P. Li, X. Chen, and M.-Q. Li, “Gestational diabetes induces chronic hypoxia stress and excessive inflammatory response in murine placenta,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 650–659, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. P. A. Latos and M. Hemberger, “Review: the transcriptional and signalling networks of mouse trophoblast stem cells,” Placenta, vol. 35, pp. S81–S85, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. A. Rai and J. C. Cross, “Development of the hemochorial maternal vascular spaces in the placenta through endothelial and vasculogenic mimicry,” Developmental Biology, vol. 387, no. 2, pp. 131–141, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. M. Duval, “Le placenta des rongeurs. III. Le placenta de la souris et du rat,” Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 27, pp. 24–73, 344–395, 515–612, 1891. View at Google Scholar
  196. W. P. Jollie, “The fine structure of the interhemal membrane of the rat chorioallantoic placenta during prolonged pregnancy,” Anatomical Record, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 73–89, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. J. Metz, “On the developing rat placenta. I. Differentiation and junctional alterations of labyrinthine layers II and III,” Anatomy and Embryology, vol. 159, no. 3, pp. 289–305, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. S. Caluwaerts, L. Vercruysse, C. Luyten, and R. Pijnenborg, “Endovascular trophoblast invasion and associated structural changes in uterine spiral arteries of the pregnant rat,” Placenta, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 574–584, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. L. Vercruysse, S. Caluwaerts, C. Luyten, and R. Pijnenborg, “Interstitial trophoblast invasion in the decidua and mesometrial triangle during the last third of pregnancy in the rat,” Placenta, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 22–33, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. L. Hering, F. Herse, N. Geusens et al., “Effects of circulating and local uteroplacental angiotensin ii in rat pregnancy,” Hypertension, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 311–318, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. A. Serman and L. Serman, “Development of placenta in a rodent—model for human placentation,” Frontiers in Bioscience—Elite, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 233–239, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. T. G. Zybina, G. I. Stein, and E. V. Zybina, “Endopolyploid and proliferating trophoblast cells express different patterns of intracellular cytokeratin and glycogen localization in the rat placenta,” Cell Biology International, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 649–655, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. B. M. Fonseca, G. Correia-da-Silva, and N. A. Teixeira, “The rat as an animal model for fetoplacental development: a reappraisal of the post-implantation period,” Reproductive Biology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 97–118, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. J. S. Gilbert, A. J. Bauer, A. Gingery, C. T. Banek, and S. Chasson, “Circulating and utero-placental adaptations to chronic placental ischemia in the rat,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 100–105, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. M. J. Soares, D. Chakraborty, M. A. Karim Rumi, T. Konno, and S. J. Renaud, “Rat placentation: an experimental model for investigating the hemochorial maternal-fetal interface,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 233–243, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. M. Shin, H. Hino, M. Tamura et al., “Thrombomodulin improves maternal and fetal conditions in an experimental pre-eclampsia rat model,” Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, vol. 40, pp. 1226–1234, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  207. A. C. Enders, “A comparative study of the fine structure of the trophoblast in several hemochorial placentas,” The American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 116, pp. 29–67, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. B. A. Croy, Z. Chen, A. P. Hofmann, E. M. Lord, A. L. Sedlacek, and S. A. Gerber, “The imaging of vascular development in early mouse decidua and its association with leukocytes and trophoblasts,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 87, no. 5, article 125, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  209. A. Robson, L. K. Harris, B. A. Innes et al., “Uterine natural killer cells initiate spiral artery remodeling in human pregnancy,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 4876–4885, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. P. Parham and A. Moffett, “Variable NK cell receptors and their MHC class I ligands in immunity, reproduction and human evolution,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 133–144, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. R. Lavocat, “La systématique des Rongeurs hystricomorphes et la dérive des continents,” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série D: Sciences Naturelles, vol. 269, no. 16, pp. 1496–1497, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  212. D. H. Tarling, “The geologic evolution of South America with special reference to the last 200 million years,” in Evolutionary Biology of the New World Monkeys and Continental Drift, R. L. Ciochon and A. B. Chiarelli, Eds., pp. 1–41, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  213. B. Patterson and A. E. Wood, “Rodents from the deseadan oligocene of Bolivia and the relationships of the Caviomorpha,” Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, vol. 149, pp. 371–543, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  214. A. R. Wyss, J. J. Flynn, M. A. Norell et al., “South America's earliest rodent and recognition of a new interval of mammalian evolution,” Nature, vol. 365, no. 6445, pp. 434–437, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. M. G. Vucetich, D. H. Verzi, and J.-L. Hartenberger, “Review and analysis of the radiation of the South American Hystricognathi (Mammalia, Rodentia),” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences—Series IIA: Earth and Planetary Science, vol. 329, no. 10, pp. 763–769, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  216. O. Heidmann, C. Vernochet, A. Dupressoir, and T. Heidmann, “Identification of an endogenous retroviral envelope gene with fusogenic activity and placenta-specific expression in the rabbit: a new “syncytin” in a third order of mammals,” Retrovirology, vol. 6, article 107, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. J.-J. Jaeger, C. Denys, and B. Coiffait, “New Phiomorpha and Anomaluridae from the late Eocene of North-West Africa: phylogenetic implications,” in Evolutionary Relationships among Rodents, W. P. Luckett and J.-L. Hartenberger, Eds., vol. 92, pp. 567–588, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  218. M. A. Nedbal, R. L. Honeycutt, and D. A. Schlitter, “Higher-level systematics of rodents (Mammalia, Rodentia): evidence from the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene,” Journal of Mammalian Evolution, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 201–237, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. D. Huchon, F. M. Catzeflis, and E. J. P. Douzery, “Variance of molecular datings, evolution of rodents and the phylogenetic affinities between Ctenodactylidae and Hystricognathi,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 267, no. 1441, pp. 393–402, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. T. Martin, “African origin of caviomorph rodents is indicated by incisor enamel microstructure,” Paleobiology, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. A. Mess, B. Mohr, and T. Martin, “Transformations in the stem species pattern of hystricognath Rodentia and the climatic change in the Eocene to Late Oligocene time interval,” Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde, Zoologische Reihe, vol. 77, pp. 193–206, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  222. A. M. Mess and A. M. Carter, “Evolution of the interhaemal barrier in the placenta of rodents,” Placenta, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 914–918, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. C. Kanashiro, T. C. Santos, M. A. Miglino, A. M. Mess, and A. M. Carter, “Growth and development of the placenta in the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris),” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 7, article 57, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. M. A. Miglino, A. M. Carter, R. H. dos Santos Ferraz, and M. R. Fernandes Machado, “Placentation in the capybara (Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris), agouti (Dasyprocta aguti) and paca (Agouti paca),” Placenta, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 416–428, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. H. W. Mossman, “The rabbit placenta and the problem of placental transmission,” The American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 37, pp. 433–497, 1926. View at Google Scholar
  226. B. Fischer, P. Chavatte-Palmer, C. Viebahn, A. N. Santos, and V. Duranthon, “Rabbit as a reproductive model for human health,” Reproduction, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. R. H. Foote and E. W. Carney, “The rabbit as a model for reproductive and developmental toxicity studies,” Reproductive Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 477–493, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. E. Eixarch, E. Hernandez-Andrade, F. Crispi et al., “Impact on fetal mortality and cardiovascular Doppler of selective ligature of uteroplacental vessels compared with undernutrition in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction,” Placenta, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 304–309, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. Z.-X. Fan, Y. Lu, L. Deng et al., “Placenta- versus bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells for the repair of segmental bone defects in a rabbit model,” FEBS Journal, vol. 279, no. 13, pp. 2455–2465, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  230. A. Tarrade, E. Lecarpentier, S. Gil et al., “Analysis of placental vascularization in a pharmacological rabbit model of IUGR induced by l-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor,” Placenta, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 254–259, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. J. F. Larsen, “Electron microscopy of the chorioallantoic placenta of the rabbit: I. The placental labyrinth and the multinucleated giant cells of the intermediate zone,” Journal of Ultrasructure Research, vol. 7, no. 5-6, pp. 535–549, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. S. Tavaré, C. R. Marshall, O. Will, C. Soligo, and R. D. Martin, “Using the fossil record to estimate the age of the last common ancestor of extant primates,” Nature, vol. 416, no. 6882, pp. 726–729, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. F. S. Szalay and E. Delson, Evolutionary History of the Primates, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
  234. B. F. Koop, D. A. Tagle, M. Goodman, and J. L. Slightom, “A molecular view of primate phylogeny and important systematic and evolutionary questions,” Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 580–612, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. M. Goodman, D. A. Tagle, D. H. A. Fitch et al., “Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids,” Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 260–266, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. J. P. Hill, “The developmental history of the primates,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 221, pp. 45–178, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  237. W. P. Luckett, “Comparative development and evolution of the placenta in primates,” Contributions to Primatology, vol. 3, pp. 142–234, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. W. P. Luckett, “Cladistic relationships among primate higher categories: evidence of the fetal membranes and placenta,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 245–276, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. B. F. King, “The fine structure of the placenta and chorionic vesicles of the bush baby, Galago crassicaudata,” American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 101–116, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. H.-J. Merker, D. Bremer, H.-J. Barrach, and R. Gossrau, “The basement membrane of the persisting maternal blood vessels in the placenta of Callithrix jacchus,” Anatomy and Embryology, vol. 176, no. 1, pp. 87–97, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  241. T. N. Blankenship, A. C. Enders, and B. F. King, “Trophoblastic invasion and modification of uterine veins during placental development in macaques,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 274, no. 1, pp. 135–144, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. A. C. Enders, K. C. Lantz, P. E. Peterson, and A. G. Hendrickx, “From blastocyst to placenta: the morphology of implantation in the baboon,” Human Reproduction Update, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 561–573, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. A. C. Enders, T. N. Blankenship, A. T. Fazleabas, and C. J. P. Jones, “Structure of anchoring villi and the trophoblastic shell in the human, baboon and macaque placenta,” Placenta, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 284–303, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  244. E. D. Albrecht, T. W. Bonagura, D. W. Burleigh, A. C. Enders, G. W. Aberdeen, and G. J. Pepe, “Suppression of extravillous trophoblast invasion of uterine spiral arteries by estrogen during early baboon pregnancy,” Placenta, vol. 27, no. 4-5, pp. 483–490, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. N. S. Sunderland, S. E. Thomson, S. J. Heffernan et al., “Tumor necrosis factor α induces a model of preeclampsia in pregnant baboons (Papio hamadryas),” Cytokine, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 192–199, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. A. C. Enders and T. N. Blankenship, “Interstitial trophoblast cells: an enigmatic and variable component of the developing macaque placenta,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 672–676, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  247. V. H. J. Roberts, J. P. Räsänen, M. J. Novy et al., “Restriction of placental vasculature in a non-human primate: a unique model to study placental plasticity,” Placenta, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 73–76, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. R. D. Martin, “The evolution of human reproduction: a primatological perspective,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 134, supplement 45, pp. 59–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. K. S. Ludwig, “A further contribution to the structure of the gorilla placenta,” Acta Anatomica, vol. 46, pp. 304–310, 1961. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. H. Soma, “Notes on the morphology of the chimpanzee and orang-utan placenta,” Placenta, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 279–290, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  251. E. Winterhager, P. Kaufmann, and R. Gruemmer, “Cell-cell-communication during placental development and possible implications for trophoblast proliferation and differentiation,” Placenta, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. S61–S68, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  252. P. Kaufmann, S. Black, and B. Huppertz, “Endovascular trophoblast invasion: implications for the pathogenesis of intrauterine growth retardation and preeclampsia,” Biology of Reproduction, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  253. D. Cavanagh, P. S. Rao, R. A. Knuppel, U. Desai, and J. U. Balis, “Pregnancy-induced hypertension: development of a model in the pregnant primate (Papio anubis),” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 151, no. 7, pp. 987–999, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  254. D. M. Nelson, P. E. Swanson, B. B. Davison, G. B. Baskin, and A. C. Enders, “Ontogenetic and phylogenetic evaluation of the presence of fibrin-type fibrinoid in the villous haemochorial placenta,” Placenta, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 605–608, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  255. E. D. Albrecht, J. S. Babischkin, and G. J. Pepe, “Regulation of placental villous angiopoietin-1 and -2 expression by estrogen during baboon pregnancy,” Molecular Reproduction and Development, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 504–511, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  256. K. van Calsteren, R. Devlieger, L. de Catte et al., “Feasibility of ultrasound-guided percutaneous samplings in the pregnant baboon: a model for studies on transplacental transport,” Reproductive Sciences, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 280–285, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  257. T. G. Golos, G. I. Bondarenko, S. V. Dambaeva, E. E. Breburda, and M. Durning, “On the role of placental major histocompatibility complex and decidual leukocytes in implantation and pregnancy success using non-human primate models,” The International Journal of Developmental Biology, vol. 54, no. 2-3, pp. 431–443, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  258. G. I. Bondarenko, M. Durning, and T. G. Golos, “Immunomorphological changes in the rhesus monkey endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 309–321, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  259. L. A. Cox, C. Li, J. P. Glenn et al., “Expression of the placental transcriptome in maternal nutrient reduction in baboons is dependent on fetal sex,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 143, no. 11, pp. 1698–1708, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  260. P. O. Favaron, J. C. Morini Jr., A. M. Mess, M. A. Miglino, C. E. Ambr, and C. E. Ambrósio, “Placentation and fetal membrane development in the South American coati, Nasua nasua (Mammalia, Carnivora, Procyonidae),” Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology, vol. 12, article 57, 2014. View at Google Scholar